ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION NEEDS IN AFRICAN, CARIBBEAN & PACIFIC (ACP) STATES EASTERN AFRICA

Country Study: Sudan Final Report Prepared by: Yasir Gasm Elseed Adam Bashir on behalf of the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA)

Project: 4-7-41-254-7/h

November 2008

ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION NEEDS IN AFRICAN, CARIBBEAN & PACIFIC (ACP) STATES EASTERN AFRICA

Country Study: Sudan Final Report Prepared by: Yasir Gasm Elseed Adam Bashir on behalf of the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA)

Project: 4-7-41-254-7/h

November 2008

Disclaimer This report has been commissioned by the CTA to enhance its monitoring of information needs in ACP countries. CTA does not guarantee the accuracy of data included in this report, nor does it accept responsibility for any use made thereof. The views and opinions expressed in this report are those of the author alone and do not necessarily reflect the views of CTA. CTA reserves the right to select projects and recommendations that fall within its mandate.

(ACP-EU) Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) Agro Business Park 2 6708 PW Wageningen The Netherlands Website: www.cta.int E-mail: cta@cta.int

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Acknowledgements
I would like to thank Prof. Azhari A. Hamada, Director General, ARC (Sudan) for his approval and giving me the time to conduct this study. Thanks are also extended to Mr. Fahad Omer Ali for his help in collecting data for Annex 2 and his arrangements during interviews. Thanks and gratitude to Mr. Gashaw Kebede, Regional Coordinator for his valuable comments, patience during reviewing this report. Deep thanks and appreciations to the staff of the different interviewed institutions for their help during the interviews. Last but not least, thanks are extended to CTA for their honour of selecting me to do this study.

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List of Acronyms
ABS ACP AGORA AOAD ARC ARRC ARRINENA ASARECA ASSCO CABI CARE CBS CD-ROM CFC CGIAR CIAT CIFOR CIMMYT CIP CIRAD COMESA CPA CTA DAAD DANIDA DIC DORA DSL E mail E. government EC ESS FAO FFS FINIDA FNC FYSP GA GDP GIS GNPC GS GSMA GSTV GTZ Ha. HINARI IAEA IC ICARDA Agricultural Bank of Sudan African, Caribbean and Pacific Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture Arab Organization for Agricultural Development Agricultural Research Corporation Animal Resource Research Corporation Association of the Agricultural Research Institutions in the Near East and North Africa Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa Arab Sudanese Seed Company Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux International Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere Central Bureau of Statistics Compact disc-Read only memory Common Fund for Commodities Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research International Center for Tropical Agriculture Center for International Forestry Research International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center International Potato Center French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development Common Market for East and South Africa Comperhensive Peace Agreement Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation German Academic Exchange Sevice Danish International Development Agency Documentation and Information Centre Distribution of Reference Books on Agriculture Digital Subscriber Line Electronic mail Electronic government European Community Elobeid Seed Station Food and Agriculture Organization Farmer Field School Finnish International Development Agency Forests National Corporation Five Year Stratigic Plan General Administration Gross Domestic Product Geographic Information System Greater Nile Petrolium Company Gezira Scheme Gadarif State Ministry of Agriculture Gezira State Television German Agency for Technical Cooperation Hectare Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative International Atomic Energy Agency Information and Communication International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas

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ICM ICRA ICRAF ICRISAT ICT IDRC IFAD IFPRI IGAD IITA ILRI IPGRI IPM IRRI ISNAR IT ITOCA ITU IUCN IWMI JICA LAN M.Sc. MARF MFC MIS MoA MOST NART NCR NGARA NGO NIC NPPC NTC P & CS PC PRA QAS RAN RWS SAU SCC SDG SDI SHAM SIDA SIS SMS SNR SUDATEL TEEAL TTE TV

Information and Communication Management International Centre for development oriented Research in Agriculture International Centre for Research in Agro Forestry International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Information and Communication Technology International Development Research Centre International Fund for Agricultural Development International Food Policy Research Institute Inter Governmental Authority on Development International Institute for Tropical Agriculture International Livestock Research Institute International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Integrated Pest Management International Rice Research Institute International Service for National Agricultural Research Information Technology Information Training and outreach Centre for Africa International Telecommunication Union International Union for Conservation of Nature International Water Management Institute Japan International Cooperation Agency Local Area Network Master of Science Ministry of Animal Resources and Fishery (Sudan) Mechanized Farming Corporation Market Information System Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Ministry of Science and Technology (Sudan) National Authority for Radio and TV National Centre for Research Network for Natural Gums and Resins in Africa Non-governmental organization National Information Centre National Press and Publication Council National Telecommunication Corporation Planning and Corporate Services Personal Computer Participatory Rural Appraisal Question and Answer Service Rayaam Newspaper Rural Women School Sudanese Agriculturists Union Sudan Cotton Company Sudanese Genue (currency) Selective Dissemination of Information Shambat Library Complex Swedish International Development gency Sudan Internet Society Short message service Sudan National Radio Sudanese Telecommunication Company The Essential Electronic Library Technology Transfer and Extension Television
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U of G U of K UAE UNDP UNEP UNESCO UNHCR US USAID VHS WAN WARDA WFP WHO WTO

University of Gezira University of Khartoum United Arab Emirates United Nations Development Programme United Nations Environment Programme United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United States United States Agency for International Development Video Home System Wide Area Network Africa Rice Center World Food Programme World Health Organization World Trade Organization

Currency conversion rate: 1 Euro = 3.2 SDG 1 SDG = 0.31 Euro Source: Central Bank of Sudan available at: http://www.cbos.gov.sd/ viewed on 13 August 2008.

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................... ii List of Acronyms.......................................................................................................... iii Executive summary ................................................................................................... viii INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................. 1 COUNTRY PROFILE ........................................................................................... 2 2.1 Agriculture, Fisheries, Forestry and Livestock .................................................. 3 2.1.1 Agriculture .................................................................................................. 3 2.1.2 Fisheries ..................................................................................................... 4 2.1.3 Forestry ...................................................................................................... 4 2.1.4 Livestock .................................................................................................... 5 2.2 Brief Description of the Status of ICT Infrastructure and Recent Development in the Sector .............................................................................. 5 3. STATUS OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................. 7 3.2 Operational Aspects .......................................................................................... 9 3.2.1 Description of agricultural information and services ................................... 9 3.2.2 Information sources .................................................................................. 10 3.2.3 Information products and services provided............................................. 11 3.2.4 Information and communication management capacity ........................... 13 3.3 Interventions Supporting Information and Communication for Agriculture and Rural Development........................................................................................ 15 4. INSTITUTIONAL NEEDS ANALYSIS ................................................................... 17 4.1 Information Needs ........................................................................................... 17 4.2 Capacity Building Needs ................................................................................. 19 4.3 Feedback on CTA’S Products and Services ................................................... 23 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................... 24 5.1 Conclusions..................................................................................................... 24 5.1.1 Information needs .................................................................................... 24 5.1.2 Capacity building needs ........................................................................... 24 5.1.3 Overview of CTA’s products and services................................................ 25 5.1.4. Potential partners and beneficiaries ........................................................ 26 5.2 Recommendations .......................................................................................... 26 5.2.1 Information needs .................................................................................... 27 5.2.2 Capacity building needs ........................................................................... 27 5.2.3 CTA’s products and services.................................................................... 29 5.2.4 Potential strategic partners ...................................................................... 29 6. PROPOSED CTA INTERVENTION STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN ................ 30 6.1 Intervention strategies ................................................................................... 30 6.2 Action plan..................................................................................................... 30 ANNEXES ................................................................................................................. 33 ANNEX 1. TERMS OF REFERENCE ....................................................................... 34 ANNEX 2. COUNTRY PROFILE - SUDAN ............................................................... 40 2.1 General agricultural profile .............................................................................. 40 2.1.1 Size of agricultural population .................................................................. 40 2.1.2 Farmed- land, forests, fishing areas ......................................................... 41 2.1.3 Agricultural systems ................................................................................. 43 2.1.4 Agriculture in the economy ....................................................................... 45 2.1.5 Main agricultural produce and secondary products.................................. 46 2.1.6 Main export markets ................................................................................. 49 2.1.7 Trade agreements that include agriculture ............................................... 50 1. 2.

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2.1.8 Sectoral policy related to agriculture, fisheries and forests ...................... 51 2.1.9 Institutional, regulatory and policy framework for Information and communication ........................................................................................ 55 2.2 Socio-Economic Profile ................................................................................... 57 2.2.1 Demographics .......................................................................................... 57 2.2.2 Literacy level and languages .................................................................... 59 2.2.3 Access to services (health, schools,) ....................................................... 60 2.2.4 Rural-urban drift ....................................................................................... 63 2.3 Media and Telecommunications ..................................................................... 63 2.3.1 Newspapers, periodicals, magazines, radio stations and television channels .................................................................................................. 63 2.3.2 Telecommunication services (fixed, mobile) ............................................ 78 2.3.3 Computers and Internet access ............................................................... 80 ANNEX 3. PROFILE OF INSTITUTIONS ................................................................. 85 3.1 List of all Main Institutions Involved in Agriculture and Rural Development .. 85 3.2 List of Institutions Interviewed ...................................................................... 98 4. LIST OF PERSONS INTERVIEWED .................................................................. 165 5. BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................ 167

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Executive summary
Introduction
The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) was established in 1983 under the Lomé Convention between the ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific) Group of States and the European Union Member States. CTA’s tasks are to develop and provide services that improve access to information for agricultural and rural development, and to strengthen the capacity of ACP countries to produce, acquire, exchange and utilise information in this area. The Centre’s new strategic plan covering the 2007 – 2010 period places emphasis on: improving CTA’s efficiency and increasing the Centre’s outreach by addressing the major bottleneck of difficult or insufficient access to information in ACP countries. Since 2003, CTA has been systematically conducting needs assessment studies across the ACP regions, in response to calls for CTA to be more strategic in its choice regarding the setting of its own agenda and reacting to demand. The study will assist CTA to improve and better target interventions and activities aimed at potential partners and beneficiaries (including women, youth, private sector and civil society organisations) to have a more informed picture of their needs and aid in the elaboration of a strategy and framework of action.

Objectives of the study
The overall objective of the study is to improve the collaboration strategies with ACP agricultural organisations and the relevance of CTA’s support to African ACP countries. The study should assist CTA to improve and better target interventions and activities aimed at potential partners and beneficiaries (including women, youth, private sector and civil society organisations) to have a more informed picture of their needs and help in the elaboration of a strategy and framework of action. The study should also highlight where there are specific needs for CTA’s products and services thereby enabling improvement in the delivery of the same.

Methodology
A briefing meeting was held in Uganda during 21-24 April 2008 to create common understanding between country consultants, regional coordinators and CTA. A desk review of the available literature and information on the agricultural sector in Sudan in addition to the status of information and communication in the country were conducted. A standard semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from thirteen selected institution in Sudan. The criteria used for selection was based on the institution role, geographical coverage, decentralisation and thematic orientation. The data obtained were on the ICM operations and related activities, information and capacity building needs as well as strengthens and weaknesses.

Expected results
The results of this study will expect to provide information on: Status of infrastructure, information services and ICM capacity of institutions involved in agriculture and rural development described and analysed; Information and capacity building needs in the area of ICM identified for key institutions and potential CTA partners involved in agriculture and rural development; Baseline data on the status of ICM and ICT in agriculture and rural development compiled for monitoring purposes and improved outreach.
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The study should therefore also provide updated country profiles on the status agricultural information services, the status of ICM/T in the country, which will allow CTA to make informed decisions re type and mode of intervention as well as partner selection.

Conclusions
Information needs The institutions visited expressed a wide range of information needs. The prioritised information needs include technological (crop production and post harvest), technical (ICTs), extension methods and regional and international relations. Local institutions could provide some information needs while other could be met through direct assistance from CTA and other existing linkages. The crucial information needed is technical information on ICTs, which is required by most institutions; therefore, it should be given priority to reduce the cost of face-toface communication adopted by many institutions. There is a high and immediate need to obtain information on extension methods as all institutions providing extension services. Visual and pictorial information format are therefore, highly desirable by those institutions. Mainly media institutions also need information for equipment, sources, specifications and prices. The Internet can be fully utilized as source of information for equipment, sources, specifications and prices. Internet can be further utilized (with CTA assistance) to access online training materials produced by other institutions e.g. CTA, and ICRA to fulfil some of the training needs and for updates of information. The information formats that the visited institutions have difficulty acquiring include electronic information format, which is found to be difficult for NIC, RAN, ARC, SAU and GSTV to acquire due to its non-existence in Sudan. GS, MoA, GSMA, ASSCO and ABS find difficulties to acquire printed and visual information format suitable for use during extension campaigns. Preparation of visual materials need high skills and experienced staff that are not found in Sudan beside that these institutions are not aware of external sources to obtain this kind of information format. Full text and abstract of scientific journals are found to be difficult for ARC, SHAM and NCR to obtain due to their high cost and difficulties to transfer money outside the country. The current databases in these institutions include limited number of articles. Materials suitable for mass distribution and written in simple language are also found to be difficult for GSMA, GS and MoA due to its unavailability in Sudan beside its relative high cost. Information on accurate marketing and fair-trade opportunities is the potential information need that is expected to emerge in the near future due to the agricultural revolution that the government implementing. This programme aims at attacting capital for investment in various agricultural projects that include sugar, oil seeds, vegetables and fodder production for export purposes Capacity building needs ICM activities currently run by the visited institutions in Sudan are limited by a shortage of funding allocated particularly for ICM. Production of print and materials, especially print publications which was a routine task of the ICM section in most

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institutions, was greatly limited due to an increase in the cost of publishing materials. The same applied for scientific journals. The most common capacity-building need that is gaining priority among all interviewed institutions is the computer training. Basic computer training is required for the new staff. Advanced computer training (web site design and update, managing computer databases) is needed by ICM staff in NCR, NIC, SHAM, ASSCO, GS, RAN and ABS. Most institutions seem to have an adequate number of computers. The high cost of maintenance services in addition to its non availability in remote and rural areas greatly affect effective utilization of ICTs especially with regard to those institutions that depend on information supplied from remote field stations (e.g. ABS, MoA, GSMA, GS). FNC, GSMA and ABS suffer from a shortage of PCs. Although PC prices in the local market is at hand of these institutions but low level of awareness among executive leaders of the importance and role of PCs in communication and knowledge management is lacking. GSTV, GS, SHAM and MoA request equipment other than PCs. This equipment includes a wide range of audio-visual and broadcasting equipment. GSTV is the institution that suffers the most from a shortage of equipment. With the exception of ASSCO, most of the institutions visited seem to have enough number of staff for ICM, but staff technical capacities need to be further developed through immediate trainings that are highlighted in Table 4. Capacity- building through training is recommended to update information and transfer recent ICM techniques. Increasing technical capacities of staff in ICM in institutions with no ICM section or unit (such as ASSCO) or having ICM unit managed by non-ICM staff (such as FNC) should be given priority. Broadcasting media (RAN and GSTV) seem to be under utilized as information sources. This may be due to their limited access to information on agriculture and rural development. These institutions need to increase their capacities by acquiring professional training to be able to achieve their ICM plan. ICM in some institutions (ABS, ASSCO) suffer from institutional changes in allocation of ICM activities to different units or departments. This situation may be a common situation throughout the country. The absence of strategies and polices on ICM at the institutional level was highlighted by ARC and ABS. Interventions suggested to be undertaken by CTA can contribute to develop strategies and polices at institutional level to help institutions build ICM strategies to achieve their objectives. Overview of CTA’s products and services The study revealed low level of awareness of CTA’s products and services in Sudan. ARC, SHAM, MoA, NCR and SAU their staff are the only who aware of the existence of CTA and its products and services. Some CTA products (Spore magazine, SDI, DORA and CD-ROM databases) are available at NCR, ARC and SHAM. Those institutions are among the only institutions interviewed using some CTA products. Some CTA products (Spore magazine and SDI) are obtained by scientists through personal contacts. CTA online resources are not used by any of the interviewed institutions, although all institutions are having Internet connections with DSL service.

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Only 6 staff of the total interviewed staff (21) benefited from CTA’s services to attend training courses. These staff members belong to ARC, NCR and SHAM. Other CTA’s services are not known in Sudan. Recently, a programme was launched between MoA and CTA for the rehabilitation of MoA library. Potential partners and beneficiaries Out of the 13 institutions included in this study only three, namely, ARC, SHAM and NCR, are currently receiving some CTA’ products and services. Information resources currently available at any of the three institutions are commonly shared to serve the staff of agricultural and natural resource colleges, researchers, and students and to some extent policy makers. ARC, SHAM and NCR could further benefit and enrich their resources through continuous CTA support in providing relevant products such as Spore magazine, DORA, SDI and CD-ROM/Databases. GSTV and RAM (representing broadcasting media) could highly benefit from CTA’s products and services due to their urgent and critical information and capacity building needs. GSTV in particular has strategies and polices in ICM and ICM related activities but these plans are not implemented due to unavailability of funding, technical capacities of staff and lack of equipment. Although, all institutions visited believe in the great role and the relative advantage of broadcasting media as information sources, their potential role in dissemination of agricultural and rural development information is unexploited at the moment. MoA, GS and GSMA are mandated to serve farmers. These institutions could benefit from CTA products and services due to the large number of farmers served by them. CTA’s QAS is highly recommended to include MoA, GS and GSMA due to the high number of beneficiaries and difficulties associated with direct contact with the beneficiaries especially during the rainy season (June-October). In addition, Spore magazine, DORA, CD-ROMs and participation in CTA training activities and seminar are suggested products and services to be received by the staff of these institutions. Partnership between CTA and MoA, GS and GSMA is highly desirable because through this partnership CTA can reach farmers in all existing farming systems in the country. This suggested partnership can be coordinated or formed with ARC participation, due to its existence in all farming systems across the country as source of information in agricultural production. In addition, ARC researchers, in accordance with ARC’s mandate, are working closely with agricultural ministries at federal and state levels to contribute to the goals of achieving food security and rural development.

Recommendations
The recommendations discussed below are based on the findings generated from interviews with 13 institutions in agriculture and rural development, observations made during interviews and available information on agriculture and rural development in Sudan.

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Information needs With regard to technical information on ICTs, it is recommended that CTA encourage building e-communities especially in agricultural and rural areas and make CTA online information resources accessible, raise the awareness of the importance of improving ICT infrastructure, and promote the appropriate use of ICT applications to reduce costs of face-to-face communication that most interviewed institutions rely on. Through these activities, CTA can achieve a high level of penetration and mobilize communities to make use of its products and services. Technological information that include crop production and post-harvest technologies could be fulfilled through joint and on going projects executed by FAO, IFAD and UNDP. Government support in this item should focus on exchange/study visits with regional and international centres, organizing seminars, training courses and any kind of interactive forums. The government FYSP (2007-2011) places much emphasis on securing institutional information needs and information exchange. NIC as a government advisory body on ICM and related activities could be the platform to initiate formal discussions, suggest possible institutional linkages, facilitate internal information sources and assist institutions to extend their information products and services. Government should assist in identifying equipment required by the institutions to implement their current ICM activities. The Internet could be utilized as an appropriate source to get information on equipment and their sources, prices and other relevant information. Funds to obtain these equipment can be secured from the recent funds allocated by the government for ICM activities. Scientific journal articles and electronic information formats, which are found to be difficult to acquire, can be secured through partnership with CTA. The institutions to fill this gap can utilize SDI, DORA and CD-ROM/Databases of CTA. Institutions can use CTA support to attend training courses and seminars to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to produce their own print and visual materials including those in local languages. Government should think of allocating funds for ICM in externally funded projects. It is recommended that CTA assist broadcasting media (GSTV and RAN) to fulfil their information and capacity building needs to achieve their strategic plans in mass communication. Special emphasis should be given to the promotion of appropriate and efficient ICTs use and capacities in production of non-scientific materials suitable for TV broadcasting to ensure efficient and effective information dissemination among non-literate people. Capacity building needs As highlighted in Table 8, training needs that are not available in Sudan can be achieved through CTA training activities. Another option for securing training is through externally funded projects that some institutions are using (such as ongoing joint programmes with ASARECA, IFAD, FAO, CFC). A portion of these funds should be allocated for ICM capacity building. For the sake of raising awareness of ICM in agriculture, a policy should be formulated for inclusion of training components in ICM in future formulated projects.

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Local training needs can be achieved through: • Staff rotation and secondment: This is an effective way to pool resources and experience and get collaboration between existing institutions. In this connection, ICM professional staff at NCR and ARC can further be utilized by rotation or secondment to other institutions for a certain period of time to enhance ICM programmes. • Institutional linkages: Both formal and informal linkages between institutions should be stimulated; staff can be motivated to work together and coordinate their efforts. • Organization of joint training activities and seminars: This type of collaboration is effective to create awareness of each other’s mandate, programmes and activities. This helps to strengthen links as the different actors can learn to appreciate the works of each other‘s. • Informal sharing of tasks and responsibilities: It is a low cost way of building linkage. Simple needs can be handled through this approach. Outside training needs could be fulfilled through CTA training programmes and through the links and collaborative projects with other outside partners. Future polices should consider allocation of ICM training component when submitting such proposals in agriculture and rural development projects. The staff who participated in CTA training activities requested CTA to increase its activity in Sudan by increasing the number of institutions for collaboration in order to raise the awareness of CTA’s products and services in Sudan. They also requested CTA to continuously be in touch with them for future activities. The previous CTA trainees in ARC and NCR requested to be used as resource persons for future activities planned by CTA to be executed in Sudan. The funding constraint from which most institutions suffered can partially be solved by establishing partnerships with relevant organizations such as UNESCO, CTA and FAO. It is suggested for the government to put a certain percentage on telecommunication services to be allocated for promotion of ICM and ICT use in the country. Sudan government should consider allocation of an ICM component in externally funded (such as FAO, UNDP, IFAD etc.) projects (programme). With regard to absence of ICM/ICT polices and strategies it is recommended that, associations such as SIS together with NIC could also help in setting polices and strategies for the promotion of ICM/ICT in the country including enforcement of laws to establish ICM unit in each institution. Capacity-building needs other than training activities (e.g. equipment) can be secured through governmental funds recently allocated for ICM and related activities. All interviewed institutions lack printing facilities (except SHAM) to produce print materials for mass distribution, they rely on commercial private printing presses to secure their print materials. GS, SAU and NIC are seeking in the near future to secure their own printing facilities through government funds allocated for ICM. For maintaining web and computer resources, all institutions prefer to have their own staff although; staff capacities in this respect need to be further developed. Therefore, training in these areas needs to be carried out using both internal and external training institutions. It seems more convenient to have own qualified staff compared with private IT companies.

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CTA’s products and services It is recommended for CTA to increase awareness of its products and services in Sudan by promoting its various electronic information sources, print publications and services to a wide range of institutions in the country. It is recommended for CTA to increase chances for Sudanese staff to attend training courses; seminars and workshops in order to increase staff capacities in ICM and ICM related areas, to have exposure to new approaches and to strengthening linkage with other organizations. Partnership between CTA and broadcasting media (GSTV and RAN) is recommended. CTA can provide GSTV with information resources produced for mass communication such as videos and CD ROM and training opportunities for media staff in editing and production of video materials suitable for farmers. With regard to RAN, CTA can broaden its awareness through providing materials suitable for publication on newspapers and staff training especially on agricultural journalism. It is recommended for CTA to provide advice and guidance on developing ICM/ICT strategies, make use of Sudanese CTA trained staff by rotation or secondment to other institutions in Sudan for short periods to train other staff. Partnerships between CTA and some Sudanese institutions are recommended to fill some of the information and capacity building needs. CTA should maintain regular contacts with institutions through email to provide up to date information on training courses, seminars, meetings and funding opportunities. Potential strategic partners The need to establish partnership between CTA and institutions in Sudan arises from the great and immediate need of institutions to fill certain gaps in ICM for effective and efficient achievement of their objectives. CTA can effectively help Sudanese institutions to improve ICM status in Sudan. Partnership with MoA is recommended. Through state ministries of agriculture and TTE widely diffused extension services can be provided. Feedback on CTA’s products and services can be obtained through the same pathway for monitoring and evaluation purposes. Another partnership is recommended between CTA and ARC. ARC currently has a network of stations and research centres throughout Sudan and extensive collaboration with a variety of institutions and networks at national, regional and international levels. The information produced by ARC as well as CTA’s products and services could easily be made available for ARC staff and the collaborating institutions. CTA can also provide technical assistance to the interviewed institutions to help them build and structure their strategies and polices with regard to ICM activities and monitor and evaluate on going ICM programmes for effective and efficient performance.

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1.

INTRODUCTION

1. The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) has operated within the framework of the ACP-EC Cotonou Agreement. CTA’s tasks are to develop and provide services that improve access to information for agricultural and rural development, and to strengthen the capacity of ACP countries to produce, acquire, exchange and utilise information in this area. CTA’s programmes are organised around three principal activities: providing an increasing range and quantity of information products and services, enhancing awareness of relevant information sources; supporting the integrated use of appropriate communication channels and intensifying contacts and information exchange; and developing ACP capacity to generate and manage agricultural information and to formulate information and communication management. 2. Since 2003, CTA has been systematically conducting needs assessment studies across the Pacific, Caribbean and Africa regions. The study should assist CTA to improve and better target interventions and activities aimed at potential partners and beneficiaries (including women, youth, private sector and civil society organisations) to have a more informed picture of their needs and aid in the elaboration of a strategy and framework of action. The study should also highlight where there are specific needs for CTA’s products and services thereby enabling improvement in the delivery of the same. The study should also provide updated country profiles on the status of agricultural information services, the status of ICM/T in the country, which will allow CTA to make informed decisions and mode of intervention as well as partner selection. 3. For Sudan country study thirteen institutions were selected (Table 1). The selected list includes Research, Development, Educational, Marketing as well as policy-making institutions. The information was gathered using a standardized semi-structured questionnaire.

Table 1. List of Institutions Interviewed
Institution Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Gadarif State Ministry of Agriculture Agricultural Research Corporation Gezira State Television Agricultural Bank of Sudan Sudanese Agriculturists Union National Information Centre Arab Sudanese Seed Company-Elobeid Gezira Scheme Shambat Libraries complex Rayaam daily newspaper Forests National Corporation National Centre for Research Acronym MoA GSMA ARC GSTV ABS SAU NIC ASSCO GS SHAM RAN FNC NCR Type GOV GOV Statutory GOV GOV Association GOV Private GOV GOV Private Statutory GOV Location Khartoum El Gadarif Wad Medani Wad Medani Khartoum Khartoum Khartoum Elobeid Barakat Khartoum North Khartoum Khartoum Khartoum

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2.

COUNTRY PROFILE

4. The Republic of the Sudan is situated in the north-eastern corner of Africa. It is the largest country in Africa with a total land area of 2.5 million km2 extending from latitude 4 to 22 degrees north and from longitude 22 to 38 degrees east. Sudan shares the boarder with nine African countries (Egypt, Libya, Chad, Central Africa, Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia and Eritrea) and has a coastline of 858 km at the Red sea. Sudan is traversed from north to south by the two great Blue and White Nile rivers that merged at Khartoum to form the River Nile (Wikipedia, 2007). 5. The climate ranges from arid in the north to tropical wet in the far south. Temperatures do not vary greatly with the season at any location; the most significant climatic variables are rainfall and the length of the dry season. Rainfall ranges from rare and occasional (0-50 mm) in far northern desert to relatively abundant (up to 1 000 mm) (rainy seasons of six to nine months) in the south (Coutsoukis, 2004). 6. The total population of Sudan was estimated in 2007 as about 37 million (Annex 2, Tables 15 and 17) with a total growth rate of 2.5% and 4.5% growth rate in the urban population. About 60% of the total population is rural and 40% is economically active. Sudan is considered to be a growing country with 44.69% of the population at school age (6-24 years) and 15.23% are below 5 years of age (Annex 2, Table 17). Literacy rate has improved during the last decades reaching about 50% (Annex 2, Table 20), which indicated marked expansion in primary education. Currently, there are about 5 million pupils in 16729 schools (Annex 2, Table 24). Sudan is still suffering high infant mortality rate (68.0 per 1000 live birth) and a total death rate of 11.7% (Annex 2, Table 17). Sudan is a multilingual country with about 400 languages and dialects. Arabic is the most widely spoken language. Both Arabic and English are considered as official languages for the country (Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), 2007). 7. Agriculture is the most important sector in Sudan’s economy. It contributes to about 39% of the total GDP, provides employment to about 80% of the population and provides 90% of Sudan’s non oil export earnings. About 7% of the total area of Sudan is under cultivation (Annex 2, Tables 3 and 6) and cotton, sesame, gum Arabic and livestock are the main export commodities (FAO AQUASTAT, 2005). The agricultural sector in Sudan has generally been the main source of livelihood in the country. In 2003, the agricultural share of the GDP increased by 5.2% compared with that in 2002; in 2004 it was increased by 4.5% and continued to be a major export sector (Annex 2, Table 6). 8. The industrial sector of Sudan largely depends on agricultural raw materials. Agro-industries in Sudan include ginning, spinning and textiles, sugar, oil, flour mills, milk canning and timber sawing, which account for about 17% the country’s GDP, and 9% of the export value. The industrial sector is composed of the following sub-sectors: food, leather, oil and soap, building materials, engineering, textiles, chemical and pharmaceuticals and printing and packaging (Ministry of Industry, 2008). 9. Sudan is a presidential, federal and multiparty republic. The government system is multi-tier government with clearly demarcated levels of governments; federal, state and local. The people directly elect the President. Sudan is divided into 25 states (10 of which constitute south Sudan) each state has a governor (Wali) and a cabinet of 5-7 ministers. Localities are administered by commissioners. The federal government is responsible for policy making, planning, supervision and coordination. The state government is empowered for planning, policy making and implementation at state level while localities are concerned with service delivery.

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10. The comprehensive peace agreement signed between the government and the rebel movement of the south in 2005 has created stability especially in the south and now many agricultural and rural development programs are in place. Unfortunately, since 2003 a new conflict was started in Darfur region (western Sudan). Darfur confict is greatly affecting agricultural and rural development in the region beside thousands of migrants to neighbouring states and to the capital (Khartoum).

2.1 Agriculture, Fisheries, Forestry and Livestock
2.1.1 Agriculture

11. The total area of land suitable for cultivation in Sudan is estimated at about 105
million ha (42% of the total land area). In 2002 the cultivated land was 16.65 million ha (7% of the total land area and 16% of the cultivable area). There are three main farming systems in the Sudan: the irrigated agriculture (1.7-2.1 million ha) with sugar cane, cotton, wheat, sorghum, groundnut and fruits and vegetables as main crops grown; the mechanized rainfed agriculture, (about 5.9 million ha) with sorghum as a principle crop in addition to sesame and small amount of short fiber cotton; the traditional rainfed agriculture (about 9.2 million ha) with millet, sesame, groundnut and Roselle as major crops. Yields in the traditional rainfed sector are low due to short and erratic rainy seasons. Therefore, farmers in the traditional sector are most vulnerable to poverty (FAO AQUASTAT, 2005). 12. About 60% of crop production depends on irrigation, and 33% is rainfed (FAO, 2006). The agricultural production in Sudan is mainly focused towards field crops (cotton, sorghum, groundnut, sesame and wheat). Fruits and vegetable production remains the domain of private sector, grown in small holdings which are usually traditional and poorly managed. Yields are low and inputs, especially pesticides and fertilizers, are usually misused. The agricultural sector in Sudan has generally been the main source of livelihood in the country. Despite Sundan’s enormous resources, the agricultural sector has performed far below its potential. The sector represents a mixture of subsistence farming and production of crops for export (FAO, 2006). 13. Crop production is divided between market-oriented sector comprising of mechanized rainfed and large-scale irrigated farming, while subsistence rainfed farming follows traditional practices carried out in parts of the country where rainfall or other water sources are sufficient for cultivation. Mechanized and irrigated cultivations account for roughly two-thirds of Sudan’s cultivated land. Early emphasis on growing cotton on irrigated land has decreased; although it remains the most important crop in Sudan. Groundnut, wheat and sugarcane have become major crops, with large amounts of sesame also being grown. Rainfed mechanized farming has continued to produce most sorghum and shortfiber cotton, while increased production in both sectors has meant increased domestic supplies and greater export potential (FAO, 2006). 14. Sudan comes first among developing countries that have completed programmes to restructure the economy to privatize the public sector and to liberalize production, trade and export polices. The Sudan is an active member of the African Common Market of East and South Africa (COMESA); the Arab Common Market, the Greater Arab Free Trade Region and a prospective member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) (MoA, 2008). 15. The beginning of agricultural research in Sudan dates back to 1902 (Beshir, 2001). The Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC) is a semi-autonomous national research body responsible to the Ministry of Science and Technology

3

(previously under the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources). Agricultural research in Sudan is the responsibility of ARC, which was created by the ARC Act of 1967 to investigate the scientific basis of crop production with a view to producing maximum yields of crops with minimum cost (ARC, 2008). On the other hand, The Animal Resources Research Corporation is responsible for research on livestock production including fisheries. 16. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MoA) together with the Ministry of Animal Resources and Fishery (MARF) are responsible for policy making on agriculture in the country while ARC and Animal Resource Research Corporation (ARRC) provide technological packages to solve the problems arising in the sector. MoA and MARF operate through different specialized departments (viz. horticulture, crop protection, seed propagation, veterinary services, rage and pastures, fisheries, forestry and extension and technology transfer) beside their respective state ministries. 17. Marketing of agricultural crops is the sole responsibility of producers (farmers) except in the case of cotton and gum Arabic, where Sudan Cotton Company (SCC) is responsible for marketing of Sudan cotton production while Gum Arabic Company is responsible for announcing of higher and minimum prices of various types of gums (MoA, 2008). 2.1.2 Fisheries 18. Fishing is traditionally carried out by the traditional subsistence sector. Sudan’s total production of fish, shellfish, and other fishing products reached an estimated 24,000 tons per year in 1988 (the latest available yearly figure). This compared with estimates of a potential yearly catch exceeding 100,000 tons (Sudan Development Programme, 2007). Two main fishing sources available in the country are as follows: 1) The River Nile and its tributaries: These are the principle sources of fish in the south, central and the northern regions of the country. The production is about 11,000 tons annually contributing over 90% of the estimated production potential of the country. Southern Sudan reserves very high potential in fish production due to existence of extensive river network and flooded areas, estimated for a production potential of 100, 000 to 300,000 tons annually (Coutsoukis, 2004). 2) Red Sea Coast: The potential of fish production from Red Sea is estimated at 10,000 tons annually while the real production doesn’t exceed 500 tons. The territorial rights of Sudan on the Red Sea area are based on an Exclusive Economic Zone of 91600 km2, including a shelf area of 22300 km2. Despite the high biodiversity of aquatic life, exploitation emphasis has been historically placed on harvesting of wild mollusks and finfish, both activities are largely traditional and subsistence (FAO, 2008). The contribution of fisheries to the Sudan GDP is presently marginal. The per caput supply is only 1.64 kg /year, which is mostly obtained by capture fish landings. The aquaculture industry is not developed as yet. Because of their basic characteristics, the Sudan inland and marine capture fisheries are of a small-scale and semiindustrial nature (FAO, 2008). 2.1.3 Forestry 19. About 27% of Sudan’s area is covered by forests. With an annual deforestation rate of 1.4%, which is about 61.6 million ha, half of this area is covered with dense stands of trees. Different types of forests exist in Sudan, extending from

4

arid and semi arid shrubs in the north to high rainfall savannah in the south in addition to mountainous vegetation in Jebel Marra, the Red Sea Hills and the Imatong Mountains. Productive forests extend below the zone of desert encroachment to the southern borders. Gum Arabic collected from some Acacia trees considered as the most significant forest product, fetching annually more than US$ 50 million and accounting for 80% of the world’s supply. The production of round wood is estimated at 18.8 million cu m (as in 2000) with 80% been used as fuel. Fodder trees provide up to 33% of fodder needed by the national herd. In addition, forest fruits represent considerable source of income in some areas and provide nutritional value and food security option in case of famines (FNC, 2008). MoA represented by the National Forests Corporation (NFC) holds the responsibility of managing, setting polices and regulation to protect forests and coordinating programmes aimed at forestation. 20. The contribution of the forestry sector to the Sudanese GDP is a matter of controversy between the forest and economic authorities. Whereas forestry studies put it at more than 10%, the figures published by the Ministry of Finance lump it together with fisheries and put it as 2.99% (1988/89), 3.03% (1989/90), 2.73 (1992/93) and 3.0% in 1998. This ratio however is likely to continue decreasing with the increase of oil revenue. Besides its contribution to the GDP, Sudan forests render direct and indirect benefits. The indirect benefits include environmental protection, water-shed protection, soil amelioration, work opportunities for rural population, browse and grazing material for the national herd of domestic animals and wildlife ...etc. Perhaps the most tangible benefit derived by the people of Sudan from their forests is fuelwood (firewood and charcoal), industrial and building timber. 2.1.4 Livestock 21. The livestock sector represents a very important part in the national economy. The livestock sector has increased during recent years due to better veterinary services, polices and high demand from external markets. The livestock sector also provides many working opportunities, contributing about 45% of the total agricultural production. Recently, polices concentrated on adopting modern ranching methods and improvement of marketing (Sudan Development Programme, 2007). Sudan's animal wealth is estimated at 103 million heads (Annex 2, Table 9) (CBS, 2007) and is the second largest in Africa, next to that of Ethiopia. Livestock GDP share is estimated at 20.5% (during 2002-2004) (Annex 2, Table 7) (Bank of Sudan, 2005). The animal wealth comprises of cattle, sheep, goat and camels. Sudanese cattle are of two principal varieties: Baqqara and Nilotic. The Baqqara constitutes about 80% and the Nilotic about 20% of all cattle. Sheep were herded chiefly by transhumant in Darfur and Kordofan. Several breeds are raised, but the predominant and preferred one is the so-called desert sheep. Camels are largely concentrated in the desert and sub-desert regions of northern Darfur, northern Kordofan and eastern Sudan (Thomson et. al., 2000).

2.2 Brief Description of the Status of ICT Infrastructure and Recent Development in the Sector
22. Sudan has known telecommunication services as early as 1897. Privatization era (since 1994) called for the removal of the monopolistic environment in the sector and for the involvement of the private sector-whether local or foreign-in the telecommunication sector. The structure of the telecommunication sector in the country at present is as follows:

5

The Ministry: The Ministry of Information and Communications is in charge of policies and legislations. 2) The Regulator: The National Telecom Corporation (NTC) is in charge of regulatory functions. NTC also undertakes regulation of radio spectrum and regulates radio bands and their usage. 3) The Licensed operators and service providers: A number of licensed operators and service providers are in charge of the operation of licensed networks and of the provision of the services. 23. There are two companies, namely, SUDATEL and Canar that provide fixed telecommunication services in Sudan (Annex 2, Table 36) (NTC, 2008). The number of subscribers increased from only 1.02 million in 2004 to about 2.5 million in mid 2008 despite the recent trend of a decrease in the use of fixed telecommunication and a shift to mobile ones (CBS, 2007 and SUDATEL, 2008). With regard to mobile telecommunications, the most fast growing sector in the Sudanese economy, there are three companies, namely, Zain Sudan, Sudani and MTN (Annex 2, Table 36) that provide mobile telecommunications. The number of mobile telecommunication subscribers increased from only 1.04 million in 2004 to about 10.1 million subscribers in mid 2008 (Annex 2, Table 38). The telecommunication sector in Sudan also attracted considerable number of private companies (Annex 2, Table 40) that provide different services in the field of telecommunication. Telecommunications investment in the country has skyrocketed from only US$ 500,000 in 1994 to US$ 100 million recently (NTC, 2008). 24. In terms the Internet, Sudan ranked number five in Africa with 3.5 million Internet users and 7.6% penetration rate (Miniwatts Marketing Group, 2008). The Internet services are available in cities (more than 75% coverage); others use national calls or VAST stations (Wikipedia, 2007). 25. Government ICT policy is reflected through the government Five Year Strategic Plan (FYSP) (2007-2011) to achieve the following: 1) Provide relatively low cost information technology equipment and programmes through reduced taxes. 2) Allocate not less than 1% of the Gross National Product for funding scientific research with the aim of reaching 2% by the end of the FYSP with efforts to encourage the private sector to contribute in the establishment of infrastructure. 3) Encourage publication of scientific information by supporting publications and different scientific periodicals. 4) Promote the use of teleconferences and distance learning (Ahmed, 2008).

1)

6

3.

STATUS OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

3.1 Institutional and regulatory policy Framework
26. Information and communication in agriculture and rural development in Sudan are in most cases achieved by direct contact with beneficiaries through face-toface extension services. Various types of media (radio, TV, newspapers) are also in use. 27. Several research institutes under different ministries administer various aspects of the national agricultural research programme. Under administrative reforms approved in 2001, the Government put all the research institutes under the responsibility of the newly established Ministry of Science and Technology. The Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC) is responsible for research on crops, forestry, food technology and pastures. The ARC deals with livestock, while a number of public universities (under government control) contribute to agricultural research. 28. Increasing productivity through improving farmers’ knowledge by different kinds of communication is the basic goal of information and communication in agriculture and rural development in Sudan. Different polices and strategies are recently formulated through the FYSP to achieve the following: 1) Strengthen the relation between the sources of information (mainly research institutes and universities) and the service providers (extension departments and various media tools) at the national level. 2) Select the appropriate channel(s) to provide technical information between the agriculture research centers and farmers and to generate feedback mechanisms from farmers to the researchers to find suitable solutions. Detailed information on polices and strategies and their focus are discussed in annex 2.1.8 and 2.1.9. 29. Information and communication in agriculture and rural development, is the responsibility of the individual states. The new national strategy for agriculture, launched in 2001, recognized that extension (information dissemination) is a critical factor in improving agricultural production and food security, leading to the Extension Department becoming the Technology Transfer and Extension Administration (TTE). The TTE has established a network of administrations in the state ministries responsible for agricultural information dissemination. The states provide facilities for the preparation of the administrators and technicians involved in the technology transfer from research centers to farmers with methods that the farmers accept and understand. 30. The Farmers Field Schools (FFSs) approach adopted by the FAO/ARC/IPM Project in 1993, the first of its kind in Africa, followed by the introduction of Rural Women Schools (RWSs) in 1995 achieved great success (Dabrowski, 1997). In 2003, the government declared FFSs as the main channel of information and communication in agriculture and rural development. The structure and responsibility of various partners in FFS in Sudan are outlined in Table 2.

7

Table 2. Farmers Field School (FFS) structure, membership and activities in Sudan Committee Membership Responsibilities 1. Approval of FFS, locations, Planning and IPM CTA* numbers, responsibilities supervision team IPM NPD and cost. IPM E, T Expert 2. Participate in field visits for ARC DG Deputy supervision and problem solving. 3. Call for meetings. 4. Follow up and supervision. FFS Coordination FFS coordinators 1. Call for meetings. committee Technical officers 2. Programme preparation and Agricultural managers follow up. Subject matter specialist 3. Exchange experiences and opinions among members on programme planning. FFS area coordination Coordinator 1. Plan FFS programme and team Farmers representative supervision of execution. Subject matter specialist 2. Data collection, monitoring and evaluation. 3. Making available requirements and coordinate different concerned services. FFS organizer Extension agent or 1. Conduct weekly field subject matter specialist sessions. 2. Ensure data collection. 3. Prepare monthly reports 4. Request the FFS area coordinator for assistance. 5. Responsible for organization and execution of all FFS activities. FFS members 20 selected farmers who 1. Attend weekly/monthly are willing and ready to sessions. learn. 2. Involved in all FFS activities. 3. Learn and willing to teach others.

* IPM CTA = Integrated Pest Management Chief Technical Advisor IPM NPD = Integrated Pest Management National Project Director IPM E, T Expert = Integrated Pest Management Extension and Training Expert Source: Dabrowski 1997.
31. The National Information Centre (NIC) (one of the interviewed institutions) is recently structured to act as advisory body in information services. NIC is mandated to promote the information system, construct specialized information networks and feed different departments with information on ICT infrastructure and IT applications. 32. Broadcast media in Sudan especially state radio and TV are organized with main objective to enhance information and communication in agriculture and rural development. The bright example is the Gezira state TV (previously called Gezira rural TV), which was established in 1973 to provide extension messages to farmers in the Gezira Scheme. None of the interviewed persons mentioned that there is government policy that restricts information and communication in agriculture.
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33. Most of the institutions interviewed (GTV, GS, MoA and ARC, Gararif State Ministry of Agriculture (GSMA)) lack detailed information and communication strategy, while lack of technical resources (trained personnel, equipment), in addition to the limited budget allocated for ICM, has greatly jeopardized their activities. 34. Early 2001, a non-profit, non-governmental technical professional body was formed called Sudan Internet Society (SIS). The main objectives of SIS are to increase local Internet awareness, help develop polices and Internet technologies and suggest some regulations with respect to Internet usage in the country. 35. Recently, ICT-Funds have been earmarked for ICT infrastructure development. The programmes supported by these funds concentrate on building egovernment, establishing multi-purpose telecentres to provide urban, rural and remote areas with ICT services in addition to securing a computer for every household.

3.2 Operational Aspects 3.2.1 Description of agricultural information and services 36. Among the information and services provided by the interviewed institutions, production of booklets/leaflets is the most common (10 institutions) (Table 4). Booklets/leaflets again represent the most popular information format for most institutions. 37. Most interviewed institutions (8 institutions) provide extension services. Face-toface communication, although costly, it is the preferred interaction. 38. Research output, is provided by ARC and National Centre for Research (NCR) by publishing two journals in agricultural sciences. In addition, ARC is responsibile for coordinating some technical national committees on agriculture (National pests and Diseases, Crop husbandry, Variety release committees and Food technology committee). Agricultural and Natural Resources colleges in about 26 universities all over Sudan are also conducting agricultural research. Both ARC and NCR are considered as advisory bodies in relation to agriculture. 39. There are about 18 scientific journals publishing research results on agriculture and rural development in Sudan. Scientific journals are published by research institutions (ARC and ARRC) and universities such as University of Gezira (U of G), University of Khartoum (U of K). Research and academic institutions are considered as key actors in information and communication for agriculture and rural development. 40. Most of the interviewed persons (about 65%) indicated that journal articles are usually difficult to digest and the information contained is written in a complicated scientific language. Interviewees from non-academic and non-research institutions stated difficulties in understanding and use of journal articles. Print materials (leaflets and booklets) are the most popular format of information for about 75% of the persons interviewed. The remarkable increase in publishing presses and publishing centers in Sudan (Annex 2 Table 30) during the last five years has led to a great increase in the number of publications (including newspapers) in the country.
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41. Political and social newspapers (about 24) (Annex 2 Table 28) have at least one page on weekly basis that focus on issues related to agriculture and rural development. 42. Internet usage in Sudan is progressively increasing, making Sudan the fifth in Africa with 3.5 million users. All visited institutions have access to Internet with DSL connection. ARC, GSMA, MoA, Forest National Corporation (FNC) and Agricultural Bank of Sdan (ABS) have local area networks that connect the different departments within their institution. 43. ARC, NCR, Shambat libraries complex (SHAM) and Sudanese Agriculturists Union (SAU) have developed computer databases in agriculture consisting of collection of Sudanese journal articles in addition to some external databases (AGORA, TEEAL, ICARDA Library). These databases are freely open for access. 44. SAU has developed a database of experts in agriculture in Sudan. The CBS (www.cbs.gov.sd) has developed a database on agricultural statistics of Sudan that is updated annually. CBS publishes Statistical Yearbook of Sudan, which is distributed to the concerned departments of agriculture and rural development. 45. CTA information resources (Spore magazine, CTA publications, DORA and CDROM databases) are currently used by ARC, SHAM and NCR. Those institutions are the only among interviewed institutions (n=13) who are aware of CTA. 3.2.2 Information sources 46. The information sources for the institutions involved in this study are shown in Table 3. The type of information provided by each institution is briefly described in Annex 3. 47. The interviewed institutions depend on a wide range of information sources at internal and external levels to meet their objectives. Among the interviewed institutions (n=13), ARC, MoA and ABS are also mentioned as sources of technological information that helps other institutions execute their current work programmes. 48. All interviewed institutions mentioned the Internet as a source for information. On the other hand, none of the interviewed persons mentioned newspapers, radio and TV as sources of information. These broadcasting media may be source of information for a second party (farmers, rural communities) but, this needs further interventions to empower the role of broadcasting media to be a source of information. 49. CTA’s print information is highlighted as source of information by the interviewees of ARC, NCR and SHAM. Some staff from these institutions are the only (with the exception of MoA) among those interviewed who know of the existence of CTA because they have received training from or have been supported by CTA. However, none of the interviewed institutions used the online CTA information resources. 50. All institutions considered participation in internal or external training, workshop and seminar activities as important sources of information. The role of training, workshops and seminars as information sources is highly recognized by all institutions due to its fixed time, objectives and easy and quick to evaluate. In
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addition, it provides media for wide range of interaction between participants for information sharing and exchange of ideas. 51. The study revealed that some of the interviewed staff (about 4, mainly within broadcasting media) is not aware of the role of other institutions in agriculture and rural development. This affects information seeking behaviour of staff to obtain missing or information needed and probably lead to weak information flow within the system and ends with information being limited to only few stakeholders. Table 3. Main information sources used by some interviewed institution in agriculture and rural development Information source Used by Count
Publications

Journal articles Booklets/leaflets Annual reports Proceedings Posters
Electronic

ARC, NCR, SHAM, SAU MoA, GS, GSMA, ASSCO, SAU RAN, ABS, MoA, GS, GSMA, ARC, FNC ARC, NCR, NIC, FNC, SAU, SHAM MoA, GSMA, GS GSTV, MoA, GSMA, GS All ARC, NCR, SHAM, SAU GSTV, NCR MoA, ASSCO, GSMA, GS, FNC, SAU, GSTV, RAN ARC, NCR, SHAM MoA, GSTV, GS, NIC, RAN, SAU GS, SAU, RAN, ASSCO, GSMA ABS, MoA, GS MoA, RAN MoA, ASSCO, RAN, NIC, NCR, FNC ARC, NCR MoA, FNC MoA GSTV, GS, ASSCO, MoA, GSMA ARC, NCR, GS, NIC, SAU, SHAM ARC, NCR, RAN, SAU

4 5 7 5 4 4 13 4 2 7 3 6 5 3 5 2

Video Internet Research networks CD-ROM
Organizations

ARC CTA Universities MoA Ministry of Finance ABS FAO ICARDA AOAD WFP
Others

Fairs and Exhibitions Exchange visits Personal contacts

5 5 4 13

Workshops and All training courses Source: Personal contacts through interviews, May-June 2008

52. Personal contacts are used as source of information in ARC, NCR, RAM and SAU in order to obtain specific information from a certain person internally or externally; this occurs through email or face-to-face communication. 3.2.3 Information products and services provided 53. The information services and products produced by the different institutions are listed in Table 4. Although different government departments, corporations, NGOs and projects, provide extension services, MoA is the body that is responsible for providing widely diffused agricultural extension services. Among

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the visited institutions, GS, FNC, GSMA carry out their own extension services mostly through FFSs, field visits, extension visits and field days. Scientists and staff from the rest of institutions visited, participate in FFSs, field days and group discussion activities organized by the extension departments. 54. Direct communication with target beneficiaries/audience through various extension approaches are practiced by about 62% of the interviewed institutions. Face- to- Face communication in institute and between institutions is done through technical meetings, conferences and training activities. Extension services provided by extension staff in MoA, GS and GSMA are mainly done through face-to-face communication such as field training sessions and field days. These activities are aided by visual and audio-visual media. Table 4. Information services and products provided by the interviewed institutions (n = 13). Service/Product Provided by Count Extension services MoA, GS, GSMA, ASSCO, ARC, SAU, ABS, 8 FNC Agricultural training ARC, SAU, FNC, MoA 4 Farmers field days MoA, GS, GSMA, ASSCO, ARC 5 Booklets/leaflets MoA, ARC, ASSCO, GSMA, SAU, SHAM, 10 NCR, ABS, FNC, GS Computer databases ARC, SHAM, NCR, SAU 4 Photocopies of literature NCR, ARC, SHAM 3 Technical advice ARC, NCR, NIC 3 Libraries ARC, SHAM, NCR, SAU, ABS 5 Electronic information GSMA, GSTV 1 Research output ARC, NCR 2 Web technical information ASSCO, NCR, SHAM, RAN, NIC 4 Newsletter SAU, GS, MoA, FNC, RAN 4 Workshops/Seminars ARC, GS, GSMA, MoA, NCR, ABS, SAU, NIC, 9 FNC Source: Personal contacts through interviews, May-June 2008 55. ARC provides access to its central library to some outside stations, such as stations located in Elobeid, Shambat and El Hudeiba through computer-based network that uses telecommunications. All libraries in the visited institutions are freely open to interested users. Fax and email are increasingly being used by all institutions for communication between field (stations) and the central office (Headquarters). 56. Among the visited institutions, ARC, NIC, NCR are considered as advisory bodies for different clients in the area of information and communication for agriculture and rural development. According to their mandate ARC and NCR are source of technical information in agriculture; NIC is government advisory body in ICT and policies associated with their use in the country. 57. Broadcast media (radio and TV) both the national radio and TV broadcast at least one weekly programme of about one hour long on agriculture. There are about 22 radio stations, 16 of which are state owned. There are also 15 state TV stations, broadcasting from 7 to 10 hours per day. Most of the programmes on state radios and TVs are directed towards agricultural and rural development issues. Programmes are presented in a non-scientific language that can easily be understood by farmers. The use of non-scientific language has made radios

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the most effective and popular media in rural areas of Sudan. The interviewees also mentioned additional advantages of the radio, namely, wide coverage, easy to carry, does not need electricity, relatively cheap to produce and broadcast and effective in case of non-literate audience. 58. Research results and annual research reports are produced by research institutions (ARC, NCR and ARRC) and universities (U of G and U of K) as journal articles (Annex 2 Table 27). Journal articles are used by technical persons such as researchers, decision makers, postgraduate students and project staff; it is of limited diffusion. 59. Leaflets and booklets, which provide relatively wider coverage among targeted audience, are produced almost by all of the institutions visited. ARC is the principal source of the technical information of leaflets and booklets. MoA, GS, ARC and ESS suffer from shortage in budget allocated for leaflets and booklets. Only GSMA produces electronic information. The information produced on a CD every 10 days contains information on weather forecast specially rains (during the rainy season). 60. Computer databases are available in ARC, NCR, SAU and SHAM. Databases include Sudanese collection of scientific journals and foreign collection that includes AGORA, TEEAL and ICARDA library. The respective institutions provide free access to these information sources through computer based network in each institution. In addition, NCR provide photocopies of the available literature (upon request). The available computer databases in ARC, SAU and NCR and are mostly used by researchers and postgraduae students in agriculture and rural development. The bulk of information on these databases is research results in agriculture and rural development (most institutions are using AGORA database). The amount of documented Sudanese literature is so limited. 61. Libraries in higher education institutions provide free access to information, which in most cases contains print materials such as textbooks, journals and university thesis. Online publishing is limited due to the limited technical capacities of ICM staff in this type of activity. Only ARC is able to provide abstracts of its journal (Sudan Journal for Scientific Research) on its web site (www.arcsudan.sd). 62. Although, all interviewed institutions have access to Internet, mostly through DSL service, Internet is used by all institutions for correspondence and by only 4 institutions for exchange of information. ARC and NCR-DIC have selective articles search service through which one can order information on a certain topic in agriculture. The database of current researches in Sudan which is available at NCR, if activated, linked with all agricultural research institution (including universities), will help identifying information needed by each institution. In addition, it provides information on the current research work that is going on for optimum use of resources. 3.2.4 Information and communication management capacity 63. All visited institutions except Arab Sudanese Seed Company (ASSCO) have a section or unit responsible for ICM within their institutions. These institutions have libraries (including electronic libraries) and databases available through computer based networks. Among the institutions visited, NCR, ARC, SAU and SHAM have trained and experienced staff in ICM, while the other institutions in most cases depend on staff of agricultural background with insufficient training in ICM (classified as technical staff) (Table 5).
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64. NCR is the best organized in terms of ICM among the institutions visited. The section of ICM contains databases of Sudanese and foreign collections of journals. Experienced staffs, some of which are holders of M. Sc. and Ph. D. in ICM with 25-30 years experience and additional training from CTA and ICARDA, manage the ICM department at NCR. A well-trained and experienced Ph. D. holder also manages the ICM section at the SAU (formerly responsible for training in ICARDA and ICRAF). The SAU has a well-defined ICM plan that concentrates on building databases through local associations and creation of expert linkage to develop projects. 65. All visited institutions have access to Internet through DSL services. Internet is used for obtaining information on statistics, news as well as for communication. Some local organizations such as CBS provide information on agricultural statistics, access to services and demography in Sudan. Limited number of PCs is faced by FNC (1 computer/3 persons), ABS (1computer/4.5 persons) and GS (1 computer/6 persons). The study noted less availability of technical information on the institutions web sites. Therefore, institutions should be encouraged to post more technical information online. 66. Institutions are highly dependant on fax and telephone especially mobile telephone for communication due to its relatively cheaper cost (0.05 – 0.02 Euro/min. for local calls). The GS uses its own wireless telecommunication network for collecting field data and exchange of information with field staff. Table 5. ICM staff in some agricultural and rural development institutions Institution ICM Staff Technical Total 3 1 1 1 4 2 2 1 2 3 2 4 2 10 7 2 6 30 7 3 6 18 8 8 9 8

Professional

Clerks

MoA 2 5 FNC 1 5 GSTV 1 GSMA 1 4 NCR 9 17 SHAM 2 3 ASSCO-ESS 1 NIC 2 3 RAN 1 15 ARC 2 3 ABS 1 5 GS 1 4 SAU 3 3 Source: Personal contacts through interviews, May-June 2008

67. The ICM technical staff carries out the day-to-day routine work, while other tasks such as solving technical problems of commuters, web site design and updates are performed by commercial technical companies. 68. Among constraints mentioned by the interviewees, insufficient budget allocated for ICM is the major one. There is no specific budget for ICM in all institutions visited. The budget is usually allocated in a pool system that includes other none ICM activities. Therefore, in most cases it is difficult to determine the share of ICM in such pool budget system.

14

69. ICM in ABS suffers from changes in the institutional arrangements of ICM to different sectors. Other constraints facing ICM in the different institutions visited are presented in Table 6.

70. The high cost of ICT maintenance was noted by 8 institutions and in most cases,
maintenance is done by unspecialized persons. Institutions with remote field offices/branches such as GS, GSMA and ARC suffer from none availability of maintenance services and in most cases, equipment needs to be transferred to central offices. 71. All institutions lack monitoring and evaluation system to evaluate the ongoing ICM activities and set plans for future ICM activities. ARC, ABS and NCR highlight this situation. Actually absence of polices and strategies at institutional level makes monitoring and evaluation a none sense activity. Table 6. Constraints in ICM in the interviewed agricultural and rural development institutions Constraint in ICM Faced by Count Lack of adequate funds SAU, NCR, GS, SHAM, NIC, 10 MoA, GSMA, FNC, ARC, GSTV Technical capacities of staff ASSCO, ABS, RAN, NIC, MoA, 9 GSMA, FNC, ARC, GSTV Lack of and/or difficulties to obtain MoA, GSMA, FNC 3 software Difficulties to access audience to GSTV, GSMA 2 collect data Limited number of PCs or PCs with FNC, GSMA, ABS 3 limited memories Lack of ICM polices and strategies ARC, ABS 2 Lack of coordination and collaboration NIC, ARC, NCR, SHAM, RAN, 6 at national level MoA High cost of maintenance and or NCR, ARC, GSTV, SAU, 8 maintenance done by un specialized ASSCO, ABS, GS, GSMA person Shortage of equipment (other than GSTV, GS, SHAM, GSMA 4 PCs) Institutional arrangements of ICM MoA, ABS 2 Source: Personal contacts through interviews, May-June 2008

3.3

Interventions Supporting Information and Communication for Agriculture and Rural Development

72. With the introduction of FFSs in Sudan in 1993, Sudan became the first African country to apply this approach, modifying it to suit the socio-economic and rural community. Since then, the approach has been a successful experience, through which it is confirmed that a participatory approach is useful for improving rural knowledge, attitude and skills. Government officials, farmers’ unions and observers have on different occasions expressed their satisfaction with this new approach and requested continuation of these activities. The introduction of FFSs remains as the most significant intervention in communication for agriculture and rural development. This success has led policy makers to declare this approach as the main channel of information dissemination that brings researchers and farmers together in a unique learning process.

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73. People were inspired to be more confident, self reliant and interactive. FFS as learning and exchange of knowledge was found effective in increasing yields and better conserving the environment (Dabrowski, 1997). 74. Government interventions to support information and communication in agriculture and rural development are recently formulated focusing on egovernment realization and Implementation of Telecentres to provide urban, rural and remote areas and businesses with ICTs services and applications. Telecentres are expected to provide not only the physical access, but also the necessary user support and training to help the addressed population to effectively exploit and develop ICTs applications. In addition, there is a project aimed at making available a computer for every household. DSL services introduced since 2003 are also growing very fast due to the high demand. 75. Liberalization and privatization of the telecommunication sector in the country, beside the polices and regulations adopted, have resulted in creation of capital and enhanced ICTs development nationwide coupled with growing and diversifying use of ICTs services including Internet. 76. The vision of government FYSP (2007-2011) is based on effective national partnership for sustainable development and fostering mutual relations. With regard to information and communication for agriculture and rural development, the mission of the plan was set to achieve the following: • • • • • • • • A focus on projects targeting poverty alleviation through community development projects, share of information to ensure fair balance between urban and rural development. Formulation of polices supporting and encouraging scientific research and dissemination of technology through efficient communication channels. Establishment of the National Council for information and centers at the central government and state levels. Construction of information and communication networks to establish the future e. government. Greater participation of the private sector in basic infrastructure in community information and communication networks. Spreading of communication networks all over the country and making the use of technology more accessible to all. Maximization of the use of scientific research outputs particularly in the field of agriculture and rural development. Supporting institutions in their decision making process, in particular encourage optimum use of natural resources and averting environment disasters such as droughts and desertification. (Ahmed, 2008).

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4. INSTITUTIONAL NEEDS ANALYSIS
4.1 Information Needs

77. This assessment identifies the information needs of interviewed institutions (n = 13) to serve their programmes and objectives in agriculture and rural development. The efforts to enhance obtaining the information needed as well as interventions proposed for CTA are outlined. 78. The information needed by the institutions is very broad and ranged from technological information that deal with crop production and post harvest treatments to information on equipment and their sources. The most needed and unmet information is technical information (almost needed by all institutions) that require training on ICTs to fill the knowledge gap in certain programmes. Technical information on ICTs that requires computer training is requested by almost all institutions. The type of information and level of training required by individual institution is briefly covered in the section of capacity building needs. Prioritized unmet information needs of the different institutions are listed in Table 7. 79. ARC, according to its mandate, involved in crop production activities and has ongoing research programmes to generate information needed, required a very wide range of information that cover crop production and post harvest technologies. ARC has done little or no research activities to meet the required information. 80. Forecasting and climatic data with high precision is highly requested by GSMA due to total dependency of the state on rainfall for agricultural production. The staff at GSMA noted that the climate change heavily affected previous sowing dates of crops. ARC and FNC also request the same information for research purposes and for planning of mechanisms to cope with the consequences of climate change. Table 7. Information needs of ithe nterviewed institutes Type of information Technical information on ICTs Market information Extension methods Technological information Use of ICTs in extension Forecasting and climatic data Equipment and sources Editing, preparation of training materials Regional and international relations Required by SHAM, ARC, RAN, NCR, ABS, NIC, MoA, FNC, GSMA, GS, GSTV, ASSCO MoA, GSMA, ABS, ASSCO, GS MoA, GSMA, ABS, GS, FNC FNC, SAU, ASSCO, GS, ARC, MoA, GSMA GSTV, GSMA, GS, ABS GSMA, FNC, ARC GSTV, GSMA, MoA RAN, GSTV, SAU, GS, MoA, GSMA, SAU, ASSCO, ABS, NIC Total 12 4 5 7 4 3 3 7 3

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81. Information on equipment and their sources are requested by institutions with mass communication mandate (GSTV, GSMA, and MoA). Among these institutions, GSTV is the institution most suffering from equipment shortage, due to two fire accidents that ruined its building during the last 5 years. The GSTV has a huge potential for facilitating communication of agriculture and rural development information due to its relative advantage of being located in the middle of irrigated schemes in the country. 82. Information on relevant regional and international institutions to with which to collaborate is requested by SAU, NIC, ASSCO and ABS. The SAU targets sharing, exchange of information and visits with relevant agricultural associations in the region, While ASSCO and ABS are looking for new marketing opportunities in the region especially with COMESA member countries. The SAU and NIC, according to their mandate, are in a good position to compile and release a list of institutions in agriculture and rural development with information on: specialization, products and services provided, and information needs. There is an ongoing strategy suggested by NIC to get institutions with relevant mandates to work together in order to improve their outreach programmes. 83. The need for market information is expressed by the private commercial companies (ASSCO) as well as for production schemes such as GS and GSMA. However, there is no specialised marketing database that can be used to obtain reliable information. 84. Eight out of 13 interviewed institutions indicated that journal articles are difficult to digest and they do prefer materials in simple language (not scientific) and visual information format. The information formats difficult for the interviewed institutions to aquire are listed in Table 8. 85. The importance of pictorial and visual information format are recognized by institutions that provide extension services to farmers (MoA, GSMA, ASSCO, GSTV and GS) due to its relative advantages in attracting wide range of audience, can be used to address non-literate people and be used and reused by the target group at their pace and time. None of the institutions visited have staff with capacities to develop pictorial information format. 86. Abstracts and full text journal formats are needed by research and education institutes such as ARC, NCR and SHAM. ARC has databases that consist of AGORA, TEEAL and ICARDA library while NCR has constructed databases on Sudanese collections and foreign collections through AGORA. There is an unmet need to obtain more collections of articles to diversify information sources. Subscriptions to international journals are limited by lack of funding. Some scientists obtain some articles by direct contacts. 87. Newspapers and state radios are relatively suitable for mass communication but their role is relatively unexploited yet. State radio and TV stations, had been established with objectives to enhance agricultural and rural development through information dissemination but, their role now has shifted more towards covering political events. Table 8. Information formats interviewed institutions find difficult to obtain Information format Scientific journal articles Printed, visual and pictorial Electronic Mass distribution materials Required by ARC, SHAM, NCR GS, MoA, GSMA, ASSCO, ABS NIC, RAN, ARC, SAU, GSTV GSMA, GS, MoA Total 2 5 5 2

Source: Personal contacts through interviews, May-June 2008
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88. The assessment revealed the existence of a low level of awareness regarding products and services provided by other institutions sharing the same objectives. This situation exists between service providers (ARC, NCR-DIC, SHAM) and the users of the products and services provided (RAN, ASSCO, MoA, GS and GSMA). 89. A lack of institutional linkages between actors in the agricultural knowledge and information system is evident. Most publications in agriculture and rural development are not available to other institutions; sometimes even many are not aware of the existence of certain publications. For example, most journals in agricultural sciences issued in the country are not available in ARC, SHAM, and NIC. Some of the staffs in the interviewed institutions rely on personal contacts to obtain issues of journals or publications. Therefore, strong linkage or collaboration mechanism is recommended to ensure effective use of resources within the system and information sharing and exchange.

4.2 Capacity Building Needs
90. Capacity building needs of institutions are intended to serve the current and ongoing programmes in addition to future planned activities. Capacity building needs are obtained directly from the interviewee and/or from planning or report documents prepared by the institutes. Detailed capacity building and training needs are noted in Annex 3.2. Table 9 represents generalized training needs in addition to availability of various training topics either inside or outside Sudan. 91. Most of the interviewed institutions (n = 13) suffer from a shortage of funds allocated for ICM within the institute (Table 6). In most institutions (e.g. ABS, ARC, NCR and SHAM) the budget for information and communication units is allocated under a higher department or section and the share that goes to ICM is much less compared to the tasks and ICM plans in these institutions. 92. Technical capacities of staff responsible for ICM are the second main constraint in most institutions visited. With the exception of NCR and to some extent ARC and SHAM, staff of the institutions visited, lack the necessary skills and experience in ICM. In some institutions (FNC, ASSCO and GS), ICM tasks are being performed by staff with an agricultural background and some computer training. The NCR is the only institution with adequate and well-trained staff in ICM with experience up to 30 years. However, NCR also needs additional training for its newly appointed staff. 93. The institutions visited seem to have no problem regarding availability of necessary ICT tools for their ICM activities, although, limited numbers of PCs or PCs with limited memories were observed in some of the institutions (Table 6). The government initiative to support ICT activities has positively affected the availability of computers with subsidized prices in the market, although the quality of the computers is questionable. Institutions with branches in rural and remote areas such as FNC and GSMA, experience serious problems gaining access to and using ICTs. The problems with ICTs and ICTs management arise from the high cost of maintenance. In some cases, especially in rural and remote areas, maintenance is done by unqualified or unauthorized persons. 94. Availability of updated software specially anti-viruses, is the major constraint in case of institutions that have local area networks (ARC, SHAM, NCR, and SAU) or provide Internet services and search on databases. Internet download of trial versions of anti-viruses is the main source to obtain software versions.

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95. The arrangement of ICM in some institutions is often changing. The ABS and MoA, have undergone different changes in allocation of ICM to different departments. This situation has led to an instability in polices and strategies in ICM within these institutes. 96. All visited institutions (including RAN) lack printing facilities. They all rely on commercial printing facilities for production of their print materials. The only agricultural extension newspaper (El Gezira) that had been produced by GS since the 1950s was stopped several months ago due to technical and financial problems. 97. The need for developing ICM strategies and polices at an institutional level as well as a monitoring and evaluation system for ongoing ICM activities, is highlighted by ARC and ABS. Both institutions have a broad mandate of activities and audience (beneficiaries). ARC, is responsible for agricultural research (crops, forests, livestock and agricultural economics) and currently have network of stations covering all geographical zones of the country. Similarly, ABS has about 98 branches with mandate in credit, agricultural input supply and marketing. 98. There is no clear or well-defined ICM policy and strategy among the institutions interviewed. Only ARC, NCR, SAU and SHAM that have a knowledge management strategy. The strategy includes management of the existing databases and libraries in addition of looking forward to increase their information sources. The ICM projects (activities) in which the interviewed institutions participated, is described in annex 3.2. Table 9. Main ICM Training needs of some institutions in agriculture and rural development. Training need Required by Availability in Sudan MoA, GSMA, GS, FNC SAU, GS, MoA, GSMA MoA, FNC, GSMA SHAM, NIC, ABS, MoA, ASSCO, GSMA, GS, RAN NIC, SHAM, FNC, NCR, GS, RAN, ABS, ASSCO GSTV NIC, SAU, ARC, GS, RAN RAN, SAU ABS, GS, ASSCO, GSMA MoA, ABS, ASSCO, GSTV ARC, ABS, MoA, SAU Available Partially Not available Available Partially Not available Not available Not available Available Partially Available Not available Not Available

Use of participatory tools Production of training materials GIS applications and remote sensing Computer training (basic) Computer training (web design, web updates, networks) Editing, picture and sound management in TV broadcasting Editing and print publication management Agricultural journalism Managing data and records

Conduct need assessment for target audience Computer training in data management (spread sheets) Electronic archives ARC, SHAM, NCR Information marketing ARC, NIC, SHAM Source: Personal contacts through interviews, May-June 2008

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99. With the exception of ASSCO, there is no need to recruit additional staff for ICM in the visited institutions. The available number of staff responsible for ICM seems to be sufficient but, lack of sufficient capacity remains the most critical constraint. As a result the different institutions visited have a range of training needs. Below are the required ICM training needs of the institutions visited: 100. Computer training is the most commonly needed by all institutions (Table 9). The training level and programmes needed vary considerably according to institution’s mandate and objectives. The levels of computer training can be identified as follows: • Basic computer training: required by MoA. SHAM, GSMA, ASSCO, GS, RAN, NIC and ABS. This level of training is needed for the newly recruited staff to get acquainted with computer use, Microsoft office, Internet applications and software used by the institution. Computer training on production of TV and video programmes: required by institutions that deal with TV broadcasting (GSTV) or providing extension services aided by audio-visual media such as GSMA, FNC, MoA and GS. This type of training is highly required when talking about field extension or rural extension services due to its relative advantages over other communication means. Computer training on web design and updates: This level of training is required by staff dealing with web site building and update and management of information within local networks. All institutions depend on commercial private companies for web site building, update and maintenance. Most institutions experience difficulties in managing their local network, suffer from the high cost of maintenance and suffer from none availability of maintenance services in remote and rural areas. Computer training on management of databases, e-content and network security: This training is required in particular by NCR and ARC for efficient management of their databases, which are accessed by various audiences, and for overcoming the miss-use of the contents of the databases.

101. Training on the use of participatory tools during PRA surveys is another important area of training identified. This includes: Timeline, Seasonal Calendars, Ranking and scoring and organization and facilitation of group discussions with farmers. This training is intended to raise skills of field staffs of MoA, GSMA, GS and FNC who are in close contact with illiterate people or who are involved in routine seasonal surveys (crop production, food consumption, fire wood use). Training in participatory tools is highly recognized due to the high visual value of its tools to transfer or get feedback regarding certain issue. 102. Extension staff requires training on production of training materials. Use of posters, pamphlets and booklets written in simple local language is previously mentioned as preferred information format for extension staff working with farmers, rural and illiterate communities. ARC, through a project on IPM that is funded by the Netherlands, is among institutions that are developing training materials for use by extension field staff. 103. Agricultural journalism to acquire information and skills in editing and transfer of the scientific data into simple digestible and easy to understand format on newspapers is often lacking. The need for training on agricultural journalism arises from the fact that currently there is no newspaper dedicated to agriculture and rural development in the country. Political and social newspapers cover

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agricultural and rural development issues in very small space in relatively short news and reports. SAU plans to produce specialized newspaper on agricultural and rural development issues. RAN, which has daily page on economic activities (also covers agricultural issues), plans to have separate page(s) for agricultural information to respond to the government initiative through the Five Year Plan in agriculture. 104. Some ICM related training needs highlighted by some institutions include: editing and print publication management, managing data and records, and conducting need assessment to identify community needs. 105. State (rural) radio and TV stations are established with a mandate to serve agricultural and rural communities through information dissemination but, their role recently has shifted more towards covering political events. GSTV (one of the interviewed institutions) was the first to be established in 1973 with a mandate to broadcast agricultural information to farmers in the GS. GSTV still have great potential to provide technical information on agriculture and rural development. The staff at GSTV required specific training in picture and sound management, editing, prepare videos for farmers and documentation of field activities such as technical training sessions and practice. 106. Some institutions require training on GIS applications and remote sensing. These institutions have a mandate with activities in monitoring, evaluation and assessment of resources such as food, water and forest resources. Training is needed for accurate prediction of the occurrence of disasters such as food shortage, desertification and droughts. The training needed falls within the government FYSP to encourage optimum use of natural resources and avert environmental disasters. 107. The sources to fulfil the above training needs, presented in Table 9, are either available (in Sudan) or not available (required an expert from outside Sudan). For inside training activities, training can be achieved through joint and collaborative activities between institutions in agriculture and rural development. 108. Weaknesses of the interviewed institutions include: • Low levels of awareness among executive and political leaders of the importance and role of information and communication in agriculture and rural development. • Weaknesses in the institutional training administration, less concentration on training activities and inability of the executed training programmes to build capacities in the use and development of ICT. • Large brain drainage of qualified staff. • Weak coordination between government departments and civil society organizations. • Poor planning and weak monitoring and evaluation of the plans and programmes implemented. 109. Strengths of institutions could be observed in: • Sharing information and resources and willing to work together. • Reasonable linkage with institutions outside Sudan that provide technical assistance and support. • Government support to institutions in agriculture and rural development.

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4.3 Feedback on CTA’S Products and Services
110. Among the institutions visited only ARC, NCR, SHAM and SAU are aware of the existence of CTA. ARC, NCR and SHAM are currently receiving the following CTA products: Spore magazine, SDI and CD-ROM/Databases. 111. The interviewed staffs at SAU are aware of the existence of CTA but, did not benefit from CTA products and services. The staff that participated in CTA training programmes highly recognized the importance and the significant contribution of the training topics and materials received during the training. The Head of the Central library at ARC, who participated in three training courses organized by CTA in Kenya and Ethiopia, evaluated the trainings received as the most significant contribution to her career as they have helped her much to better understand ICM and ICM related topics. Similarly, the head of the Information Services and Systems at the Documentation and Information Centre of NCR pointed out that CTA training is the best among all other activities that she participated in. She evaluated the training as relevant, well-prepared materials and presented in a digestible form. 112. Some Research scientists at Elobeid Research Station, who are currently receiving SDI service, evaluated the SDI service as excellent as it provides them with up to date information on the topics requested. This service helped them a lot in acquiring new information on various agricultural issues.

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5

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Conclusions
5.1.1 Information needs 113. The institutions visited expressed a wide range of information needs. The prioritised information needs include technological (crop production and post harvest), technical (ICTs), extension methods and regional and international relations. Local institutions could provide some information needs while other could be met through direct assistance from CTA and other existing linkages (Table 9). 114. The crucial information needed is technical information on ICTs, which is required by most institutions; therefore, it should be given priority to reduce the cost of face-to-face communication adopted by many institutions. 115. There is a high and immediate need to obtain information on extension methods as all institutions providing extension services (Table 4). Visual and pictorial information format are therefore, highly desirable by those institutions. 116. Mainly media institutions also need information for equipment, sources, specifications and prices. The Internet can be fully utilized as source of information for equipment, sources, specifications and prices. Internet can be further utilized (with CTA assistance) to access online training materials produced by other institutions e.g. CTA, and ICRA to fulfil some of the training needs and for updates of information. 117. The information formats that the visited institutions have difficulty acquiring include electronic information format, which is found to be difficult for NIC, RAN, ARC, SAU and GSTV to acquire due to its non-existence in Sudan. GS, MoA, GSMA, ASSCO and ABS find difficulties to aquire printed and visual information format suitable for use during extension campaigns. Preperation of visual materials need high skills and and experienced staff that are not found in Sudan beside that these institutions are not aware of external sources to obtain this kind of information format. Full text and abstract of scientific journals are found to be difficult for ARC, SHAM and NCR to obtain due to their hgh cost and difficulties to transfer money outside the country. The current databases in these institutions include limited number of articles. Materials suitable for mass distribution and written in simple language are also found to be difficult for GSMA, GS and MoA due to its unavailability in Sudan beside its relative high cost. 118. Information on accurate marketing and fair-trade opportunities is the potential information need that is expected to emerge in the near future due to the agricultural revolution that the government implementing. This programme aims at attacting capital for investment in various agricultural projects that include sugar, oil seeds, vegetables and fodder production for export purposes 5.1.2 Capacity building needs 119. ICM activities currently run by the visited institutions in Sudan are limited by a shortage of funding allocated particularly for ICM. Production of print and materials, especially print publications which was a routine task of the ICM

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section in most institutions, was greatly limited due to an increase in the cost of publishing materials. The same applied for scientific journals. 120. The most common capacity-building need that is gaining priority among all interviewed institutions is the computer training. Basic computer training is required for the new staff. Advanced computer training (web site design and update, managing computer databases) is needed by ICM staff in NCR, NIC, SHAM, ASSCO, GS, RAN and ABS. 121. Most institutions seem to have an adequate number of computers. The high cost of maintenance services in addition to its non availability in remote and rural areas greatly affect effective utilization of ICTs especially with regard to those institutions that depend on information supplied from remote field stations (e.g. ABS, MoA, GSMA, GS). FNC, GSMA and ABS suffer from a shortage of PCs. Although PC prices in the local market is at hand of these institutions but low level of awareness among executive leaders of the importance and role of PCs in communication and knowledge managemet is lacking. GSTV, GS, SHAM and MoA request equipment other than PCs. This equipment includes a wide range of audio-visual and broadcasting equipment. GSTV is the institution that suffers the most from a shortage of equipment. 122. With the exception of ASSCO, most of the institutions visited seem to have enough number of staff for ICM, but staff technical capacities need to be further developed through immediate trainings that are highlighted in Table 4. Capacitybuilding through training is recommended to update information and transfer recent ICM techniques. Increasing technical capacities of staff in ICM in institutions with no ICM section or unit (such as ASSCO) or having ICM unit managed by non-ICM staff (such as FNC) should be given priority. 123. Broadcasting media (RAN and GSTV) seem to be underutilized as information sources. This may be due to their limited access to information on agriculture and rural development. These institutions need to increase their capacities by acquiring professional training to be able to achieve their ICM plan. 124. ICM in some institutions (ABS, ASSCO) suffer from institutional changes in allocation of ICM activities to different units or departments. This situation may be a common situation throughout the country. The absence of strategies and polices on ICM at the institutional level was highlighted by ARC and ABS. Interventions suggested to be undertaken by CTA can contribute to develop strategies and polices at institutional level to help institutions build ICM strategies to achieve their objectives. 5.1.3 Overview of CTA’s products and services 125. The study revealed low level of awareness of CTA’s products and services in Sudan. ARC, SHAM, MoA, NCR and SAU their staff are the only who aware of the existence of CTA and its products and services. 126. Some CTA products (Spore magazine, SDI, DORA and CD-ROM databases) are available at NCR, ARC and SHAM. Those institutions are among the only institutions interviewed using some CTA products. Some CTA products (Spore magazine and SDI) are obtained by scientists through personal contacts. CTA online resources are not used by any of the interviewed institutions, although all institutions are having Internet connections with DSL service.

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127. Only 6 staff of the total interviewed staff (21) benefitted from CTA’s services to attend training courses. These staff members belong to ARC, NCR and SHAM. Other CTA’s services are not known in Sudan. Recently, a programme was launched between MoA and CTA for the rehabilitation of MoA library. 5.1.4. Potential partners and beneficiaries 128. Out of the 13 institutions included in this study only three, namely, ARC, SHAM and NCR, are currently receiving some CTA’ products and services. Information resources currently available at any of the three institutions are commonly shared to serve the staff of agricultural and natural resource colleges, researchers, and students and to some extent policy makers. ARC, SHAM and NCR could further benefit and enrich their resources through continuous CTA support in providing relevant products such as Spore magazine, DORA, SDI and CDROM/Databases. 129. GSTV and RAM (representing broadcasting media) could highly benefit from CTA’s products and services due to their urgent and critical information and capacity building needs. GSTV in particular has strategies and polices in ICM and ICM related activities but these plans are not implemented due to unavailability of funding, technical capacities of staff and lack of equipment. Although, all institutions visited believe in the great role and the relative advantage of broadcasting media as information sources, their potential role in dissemination of agricultural and rural development information is unexploited at the moment. 130. MoA, GS and GSMA are mandated to serve farmers. These institutions could benefit from CTA products and services due to the large number of farmers served by them. CTA’s QAS is highly recommended to include MoA, GS and GSMA due to the high number of beneficiaries and difficulties associated with direct contact with the beneficiaries especially during the rainy season (JuneOctober). In addition, Spore magazine, DORA, CD-ROMs and participation in CTA training activities and seminar are suggested products and services to be received by the staff of these institutions. 131. Partnership between CTA and MoA, GS and GSMA is highly desirable because through this partnership CTA can reach farmers in all existing farming systems in the country. This suggested partnership can be coordinated or formed with ARC participation, due to its existence in all farming systems across the country as source of information in agricultural production. In addition, ARC researchers, in accordance with ARC’s mandate, are working closely with agricultural ministries at federal and state levels to contribute to the goals of achieving food security and rural development.

5.2 Recommendations
132. The recommendations discussed below are based on the findings generated from interviews with 13 institutions in agriculture and rural development, observations made during interviews and available information on agriculture and rural development in Sudan.

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5.2.1 Information needs 133. With regard to technical information on ICTs, it is recommended that CTA encourage building e-communities especially in agricultural and rural areas and make CTA online information resources accessible, raise the awareness of the importance of improving ICT infrastructure, and promote the appropriate use of ICT applications to reduce costs of face-to-face communication that most interviewed institutions rely on. Through these activities, CTA can achieve a high level of penetration and mobilize communities to make use of its products and services. 134. Technological information that include crop production and post-harvest technologies could be fulfilled through joint and on going projects executed by FAO, IFAD and UNDP. Government support in this item should focus on exchange/study visits with regional and international centres, organizing seminars, training courses and any kind of interactive forums. 135. The government FYSP (2007-2011) places much emphasis on securing institutional information needs and information exchange. NIC as a government advisory body on ICM and related activities could be the platform to initiate formal discussions, suggest possible institutional linkages, facilitate internal information sources and assist institutions to extend their information products and services. 136. Government should assist in identifying equipment required by the institutions to implement their current ICM activities. The Internet could be utilized as an appropriate source to get information on equipment and their sources, prices and other relevant information. Funds to obtain these equipment can be secured from the recent funds allocated by the government for ICM activities. 137. Scientific journal articles and electronic information formats, which are found to be difficult to aquire, can be secured through partnership with CTA. The institutions to fill this gap can utilize SDI, DORA and CD-ROM/Databases of CTA. Institutions can use CTA support to attend training courses and seminars to aquire the necessary knowledge and skills to produce their own print and visual materials including those in local languages. Government should think of allocating funds for ICM in externally funded projects. 138. It is recommended that CTA assist broadcasting media (GSTV and RAN) to fulfil their information and capacity building needs to achieve their strategic plans in mass communication. Special emphasis should be given to the promotion of appropriate and efficient ICTs use and capacities in production of non-scientific materials suitable for TV broadcasting to ensure efficient and effective information dissemination among non-literate people. 5.2.2 Capacity building needs 139. As highlighted in Table 8, training needs that are not available in Sudan can be achieved through CTA training activities. Another option for securing training is through externally funded projects that some institutions are using (such as ongoing joint programmes with ASARECA, IFAD, FAO, CFC). A portion of these funds should be allocated for ICM capacity building. For the sake of raising awareness of ICM in agriculture, a policy should be formulated for inclusion of training components in ICM in future formulated projects.

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140. Local training needs can be achieved through: • Staff rotation and secondment: This is an effective way to pool resources and experience and get collaboration between existing institutions. In this connection, ICM professional staff at NCR and ARC can further be utilized by rotation or secondment to other institutions for a certain period of time to enhance ICM programmes. • Institutional linkages: Both formal and informal linkages between institutions should be stimulated; staff can be motivated to work together and coordinate their efforts. • Organization of joint training activities and seminars: This type of collaboration is effective to create awareness of each other’s mandate, programmes and activities. This helps to strengthen links as the different actors can learn to appreciate the works of each other. • Informal sharing of tasks and responsibilities: It is a low cost way of building linkage. Simple needs can be handled through this approach. 141. Outside training needs could be fulfilled through CTA training programmes and through the links and collaborative projects with other outside partners. Future polices should consider allocation of ICM training component when submitting such proposals in agriculture and rural development projects. The staff who participated in CTA training activities requested CTA to increase its activity in Sudan by increasing the number of institutions for collaboration in order to raise the awareness of CTA’s products and services in Sudan. They also requested CTA to continuously be in touch with them for future activities. The previous CTA trainees in ARC and NCR requested to be used as resource persons for future activities planned by CTA to be executed in Sudan. 142. The funding constraint from which most institutions suffered can partially be solved by establishing partnerships with relevant organizations such as UNESCO, CTA and FAO. It is suggested for the government to put a certain percentage on telecommunication services to be allocated for promotion of ICM and ICT use in the country. Sudan government should consider allocation of an ICM component in externally funded (such as FAO, UNDP, IFAD etc.) projects (programme). 143. With regard to absence of ICM/ICT polices and strategies it is recommended that, associations such as SIS together with NIC could also help in setting polices and srategies for the promotion of ICM/ICT in the country including inforcement of laws to establish ICM unit in each institution. 144. Capacity-building needs other than training activities (e.g. equipment) can be secured through governmental funds recently allocated for ICM and related activities. All interviewed institutions lack printing facilities (except SHAM) to produce print materials for mass distribution, they rely on commercial private printing presses to secure their print materials. GS, SAU and NIC are seeking in the near future to secure their own printing facilities through government funds allocated for ICM. 145. For maintaining web and computer resources, all institutions prefer to have their own staff although; staff capacities in this respect need to be further developed. Therefore, training in these areas needs to be carried out using both internal and external training institutions. It seems more convenient to have own qualified staff compared with private IT companies.

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5.2.3 CTA’s products and services 146. It is recommended for CTA to increase awareness of its products and services in Sudan by promoting its various electronic information sources, print publications and services to a wide range of institutions in the country. 147. It is recommended for CTA to increase chances for Sudanese staff to attend training courses; seminars and workshops in order to increase staff capacities in ICM and ICM related areas, to have exposure to new approaches and to strengthening linkage with other organizations. 148. Partnership between CTA and broadcasting media (GSTV and RAN) is recommended. CTA can provide GSTV with information resources produced for mass communication such as videos and CD ROM and training opportunities for media staff in editing and production of video materials suitable for farmers. With regard to RAN, CTA can broaden its awareness through providing materials suitable for publication on newspapers and staff training especially on agricultural journalism. 149. It is recommended for CTA to provide advice and guidance on developing ICM/ICT strategies, make use of Sudanese CTA trained staff by rotation or secondment to other institutions in Sudan for short periods to train other staff. 150. Partnerships between CTA and some Sudanese institutions are recommended to fill some of the information and capacity building needs. CTA should maintain regular contacts with institutions through email to provide up to date information on training courses, seminars, meetings and funding opportunities. 5.2.4 Potential strategic partners 151. The need to establish partnership between CTA and institutions in Sudan arises from the great and immediate need of institutions to fill certain gaps in ICM for effective and efficient achievement of their objectives. CTA can effectively help Sudanese institutions to improve ICM status in Sudan. 152. Partnership with MoA is recommended. Through state ministries of agriculture and TTE widely diffused extension services can be provided. Feedback on CTA’s products and services can be obtained through the same pathway for monitoring and evaluation purposes. 153. Another partnership is recommended between CTA and ARC. ARC currently has a network of stations and research centres throughout Sudan and extensive collaboration with a variety of institutions and networks at national, regional and international levels. The information produced by ARC as well as CTA’s products and services could easily be made available for ARC staff and the collaborating institutions. 154. CTA can also provide technical assistance to the interviewed institutions to help them build and structure their strategies and polices with regard to ICM activities and monitor and evaluate on going ICM programmes for effective and efficient performance.

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6. PROPOSED CTA INTERVENTION STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN
6.1 Intervention strategies
155. The proposed CTA interventions are formulated based on the findings generated from this study and in accordance with CTA Strategic Plan on ICM. The proposed interventions to address the information needs, capacity building needs, and partnership with potential strategic partner institutions related needs are: 1. Expand CTA products and services and improve the existing linkage in Sudan 2. Strengthen the role of broadcasting media to increase dissemination and exchange of agricultural information 3. Promote partnerships for strategic planning on ICM and appropriate ICT use for communication

6.2 Action plan
1. Expand CTA products and services and improve the existing linkage in Sudan

Rationale: Few institutions (4 out of 13) are aware of the existence of CTA. Furthermore, among the four institutions only three are currently receiving some CTA’s products and only few staff members are benefiting from some CTA’s services. Therefore, there is a need to increase the availability of CTA’s products and services to a wide range of institutions in Sudan by creating the necessary awareness and partnership with relevant agriculture and rural development institutions. In addition, CTA through its products and service could help address the information and capacity needs of the visited institutions. Objectives • To increase awareness of CTA’s products and services among Sudanese institutions. • To increase the number of beneficiaries of CTA’s products and services. • To respond to information and capacity building needs in ICM in Sudan. • Strengthening institutional linkage in ICM and related activities. Activities and responsible agencies The following activities are suggested to take place to fulfil the above suggested intervention: • MoA, ARC, SAU, SHAM and NCR are suggested to be selected to participate in the above partnership. • CTA is suggested to provide information support to the institutions selected. • CTA distributing (by email) to the selected institutions information on training opportunities, seminars and relevant meeting as well as availability of funding. • FAO’s Sudan office is suggested to provide technical assistance in ICM related activities. • UNDP is suggested to provide information on availability of funding for training needed and equipment.

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• •

NIC, according to its mandate, can coordinate ICM and ICM related activities undertaken by the collaborating institutions. The selected institutions are responsible for ensuring efficient and effective utilization of the provided products and services and information exchange with other agricultural and rural development institutions.

Expected results • Awareness about CTA’s products and services among Sudanese institutions will be increased by four folds. • Increased number of beneficiaries from CTA’s products and services in Sudan. • Improved institutional linkage between institutions in agricultural and rural development. • Institutional ICM activities enhanced. Time frame 2009 to 2011 2. Strengthening the role of broadcasting media to increase dissemination and exchange of agricultural information Rationale: Although broadcasting media (radio, TV and newspapers) are important communication tools in Sudan, the findings of this study show that they have been playing very limited role in communication for agriculture and rural development. This may be due to limited access of media to agricultural information or other reasons. CTA’s intervention can help address these obstacles, leading to efficient utilization of broadcasting media in communication for agriculture and rural development. Objectives • To increase access of broadcasting media to information in agriculture and rural development. • To increase technical capacities of staff of GSTV and RAN. • To empower linkage between broadcasting institutions to exchange and share of information. • To produce local materials suitable for broadcasting. Activities and responsible agencies The following activities are suggested to implement this strategy: • GSTV and RAM are suggested for the above intervention. • Ministry of Information and Communication (Sudan) facilitate access of GSTV and RAN to information needed on agriculture and rural development through internal sources. • Make CTA TV resources (Agriflash) and various videos produces available to GSTV. • CTA is suggested to help to develop new resources suitable for mass broadcasting and relevant to Sudanese environment and socio-economic conditions. • CTA is suggested to provide staff training and other capacity building needs for the two institutions. • Maintain regular study visits through CTA ICT advisory service to exchange information and ideas especially on agricultural journalism. • NPPC and the Sudanese authority of radio and TV is recommended to assist and encourage GSTV and RAN to exchange information resources
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with other state TVs and newspapers to ensure wide dissemination of information to all beneficiaries. Expected results • The role of broadcasting media in communication for agriculture and rural development enhanced. • TV resources and print materials on agriculture and rural development suitable for broadcasting and mass distribution become adequately available. • Increased access of broadcasting media to information on agriculture and rural development. • Training needs in agricultural journalism and other broadcasting skills fulfilled. • Institutional linkage between broadcasting media enhanced. Time frame 2009 to 2011. 3. Promote partnerships for strategic planning on ICM and appropriate ICT use for communication Rationale: It is evident from the findings of the study that most of the institutions visited lack strategies and polices regarding proper ICT use in ICM programmes. CTA can play vital role in helping these institutions build their strategies for proper and efficient ICT use to meet their ICM objectives. Institutions suffering from lack of strategies and polices on ICT in ICM programmes (ARC NCR, SHAM and ABS) are suggested institution to benefit from this partnership. Objectives • To plan for efficient and proper ICT use in ICM programmes. • To help build strategies and polices at institutional and national levels. • To encourage building agricultural networks initiatives. • To influence government decisions to support ICM and related activities. Activities and responsible agencies • CTA to contact ARC, NIC, SHAM and ABS to establish partnership on the suggested theme. • CTA together with NIC plan for strategies and polices at national level for ICM promotion, taking in consideration the existing government initiatives (e – government). • SIS is suggested to carry out lobbying to influence government decisions to support ICM and related activities. • Telecommunication companies to be requested by the regulator (NIC) to promote and advertise for appropriate and efficient ICT use in ICM. • CTA provides advice and guidance on developing and implementing ICM strategies. Expected results • ICM strategies and polices at both institutional and national levels identified and formulated. • Efficient and proper ICT uses secured. • Awareness on ICM and related activities enhanced. • Institutional linkages and their capacities in ICM empowered. Time frame 2009-2010.

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ANNEXES
Annex 1: Annex 2: Annex 3: Annex 4: Annex 5: Terms of reference Country Profile Profile of Institutions List of institutions/ persons interviewed Bibliography

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ANNEX 1. TERMS OF REFERENCE
ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION NEEDS FOR CTA’S PRODUCTS AND SERVICES IN ACP AFRICAN STATES – EASTERN AFRICA
1. Introduction The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) was established in 1983 under the Lomé Convention between the ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific) Group of States and the European Union Member States. Since 2000, it has operated within the framework of the ACP-EC Cotonou Agreement. CTA’s tasks are to develop and provide services that improve access to information for agricultural and rural development, and to strengthen the capacity of ACP countries to produce, acquire, exchange and utilise information in this area. CTA’s programmemes are organised around three principal activities: providing an increasing range and quantity of information products and services and enhancing awareness of relevant information sources; supporting the integrated use of appropriate communication channels and intensifying contacts and information exchange (particularly intra-ACP); and developing ACP capacity to generate and manage agricultural information and to formulate information and communication management (ICM) strategies, including those relevant to science and technology. These activities take account of methodological developments in cross-cutting issues (gender, youth, information & communication technologies – ICTs, and social capital), findings from impact assessments and evaluations of ongoing programmemes as well as priority information themes for ACP agriculture. CTA’s activities are currently distributed among three operational programmeme areas / departments: Information Products and Services; Communication Channels and Services; Information and Communication Management Skills and Systems. These operational departments are supported by Planning Corporate Services (P&CS) which is charged with the methodological underpinning of their work and monitoring the ACP environment in order to identify emerging issues and trends and make proposals for their translation into programmemes and activities. This current exercise, therefore, falls within the mandate of P&CS. 2. Background Since 2003, CTA has been systematically conducting needs assessment studies across the Pacific, Caribbean and Africa regions – the regions it has been mandated to serve. These studies have been in direct response to calls for CTA, in various evaluations of its products, services and programmemes, to be more strategic in its choice regarding the setting of its own agenda and reacting to demand. In putting together its Strategic Plan and Framework for Action 2001 – 2005, CTA took a pragmatic view and opted to develop a strategy combining the benefits of both approaches, whereby the need to address the expressed demands of its stakeholders and the potential long-term advantages of developing programmemes that address future needs were combined. The Centre’s new strategic plan covering the 2007 – 2010 period places emphasis on: improving CTA’s efficiency and increasing the Centre’s outreach by addressing the major bottleneck of difficult or insufficient access to information in ACP countries; (ii) honing CTA’s profile and further defining the niche where the Centre has a comparative advantage. Consequently, reaching more beneficiaries and further strengthening CTA’s partnership networks is key as well as the thrust to make ICTs and ICM strategies more widely available.

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3. Main issues CTA works primarily through intermediary public and private partners (research centres, extension services, libraries, NGOs, farmers’ organisations, regional organisations and networks, …) to promote agriculture and rural development. Under the new strategic plan, the organisations targeted will be extended to include print media, editors, radio, TV and journalist networks in order to further maximise outreach. Through these partnerships, CTA hopes to increase the number of ACP organisations capable of accessing and combining modern and conventional ICTs, generating and managing information and developing their own ICM strategies. The identification of appropriate partners is therefore of primordial importance, whilst bearing in mind issues such as geographical coverage, decentralisation, regionalisation, thematic orientation and transparent and objective criteria and procedures for partner selection. 4. Overall Objective Collaboration strategies with ACP agricultural organisations and relevance of CTA’s support to African ACP countries improved. 5. Scope of the study The study will focus on: providing an overview of main agricultural services and actors existing in the country (information supply side) in terms of their strengths, weaknesses and opportunities for collaboration with CTA; identifying agricultural information and ICM capacity building needs of key actors / key strategic partners for CTA products and services; identifying potential strategic partners for CTA activities and services (paying special attention to e.g. print media, editors, radio, TV and journalist networks); developing some baseline data on the status of ICM and ICTs in the country to facilitate subsequent monitoring and updating activities. The study should assist CTA to improve and better target interventions and activities aimed at potential partners and beneficiaries (including women, youth, private sector and civil society organisations) to have a more informed picture of their needs and aid in the elaboration of a strategy and framework of action. The study should also highlight where there are specific needs for CTA’s products and services thereby enabling improvement in the delivery of the same. 6. Expected results The expected results of the study are as follow: status of infrastructure, information services and ICM capacity of institutions involved in agriculture and rural development described and analysed; information and capacity building needs in the area of ICM identified for key institutions and potential CTA partners involved in agriculture and rural development; baseline data on the status of ICM and ICT in agriculture and rural development compiled for monitoring purposes and improved outreach. The study should therefore also provide updated country profiles on the status agricultural information services, the status of ICM/T in the country, which will allow CTA to make informed decisions re type and mode of intervention as well as partner selection. This will be summarised in one (1) main report per country not exceeding 30 pages excluding annexes (cf. section 8 below).

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7. Methodology The consultant will use a combination of qualitative and quantitative rapid appraisal methods including: the desk review of available literature and information sources including the findings of programmeme evaluations; the conduct of face-to-face interviews with relevant stakeholders / concerned parties; the limited use of questionnaires. The rapid appraisal approach will allow a general overview of the key issues and company / organisational profiles on a per country basis and may give rise to more in-depth studies as and when needed in the future. 8. Reporting The country reports will not exceed 30 pages (excluding annexes) and is broken down as follows: Main report Acknowledgements List of Acronyms Executive summary 1. Introduction 2. Country profile 2.1 Brief description of agriculture and recent developments in the sector: 2.1.1 Agriculture 2.1.2 Fisheries 2.1.3 Forestry 2.1.4 Pastorialism / Livestock (where applicable) 2.2 Brief description of the status of ICT infrastructure and recent developments in the sector 3. Status of information and communication for agriculture and rural development 3.1 Institutional, regulatory and policy framework Status of national and/or other sectoral policies on information and communication for agriculture and rural development; definition of main strategic focus and principal characteristics; opportunities and threats posed by the political, institutional and regulatory environment 3.2 Operational aspects 3.2.1 Description of agricultural information and services (main actors in the area of information and communication for agriculture and rural development) 3.2.2 Information products and services provided 3.2.3 Information and communication management capacity 3.3 Interventions supporting information and communication for agriculture and rural development Examine the main interventions undertaken, planned or foreseen by the State, donor agencies, private sector (e.g. telecommunications sector) to respond to identified needs paying particular attention to the priorities and means mobilised. Lessons learnt should also be addressed in this section 3.4. Needs analysis (Main bottlenecks and shortcomings) 3.4.1 Information needs 3.4.2 Capacity building needs (IC policies & strategies, sensitisation, networking, skills, training, media, ICT, equipment) 4. Conclusions and recommendations 4.1 Conclusions 4.1.1 Information Needs 4.1.2 Capacity Building Needs 4.1.3 Potential Strategic Partners 4.2 Recommendations 4.2.1 Capacity Building Needs 4.2.2 Information Needs 4.2.3. Potential Strategic Partner Institutions

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5. Proposed CTA Intervention Strategy and Action Plan From the above analysis, establish a link between the needs which are not currently met or for which complementary actions are needed and CTA’s supply (products and services). This should lead to an overall and coherent strategy for CTA and an action plan in priorities are identified and an implementation schedule defined. Annexes 1. Terms of reference 2. Country profile 2.1 General agricultural profile (from available documentation) 2.1.1 Size of agricultural population (male / female / youth) 2.1.2 Farmed land, forests, fishing areas 2.1.3 Agricultural systems 2.1.4 Agriculture in the economy (percentage GDP) 2.1.5 Main agricultural produce and secondary products 2.1.6 Main export markets 2.1.7 Trade agreements that include agriculture 2.1.8 Sectoral policy related to agriculture, fisheries and forests 2.2 Socio-economic profile (from available documentation) 2.2.1 Total active population, demographic breakdown 2.2.2 Literacy level and languages 2.2.3 Access to services (health, schools, electricity) 2.2.4 Rural urban drift 2.3 Media and telecommunications (update / check) 2.3.1 Newspapers, periodicals, magazines, radio stations, television channels, 2.3.2 Telecommunication services (fixed, mobile, etc.) 2.3.3 Computers and Internet access 3. Profile of institutions 3.1 List of all main institutions involved in agriculture and rural development activities, including private sector and civil society organisations, with name, contact details, type and role of institution 3.2 Select list of key institutions involved in agriculture and rural development, with extensive data and information on the institution, the problems faced and why it is considered a key actor 4. List of institutions / persons interviewed (to include full contact details) 5. Bibliography 9. Timing The draft final report is to be submitted within three months after contract signature by CTA; the final report is due two weeks after receipt of comments from CTA. 10. Expertise needed The national consultant should have a university degree or equivalent by experience. In addition, he/she should have at least 10 years experience in field of agriculture, rural development or social / economic sciences. He/she must have in-depth knowledge of the agricultural sector in his/her country and be able to identify key players and institutions / organisations active in this area. Some knowledge of information sciences would be an added advantage. The ability to communicate and write clearly in English is essential, while knowledge of at least one of the local languages for communication / interview purposes is an added advantage. In addition to the skills above, the regional coordinator is expected to be fluent in English, have some knowledge of the 9 countries forming the object of this study, and have demonstrated experience in coordinating studies with several consultants and in producing synthesis reports. The overall coordination of the exercise will be carried out by Ms Christine Webster, Deputy Head, Planning and Corporate Services CTA.

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11. Implementation schedule (CTA) Preparation/Finalisation of ToR; Identification/ short-listing of (potential) consultants; Call for offers: October 2007 – January 2008; Selection of consultants & contractual arrangements: February – March 2008 Briefing: April 2008 Start date of contract: March/April 2008 Contract implementation period: March – November 2008 End date of contract: November 2008. 12. Key documents to be made available to consultants Documents include: Cotonou Framework Agreement Executive Summaries of previous evaluation reports including ITAD, OPM, etc. CTA’s Strategic Plan (2007-2010) Annual Reports Examples of reports of previous needs assessment studies Documents on products & services provided by CTA 13. Definition of roles and responsibilities Regional Coordinator Respect the timeframe regarding submission of reports and deadlines Help identify/vet country consultants Attend pre-briefing and briefing meetings Review the terms of reference Finalise questionnaires1 and methodological approach after due consultation with CTA Team Finalise the briefing notes and guidelines2 for local consultants to ensure accurate and consistent application of the agreed methodology in data collection Answer queries (technical & otherwise) of local consultants During the studies, monitor and provide technical assistance/information to the local consultants Review preliminary country reports and findings and send comments back to local consultants Send edited draft final country reports to CTA for feedback Coordinate and ensure consistency of country reports Prepare the overall report taking into account the findings and recommendations of all the country reports (table of contents to be agreed). Local Consultants Respect the timeframe regarding submission of reports and deadlines Attend briefing meeting Familiarise themselves with background documents received from CTA; including the Terms of Reference Undertake desk study and prepare country profile, list of institutions involved in agriculture as well as preliminary list of select institutions. Undertake field visits in the country specified in the contract Conduct interviews and gather information in the country specified in the contract Draft preliminary country reports and send to Regional Coordinator for initial comments Based on comments received from Regional Coordinator, revise country reports and send draft final report to CTA within the specified timeframe Finalise country reports based on comments and observations received from CTA and send final report back to CTA Role of CTA Draw up initial Terms of Reference and prepare relevant background documents Appoint the Regional Coordinator and the ACP Local Consultants Prepare and attend briefing meeting of consultants
1 2

The documents used in previous needs assessment studies are available and will need some slight modifications. See footnote above.

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Invite the Regional Coordinator and Local Consultants for Briefing Meeting Provide input to the Regional Coordinator with regard to fine-tuning terms of reference, questionnaires, interview guide and reporting guidelines for the consultants Provide relevant background documents to the Local Consultants & Regional Coordinator Elaborate budget and discuss contractual obligations with the Team of consultants & Regional Coordinator Liaise with Regional Coordinator throughout the study Pay invoices for services rendered in a timely manner on condition that all payment conditions are fulfilled Overall responsibility for the supervision and implementation of the studies Bear the agreed costs of expenditure in respect of the study (economy class return tickets, hotel accommodation and subsistence allowances during briefing meeting, or during agreed and specified field visits) Provide feedback and comments on draft country reports to the Local Consultants Give feedback to the Regional Coordinator on the Overview Report.

_________________________________

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ANNEX 2. COUNTRY PROFILE - SUDAN

Source: www.uoregon.edu/.../Nilotic/NiloticFamily.htm 2.1 General agricultural profile
2.1.1 Size of agricultural population Sudan’s population is 34.3 million (as in 2004) with an annual growth rate of 2.2% (Table1). The male female ratio of the total population during 2004-2007 is presented in Table 15 (CBS, 2007). Population density is 14 inhabitants /km2 and 60% of the total population is rural and depends on agriculture for food and income. Most of the population lives along the Nile and its tributaries, and some live around water points scattered around the country. According to FAO AQUASTAT (2005), the total population economically active in agriculture is about 7.9 million. This amount of population represents 57% of the total economically active population of which 38% are female and 62% are males (Table 1). Table 1. Some demographical indicators on the agricultural population in Sudan Population group Total population of which rural Population density Economically active population As % of total population Female Male Indicator 34 333 000 60% 14 inhabitants/km2 13 806 000 40% 30% 70%

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Population group Population economically active in Agriculture As % of total economically active population Female Male Source: FAO AQUASTAT, 2005 2.1.2 Farmed- land, forests, fishing areas

Indicator 7 925 000 57% 38% 62%

Sudan is the largest country in Africa with about one million square miles. Of this 25% of its land is forested and 35% is arable. It shares borders with nine countries and has an estimated population of 35 million people. There is also variability among the climatic zones from the north to the south, giving rise to enormous opportunities for production of various crops. The bio-diversity is also rich. The rainfall ranges from nil in the northern part of the country to about 1 500 mm per annum in the high lands of the southern parts. There is also huge potential of water availability from surface and underground sources. This potential reaches up to 20 billion cubic meters per annum. However, collection and utilization of water is still weak and most of the country faces, to a different degree, problems of water availability especially during the dry season. The animal wealth of Sudan is estimated at 103 million heads of cattle, sheep, goats & camels, in addition to game animals and fisheries. There are also rich soils and mineral deposits. Estimates of the amount of land actually under cultivation range from 7.5 million ha, including about 10–11 percent in fallow, to 12.6 million ha. Substantial variations also exist in land classified as actually used or potentially usable for livestock grazing. The Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources and FAO have classified about 24 million ha as pastureland (FAO, 2006). The main crops grown include, Cotton, sorghum, sugar cane, groundnut, Sesame, sunflower, wheat and vegetables. Table 2 shows the major crops grown and area during 2003/04 – 2006/07. Table 2. Area (ha) of the major crops grown (seasons 2003/04 – 2006/07) Crop Cotton Groundnut Sesame Sunflower Sorghum Millet Wheat Seasons 2003/04 164 220 1 067 640 1 827 840 5 460 7 331 100 2 303 280 172 200 2004/05 199 920 961 380 1 838 760 10 500 4 233 180 1 681 260 160 440 2005/06 175 560 599 340 1 822 380 30 240 6 559 980 2 293 200 167 580 2006/07 182 700 590 520 1 122 240 61 740 6 576 360 3 324 300 265 020

Source: MoA, Statistical Division, 2006 The Government owned most of the land used by the modern agriculture sector and leased it to tenants (e.g. in the Gezira scheme) or to private entrepreneurs, such as

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most operators of large-scale mechanized rainfed farming. However, in the late 1980s, the large area of land used for pasture and for subsistence cultivation was communally owned under customary land laws that followed a broadly similar pattern. In agricultural communities, the right to cultivate an area of unused land became vested in the individual who cleared it for use (FAO, 2006). Being a large country, Sudan enjoys vegetation diversity. Woodland areas cover about 74.1 million ha (29.6 % of Country’s area). Forestry in Sudan is inevitably linked with animal husbandry, rain-fed agriculture and village or urban life, thus assuming a significant, predominantly supportive function. Trees and shrubs play a crucial role in Sudan economy and the lives of its people. Forestry sector contributes about 15% to the GDP. The figure does not take into account illegally harvested timber used for rural housing, furniture, utensils, arts and crafts, and fuel and fodder. The contribution of forestry to the national energy supply is estimated to account for 71% of the total energy consumed in the country. In addition, the forestry sector provides 15% of job-opportunities available in the rural areas, 30% of the feed of the national herds, and produces an equivalent of US$1.5 million annually in the form of railway sleepers. Sudanese Gum Arabic production is the most important non-wood product which accounts for about 80% of the total world production and trade. Sudan exports ranged from 20,000 to 30,000 metric tones of Gum Arabic per year and these accounts for about 5% of export earnings (FNC, 2008). The main forest types include: 1) arid and semi-arid shrubs; 2) low rainfall savannah; 3) high rainfall savannah; 4) special areas of mountainous vegetation in Jebel Marra, the Red Sea Hills and the Imatong Mountains. Fishing is traditionally carried out by the traditional sector for subsistence. No data is available for the smaller operations carried out. These operations use the reservoirs in the more populated central region to catch fish for sale locally and in nearby urban areas. The River Nile and its tributaries, approximated to be 42 million square meters, are considered as the principal source of fish in central and northern Sudan. Several lakes and reservoirs have been formed by the damming of the river and its tributaries: the 180-kilometer section of Lake Nubia on the main Nile in Sudan and the reservoirs behind the Roseires and Sennar dams on the Blue Nile, the Jabal al Awliya Dam on the White Nile, and the Khashm El Girbah Dam on the Atbarah tributary of the main Nile. These water bodies accounted for about 11,000 tons of fish against a calculated potential of about 100,000 tons (Coutsoukis, 2004). Production from Lake Nubia was only 500 tons a year, or about one-tenth of the estimated potential. Inhabitants around the lake, which had formed gradually in the 1960s, had no previous experience in fishing, and the government’s Fisheries Administration had undertaken the first significant commercial exploitation of the lake’s resources. Cooling plants were constructed at Khartoum and Atbarah to hold fish that were brought from Wadi Halfa by railroad. Although ice was used in the shipments, substantial loss occurred, especially during the hotter months (Metz, 1991). The largest potential source of freshwater fish is southern Sudan whose extensive river network and flooded areas in As Sudud were believed to be able to provide

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100,000 to 300,000 tons annually on a sustained basis. Statistics on actual production showed that much was consumed locally, although limited quantities of dried and salted fish were exported to Zaire where it was in great demand. The country’s second source of fish is 700 kilometers of the Red Sea coastal area, which is relatively unexploited. Annual production toward the end of the decade amounted to about 500 tons of fish, shellfish and other marine life. The potential of fish production from Red Sea coast approximated at 10,000 tons. In 1978 the British Ministry of Overseas Development began a joint project with the government Fisheries Administration to raise output by making boats, motors, and equipment available to fishermen. Included was an ice plant built at Sawakin to furnish local fishermen with ice for their catch (Coutsoukis, 2004). 2.1.3 Agricultural systems There are 3 main farming systems in the Sudan, namely the traditional rainfed agriculture, the mechanized rainfed agriculture and the irrigated agriculture. A number of food and cash crops are grown in the three sub-sectors including cool season crops and tropical crops. Sorghum, which accounts for 1/3 of the total area under cultivation, is the staple crop in the country and, followed by wheat, which is gradually gaining ground at the expense of sorghum. Millet used to be the staple crop for western Sudan but because of its fluctuation in annual production, sorghum has widely spread in the traditional areas of millet. Millet is almost entirely consumed internally (FAO, 2006). The main cash crops produced are groundnuts, sesame, cotton and various species of livestock. Cotton is the main cash crop in Sudan and is a major export commodity, cultivated in 0.5 million ha. Most of the groundnut is produced in the traditional subsector and to a lesser extent in the irrigated one. The other cash crops are entirely rainfed in both the mechanized and the traditional sub-sectors with sesame being the major export cash crop. Pulse crops include ِ lfalfa, beans, chickpeas, broad beans, cowpea lentils and a pigeon peas cultivated, mainly, along the Nile banks North of Khartoum. Most of the production is consumed locally. Dry forage crop is estimated to reach 85 million tons; this quantity is produced from natural pastures, crop residues and green fodders. The rangelands support about 90% of the animal wealth of the country. Horticultural production extends almost all over the country with intensification in the central and northern parts of the country. Mango is the main fruit across the country and tomato the main vegetable. Being perishable and in the absence of good infrastructure, always high losses are often associated with agricultural production. Table 3. Area of Sudan and cultivated area as in 2002
Physical area Total area of the country Cultivated area (arable land and area under permanent crops) As % of the total area of the country Arable land (annual crops + temp. fallow + Temp. meadows) Area under permanent crops Description 250 581 000 ha. 16 653 000 ha. 7% 16 233 000 ha. 420 000 ha.

Source: FAO AQUASTAT, 2005
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The cultivable area is estimated at about 105 million ha (42 percent of the total land area), while in 2002 the cultivated land was 16.65 million ha (7 percent of the total land area and 16 percent of the cultivable area), comprising 16.23 million ha arable land and 0.42 million ha under permanent crops (Table 3) (FAO AQUASTAT, 2005). Farming systems in the Sudan are functions of the socioeconomic conditions. There are three main farming systems for crop production. Other farming systems include livestock, fishery and forestry. Crop production farming systems are: 2.1.3.1 Irrigated sector It is Nile-based irrigation schemes that have been a pillar of the Sudan’s strategy for agricultural development. Table 4 listed the irrigated schemes in Sudan and their area. There is 1.7–2.1 million ha of irrigated land within the Nile River basin (Table 4). The irrigated sector accounts for production of 99% of cotton, 100% of sugar cane, 52% of groundnut, 100% of wheat, 25% of sorghum and 80% of fruits and vegetables. Yields in the irrigated sector are far higher than in the rainfed sectors but still below their potential (FAO, 2006). Access to credit and agricultural inputs are the major constraints that jeopardize production in the irrigated sector. Cotton, sorghum, wheat, vegetables and groundnut are the most important crops in irrigated areas. While having a positive impact in some sub-sectors (e.g. livestock), liberalization had a negative impact on the irrigated sub-sector, due to poor infrastructure, the withdrawal of basic agricultural services, and a lack of alternative sources of credit. Table 4. Irrigated schemes and their respective areas (000 ha) Scheme Area (000 ha) Gezira and Managil 871 White Nile pump schemes 192 New Halfa 152 Rahad 122 Blue Nile pump schemes 113 Gash Delta (spate irrigation) 101 Northern pump schemes 42 Suki 35 Tokar Delta (spate irrigation) 31 Guneid Sugar 16 Assalaya Sugar 14 Sennar Sugar 13 Khashm El Ggirba 18 Others 143 Total 1863 Source: FAO AQUASTAT, 2005 2.1.3.2. Mechanized rainfed sector

Mechanized rainfed agriculture sector has developed since 1944-45, when a government project to cultivate the cracking clays of central Sudan started in the El Gedarif area, to meet the food needs of army units stationed in the British colonies in eastern Africa. An average of about 6,000 ha a year was cultivated between 1945 and 1953, producing chiefly sorghum, under a sharecropping arrangement between
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the government and farmers who had been allocated land in the project. In 1954 the government began encouraging the private sector to take up mechanized farming in the area. In 1968, to expand the operator base and to introduce more control over land allocation, crops, and farming methods, the government established the Mechanized Farming Corporation (MFC), an autonomous agency under the Ministry of Agriculture. Mechanized farming had also been initiated in southern Kordofan. Only a few crops had been found suitable for cultivation in the cracking clay area. Sorghum had been the principal one, planted on an average of about 80% of the sown area. Sesame and short-fiber cotton were also grown successfully but in relatively smaller quantities, sesame on about 15% and cotton on about 5% (Congress Library, 2004). Now this system has been developed on generally alkaline clay soils and loams. It extends to about 5.9 million ha in the states of El Gedarif, Blue Nile, Upper Nile, White Nile, Sennar and Southern Kordofan. Sorghum, sesame, cotton and sunflower are the main crops grown in this sector. 2.1.3.3. Traditional rainfed sector The traditional rainfed farming system is the subsistence system prevalent an area of 9.2 million ha, mostly in Kordofan, Darfur, White Nile and Blue Nile States (FAO, 2006). Millet, sesame, groundnut, sorghum and rosselle are the main crops grown in this sector. The traditional rainfed sector obtained only 1–5 percent of all formal agricultural credit and received few other support services due to high risk in production. Public investment and the basic infrastructure for rural and agricultural development are also negligible (FAO, 2006). Due to a short rainy season and erratic rains, yields are low and declining or stagnating for most crops. Therefore, farmers in the traditional sector are most vulnerable to poverty. Thus, improvement of productivity in the traditional farming areas is of crucial importance for people in this farming system to improve their incomes. 2.1.4. Agriculture in the economy Agricultural production is considered the most important economic sector in Sudan. The sector accounts for about two-thirds of the employment and supplies about sixty percent of the raw materials needed by the manufacturing sector. The GDP (real growth rate) of the Sudan was estimated at 12.8% in 2008 (Index Mundi, 2008) (Table 5). The agricultural sector is the most dominant in the country’s economy, even though its share has declined recently because of decreased agricultural production and the increased exploitation and export of mineral oil. In 2002, the sector contributed over 39 percent to the GDP and employed 57 percent of the total economically active population in 2004 (Table 6) (FAO AQUASTAT, 2005). Table 5. Real growth rate and world rank of Sudan during 2003-2008 Year Real growth rate Rank 2003 5.1 35 2004 5.9 38 2005 6.4 41 2006 8.0 30 2007 9.6 20 2008 12.8 6 Source: Index mundi, 2008

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Table 6. Some economic indicators on the contribution to agriculture in the GDP Indicator Year Value Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 2003 17 800 Million US$ Value added in Agriculture (% of GDP) 2002 39.2% GDP per capita 2003 518 US$/yr Human Development Index (highest =1) 2003 0.505 Source: FAO AQUASTAT, 2005 Cotton, oilseeds and livestock are the main export commodities. The Sudan is the world’s largest producer of gum, whose exports range between 20,000 and 40,000 tones and earns some US$50–80 million. The agricultural sector in Sudan has generally been the main source of livelihood in the country. Agriculture contributed about 39% of GDP as in 2001. In 2003, the agricultural share of the GDP increased by 5.2% compared with that in 2002. In 2004 it was increased by 4.5% and continued to be a major export sector (Table 7) (Bank of Sudan, 2005). Agricultural products are accounted for around 95% of Sudan’s exports. The value of agricultural products by commodity shows, fruits and vegetables 12%, grains 21%, cotton 17% and oil seeds 9%. Industry has mostly been agriculture-based, historically accounting for around 40% of Sudan’s GDP (FAO, 2006). Irrigation, agricultural inputs and services, post harvest handling (transport, storage and marketing) are the main constraints of the agricultural sector. Table 7. GDP shares of the agricultural sub-sectors, 1992 – 2004 Average (%) Sub-sector 1992 –1994 2002 – 2004 Irrigated crops 10.9 12.3 Rainfed mechanized crops 3.2 2.1 Rainfed traditional crops 4.9 7.5 Forestry and others 2.9 3.0 Livestock 18.4 20.5 Total 40.3 45.4 Source: Bank of Sudan, 2005 2.1.5 Main agricultural produce and secondary products

Sudan’s main crops are cotton, peanuts (groundnuts), sesame, sorghum and sugarcane. The main subsistence crops are sorghum and millet, with recent expansion in wheat, corn and sunflower. The principal food crops are sorghum, millet and wheat which grown for domestic consumption. Sesame seeds and peanuts are cultivated for domestic consumption and increasingly for export. Cotton is the main agriculture export item, although its export volumes have been decreasing recently (Table 8). Gum Arabic is also one of Sudan’s biggest agricultural exports, second to cotton, amounting to around 11%. Gum production (000 tons) during the seasons 2002/03, 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06 was 16.5, 15.8, 30.4 and 11.6 respectively (Gum Arabic Company, 2006). A decade ago, nearly 80% of all the gum imported into the United States came from Sudan, but a lot has changed since then .Although from the 1950s to the early 1990s Sudan accounted for roughly 80% of gum Arabic production, today that figure is under 50%. However it is still the world’s largest single producer and the marketing of gum Arabic is heavily controlled by the Sudanese government. (Wikipedia, 2007)

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The size of the livestock (cattle, sheep, goats and camels) is estimated at about 100 million (Table 9). The raising of livestock has continued in the traditional sector with raising providing employment opportunities for so many people. Modernization proposals have been based on improving existing practices and marketing for export, as opposed to adopting modern ranching methods, which require fewer workers. Livestock contributes 45% of total agricultural production. Livestock production has vast potential, and many animals, particularly camels and sheep, are exported to some Arab countries (e.g. Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan) (Sudan Development Programme, 2007). Table 8. Main crops and production (000 m. tons) during 2003-2006
Crop Cotton Groundnut Sesame Sorghum Millet Wheat Sunflower 2003/04 238 782 460 4 731 794 397 6 Production in season 2004/05 311 520 354 2 676 287 364 13 2005/06 255 558 400 4 327 687 401 44

Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Statistical Division, 2006 Sudan has the second largest animal population in Africa. Cattle, goats, sheep and camels (Table 9) constitute the bulk of the livestock sector in Sudan. Western Sudan has the most livestock (40%), followed by southern Sudan (27%) and central Sudan (23%). The majorities of breeds are raised within tribal groups and often carry the name of the tribe. They are well adapted to the harsh environment and often trek long distances in search of feed and water (Thomson et al., 2000). The livestock sector provides employment opportunities for so many people, modern proposals have been based on improving existing practices and marketing for export, as opposed to adopting modern ranching methods, which require fewer workers. Livestock contributes 45% of total agricultural production (Sudan Development Programme, 2007). According to FAO (2006), 70% of the rural population in Sudan is agropastoralists. Table 9. Livestock numbers (000 heads) during the period 2002-2006 Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Source: CBS, 2007 Cattle 39 479 39 667 39 760 40 468 40 994 Sheep 48 136 48 440 48 910 49 797 50 390 Goat 414 855 42 030 42 179 42 526 42 756 Camels 3 342 3 503 3 519 3 908 4 078

Animal productivity is generally low (Table 10) but can be improved with proper management in more favorable conditions. Cattle are generally kept for milk, and in western Sudan for meat production. Sheep are of the Sudan Desert type, with live weights up to 70 kg and excellent meat and carcass characteristics. Goats, mostly of the large, black Nubian type, are found in central Sudan and are kept for milk. There are two types of the single-humped camel, one kept for riding and the other as a pack or baggage animal. Camels are exported mainly for meat (Thomson et al., 2000).

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Table 10. Products of livestock (000 tons) during the period 2002-2006 Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
*(000) pieces.

Meat 1628 1663 1694 1694 1721

Milk 7298 7387 7534 7534 7649

Fish 65 68 70 65 57

Eggs 22 25 28 30 20

Poultry meat 18 20 22 24 18

Leather* 28106 30534 31240 32106 32744

Source: CBS, 2007 The industrial sector of Sudan largely depends on agricultural production as raw materials. Agro-industries in Sudan include ginning, spinning and textiles, sugar, oil, flour mills, milk canning and timber sawing which accounts for about 17% the country’s GDP, and 9% of the export value. The industrial production of Sudan during 2003-2006 is presented in Table 11. The industrial sector is composed of the following sub-sectors: 1. Food industries: This is a principle sector in the country, considering its necessity and linkage with the agricultural sector. Available capacities are very high and can supply the requisites of the local market with surplus for export. 2. Leather industry: considered as one of the important sub-sectors oriented for export. The raw hides and skins are distinguished by hard fibers and consistent texture. The available infrastructure is composed of about 20 tanneries of a capacity of about 18 million pieces. 3. Oil and soap industry: distinguished by high range of manufacturing products, it can supply all the local demands and there is surplus for export. 4. Building materials: distinguished by the abundant of its raw materials. Portland cement is manufactured in two factories with low capacities as many to 400,000 tons a year, where the market requirements go to more than one million tons per year. 5. Engineering industry: it includes basic industry such as foundries, spare parts and metal products. The installed capacity of the sector is estimated at 250 thousands tons a year. In addition, there is a factory for car manufacturing, tractors and agricultural equipment. 6. Textiles: considering the availability of the raw materials (cotton), textile industry has emerged in the country with vast potential also for export. 7. Chemical and pharmaceutical: it includes a number of important products such as tyres, batteries, matches, plastics, pharmaceuticals, medical gases and paints. 8. Printing and packing: this sector supplies the other sectors with their needs of packing and labeling materials (Ministry of Industry, 2008). Table 11. Industrial production of Sudan during the period 2003-2006 Item Sugar Molasses Soft drinks Biscuits Sweets Jams Flour Unit (000) ton (000) ton Million box (000) ton (000) ton (000) ton (000) ton 2003 728 249.5 36.8 52.0 31.5 6.0 900 2004 755 266.4 40.0 40.0 32.0 5.0 800 2005 712 255.2 63.0 65.0 35.0 6.5 1000 2006 730 63.7 48.0 54.5 8.0 1200
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Item Cement Dry batteries Spinning Weaving Oils Soap Shoes Hides and skins Source: CBS, 2007

Unit (000) ton Million units (000) ton Million yard (000) ton (000) unit Million pair Million unit

2003 225.6 44.0 3.3 15.0 90 46.0 37.6 7.2

2004 244.0 19.0 5.0 17.8 120 47.0 36.0 8.0

2005 244.0 20.0 9.0 25.0 150 47.0 40.0 10.0

2006 227.0 16.8 28.0 140 48.0 17.2 9.4

2.1.6 Main export markets Until 1992, the Government largely controlled the marketing of agricultural inputs and outputs. However, as part of the economic reforms, it removed most of the controls in favour of private traders. Private bodies now undertake the marketing of most agricultural commodities, including livestock. The remaining government interventions relate to cotton and sugar, and the pricing systems for both commodities are tied to international prices. The SCC sets farm gate prices for seed cotton, and the MoA continues to announce a minimum price for gum. Most Sudanese exports (agricultural exports) go to Arabian countries while oil and oil products go to some Asian countries. Sudan also exports some agricultural products to some EU countries (Table 12). Table 12. Sudan export markets and value of exports (million Euro) during 20032006 Country Saudi Arabia China United Arab Emirates Egypt Germany United Kingdom India Japan Australia South Korea Turkey Italy France Switzerland Netherlands Malaysia Others Total Source: CBS, 2007 Value of exports in 2004 2005 147.5 122.8 1.987.9 2.694.5 49.7 62.0 62.5 40.3 26.3 20.4 41.6 25.2 25.0 19.9 281.7 301.9 0.03 0.0 33.3 6.4 6.7 5.5 8.6 12.6 16.7 22.7 0.0 0.0 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.01 222.4 199.7 2.911.43 3.533.91

2003 108.5 1.405.8 57.5 36.4 36.8 54.3 21.9 186.6 0.02 16.4 5.2 13.9 9.5 0.94 0.0 0.0 196.3 2.150.06

2006 98.9 3.121.4 151.7 47.5 13.7 14.5 15.9 215.7 0.0 4.5 3.3 10.3 10.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 149.6 3.857.9

Regionally, Sudan is a member of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa. Sudan has much better access to international markets than an average subSahara Africa or low income country. United States has imposed an economic
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embargo on Sudan since 1997 and blocks U. S. firms and individuals from conducting any business transaction with the government or state owned enterprises, including a range of Sudanese companies operating in all sectors (except gum Arabic). Sudan has not signed an interim ACP-EU Economic Partnership Agreement, a comprehensive trade and development agreement. Most of the recent growth of the country's exports (and its trade) is attributed to increased production of oil and gas as well as the increase in the international price that has boosted the country's terms of trade (Dingle, 2007). 2.1.7 Trade agreements that include agriculture Agricultural products dominate Sudan’s exports. Cotton, gum Arabic, peanuts, sesame, live animals, and skins constituted the most important export items. Sudan main import commodities are foodstuffs, manufactured goods, transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles and wheat. Principle sources of imports are Saudi Arabia, China and United Kingdom. China has become Sudan’s most important trading partner. China’s trade with Sudan reached more than US $ 3 billion and continues to grow, with the prediction that it will double by 2020, if not before. Cotton, sesame, gum Arabic are the main agricultural export commodities from Sudan to China (Ministry of Finance, 2005). Sudan has entered the Common Arab Free Trade since 2005 with the aim to establish common market in the Arab region to reduce taxes on products of Arabic origin and foster trade among the countries in the region. Through this agreement, Sudan has been able to export live animals, sesame, sorghum and fruits and vegetables to Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and UAE. The amount of Sudanese exports in 2004 amounted to US $ 429.9 million (Ministry of Finance, 2005). Sudan has signed and ratified its membership in COMESA from the beginning of its establishment and is the first country to apply zero tariffs. Imports from COMESA countries to Sudan rose from US $ 65 million in 2000 to US $ 466.8 million in 2005. On the other hand, exports of Sudan to COMESA amounted to US $ 165 million in 2004, compared to US $ 36 million in 2000. The share of agricultural commodities in total intra-COMESA trade was not stable but is increasing and reached 81.7% in 2004 compared to 59.6% in 2001. Cotton was the leading export commodity to COMESA countries followed by sesame, live animals and seed cake, while skins, groundnuts and meat contributed the smallest shares (Table 13) (Abdel Karim and Ismail, 2007). Table 13. Sudanese exports to COMESA countries during 2003-2004 (US $ million) Specification 2003 2004 Cotton 11.59 32.51 Sesame 9.10 43.29 Gum Arabic 0.56 0.03 Groundnut 0.07 0.41 Seed cake 2.26 1.84 Live animals 10.57 13.57 Skins 0.35 2.09 Petroleum 2.70 0.03 Meat 0.0 0.04 Others 18.50 20.44 Total 55.73 114.24 Source: Ministry of Finance, 2005
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Sudan issued border trade agreements with the neighbouring countries. The Sudan state authorities together with the respective country control boarder trade (Table 14). Agricultural products included in boarder trade include sorghum, beans, live animals, roselle and sugar. Table 14. Performance of border trade (as in 2005) Sudanese State Border country Exports (US $ million) Nahr Elnil Egypt 0.583 Red Sea Saudi Arabia 6.3 Gadarif Ethiopia 0.956 Northern Egypt and Libya 3.2 North Darfur Chad and libya 0.097 West Darfur Chad 1.2 South Darfur Central Africa 0.048 Source: Ministry of Finance, 2005

As % of the planned amount 52 84 9 71 1.9 14% 1.2

Sudan has trade agreements with some Asian countries (Japan, India, South Korea) as well as some EU countries (Germany, Italy France) (Table 12). Cotton, Sesame, gum Arabic, Roselle and sugar are the main exports. The largest share of Sudanese exports in 2006 went to Japan (215.7) followed by India (15.9) million Euro (CBS, 2007). Sudan established a trade point to exchange business opportunities and to cooperate in trade development initiatives, both within specific geographic regions and also worldwide. This trade point is part of World Trade Point Federation that currently links over 100 trade points throughout the world via the Internet. Sudan Trade Point is an advanced technological trade facilitation center, supervised by the Ministry of Foreign Trade, providing Sudanese investors and businessmen with international trade related services. Sudan has made stride to open seven trade point branches under with sizable commercial activities (Sudan Trade Point, 2008). 2.1.8 Sectoral policy related to agriculture, fisheries and forests The policy framework has consistently been linked and informed by the major objectives pursued by various governments. Food and livelihood security has been among the main objectives. Expanding investments and enhancing export as a prerequisite for boosting the economic growth has also often been emphasized to obtain foreign earnings to finance the import of capital and consumption goods (MoA, 2008). Therefore, one of the top concerns of the Government is to adopt policies that can boost the export sector, which includes the following: 1. Commitment to the policies of economic liberalization. 2. Enhancement of the competitiveness of Sudanese exports through simplification of the procedures and motivation of exporters. 3. Intensification of efforts to promote exports through participation in regional and international exhibitions (fairs), and conclusion of protocols and trade agreements. 4. Joining the World Trade Organization (WTO). 5. Legislative reform laws and acts to maintain fairness and justice as stipulated in Islamic Sharia. 6. Improvement of export services including transport, storage, communication, packing and packaging, quarantine and phytosanitary Station to maintain quality control by ISO standards; etc.
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7. Development of flow of trade information to all marketing centres locally and abroad, making use of modern communications and the Internet services. 2.1.8.1 Strategies The ten-year National Comprehensive Development Strategy (1992-2002): The main focus of this strategy was on structural adjustment to realign the economy for efficiency and growth. Long-term Strategy (2003-2027) for agricultural development: • • • • • • • • • Ensuring food security: availability at reasonable prices, of stable quantities of safe and nutritious food accessible to all citizens at all times. Promotion of agricultural exports through enhancing the competitiveness of the commodities in which the Sudan enjoys a comparative advantage. Sustainable development of natural resources and control of desertification. Poverty reduction through generating employment opportunities, improving living conditions and contributing the overall growth of the economy. Forward linkage with those sectors supplying agriculture with inputs and backward linkage with those sectors receiving agricultural products and raw materials. To allocate a percentage that should not be less than 1% of the Growth National Product (GNP) for funding scientific research. Production of wheat to meet the country’s need for wheat by 2011. Doubling the land area allotted for forests, grazing and wildlife. The export value of livestock, meat and animal skins will be increased by 24% by the end of the plan.

2.1.8.2 Polices The major themes in the policy development are listed in the section “Major thematic areas in the policy development” below but the evolution of the policy framework has moved from central planning, government-led protocol to a system that values more the private sector role in leading various investment. The structural adjustment programme of the late 80s early 90s has pushed hard in the line of more privatization and market-lead economy. Currently the government is focusing more on facilitating and regulatory policies that are seemingly enhancing private investment in various sectors and in the agricultural sector in particular. In summary, the various policies adopted as the real start of the major drift in the policies that favor privatization and market liberalization are: 1. Liberalization of goods, services & factors of production. 2. Correction of cost & price distortions. 3. Privatization of public enterprises: Investments in remote and least developed areas are accorded preferential treatments. The same treatments shall be extended to food security and integrated rural development projects as well as to projects that utilize local raw material, enhance exports, increase employment opportunities, reinvest profits, produce commodities that replace imports. 4. Reforms & liberalization of trade & financial sector.

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5. Reform in government tax systems: The act stipulates exemption from federal taxes and fees together with exemption of not less than 70% of depreciation tax and customs and any other fees imposed on imports including machinery, implements handling equipment, vehicles, generators, prefab buildings, inputs and spare parts. Export taxes and fees and excise duty may be reduced. Land may be granted at incentive price and asset deprecation may be calculated according to replacement value. Major macro policies are: A. Tax polices: No taxes on raw agricultural products. No import taxes on raw agricultural commodities. B. Custom polices: No custom duties on exports of agricultural commodities. Maximum 3% duties on imported inputs to agriculture. C. Credit polices: No ceiling for agricultural sector but started with positive discriminatory ceiling on agriculture during the 1990s. D. Exchange rate policy: Almost constant exchange rate policy and now moving to floating one. 2.1.8.3 The Agricultural Reviver Programme The Government has adopted the Agricultural revitalization programme that includes 5-year plan (2006-2010) for achieving agricultural development in Sudan, with the following objectives: • • • • Attain food security for Sudan. Increase export of horticultural and livestock commodities. Introduce and integrate livestock in crop rotation. Introduce sustainable natural resource conservation and management.

In agricultural investment the agricultural revitalization emphasizes on: • • • Improvement of regulations that enhance investment in agriculture and livestock sectors. Development of infrastructure and supporting services. Promotion of private sector investment.

Major thematic areas in the policy development: A: Thematic areas in the policy development: The land tenure system is based on the customary laws and has evolved gradually to respond to the needs of potential users. There has been a felt need for improvement of the land tenure system in the face of the growing challenges and competition over natural resources including land. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) has recognized the necessity for dealing proactively with the land issue and accordingly has established the Federal Land Commission as well as the states land commissions.

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B: Enhancing production and productivity Under this theme, major policy interventions are: Promotion of input and service sector, namely: a. Improving availability of improved seeds, fertilizers and pesticides for main crops through facilitation of internal regulations and import regulations as well. b. Intensify mechanization of farm operations through capacity building for farmers and enhancing the service support sector. c. Creation of conducive environment for production through better control of national crop pests and livestock epidemic diseases. d. Expansion of insurance to cover agriculture and related support sectors. e. Improvement in agricultural statistics to support proper planning. f. Expansion and support of agricultural research to cover all productive domains through better training and better equipment and based on sound plans. g. Improving performance and coverage of the extension system through appropriate models of technology transfer. Capacity building and logistical support are the building blocks for good models. C: Export promotion With the privatization and market liberalization or the economy, the public sector has moved out steadily from production and marketing of goods and services leaving the floor for the privates sector. This requires an enormous engagement in capacity building of the private sector. Some of the clear policies include:

• • • •

Facilitation of involvement in the services associated with export like storage, transportation and communications. Establishment of measures of quality and standards. Establishment of export councils for major crops. Realignment of trade policies and regulations to facilitate trade.

D: Internal trade and marketing of crops Internal trade is mostly of primary agricultural production i.e. raw product of the main crops grown whether crop or livestock based. Few crops have especial arrangement under known parastatal organizations responsible for production and marketing like the Gum Arabic and cotton companies. For sorghum and wheat the government intervenes through establishing and announcing a floor or intervention price that is usually based on the cost of production. E: Agricultural Finance Most of the formal agricultural finance is channeled through ABS and is apparently little and barely exceeds 5% of the total need for credit in the country for the agricultural sector. The semi-formal credit is provided through bi-lateral and multi-lateral development projects like those of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).

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Policies are variable and sometimes inconsistent but the main feature is implementation of various concessions on the cost of capital and mainly focusing on short-term financing. Medium and long-term financing which target investments are less common in recent history. However, there are packages of support to certain sectors or specific crops through occasionally defined programmes like the recently launched Agricultural Reviver Programme (MoA, 2008 and Ahmed, 2008). 2.1.9 Institutional, regulatory and policy framework for Information and communication

The regulations and policy framework related to information access in Sudan were formed in mid 1990s. Consequently several bodies were established in information and communication to implement the initiative. National Telecommunication Corporation (NTC) The NTC was formed in September 1996 with a view to provide the following: • Effective regulatory framework and adequate safeguards to ensure fair competition and protection of consumer interests. The Government is committed to a strong and independent regulator with comprehensive powers and clear authority to effectively perform its functions. Provision of ICT services of state-of-the-art technologies, quality, reliability, trustfulness and affordable prices in cooperation with all stakeholders and in a healthy, independent and transparent regulatory environment that promotes investment and free competition Lay down the plans, policies and regulations for the provision of the telecommunication services and their establishment thereof on the national level taking into consideration the balanced development and the service of the social and national objectives.

With regard to regulation of ICT services: • NTC has set out the policy frameworks, which are most likely to achieve the fullest and quickest benefits of the use of ICTs in general, and of telecommunications in particular. • NTC promulgates a strong and comprehensive policy to develop the use of ICTs through taking actions to ensure the removal of barriers and improve competition. • NTC ensures a technology neutral regulation but accelerating platform competition in broadband (NTC, 2008). National Information Centre (NIC) The NIC is mandated with establishing, implementing and monitoring the standards and policies that govern the IT activities across the government sector. This role is expected to be extended to private sector eventually. NIC its establishment in 1996 formulated comprehensive set of policies and standards covering the following key areas:
• • •

Information Standards Information Access Information Planning

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• • • • • • • •

Web Development Policy Enterprise Security Policy Project Management Telecommunications Middleware Directory Services Electronic Asset Management Wireless: LANS, Security

Besides IT related activities, NIC is also mandated with establishing a national information policy to govern how government information are collected, analysed, stored, disseminated and disposed of. The Information Policy will also consist of security and protection procedures and best practice. NIC is a national unit governing the information landscape of the Government of Sudan. NIC also aims to:
• • • •

Foster collaboration between existing government units to help in delivering improved services. Promote quality content and information across government. Reduce costs by eliminating redundancy in publishing material. Increase efficiency and effectiveness of government information services.

NIC information policy and framework The endorsed policy embraced a vision incarnated in “the realization of an information society established on a firm foundation of information industry allowing all sectors of the society to access information media in a way leading to the widest dissemination and utilization of information, all of which shall contribute to achieve an appreciated economic growth, wealth development, job opportunities, enhancement of all-sector production rates and eradication of poverty. This shall lead ultimately to the creation of information and knowledge-based society capable of integration, interaction and competition with the global information society and its economies” (NIC, 2008). The strategy was focused on several actions, most importantly are: • The establishment of institutional, legislative and regulatory frameworks to achieve an open and transparent environment that supports competition, creativity, skills, capacity building and human resources capable of responding to, and interacting with, the information society requirements. This can be achieved via ongoing education and training. • Securing necessary infrastructure to enable networks to provide affordable access. • Creating competitive market to elevate the usage of modern technology services and applications. • Adopting financing and implementation policies in order to achieve the desired goals.

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The initiatives approved are: • A computer for every home. • School computers. • Electronic Government Support Project. • University Information Network Project. • Embodying the establishment of universal service community centers (NIC, 2008). ICT networking The coordinating ministry for local governments has established a national network consisting of a LAN in 19 states. The network provides management and statistical information on health, agriculture, food, and other matters related to local governments to the centre. A modern network using frame relay technology now covers Greater Khartoum and the major cities. It links banks, universities and other organizations, and it has a speed of 2 Mbps and supports remote logins, FTP, e-mail and teleconferencing. The establishment of a Higher Education Network is underway. Currently, it is an administrative network connecting 26 government universities. (Sudan NICI Policy, 2008).

2.2 Socio-Economic Profile
2.2.1 Demographics According to Sudan (CBS, 2007) Sudan population is estimated at 37.2 million in the year 2007. The ratio of male to female was approximately equal (Table 15). The information on population distribution by ethnic groups is lacking. Table 15. Population estimates (000) (2004 – 2007) Year Female Male 2004 17 122 17 390 2005 17 559 17 838 2006 18 004 18 292 2007 18 478 18 761 Source: CBS, 2007

Total 34 512 35 397 36 297 37 239

The population in Khartoum (the capital city) was continued to be the highest (6.2 million) representing 16.7% of the total population (Table 16), While the Northern State was found to be the least populated state with only 1.8% of the total population. This could be due to that the northern part of Sudan is lying within the desert and the population concentrated mainly at the Nile stripe. Table 16. Population distribution by State (2007) State Population (000) As % of total population Northern 654 1.8 Nahr Alnil 1026 2.8 Red Sea 740 2.0 Elgedarif 1843 5.0

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State Kassala Khartoum ElGezira Sinnar White Nile Blue Nile North Kordofan South Kordofan North Darfur West Darfur South Darfur Upper Nile* Bahr ElGazal* Equatorial* Total * Region. Source: CBS, 2007

Population (000) 1 752 6 202 4 130 1 404 1 762 783 2 424 1 704 1 821 1 863 3 514 1 542 2 733 1 341 37 239

As % of total population 4.7 16.7 11.1 3.77 4.7 2.1 6.5 4.6 4.9 5.0 9.4 4.1 7.3 3.6 100

Table 17 shows some demographic and social indicators of Sudan’s population. It is indicated that Sudan is a growing country with 44.69% of population in the range of 6-24 years (school age) and the country experiencing high birth rate (37.8 birth for every 1000 of population) and high but declining death rate (11.7%). Infant mortality rate was also high (68.0 per 1000 live birth). Table17. Some demographic indicators of Sudan’s population Demographic Indicator Population growth rate: 2003-2008 Urban population School age population (6-24) Population under 15 years Population under 5 years Population with 60 years and above Life expectancy at birth: Males Females Both sexes Crude death rate Infant mortality rate (Per 1000 live birth) Under 5 years mortality rate ((per 100 000 birth) Crude birth rate (per 1000 of population) Fertility rate Average household size Source: CBS, 2007

Value 2.52% 37.56% 44.69% 41.25% 15.23% 4.08% 52.5 years 55.5 years 54.0 years 11.5% 68.0 509.0 37.8 5.9 6.4 persons

Sudan’s manpower was estimated at 21.5 million as in 2007 (CBS, 2007) with a labour force of 11.5 million in the same year (Table18). The Agricultural sector dominated the employment structure of the country. It provides employment opportunities to about 80% of the population while industrial and service sectors provide employment for 7 and 13%, respectively. The unemployed population is progressively increasing from 1.7 million in 2004 to 2.0 million in 2006. Although, in rural areas, large numbers of women and girls are engaged in agricultural production

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but apparently many have not been included in counts of the active work force. According to Congress Library (2008), the unemployed figures of Sudan’s population were affected by the severe drought spells that spread throughout Sudan in the 1980s. In addition, more than 1 million people from the south migrated to the north as a result of the civil war and remained unemployed. Table 18. Estimates of manpower and labour force (million) (2004 –2006) Specification Manpower Labour force Employed Employment opportunity (%) Unemployed Unemployment rate Source: CBS, 2007 2004 20.0 10.7 9.0 8.4 1.7 16.3 2005 21.0 11.1 9.2 8.3 1.9 17.1 2006 21.5 11.5 9.6 8.3 2.0 17.3

Economic activity rate, which defined as percentage of economically active population with 15 years and above, indicated high economic activity rates in rural communities compared to urban community. Males reported high economic activity rates compared to females. The age rage 24-64 reflected the most economically active age range (Table 19). Table 19. Economic activity rates by age (15 +), sex and mode of living Age group 15 – 24 25 – 54 55 – 64 65 and above Source: CBS, 2007 Rural 45 64 64 49 Urban 20 60 55 47 Total Male 45 94 93 73

Female 28 34 23 12

Both sexes 36 62 61 49

2.2.2 Literacy level and languages The number of languages and dialects in Sudan is assumed to be about 400, including languages spoken by an insignificant number of people. Moreover, languages of smaller ethnic groups tended to disappear when the groups assimilated with more dominant ethnic units. The most widely spoken language in the Sudan is Arabic. Both Arabic and English are the official languages; English was acknowledged as the principal language in southern Sudan and was the language of secondary schools even in the north before 1969. Arabic is the primary language of one-half of the population, with Dinka that of about one-tenth, other languages and dialectics are spoken by smaller ethnic groups (Britannica, 2008). The literacy rate of the country is presented in Table 20. Table 20. Literacy levels by age and sex and school age population (%). Specification Literacy rate (age 15 and above): Males Females Both sexes Indicator (%) 50.6 49.2 49.9

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Specification Literacy rate (age 15 – 24): Males Females Both sexes School age population In basic education: Males Females Both sexes Source: CBS, 2007 2.2.3 Access to services (health, schools,)

Indicator (%) 57.2 53.0 54.8 49.7 46.9 48.3

Primary Health Care has been adopted as the key strategy for health care provision in Sudan in 1978 and re-emphasized in the National Comprehensive Strategy for Health in 1992-2002 and in the 25-Year Strategic Health Plan 2003-2027. The interim constitution of the Republic of the Sudan, article 46, stated the commitment of the government to provide universal and free of charge primary health care. The health sector has prepared a 5 year strategy in response to the Government initiative for developing a 5 year strategic plan for all sectors in Sudan. The purpose of this policy is to provide a framework for the health system reform and sustainable development. It stipulates as well the most important health priorities to be addressed during the coming five years (2007-2011). The strategy is focusing on investing on health of people and fostering progress towards achieving the international commitment towards the Millennium Development Goals. The strategy advocates for increasing government spending on health to a level that will enable the health sector to deliver quality acceptable and accessible preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitative health services emphasizing the needs of the poor, the most vulnerable, and disadvantaged groups (Ministry of Health, 2007). Table 21 shows the significant increase in health centers, and health cadres during 2003-2006 to meet the demand of increasing population and to improve the status of health in the country. Table 21. Access to health services (2003 – 2006) Description No. of hospitals No. of hospital beds No. of health centers No. of Dispensaries No. of primary health care centers No. of Physicians No. of Dentists No. of Pharmacists No. of Medical assistants No. of nurses No. of X ray units No. of blood banks Hospitals/100,000 of population Beds/100,000 of population 2003 334 23 976 964 1 612 2 401 6 193 244 674 6 730 17 174 105 78 1.0 71.3 No. in the year 2004 2005 351 357 24 785 26 094 1 009 1 043 1 423 1 226 2 679 3 044 6 887 8 008 283 371 697 894 6 746 5 945 16 826 17 923 111 144 69 93 1.0 1.0 72 73.7

2006 375 26 577 1 202 1 385 2 592 8 799 352 1 004 7 184 18 428 166 122 1.0 73.2

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Description Physicians/100,000 of population Dentists/100,000 of population Pharmacists/ 100,000 of population Source: Ministry of Health, 2006 2003 18.4 0.7 2.0

No. in the year 2004 2005 20 22.6 0.8 1.0 2.0 2.5

2006 28.6 1.1 3.2

Malaria is endemic throughout the Sudan. Endemicity varies from hypo-endemic in the North to hyper-endemic and holo-endemic in the South. Worth mentioning is that 80% of the population is living in epidemic-prone areas. Plasmodium falciparum causes the disease in more than 90% of cases although other species also exist. Annually, malaria is estimated to have around 7.5 million attacks of sickness and to kill around 35,000 people. At public-sector health facilities, malaria accounts for about one-fifth of outpatient attendances and in public-sector pediatric hospitals the case fatality rate ranges from 5% to15% (Ministry of Health, 2007). Recent data and surveys have shown that non-communicable diseases are emerging as a public health problem due to the change in socio-economic and lifestyle conditions. Hospital data shows increase in the number of cases. Recent data has come from the Ministry of Health 2006 (Table 22).
Table 22. Prevalence of non-communicable diseases (north Sudan 2006)

Disease Hypertension Diabetes Heart diseases Cancer Epilepsy Asthma Cataract Mental diseases Source: Ministry of Health, 2006

Percentage 1.5 1.0 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.6 0.4 0.2

Access to safe water is a problem throughout the country; access is generally much better in cities compared to rural areas. According to National Water Corporation (2006) the total daily water supply was increased from 2.218 million cubic meters in 2003 to 2.742 million cubic meters in 2006 (Table 23). Table 23. Daily water supply (cubic meters) for households in urban and rural areas (2003 – 2006) Year Urban 2003 113 3000 2004 1 246 300 2005 13 70 930 2006 1 439 476 Source: National Water Corporation, 2006 Rural 1 085 000 1 135 000 1 248 500 1 302 525 Total 2 218 000 2 381 300 2 619 430 2 742 001

Basic education (pre-higher education) lasts for eight years and is compulsory; age of entry is 6 and age of exit is 14 years. It leads to the Basic Education Certificate Examination. General (academic) secondary education lasts for three years leading to the Sudan School Certificate Examination. Student intake in basic education

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jumped from 3 758 694 in 2002/03 to 4 624 302 in 2005/06. In secondary education student intake jumped from 510 404 in 2002/03 to 639 827 in 2005/06. The number of schools and teachers followed the same trend (Table 24). There is continued increase in the proportion of female students. Table 24. Number of students in Basic and Secondary levels (2002/03 –2005/06) Year 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 Students 3 758 694 3 966 944 4 299 737 4 624 302 Basic level Schools Teachers 12 463 132 041 11 541 136 401 14 071 141 315 16 729 143 327 Secondary level* Students Schools Teachers 510 404 1 990 21 223 546 305 1 723 24 280 637 812 2 382 34 060 639 827 2 459 35 994

* Academic and Technical.

Source: CBS, 2007 Higher education is provided by universities, both public and private, institutes and colleges of technical and professional education. All universities are autonomous and government financed. The National Council of Higher education is the government body responsible for higher education. Since 1990, many government universities have been created, mostly at state level. A few private tertiary institutions have also opened. The latest available figure of the number of students enrolled in all higher education institutes in Sudan was 446998 as in 2004/05 compared to 311609 in 2002/03 (Table 25). Table 25. Number of students registered in High Education Institutes (2002/03 – 2005/06) Year 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06
N. A = Not available

Type of institution Government Private 263 803 47 806 N. A 46 673 386 734 60 264 N. A 57 923

Total 311609 N. A 446998 N. A

Source: Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, 2006 The number of public higher institutions increased from 5 universities and one polytechnic in 1989 to 27 universities in 2005/06 (the one polytechnic was promoted to university status). The number of private high education institutes increased from 36 in 2002/03 to 46 in 2005/05 (Table 26). Arabic language was instituted and made as the official language of teaching at the government higher education institutes. The politicization of higher education has relegated research in universities to a secondary requirement. Research budget has been practically disappeared from university budgets during the last decades. Table 26. Number of Higher Education Institutes (2002/03 – 2005/06). Year 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 Government 26 27 27 Private 36 37 46 Others 3 2 2 Total 65 66 75

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Year Government Private Others 2005/06 27 46 3 Source: Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, 2006 2.2.4 Rural-urban drift

Total 76

Since 1980s, numbers of rural-urban migration and displacement has increased substantially in Sudan. This is mainly due to the armed conflicts that took place in the southern part of the country. The war created insecurity and economic distortion resulted in massive displacement, where communities from South Sudan, Nuba Mountains and South Blue Nile were largely affected and moved to the central parts of the country. Another important factor, which contributed to the vast rural-urban migration, is the fact that the subsequent governments of the Sudan emphasized a pattern of economic policies that lack interest in supporting rural communities. According to The UN Refugee Agency (UNCHR) 2000-2006 statistics, Sudan's displaced number is about 4, 5 million. However, if we add the new numbers of the displacement occurring as result of the current armed conflict in Darfur, as it’s estimated by the UNCHR, the figure exceeds 6 million, since over 2 million people currently fled their homes in Darfur. These numbers will put Sudan on the top of the list as the country with the highest number of displaced persons in the world (Alkarib and Mansour, 2007). It was estimated by the Population Reference Bureau (2007) that 36% of the population lived in urban areas in 2001. According to the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000–2005 was 4.5%. Atta El Moula (2004) described drought, desertification and lack of development as the main causes of migration in the rural areas of Western Sudan. It was found that high preference was given to rural-rural migration either on a seasonal basis or a permanent one. The latter attracted the inhabitants of the surrounding villages by the relative availability of educational, health and marketing services. Seasonal migration, on the other hand, is an important coping strategy against crop failure and famine risks. 2.3 Media and Telecommunications 2.3.1 Newspapers, periodicals, magazines, radio stations and television channels

2.3.1.1 Print media-newspapers, periodicals and journals The number of daily and weekly newspapers in the Sudan is progressively increasing. The total number of newspapers in 2006 was 34 (Table 27) and has increased to 37 by May 2008. In Sudan, now there are about 30 daily or weekly newspapers other than sport newspapers, distributed nationally and some are distributed regionally (mainly in the Arab countries) through shops, street and subscription (Table 28). There are seven newspapers with focus on sports (Table 29). All the newspapers are in Arabic with the exception of four newspapers, which are in English. The increase in the number of newspapers and print media in general was due to the increase in printing and publishing agencies (Table 30), and to polices adopted by the government that reduces import taxes on print and publishing materials on the other side.

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The private sector owns almost all the newspapers. The national government, represented by the National Press and Publications Council (NPPC), partially control some of the contents and issue regulations and license in this respect, although, newspapers freedom is guaranteed by Sudan’s Constitution. None of the newspapers are of special focus on agriculture and rural development. Issues on agriculture and rural development are periodically covered through reports, news and information in political and social newspapers (about 30) in scattered columns. Most Sudanese newspapers are available on the Internet. Table 27. Number of newspapers and their focus in 2006

Focus Political Social Sport Total Source: NPPC, 2006

Number 19 5 10 34

Table 28. List of daily and weekly newspapers other than sport newspapers in Sudan Name: Al Khartoum Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 16 Address: P. O. Box 10826 Eltighni El mahi St., Khartoum Tel. : + 249 912141661 Frequency: Daily Circulation: average daily sales 4109 Web site: www.khartoumnewspaper.com Email: Khartoum1sudan@yahoo.com, alkhartoumdaily@hotmail.com Name: Alintibaha Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 12 Frequency: Daily Circulation: average daily sales 3773 Address: Atbara St. Khartoum Tel. : + 249 183 748777 Fax : + 249 183 747876 Web site: www.alintibaha.sd Email: alintibaha@yahoo.com Name: Hekaiyat Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 8 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 35205 Address: P. O. Box 6562 Khartoum Tel. : + 249 155154352 Fax : + 249 183 82772176 Web site: Email: hekaiyat@hotmail.com

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Name: Al Shari El siasi Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 12 Address: Huria St. Ahmed Elmubarak building, Khartoum Frequency: Daily Circulation: average daily sales 1900 Tel.: + 249 912301929 Web site: www.sharisiasi.com Email: info@sharisiasi.com Name: Al Rayaam Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 12 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 19616 Address: P. O. Box 6562 Khartoum Tel. : + 249 183 743343/786233 Fax : + 249 183 772273 Web site: www.rayaam.info Email: atabani@rayaam. info Name: Al Wahada Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 12 Address: Eldioum, Khartoum Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 3784 Tel. : + 249 121408810 Web site: www.alwahada.com Email: info@alwahada.com Name: Al Wefag Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 12 Tel. : + 249 183 783840 Fax : + 249 183 762472 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 1866 Web site: Email: Name: Al Sudani Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 12 Address: Zubeir Basha St., Khartoum Fequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 25875 Address: P. O. Box 4418 Khartoum, Elzubeir Basha St. Tel: + 249 183 769445 Fax : + 249 183 786516 Web site:www.alsudani.info Email: alsudani86@maktoob.com

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Name: Al Sahafa Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 12 Fequency: Daily Circulation: average daily sales 14310 Address: P. O. Box 11759 Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 789422 Fax : + 249 183 765284 Web site: www.alsahafa.sd Email: writers@maktoob.com Name: Akhir Lahza Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 16 Fequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 44682 Tel: + 249 183 741730 Fax : + 249 183 741732 Web site: www.akhirlahza.net Email: akirlahza@yahoo.com Name: Ray Alshaab Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 12 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 13753 Address: Khartoum west, Ali Abdelateef St. Tel: + 249 183 794542/794543 Fax : + 249 183 794544 Web site: www.rayalshaab.info Email: rayshaab@maktoob.com Name: Alayaam Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 12 Address: P. O. Box 602, Khartoum 2 Tel: + 249 183 585770 Fax : + 249 183 585771 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 4117 Web site: www.alayaam.info Email: ayaamnewspaper@hotmail.com Name: Nabd El karecateer Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 16 Tel.: + 249 183 783846 Frequency: Three times a week Circulation: Average daily sales 12202 Web site: Email: Fax: + 249 183 48877

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Name: Al ahdath Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 16 Address: Baladya St., Bashir M. Sayed Building, Khartoum Tel. : + 249 155171938 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 1608 Web site: www.alahdathonline.com Email: info@alahdathonline.com Name: Alwan Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 12 Address: Ali Abdellateef St., Khartoum Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 10282 Tel: + 249 912917481/912146931 Fax: + 249 183 779644 Web site: www.alwan.info Email: info@alwan.info Name: Ajras Al hurria Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 12 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 14791 Address: Khartoum 2, Street No. 47 Tel.: + 249 120803365/120803338 Web site: Email: freedombells.a@gmail.com Name: Alwatan Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 16 Address: P. O. Box 222, Khartoum Tel. : + 249 183 774901/795001 Fax : + 249 183 781322 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 14258 Web site: www.alwatansudan.com Email: alwataan@myway.com Name: Al Hilwa Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 8 Address: Sayed Adelrahman St., Khartoum Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 866 Tel. : + 249 155328972/911179538 Web site: Email: alhlwa123@yahoo.com

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Name: Akhbar Alyoum Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 12 Tel. : + 249 912300710 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 16560 Web site: www.akhbaralyoumsd.net Email: akhbaral@yahoo.com Name: El dar Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 8 Address: Elsharief Elhindi St., Khartoum Tel. : + 249 120960390 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 39188 Web site: _ Email: Name: Al Awaail Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 16 Address: P. O. Box 12398 Mc Nimir St., Khartoum Tel.: + 249 183784929/122330330 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 10307 Web site: Email: Name: Sudan Tribune Ownership: Private Language: English Pages: 12 Tel. : + 249 11282153 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 581 Web site: www.sudantribune.com Email: contact@sudantribune.com Name: Sudanile (online newspaper) Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: Web site: www.sudanile.com Email: feedback@sudanile.com Name: Al Mshaheer Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 12 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 8900 Web site: www.almshaheer.com Email: info@almshaheer.com

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Name: Sudan Vision Ownership: Private Language: English Pages: 16 Tel. : + 249 12136036 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 976 Web site: www.sudanvisiondaily.com Email: sudanvision@sudanvisiondaily.com Name: Sout Elneel (online newspaper) Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: Web site: www.soutelneel.com Email: info@soutelneel.com Name: Al Midan Ownership: Communist Party Language: Arabic Pages: 8 Frequency: Daily Address: Alsafa, Ibeid Khatim St., Khartoum Tel.: + 249 9155129217 - 9155129218 Circulation: Average daily sales 7618 Web site: www.almidan.news.com Email: almidan50@yahoo.com - editorial@almidan.news.com Name: Laha Laho Ownership: Sudanese Women Association Language: Arabic Pages: 8 Frequency: Daily Circulation: N/A Address: P. O. Box 6879 Ahmed Khair St., Khartoum 3 Tel. : + 249 183 577001 Fax : + 249 183 577002 Web site: www.laha-laho.com Email: info@laha-laho.com Name: The Citizen Ownership: Private Language: English Pages: 24 Tel. : + 249 122384175 Frequency: daily Circulation: Average daily sales 1542 Web site: www.thecitizenss.com Email: thecitizen2006@yahoo.com Name: Khartoum Monitor Ownership: Private Language: English Pages: 16 Address: Erkowit Bloch No. 62, Khartoum Tel.: + 249 91233842 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 2989 Web site: Email: -

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Table 29. List of daily and weekly sport newspapers in Sudan and their addresses Name: Al Koora Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 12 Address: Hira Building, Third floor, Khartoum east Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 7190 Web site: www.alkoorasport.com Email: info@alkoorasport.com Name: Al Captain Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 8 Address: Khartoum east-south Altadamoun Islamic Bank Tower Tel. : + 249 183 766847 Fax : + 249 183 766830 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 9305 Web site: www.alcaptain.com Email: info@alcaptain.com Name: Al Mushahid Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 8 Address: P. O. Box 1111, Mc Nimir St. Khartoum Tel. : + 249 183 776522 Fax : + 249 183 776523 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 8002 Web site: www.mushahid.sd Email: mushahid@mushahid.sd Name: Al Sada Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 12 Address: Gamhoria Street, Khartoum Tel : + 249 183 746786 Fax : + 249 183 746783 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 41042 Web site: www.alsadda.net Email: sadaforum@yahoo.com Name: Soccer Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 16 Address: Industrial area, West Alhurria bridge, Khartoum Tel. : + 249 912100620 – 122255555 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 12775 Web site: www.newsoccer.net Email: info@newsoccer.net

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Name: El Mariekh Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 8 Address: Islanic activity Building, second floor, Khartoum Tel. : + 249 912251981 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 6136 Web site: www.mariekhnews.com Email: mariekhnews@hotmail.com Name: Goan Ownership: Private Language: Arabic Pages: 8 Address: Mc Nimir St. Khartoum Tel: + 249 912309910 Frequency: Daily Circulation: Average daily sales 39461 Web site: www.goansport.net Email: info@goansport.net Source: Market survey conducted by the author (in May 2008) and NPPC, 2008 Table 30. Number of printing presses and publishing agencies during 2004-2006 Specification Printing press Publishing agencies of press Publishing Centers Source: CBS, 2006 2004 19 3 59 2005 20 46 64 2006 21 48 73

Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC), universities and MoA publish leaflet and extension messages on agriculture and rural development. ARC is the most active on publication of leaflets and extension guides aimed at improving productivity of crops. Scientist of ARC also published and edited books on agriculture. There are about 18 scientific journals that publish research results on agriculture and rural development in Sudan (Table 31). These journals are available in the libraries of the ARC, universities and Faculties of agriculture. Agricultural journals in Sudan are of poor presence in the Internet except Sudan Journal of Agricultural Research where abstracts can be accessed at www. arcsudan.sd/. Scientific journals in Sudan have very low circulation figures that ranged from 500-700 copies (personal contact, September 2008). Number of copies printed from each journal varied considerably according to the available budget allocated at each time.

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Table 31. Agricultural journals in Sudan (May 2008) Name: University of Khartoum Journal of Agricultural Sciences Ownership: University of Khartoum Contact details: Faculty of Agriculture, Shambat, P. O. Box 32, Tel: + 249 185 310101 Distribution: National Frequency: Twice a year Circulation: average 600 copies/issue Web site: Email: ukjas@uofk.edu Name: Gezira Journal of Agricultural Sciences Ownership: University of Gezira Contact details: P. O. 20, Wad Medani, Tel: + 249 511 840794 Fax: + 249 511 840794 Distribution: National Frequency: Twice a year Circulation: average 500 copies/issue Web site: Email: prof_abuelhassan@hotmail.com Name: Sudan Journal of Agricultural Research Ownership: ARC Distribution: National Contact details: P. O. Box 126 Wad Medani Tel: + 249 511 840033 Fax: + 249 511 843213 Distribution: National Frequency: Twice a year Circulation: 500 copies per issue Web site: www.arcsudan.sd/ Email: elashaelasha@yahoo.com Name: Journal of Economics and Social Sciences Ownership: University of Gezira Distribution: National Contact details: P. O. Box 20, Wad Medani Distribution: National Frequency: Twice a year Circulation: Average 500 copies per issue Web site: Email: Name: Gezira Journal of Educational Sciences and Humanities Ownership: University of Gezira Contact details: Faculty of Education, Hantoup Distribution: National Frequency: Twice a year Circulation: Average 450 copies per issue Web site: Email: -

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Name: Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies Ownership: University of Juba Contact details: P. O. Box 123 Khartoum Fax: + 249 183 48366 Distribution: National Frequency: Twice a year Circulation: Average 550 copies per issue Web site: www.juba.edu.sd Email: info@juba.edu.sd Name: Albuhuth Journal Ownership: National Center for Research Contact details: P. O. Box 2404, Khartoum, Fax: + 249 183 770701 Distribution: National Web site: www.ncr.sd Email: info@ncr.sd Name: Sudanese Journal of Standards and Metrology Ownership: Sudanese Standards and Metrology Organization Contact details: P. O. Box 13573 Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 741767 Fax: + 249 183 7748520 Distribution: National Frequency: Once a year Circulation: Average 450 copies Web site: Email: SSMO@sudanmail.net Name: Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Studies Ownership: University of Sennar Contact details: Sennar State, El Suki, Faculty of Agriculture Tel: + 249 562 822013 Fax: + 249 562 822312 Distribution: National Frequency: Twice a year Circulation: Average 450 copies per issue Web site: Email: Name: Sudan Silva Ownership: Sudan Forestry Society Contact details: P. O. Box 658, Khartoum 2, Fax: + 249 183 472659 Distribution: National Frequency: Once a year Circulation: Average 350 copies per issue Web site: Email: info@fnc.gov.sd Name: Journal of Scientific research of Science and Arts Ownership: University of Dalanj Contact details: South Kordofan state, El Dalanj, Tel: + 249 634 822037 Distribution: National Frequency: Once a year Circulation: Average 375 copies per issue Web site: www.dalanjuniversity.net Email: info@dalanjuniversity.net Name: Sudan Journal of Science Ownership: University of Khartoum, Faculty of ScienceDistribution: National Frequency: Twice a year Circulation: Average 400 copies per issue Web site: Email: -

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Name: Sudan Journal of Animal Production Ownership: University of Khartoum-Faculty of Animal Production Contact details: P. O. Box 32, Khartoum North, Fax: + 249 185 780295 Distribution: National Frequency: Twice a year Circulation: Average 450 copies per issue Web site: Email:animal@uofk.edu Name: Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research Ownership: Veterinary Research-Soba Contact details: P. O. Box 32, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 460504 Fax: + 249 183 472690 Distribution: National Frequency: Once per year Circulation: Average 400 copies per issue Web site: Email: Name: El Bittar Journal (stopped) Ownership: Sudanese Veterinary Society Distribution: National Web site: Email: Name: Sudan Journal of Food Technology Ownership: ARC – Food Research Centre Contact details: ARC, Food Research Centre, P. O. Box 213 Khartoum North Tel: + 249 185 311294 Fax: + 249 185 311049 Distribution: National Frequency: Twice a year Circulation: Average 400 copies per issue Web site: Email: frc@sudanmail.net Name: Journal of Renewable Energy Ownership: Energy Research Institute Contact details: Ministry of Science and Technology, Energy Research Institute Distribution: National Frequencey: Once a year Circulation: Average 350 copies per issue Web site: Email: Name: Sudan Journal of Development Research Ownership: Economic and Social Research Institute Distribution: National Frequency: Twice a year Circulation: Average 400 copies per issue Web site: Source: NCR, 2008 and personal contacts. Agricultural and rural development journals in Sudan are distributed nationally. Print copies arte available in libraries of research institutions and faculties of agriculture and natural resources. These journals cover research findings in agriculture, livestock, fisheries, forestry and natural resource management as well as reviews in agriculture and rural development. English is the main language with Arabic abstract

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provided by some journals. Data on circulation figures as well as readership of these journals is rather scanty. 2.3.1.2 Electronic media – television and radio The role of television is becoming of great importance as communication media. Sudan television started broadcasting in 1962, broadcasting only in Khartoum area (the capital). In the 1970s Sudan TV expanded its transmission range to cover most of the country. The government owns and controls the national TV through the Sudanese Authority of TV and radio (Sudan TV, 2008). There are two TV channels, Sudan TV (www.sudantv.net) that is the national TV of Sudan and Blue Nile Channel, a private channel part of Arab Radio and TV group (ART). In addition, about 15 States (out of 25) (7-10hours/day) are having their own state TV that operates and broadcasts within the state and controlled by the national TV. All TV channels broadcast in Arabic language. The most active and old state TV is the Gezira TV (Gezira State). It was established in 1973 through a donation from the government of Germany, with the main objective of transmitting extension messages to farmers in the Gezira Scheme. According to Wikipedia (2007) there are about 141 TV sets per 1000 of people in Sudan. The national TV broadcast almost 24 hours a day (Table 32). The national TV offers variety of programmes, with main focus on news and political issues and less concentration on technical aspects (Table 33). State TVs are of short broadcasting duration (5-7 hours/day) with considerable focus on agriculture and rural development. Table 32. Number of daily hours of transmission for TV classified by TV channel (2004-2006) Channel National TV Space toon (Sudan) Khartoum State TV Blue Nile Source: CBS, 2007 2004 24 (hrs/day) 8 8 8 2005 24(hrs/day) 8 9 9 2006 24(hrs/day) 8 11 13

Sudan TV has been available via satellite since 1995. It broadcast a variety of programmes including news, political, cultural, entertainment and sport (Table 31). Arabic is the main language of the station. Sudan TV also broadcast some English programmes as well as several shows on southern Sudanese languages. Sudan Authority of TV and Radio, is a government organization that supervises and monitors all programmes broadcasted from Sudan by both radios and TV channels (Sudan TV, 2008). Table 33. Sudan National TV weekly programmes and time allotted (2004-2006). Programme Political News Education Sport 2004 Hour Minute 12 20 32 6 4 8 5 9 2005 Hour Minute 50 35 48 40 5 10 5 15 2006 Hour Minute 50 35 48 40 5 10 5 15

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Programme Varieties & music Film & Videos International Relations Drama Cultural Advertising Total hours Source: CBS, 2007

2004 Hour Minute 23 6 18 9 3 17 2 30 35 26 69 137 20

2005 Hour Minute 28 66 17 40 3 3 62 41 35 7 205 10

2006 Hour Minute 28 66 17 40 3 3 62 41 35 7 205 10

Radio has long being used as one of the most widely accessed and effective media due to its relative advantage (easy to carry, cheap, use dry batteries, and so on) compared with TV (SWMnet, 2006). The Sudan National Radio (SNR) started broadcasting in the 1940s. Since then, radio was used for training, encouraging, informing and entertaining. It was estimated that there are about 13.7 million radio sets in the Sudan (388 radio per 1000 of population). Radios are effective media especially in rural areas. There are about 22 radio stations, 10 of which are broadcasting at the national level whereas the rest are state owned with main objectives of transmitting messages targeting agricultural and rural development with about 8-12 hour broadcast/day (Table 34) (SNR, 2008). However, at the present there is a shift in objectives towards giving priority to political events. Table 34. Radios broadcasting at national level (as of May, 2008) Name: Sudan National Radio Broadcasting hours: 24 hrs/day Tel: + 249 187 574187 Fax: + 249 187 572956 Web site: www.sudanradio.info Email: info@sudanradio.info Name: FM 100 Broadcasting hours: 12 hrs/day Web site: www.fm100.sudanradio.info Email:FM100@sudanradio.info Name: Al Salam radio Broadcasting hours: 10 hrs/day Web site: www.salam.sudanradio.info Email: salam@sudanradio.info Name: Miraya FM Broadcasting hours: 12 hrs/day Web site: www.mirayafm.org Fax: + 249 187 089465 Email: Name: Mango Broadcasting hours: 12 hrs/day Web site: www.mango96.com Email: Name: Al Rabaa radio Broadcasting hours: 12 hrs/day Web site: www.alrabaafm.com Email: info@alrabaafm.com

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Name: Sport Broadcasting hours: 8 hrs/day Web site: www.sportsfm104.com Email: info@sportsfm104.com Name: Khartoum FM Broadcasting hours: 12 hrs/day Web site: www.kfm89.net Email: admin@kfm89.net Name: Radio Holly Quran Broadcasting hours: 24 hrs/day Web site: Email: Name: Al Kawthar Broadcasting hours: 12 hrs/day Web site: Email: Source: Alnilin, 2008 The frequencies of different radio programmemes broadcasting at national level (Table 34) often change every few months. There is no specialized radio station on agriculture. Currently, SNR has the widest coverage of agricultural programmes among all radio stations. SNR broadcasts three programmes on agriculture each on weekly basis. Khartoum FM radio has one weekly programme on agriculture. Alsalam radio, which established mainly for peace consolidation in Sudan, broadcasts programmes related to rural development. SNR is Sudan’s first independent broadcast provider of news and information. SNR broadcasts in Arabic, English and about 8 Sudanese languages, and focuses exclusively on issues and events in Sudan, making it the favorite station of many Sudanese. Our Land, Our Wealth is a weekly programme that focuses on the latest developments in agriculture, forestry and fishing. SNR also provides educational programmes or series that help achieve organizational goals. The cost of producing these special programmes varies widely and is calculated on an individual basis, depending on the scope of work (SNR, 2008). NTC undertakes the regulation of Radio Spectrum and prepares a special record including all information related to the radio bands, usage and allocation thereof. NTC divide the Radio Spectrum into bands in such way that it would assist the corporation in regulating the use of frequencies according to the instruction of the ITU (NTC, 2008). Table 35. Sudan National Radio weekly programmes and their respective time (20042006) 2004 2005 2006 Programme Hour Minute Hour Minute Hour Minute Political 61 35 46 21 46 21 Sports 4 2 2 50 2 5 Economics 13 4 14 35 14 35 Religious 17 43 19 19 19 19 Culture 20 59 45 25 45 25 Entertainment 22 45 NA NA NA NA Drama 13 52 12 25 12 25 Varieties & music 32 38 33 38 33 Advertising 2 5 2 55 2 55
77

Programme Sudanese abroad Religious seats Services Total hours NA: not available. Source: SNR, 2008

Hour

2004 Minute 2 4 1 7 198 9

Hour

2005 Minute 2 7 54 8 31 200 48

2006 Hour Minute 2 7 54 8 31 200 48

2.3.2 Telecommunication services (fixed, mobile) Sudan has known telecommunication services as early as 1897. Telecommunication sector in the country remained extremely poor up to the year 1994. Privatization era (1994 and beyond) called for the removal of the monopolistic environment in the sector and for the involvement of the private sector-whether local or foreign-in the telecommunication sector. Consequently, the Sudanese Telecom Company was the first joint venture fixed telephone service provider formed. Now there are four telecom companies in the Sudan (Table 36). Table 36. Telecommunication operators in Sudan

Fixed Telephone:
SUDATEL Name: Sudanese Telecom Company P. O. Box 11155, Khartoum, Sudan Tel: + 249 120120001 Fax: + 249 120120001 Web site: www.sudatel.net Email: info@sudatel.net CANARTEL Name: Canar Telecom Company P. O. Box 8182, Khartoum, Sudan Tel: + 249 151515151/155550055 Fax: + 249 155550055 Web site: www.canar.sd Email: -

Mobile Telephone:
ZAIN Name: Sudanese Zain Company P. O. Box 13588, Khartoum, Sudan Tel: + 249 91230000 Fax: + 249 183 790590 Web site: www.zain.com Email: monitel@sdn-mobitel.com info@sd.zain.com MTN Name: Areeba Telecom Company P. O. Box 34611111, House No. 7 Block No. 19, Khartoum, Sudan Tel: + 249 921111111 Fax: + 249 183 240899 Web site: www.mtn.sd Email: info@mtn.sd Source: NTC, 2008 Customers of telecommunications are progressively increasing especially those of mobile phone. The number of customers of mobile phone for Zain Sudan and Sudani companies is 4.5 and 4.0 million respectively, as in May 2008 (Table 37).

78

Table 37. Customers of Telecommunication services (2003 – 2006)

No. of customers in year: Telecom providers 2004 Fix telephone customers: a. Sudatel Co. 1 028 899 b. Canar Co. Mobile telephone customers a. Zain SD 1 048 558 b. Areeba (MTN) c. Sudani Source: CBS, 2007 and SUDATEL, 2008 2005 560 000 1 598 154 104 295 2006 487 584 149 321 2 752 008 1 065 616 903 819 2008 577 321 1 800 965 4 127 000 1 680 420 4 000 000

NTC was formed in 1996 to provide an effective regulatory framework and adequate safeguard to ensure fair competition and protection of consumer interest. The NTC is committed to strong and independent regulator with comprehensive power and clear authority to effectively perform its functions (NTC, 2008). NTC license and supervise the following services: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Fixed and mobile telecommunications. Carrying networks. Wireless networks. Data and information transmission. Fixed and mobile satellite services. Broadcasting stations. Paging. Public value added services. Remote tracing, control, measurement and location determination.

NTC is responsible for determination of service cost. The cost of each service calculation is based on; actual cost of the service, no discrimination between beneficiaries, matching national and international price levels and it does not include subsidies that affect fair competition. The cost of some of the telecom services provided by Sudanese telecommunication companies is also shown in Table 38. Table 38. Cost (Sudanese piaster) of some services provided by Sudanese telecommunication companies Item Sudani (mobile) 3 min. local call (within network) 3 min local call (other networks) 3 min. international call SMS local SMS international
* Euro equivalent are in parenthesis.

Telecommunication companies MTN (mobile) Zain (mobile) 48 (0.15) 66 (0.21) 380-790 (1.22.5) 5 (0.01) 25 (0.08) 39 (0.12) 45 (0.14) 300-390 (0.941.2) 3-10 (0.01-0.03) 25-45 (0.8-0.14)

45 (0.14) 45 (0.14) 300 (0.94) 5 (0.01) 25 (0.08)

Canar (fixed) 30 (0.09) 42 (0.13) 300-549 (0.94-1.72) -

Source: NTC, 2008
79

Sudatel and Zain have excellent network coverage. Their services cover almost all cities and town in Sudan. Rural areas covered with about 365 stations countrywide. The recently licensed companies (MTN and Canar) have relatively less coverage (about 150 stations) compared to Sudatel and Zain. Generally, north Sudan has better coverage by telecommunication services compared with the south. Polices have been formulated to expand telecommunication services of the existing companies in south Sudan in addition of attraction of new investments in this field. 2.3.3 Computers and Internet access Computers are now widely used in Sudan not only in public and private institutions but also at homes. In Sudan, 3 of every 1000 inhabitants are having personal computers (Wikipepia, 2007). Recently, an ICT-Fund has been enacted to focus on the support the information society requisites and universal service objectives .Some of the programmes supported by this fund are: 1. Computer for every household. 2. E-government realization 3. Implementation of multi-purpose Telecentres as one of the most appropriate platforms providing urban, rural and remote areas and businesses with ICT services and applications. Such centers are expected to provide not only physical access, but also the necessary user support and training to help the target populations to effectively exploit and develop ICTs applications (Wikipedia, 2007). In 1996, the Internet was introduced in Sudan by the Sudan Internet Services Co. Ltd. (Sudanet) with 128Kbps Bandwidth capacity. In early 1998, the Sudan Telecom Co. Ltd. (Sudatel) introduced its Internet Service in the country, as a value added service to its basic fixed telephony services with 265Kbps Bandwidth capacity (Wikipedia, 2007). Sudan is connected via 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ARABSAT 1468 Circuits. Arab World MIDNET 60 Circuits. Africa INTELSAT 398 Circuits. International BT E/S 180 Circuits. Internet Submarine system-SAS 149 systems. International Optic fiber link to Ethiopia 60 Circuits. Ethiopia Optic fiber link to Egypt 240 Circuits. (Wikipedia, 2007).

Sudan adopted free Internet policy since late 2002 to play a role in the development and awareness development process. Call charge is 0.3 SDG/min = 1.15 cent/min. Traffic generated from Internet usage is more than 35 M minute / month. DSL service introduced in 2003 and is expected to grow very fast because of the high demand. There are only few Broadband Wireless stations covering remote areas out of the network reach (Abdo Rabo, 2004). Table 39 shows the number of companies that provide services in the field of Internet. Computer and Internet services are now one of most fast growing sectors in Sudan.

80

Table 39. Number of companies providing services in the field of communication and Internet Service Number Internet Service provider (public companies) 21 Internet service providers (private companies) 69 Telephone prepaid service 17 SMS service 35 Technical support 9 Voice mail services 1 Automatic tracking 5 Source: NTC, 2008 DSL services was first introduced in 2003 and now provided by almost all telecommunication companies in Sudan. The cost of DSL provided by SUDATEL is presented in Table 40 below. Table 40. Cost (SDG) of DSL services provided by SUDATEL Items 256 kbps Cost per month 10 (3.13) Installation cost 25 (7.81) Availability (hrs/day) 24 Download limit No * Euro equivalent are in parenthesis. Source: NTC, 2008 Capacity 512 kbps 1 mbps 18 (5.63) 35 (10.94) 25 (7.81) 50 (15.63) 24 24 No No

2 mbps 65 (20.31) 50 (15.63) 24 No

In 2005 Sudan ranked number 17 in the world regarding Internet usage and cost per month (US $65.5) The dial up price basket of internet is calculated based on the cheapest available tariff for accessing the internet 20 hours a month (10 hours peak and 10 hours off-peak). The basket does not include the telephone line rental but does include telephone usage charges if applicable (National Master, 2005). The cost of dial up Internet per month provided by provided by SUDATEL is shown in Table 41. Table 41. Cost (SDG) of dial up internet provided by SUDATEL Capacity 64 Kb 128 kb 256 kb 384 kb 512 kb 1 mb 2 mb Source: NTC, 2008 Price (SDG) 50.00 85.00 145.00 217.00 325.00 500.00 1 000.00 Euro 15.62 26.56 45.31 67.81 101.56 156.25 312.5

Regarding Internet usage, Sudan is ranked the fifth in Africa, after Nigeria, Morocco, Egypt and South Africa with 3.5 million users (Figure 1).

81

Internet users in Sudan are progressively increasing from only 30,000 in the year 2000 to about 3.5 million as in December 2007; this number is about 7.6% of the total population (Table 42). Table 42. Internet Usage in Sudan (2000-2007) Year No. of Users Population 2000 30,000 36,841,500 2003 300,000 35,035,677 2007 3,500,000 36,618,745 Source: Miniwatts Marketing Group, 2008 Internet in Sudan is available via: • • Dial-up: 56/230 kb/s. Frame Relay: 2 Mb/s. % Penetration 0.1 0.9 7.9

DSL: 4 Mb/s (Wikipedia, 2007).

From 21 companies obtained licenses to provide Internet service, now there are 19 companies actually performing Internet services (Table 43) (NTC, 2008).

82

Table 43. Companies currently providing Internet services Name: Sudanet Address: Communication training centre, Khartoum south Tel.: + 249 183 467070 Web site: sudanet.net Name: Touch and Technologies Address: Mc Nimir St. Khartoum Tel: + 249 912355527 Fax: + 249 183 795100 Name: Space Telecom Address: Albaraka tower, first floor, office No. 404, Khartoum Tel.: + 249 183 799006 Fax: + 249 183 761421 Name: Al Wisal Address: Sitrab Building, Qasr St., Khartoum Tel.: + 249 183 799999 Name: Extreme Address: Al Fayha Building, 4th floor Tel: + 249 912365506/ 183 742776 Email: admin@webhosting.sd Name: Zena net Tel: + 249 183 794309 Fax: + 249 183 793410 Web site: www.zenanet.net Name: Link for computers Address: Mohamed Ali Building, south Khartoum tower, first floor, Khartoum Tel.: + 249 183 467878/ 912346796 Fax: + 249 183 467887 Email: link_nt@hotmail.com Name: All net Address: Katarina St., No. 13, First floor, Khartoum Tel.: + 249 183 562442 Name: Cyper gates Address: Quati Building, Tower No. 3, 8th floor, Khartoum Tel.: + 249 183 763515 Fax: + 249 183 763516 Name: Ashraf Address: Quati Building, Tower No. 3, 6th floor, Khartoum Fax: + 249 183 742828/912237643 Fax: + 249 183 795744/ 795741 Web site: www.ashrafcom.com Email: info@ashrafcom.com Name: Logictel Address: Quati Building, Tower No. 2, third floor, Khartoum Tel.: + 249 183 273415/ 912343457 Fax: + 249 183 273414 Email: rt@abbas@yahoo.com Name: Easy trade Address: Huria St., Khartoum Tel.: + 249 183 778028 Name: Dream land Address: Al Ammarat St. No. 51, Building No. 25, Khartoum Tel.: + 249 183 247444 Fax: + 249 183 247000/247111 Name: Sky Address: Gomhoria St., Khartoum Tel.: + 249 183 276500 Fax: + 249 183 776767 Email: skyinter@sudanmail.net

83

Name: Icom Address: 21 October St., Alsabah Building, first floor, Khartoum Tel.: + 249 183 768888 Fax: + 249 183 766856 Email: info@icomafrica.com Name: Data net Address: Khartoum 3 Tel: + 249 183 467070 Fax: + 249 183 463391 Web site: datanet.sd.net Email: info@datanet.sd.net Name: Alzaeem Alazhari Address: Khartoum north, Elzaeem Alazhari University Tel.: + 249 185 344516 Fax: + 249 185 344510 Email: webmaster@alazhari.net Name: Smart City Address: Elryadh, Block No. 7, Building No. 180, Khartoum Tel.: + 249 183 228779/794745 Name: Vision valley Address: Elryadh, Block No. 10, Building No. 154, Khartoum Tel.: + 249 912795999 Web site: www.visionvalley.net

84

ANNEX 3. PROFILE OF INSTITUTIONS
3.1 List of all Main Institutions Involved in Agriculture and Rural Development
Type GOV Role EX, IN, PP, RU, TR

Name and contacts Name: Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MoA) Postal address: P. O. Box 285, Khartoum Tel + 249 183 774988 Fax: + 249 183 795376 Email : info@sudagric.gov.sd Web site www.sudagric.gov.sd Name: Federal Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources Postal address: P. O. Box 878, Khartoum Tel + 249 183 785763/377533 Fax: + 249 183 783586 Email: infoadmin@moiwr.gov.sd Web site: www.moiwr.gov.sd Name: Federal Ministry of Science and Technology (MST) Postal address: P. O. Box 2404, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 472339 Fax: +249 183 472362 Email: most-info@most.gov.sd Web site www.most.gov.sd Name: Ministry of Agriculture – Gezira State Postal address: Wad Medani Tel: + 249 511 842270 Fax: + 249 511 844558 Email: info@agricgezira.net Web site www.agricgezira.net Name: Agricultural Bank of Sudan (ABS) Postal address: P. O. Box 1363, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 777839 Fax: + 249 183 779081 Email: Web site: Under construction Name: Animal Resources Bank (ARB) Postal address: P. O. Box 1499, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 471534 Fax:: + 249 183 462513 Email: info@ar.bank.sd Web site: www.ar.bank.sd

GOV

PP IN

GOV

PP RD

GOV

EX IN

GOV

FS, PP, PS-E, RU, TM

BNK

FS

85

Name and contacts Name: Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC) Postal address: P. O. Box 126, Wad Medani Tel: + 249 511 842226 Fax: + 249 511 843213 Email: arcdg@sudanmail.net Web site www.arcsudan.sd

Type STA

Role EX, IN, RD, TR

Name: Animal Resources Research Corporation Postal address: P. O. Box 8067, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 465610/465611 Fax: + 249 183 472690 Email: arrc@sudanet.net Web site: www.most.gov.sd/PDF/animal.doc Name: National Center for Research (NCR) Postal address: P. O. Box 2404, Khartoum Tel:+ 249 183 466373 Fax: + 249 183 770701 Email: info@ncr.sd Web site: www.ncr.sd

STA

RD IN

STA

IN, PP, RD, TR

Name: Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources GOV (HCENR) Postal address: P. O. Box 10488, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 777160 Fax: Email: biosafety@biosafety.gov.sd Web site: Name: DAL Group Co. (DAL) Postal address: P. O. Box 807, Khartoum Tel: + 249 185 444111 Fax: + 249 185 345340 Email: info@dalgroup.com Web site: www.Dalgroup.com Name: GIAD Motors Industry Co. Ltd. (GIAD) Postal address: Giad industrial are P. O. Box 444/13600 Tel: + 249 183 584150/200157 Fax: + 249 183 585090 Email: info@giad.com Web site: www.giad.com Name: Blue Nile Dairy Company Postal address: P. O. Box 1634, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 73389 Fax: + 249 183 383132 Email: info@dalgroup.com Web site: www.dalgroup.com PRV

PP EX

PS-M

GOV

TM

PRV

PS-P

86

Name and contacts Name: Arab Authority for Agricultural Investment Development (AAAID) Postal address: P. O. Box 2102, Khartoum Tel:+ 249 183 780777 Fax: + 249 183 772600 Email: info@aaaid.org Web site: www.aaaid.org Name: Arab Sudanese Seed Company (ASSCO) Postal address: P. O. Box Tel: + 249 183 78011/795264 Fax: + 249 183 780439 Email: info@assco-seed,com Web site: wwww.assco-seed.com Name: Sudan Cotton Company (SCC) Postal address: P. O. Box 1672, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 775755 Fax: + 249 183 770703 Email: info@sudancottonco.com Web site: www.sudancottonco.com Name: Gum Arabic Company Ltd. (GAC) Postal address: P. O. Box 857, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 461689 Fax: + 249 183 471336 Email: info@gumarab.com Web site: www.gumarab.com Name: Farmers Commercial Bank (FCB) Postal address: P. O. Box 1116, Alqasr Avenue, Khartoum Tel : + 249 183 774960 Fax: + 249 183 779907 Email: info@fcbsudan.com Web site: www.fcbsudan.com

Type and REG

Role PS-M PS-P

OTH

EX, PP, PS-M, PSP, PS-S, RU, TM

PRV

TM FS

PRV

TM FS

BNK

FS

Name: Sheikan Insurance and Reinsurance Company Postal address: P. O. Box 10037,Sheikan Building, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 784479 Fax: + 249 183 776849 Email: shiekanins@shiekanins.com Web site: www.shiekanins.com Name: Sennar Sugar Company (SSC) Postal address: Tel: + 249 561 860338 Fax:: + 249 183 782078 Email: sukar@sudanmail.net Web site: Name: New Halfa Sugar Factory Company Ltd. Postal address: Kassala state, New Halfa Tel: + 249 421 821021 Fax: + 249 421 82144 Email: Web site: -

OTH

OT

GOV

RU EX

GOV

RU EX

87

Name and contacts Name: Sudanese Standard and Measurements Organization (SSMO) Postal address: P. O. Box 13575, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 777480 Fax: + 249 183 774852 Email: ssmo@sudanmail.net Web site: www.ssmo.gov.sd Name: Sudanese Farmers’ Union (SFU) Postal address: Elmugran, Khartoum, Code 51111 Tel: + 249 912363798 Fax: Email: Web site: Under construction Name: Pastoralists’ Union Postal address: P. O. Box 3182, Khartoum Tel: + 249 912350928 Fax: Email: dradamdarosa@yahoo.com Web site: Under construction Name: Sudanese Environment Conservation Society (SECS) Postal address: P. O. Box 44266, Al Amarat, Khartoum Tel:+ 249 183 471897 Fax: + 249 183 46039 Email: secs75@hotmail.com Web site: Under construction Name: Assalaya Sugar Company Postal address: Tel: + 249 671 823351 Fax: + 249577820200 Email: Web site: Name: Federal Ministry of Information and Communication Postal address: Tel: + 249 183 777582 Fax: + 249 183 772555 Email: minic@minic.gov.sd /ic@minic.gov.sd Web site: www.minic.gov.sd Name: Federal Ministry of Animal Resources and Fisheries Postal address: P. O. Box 293, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 466130 Fax: + 249 183 462355 Email: info@marf.gov.sd Web site: www.marf.gov.sd Name: Rahad Agricultural Corporation Postal address: El Fau, P. O. Box Tel: + 249 521 851160 Fax: Email: Web site: Name: Kenana Sugar Company (KSC) Postal address: P. O. Box 2632 Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 224703 Fax: + 249 183 220563 Email: info@kenana.com Web site: www.kenana.com

Type GOV

Role RG

AS-F

OT RU

AS-F

OT RU

NGO

EX IN

GOV

RU EX

GOV

IN, PP

GOV

PP, IN

GOV

RU EX

OTH

TM, IN RU

88

Name and contacts Name: Guneid Sugar Company (GSC) Postal address: Tel: + 249 542 840014 Fax: + 249 542 840001 Email: info@ guneid-sugar-factory.com Web site: www.guneid-sugar-factory.com Name: Arab Organization for Agricultural Development (AOAD) Postal address: P. O. Box 474, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 472176 / 472183 Fax: + 249 183 471050 Email: info@aoad.org Web site: www.aoad.org Name: Gezira Scheme Postal address: Wad Medani, Barakat Tel: + 249 516 80376 / 800061 Fax: + 249 516 842728 Email: barakat@sudanmail.net Web site: Under construction Name: Sudanese Agriculturists Union (SAU) Postal address: El Riyadh, Khartoum Tel:+ 249 912915269 Fax: + 249 183 228837 Email: info@sudanau.net Web site: www.sudanau.net Name: Ministry of Agriculture – Gedarif State Postal address: Tel: + 249 441 843766 Fax: + 249 441 843493 Email: agricmi@gadarifstate.gov.sd Web site: www.gadarifstate.gov.sd Name: Ministry of Agriculture – Nile State Postal address: Edamar Tel: + 249 260 824207 Fax: Email: info@ rivernilestate.gov.sd Web site: www.rivernilestate.gov.sd Name: Ministry of Agriculture – Red Sea State Postal address: Port Sudan Tel: + 249 311 830127 Fax: Email: Web site: Name: Ministry of agriculture – Northern State Postal address: Northern State, Dongola Tel: + 249 231 821007 Fax: Email: Web site: -

Type GOV

Role RU EX

REG

IN RU

GOV

EX, IN, RU, TR

STA

EX, IN, RD, RU, TR

GOV

EX, IN, PP, PS-P, RU, TR

GOV

RU IN EX

GOV

RU IN EX

GOV

RU IN EX

89

Name and contacts Name: Ministry of Agriculture – Kassala State Postal address: Kassala Tel: + 249 411 822788 Fax: Email: info@ kassalaegov.com Web site: www.kassalaegov.com Name: Ministry of Agriculture – Sennar State Postal address: Sennar Tel:+ 249 562 822073 Fax: _ Email: Web site: Name: Ministry of Agriculture – Blue Nile State Postal address: Damazin Tel: + 249 551 823191 Fax: Email: Web site: Name: Ministry of Agriculture – White Nile State Postal address: Kosti Tel: + 249 571 822039 Fax: Email: Web site: Name: Ministry of Agriculture – North Kordofan State Postal address: Elobeid Tel: + 249 611 826470 Fax: Email: info@ kordofan.gov.sd Web site: www.kordofan.gov.sd Name: Ministry of Agriculture – South Darfur State Postal address: Nyala Tel: + 249 711 832178 Fax: Email: info@ southdarfur.gov.sd Web site: www.southdarfur.gov.sd Name: Ministry of Agriculture – North Darfur State Postal address: El Fasher Tel: + 249 731 845739 Fax: Email: Web site: Name: Ministry of Agriculture – Bahr Elgabal State Postal address: Juba Tel: + 249 811 820682 Fax: Email: -

Type GOV

Role RU IN EX

GOV

RU IN EX

GOV

RU IN EX

GOV

RU IN EX

GOV

RU IN EX

GOV

RU IN EX

GOV

RU IN EX

GOV

RU IN EX

90

Name and contacts Name: Exporters Union Postal address: Khartoum P. O. Box Tel: + 249 183 781594/431277 Fax: + 249 183 4331281 Email: info@hashimhgago.com Web site: www.hashimhgago.com Name: Union of Agricultural Chamber Postal address: Tel: + 249 183 491832 Fax: + 249 183 491831 Email: Name: Sudan National Television (SNT) Postal address: Omdurman, P. O. Box 1094 Tel: + 249 187 557398 Fax:: + 249 187 553538 Email:info@sudantv.net Web site: www.sudantv.net Name: Sudan National Radio Postal address: Omdurman Tel: + 249 187 574187 Fax: + 249 187 572956 Email: info@sudanradio.info Web site: www.sudanradio.info Name: Suki Agricultural Corporation Postal address: El Suki Tel: Fax: Email: info@sukicorp.com Web site: www.sukicorp.com Name: Western Sudan Resources Management Programme Postal address: Elobeid Tel: + 249 122563826 Fax: + 249 611 843255 Email: amal2bushara@yahoo.com Web site: Name: National Forests Corporation Postal address: Khartoum 2, P. O. Box 658 Tel: + 249 183 471575 Fax: + 249 183 472659 Email: info@fnc.gov.sd Web site: www.fnc.gov.sd Name: University of Khartoum Postal address: Khartoum P. O. Box 32 postal code 13314 Tel: + 249 183 310101 Fax: + 249 183 790718 Email: agric@uofk.edu Web site: www.uofk.edu/ Name: Faulty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies Postal address: P. O. Box 16100 Elobeid Tel: +249 611 823119 Fax: + 249 611 823108 Email: korduniv@yahoo.com

Type STA

Role TM

MED

IN, TR RU

MED

IN, TR RU

GOV

RU EX IN

REG

RU EX

GOV

EX, PP, PS-P, TR

EDU

TR, IN RD

EDU

RD TR

91

Web site: www.uni-kordofan-edu.com/natural Name: Faculty of Agriculture – Kassala university Postal address: New Halfa Tel: + 249 154 966705 Fax: + 249 154 966705 Email: Web site: www.uni-kassala-edu.com/agric Name: Faculty of Agricultural Sciences-University of Gezira Postal address: Wad Medani, P. O. Box 20 Tel: + 249 511 840794 Fax: + 249 511 840794 Email: fac-agric@gezirauniversity.net Web site:www.gezirauniversity.net Name: Gezira State Television (GSTV) Postal address: Wad Medani, Television residence area Tel: + 249 511 844014 Fax: + 249 511 844014 Email: salahgasim@hotmail.com Web site:Under construction EDU TR

EDU

TR RD

GOV

EX, IN, RU, TR

Name and contacts Name: Sudan University for science and Technology Postal address: P. O. Box 107 Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 796852 Fax: Email: vicechancellor@ sustech.edu Web site: www.sustech.edu

Type EDU

Role TR RD

Name: College of Natural Resources and Environmental studies EDU – Juba University Postal address: P. O. Box 123, Khartoum Tel: + 249 912247778 Fax: + 249 183 483566 Email: info@juba.edu.sd Web site: www.juba.edu.sd Name: Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences-Alazhari EDU University Postal address: P. O. Box 1432, Omdurman Tel: + 249 185 339977 Fax: + 249 185 344510 Email: aauagre@alazhari.net Web site: www.alazhari.net Name: Faculty of Agriculture- Nile Valley University Postal address: Eldamer, P. O. Box 52 Tel: + 249 217 830203 Fax: + 249 211 826954 Email: info@nilevalley.edu.sd Web site: www.nilevalley.edu.sd EDU

TR RD

TR RD

TR RD

Name: Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Studies – EDU Gadarif University Postal address: Garadid State, Gadarif university Tel: + 249 441 154983407 Fax: + 249 441 843120/842578 Email: -

TR RD

92

Name and contacts Web site: -

Type

Role TR RD

Name: Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources – EDU Bakhtalruda University Postal address: El dweim Tel: + 249 531 822294 Fax: + 249 531 825275 Email: info@bakhtalruda.com Web site: wwww.bakhtalruda.com

Name: Faculty of Agricultural Sciences- Dalanj University Postal address: South Kordofan State, El Dalanj Tel:+ 249 634 822037 Fax: Email: info@dalanjuniversity.net Web site: www.dalanjuniversity.net Name: University of Nyala Postal address: Nyala, P. O. Box 155 Tel: + 249 711 833122 Fax: + 249 711 833123 Email: Web site: Name: Upper Nile University Postal address: Malakal Tel: + 249 183 1822402 Email: Web site: -

EDU

TR RD

EDU

TR RD

EDU Fax: + 249 183 1822405

TR

Name: Bahr El Gazal University Postal address Tel: Fax:: Email: ubgzal@sudanmail.net.sd/maaduol@sudanmail.net.sd Web site: Name: El Fasher University Postal address: El Fasher, P. O. Box 125 Tel: + 249 527 843394 Fax:: + 249 527 852111 Email: Web site: Name: University of West Kordofan Postal address: El Nuhoud Tel: + 249 911117036 Fax: Email: support@alnilhost.com Web site: www.uwkordofan.net Name: University of Sennar Postal address: Sennar State Tel: + 249 562 822013 Fax: + 249 562 822312 Email: -

EDU

TR

EDU

TR RD

EDU

TR

EDU

TR RD

93

Web site: Name: National Information Center (NIC) Postal address: Khartoum, Nile Avenue. P. O. Box 11711 Tel: + 249 183 796902 Fax: + 249 183 798081 Email: nicsudan@sudanmail.net Web site:www.nicsudan.gov.sd Name: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Postal address: P. O. Box 1117, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 795693 Fax: + 249 183 774591 Email: FAO-SUDAN@fao.org Web site: www.fao.org Name: Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Postal address: P. O. Box 700, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 777255 Fax: + 249 183 771860 Email: cbs@sudanmail.net.sd Web site: www.cbs.gov.sd Name: Green Deal Group Co. Postal address: P. O. Box 10006, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 777236 Fax: + 249 183 778445 Email: Web site: Name: Wafra for Modern Storage Co. Postal address: P. O. Box 729, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 313458 Fax: + 249 183 315694 Email: Web site: Name: Sudanese Media Center (SMC) Postal address: Tel: Fax: Email: info@ smc.sd Web site: www.smc.sd Name: Central Trading Company Postal address: P. O. Box 980, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 772671 Fax: + 249 183 787638 Email: info@ctc.sd Web site: www.ctc.sd Name: Looli Group Co. Postal address: Tel: + 249 183 471272 Fax: + 249 183 471290 Email:loolikheir@yahoo.com Web site: www.loolico.com GOV IN, PP, RG, TR

NGO

RU IN TR

GOV

IN

PRV

PS-S

PRV

PS-S

MED

IN

PRV

PS-S

PRV

PS-M

94

Name: Araak Group Co. Postal address: P. O. Box 732, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 773987 Fax: + 249 183 776890 Email: afi@araak.com Web site: www.araak.com Name: ElRayaam daily newspaper Postal address: P. O. Box 6562, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 780239 Fax: + 249 183 772176 Email: atabani@rayaam.sd Web site: www.rayaam.sd Name: Elrawyan for Excavation and irrigation services Co. Postal address: Wad Medani Tel: + 249 511 52270 Fax: + 249 511 52271 Email: Web site: www.erawyan.net Name: Elobeid crop market Postal address: North Kordofan State, Elobeid Tel: + 249 611 823590 Fax: + 249 611 823590 Email: 2008@obeidcrop.com Web site: www.obeidcrop.com Name: Sudanese Youth Organization for Water Resources Postal address: Khartoum Tel: Fax: Email: info@syowr.org Web site: www.syowr.org

PRV

PS-M

MED

IN, TR

PRV

PS-S

CCI

IN, RG, TM

AS-Y

Ex, IN, TR, PP

Name: Sudan National Committee on Traditional Practices AS-F Affecting the Health of Women and Children (SNCTP) Postal address: P. O. Box 10418 Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 460546 Fax: + 249 183 463100 Email: snctpiac5@hotmail.com Web site: www.snctp.org Name: Babiker Badri Association Postal address: Ahfad University for Women, P. O. Box 167 Tel: + 249 187 564401 Fax: + 249 187 564401 Email: BabikerBadriAssociation@babikerbadriassociation.org Web site: www.babikerbadriassociation.org Name: Sudan Development Program (SDP) Postal address: Tel: Fax: Email: info@sudandevelopmentprogram.org Web site: www.sudandevelopmentprogram.org AS-F

EX, IN, PP, TR, RU

EX, IN, PP, TR, RU

NGO

TR, IN, PP, RU

95

Name: UNESCO Chair in Water Resources Postal address: P. O. 1244 Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 779599 Fax:: + 249 183 797258 Email: ucwr@ucwr-sd.org Web site: www.ucwr.sd.org Name: Sudan Red Crescent Society (SRCS) Postal address: Khartoum, P. O. Box 235 Tel: + 249 183 772011 Fax:: + 249 183 772877 Email: srcs-sg@yahoo.com/ hq@srcs-sd.org Web site: www.srcs-sd.org Name: DAAD Information Centre-Khartoum Postal address: McNemir Street, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 779963 Fax:: Email: info@daad-sudan.org Web site: www.daad-sudan.org Name: Sudan Social Development Organization Postal address: P. O. Box 11926 Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 494977 Fax:: + 249 183 483133 Email: info@sudosudan.org Web site: www.sudosudan.org Name: Fellowship for African Relief (FAR) Postal address: P. O. Box 3845 Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 472591 Fax:: + 249 183 472591 Email: info@farsudan.org Web site: www.farsudan.org Name: Sudanese Forests Society Postal address: P. O. Box 568 Khartoum 2 Tel: + 249 183 471575 Fax:: + 249 183 472659 Email: info@sfs-sd.org Web site: www.sfs-sd.org Name: Sudan Metrological Organization Postal address: P. O. Box 574 Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 778837 Fax:: + 249 183 661693 Email: info@ersad.gov.sd Web site: www.ersad.gov.sd Name: National Population Fund Postal address: P. O. Box 3995 Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 743425 Fax:: + 249 183 743434 Email: SNPC10@npc.gov.sd Web site: www.npc.gov.sd Name: Araak Group of Companies Postal address: P. O. Box 732 Khartoum Tel:+ 249 183 773987 Fax:: + 249 183 776890 Email: afri@araak.com Web site: www.araak.com

NGO

EX, IN, PP, RD, TR

NGO

EX, IN, RU

NGO

IN, TR, RD

NGO

EX, IN, PP, RU

NGO

EX, RU, TR

AS-W

EX, IN, TR, RD, RU

GOV

IN, TR, RD

GOV

IN, TR, RD

PRV

PS-E, PSM

96

Name: Ganal International Company Postal address: P. O. Box 3567 Huria Street, Khartoum Tel: + 249 183 761228 Fax:: + 249 183 761230 Email: info@ganaltrade.com Web site: www.ganaltrade.com Name: Elnasr Group Postal address: P. O. Box 929 Khartoum North Tel: + 249 185 310705 Fax:: + 249 185 310725 Email: Hibiscus@gmail.com Web site: www.elnasronline.com Name: Sun Food Processing Co. Postal address: Tel: + 249 912236729 Fax:: Email: info@sunsudan.com Web site: www.sunsudan.com The following abbreviations are used in the above table:
Type AS-F Farmers’ association (includes co-operatives) AS-W Women’s association AS-Y Youth association BNK Bank or credit institution CCI Chamber of commerce and industry CHU Church-based group EDU Educational institution GOV Government department / ministry MED Media NGO Non-government organisation PRV Private enterprise, company REG Regional organisation, project or network STA Statutory body STE State enterprise OTH Other EX IN FS PP PS-E PS-M PS-P PS-S RD RG TR TM RU OT

PRV

PS-E, PSS, TM

PRV

PS-E, PSM, TM

PRV

PS-M, PSP

Role

Extension and outreach Information services Financial services Policy and planning Private sector – Exporter (fresh, frozen and dried produce) Private sector – Manufacturer (e.g. tannery, bottler, refiner, roaster) Private sector – Producer (e.g. commercial farm, fishing company) Private sector – Supplier (e.g. ag. chemicals, equipment, seeds) Research and development Regulation (compliance, standards) Training (at secondary, tertiary and vocational level) Trade and marketing (include market development) Rural Development Other

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3.2 List of Institutions Interviewed
Name of institution: Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Forests (MoA) Address: P. O. Box 285, Gamaa Street, Khartoum, Sudan. Tel.: + 249 183 772648 Fax: + 249 183 782027 Email: sandowla@gmail.com Web Site: www.sudagric.gov.sd Type of Institution: GOV. Role: EX, IN, PP, RU and TR Objective / mission statement: • • • • • • • Supervise all agricultural activities in Sudan through 25 state ministry of agriculture spreading all over the country. Set agricultural strategies and policies. Develop the agricultural resources and rehabilitate the environment. Supervise the national agricultural corporations. Carry out the basic agricultural services, including research, extension, crop protection, and training. Enhance technical cooperation with regional and international organizations, as well as with friendly countries. Responsible for policy making on agricultural production in the country.

Field of specialisation: • • • • • • • • Evaluation of crop production in the country through surveying teams. Provide data on the area cultivated, area harvested, production and cost of crop production. Technology transfer through FFSs and extension meetings. Popularisation of investment in the field of agriculture at national, regional and international levels. Crop protection operations against some pests. In – service training of the staff at different levels and categories. Produce annual technical reports and technical leaflets. Policy formulation, set plans for agricultural production in Sudan.

Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, etc; permanent / temporary): The total number of staff in all GAs is as follows: 37 professional (with M.Sc. and Ph. D.). 53 Technical staff.

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Name of institution: Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Forests (MoA) Branches, other sites: The Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Forests has 25 state ministries (Sudan divided into 25 states) all over the country. The institutional set-up of the central ministry comprises seven general administrations: 1. The General Administration (GA) for Planning and International Cooperation: The work in this general administration is performed through six departments, namely, Planning Economics, International Cooperation, Bilateral Cooperation, Food Security and Woman Development. 2. GA for Development of Natural Resources and Production: It incorporates departments for Land use, water programming, range and pasture horticulture, seed registration, production development and standards and quality control. 3. GA for Agricultural Investment and Investment Promotion: The Administration includes departments for promotion, project approval, studies and research and monitoring and evaluation. 4. GA for Statistics and Information: The administration has two important departments for agricultural statistics and information as well as for studies and workshops. 5. GA for Plant Protection: The Administration is concerned mainly with migratory pests including locusts, birds, sorghum head bug, mice, etc. Moreover it manages and supervises the plant quarantine stations all over the country, and approves imported chemicals. Together with state protection departments all efforts are integrated to combat plant pests and diseases. 6. GA for Financial and Administrative Affairs: It incorporates departments for finance, administration, personnel, training and education in addition to general affairs. 7. GA for Extension and Training: Sudan is one of the first African and Arab countries to establish modernized extension services. That dates back to the early sixties. Now there are extension units in all 32 central and state ministries of agriculture and animal resources, as well as units in all production corporations. This has facilitated the propagation of the technological packages to all producers in all production areas, including the small farmer in the traditional sector. In their endeavour the extensionists use all units of communication, including personal contact, seminars, and workshops, the audiovisual aids, radio and television as well as popular gatherings in rural areas. Enlightened farmers are also trained to train other farmers. So far all the services are offered free. Plains however, are being worked out to gradually commercialise these services. The General Administration is also responsible for capacity building and training of all staff by way of organizing workshops, training courses in addition to financing academic training inside and outside the country. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry manages a number of specialized schools and training centres such as the horticultural school, the agricultural implements training centre, etc. Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro equivalent): Not available.

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Name of institution: Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Forests (MoA) Source of funding, incl. main donors / sponsors: The main source of funding is from the central government (about 80%) that covers salaries and the operation cost of the daily work and activities. Other sources include: FAO, AOAD and the European Union, which covers the cost of, joint projects and some training activities.

Programme / projects undertaken: The MoA through its different departments is responsible for and involved in the following activities: • Collection of data on cultivated area, productivity and production cost. • Improvement of agricultural practices through regular field visits and broadcasting of one radio and one TV programme on agriculture on weekly basis. • Offering in-service training on various topics related to agriculture and rural development. • Offering extension services in various fields of agriculture and rural development in addition to farmer’s field days. • Execution of several activities on food security projects in collaboration with some partners (FAO, AOAD, EU). • Design and production of leaflets and training materials in addition to the Annual Technical Report. • Execution and management of a local network that connects most of the sections in addition, work is going on establishment of a database that contains all the information and statistics of agriculture in Sudan. • The Marketing Information System (MIS-IGAD), joint programme between the MoA and the IGAD provides information on marketing and market analysis. • COMESA AMP joint programme with COMESA on marketing promotion and integration in collaboration with different countries in the region.

Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): MoA targeted all agricultural population in the Sudan, which is about 80% of the total population. Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training, ….: The two interviewed staffs from the MoA are aware of CTA and its activities. Many of the staff at Federal level heard about CTA, the former under secretary of the ministry was the contact person of CTA in Sudan. The interviewed staff mentioned that around ten years ago CTA executed some training and seminar activities in Sudan but since then no activities or collaboration was done. Recently, MoA proposed for CTA rehabilitation of its library and they received positive response and consequently a proposal is now ready for execution.

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Name of institution: Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Forests (MoA) Appreciation of CTA’s products and services: The MoA can benefit from CTA products such as Spore magazine, CTA publications and CD-ROM information for use as sources of information in training of trainers or farmers training. SDI will help decision maker for planning for agricultural development. Training needs specified can be met through participation in CTA training activities and seminars. Extent of collaboration / interaction with other institutions (name, nature): MoA have collaboration and interaction with the following institutions: • State ministries of agriculture (provide data and information on agricultural production and constrains). • Banks (Central Bank of Sudan, ABS) provide information and help in setting credit policies for agriculture. • ARC provides MoA with technological packages to solve the problems arising in the agricultural sector. • Ministry of irrigation provides the MoA with data and forecast of the season regarding water resources to enable the MoA to plans for the area to be cultivated and the crops to be grown. • FAO, WFP, AOAD, UNDP collaborate with the MoA in the execution of joint projects, programmes in addition of exchange of information regarding production, productivity and expected food shortage. • National and state TVs collaborate with the MoA in broadcasting programmes on agriculture and rural development. • Newspapers cover events such as seminars, workshops and conferences executed by the MoA in addition to articles and news on agriculture. National / sectoral policies impacting ICT use / information and communication within the institution: The ICT use polices set by the government are in favour of further spread of ICTs in information and communication. The government selected the MoA within the first 5 ministries to start with for the project of E-government. In addition, the government supports the execution of the local network and provided the financial and technical support.

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Name of institution: Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Forests (MoA) How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: • The staffs at different sections have access to Internet connected with DSL service in addition to wide sources and contacts in the field of agriculture and rural development including projects funded by IFAD, SOS, FAO and UNDP. Some of the national scientific journals, project reports and technical bulletins are available in the library. MoA obtain information on credit and finance of agricultural inputs policy from ministry of finance ARC, NCR and ARRC and colleges of agriculture provide information and technical leaflets to address arising problems. FAO, AOAD, WFP, provide technical information through publications, annual reports and training activities.

• • • •

Main information needs not satisfied (including types and format of information): The information needed is: • Use of participatory tools for use during data collection, food consumption surveys and data analysis. • Web management including web protection. • Production of training materials, use and management of audio-visual equipment. • Market information especially standards to export to EU countries. • Economic information regarding market prices. • Post harvest technology/handling of perishable products e. g. tomato. Fruits especially mango, information is needed for fruit fly control for fruits intended for export purpose. • Food technology specially food preservation methods. Training needs: • Training on GIS applications, vulnerability mapping and information on some standards (10 persons) (e. g. EurGAP). • Training on some statistical programmes (5 persons) (Genstat, SPSS)

Successes/main problems faced communication management: • • •

in

terms

of

information

and

Lack of sufficient funds available for ICM within the ministry. Insufficient of the technical knowledge to mange the network and updating of web site, in addition to the low number of computers available (1 computer for every 4 persons). Unavailability of original software of ant-viruses.

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Name of institution: Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Forests (MoA) Successes/main problems faced in terms of knowledge management (e.g. availability list of organisations / clients using your products, databases, etc.): • • • • Insufficient funds to produce regular publication, training of staff and management of the database. Insufficient incentives for field officers to collect field data, organize field days and meetings with farmers. There is an urgent need for rehabilitation of the library and CTA responded positively for this issue. Institutional arrangement of ICM within the MoA is often changing.

Why institution selected as a key: MoA is responsible for setting plans and polices on agriculture all over the country. It also supervises and monitors the irrigated schemes (e.g. Gezira, Rahad...) and provides extension services beside operations on control of some pests. The MoA largely spread all over the country through 25 state ministries, in addition its considered as focal point of several regional and international organizations (FAO, AOAD IGAD) working in the field of agriculture and rural development. Other observations: There is a lack in the mechanisms that link the MoA with stakeholders sharing the same objectives or servicing the ministry. The bright example of which is the coordination between the ministry and the research institutes (ARC, ARRC and NCR) that belong to the ministry of Science and Technology while MoA is the direct client.

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Name of Institution: Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC) Address: P. O. Box 126, Wad Medani, Sudan. Tel: + 249 511 842226 Fax: + 249 511 843213 Email: arcdg@sudanmail.net Web site www.arcsudan.sd Type of Institution: STAT. Role: EX, IN, RD, TR. Objective / mission statement: Agricultural Research was created since 1902. Mission: The mission of the ARC is to plan, develop and implement research designed to produce technologies and systems that are required to ensure high and sustainable crop productivity, food security and export capacity. To collect and dissemination of agricultural research at national, regional and international levels. To share knowledge and agricultural information networks/systems. To adopt new information technology and make use of the available information resources in order to support the agric. research. Mandate: The ARC is entrusted with applied agricultural research on food and industrial crops, forestry, livestock and food technology, and with ecological and regional responsibilities to develop sustainable production systems in the Sudan. Goals: The ARC works in cooperation with other national institutions towards achievement of food security, alleviation of poverty, generation of incomes, promotion of agricultural export and conservation of natural resources. Objectives:

• •

To generate, develop and adapt agricultural technologies that focus on the needs of the over all agricultural development and its beneficiaries; To manage and conserve the soil and water resources in the country for sustainable and productive agriculture. To build up a research capacity and establish a system that will make agricultural research efficient, effective and based on development needs; To play an active role in dissemination of agricultural research results.

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Name of Institution: Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC) Field of specialisation: Twenty-four research programmes have been identified to respond to the various challenges and needs to develop appropriate technologies. They include: Cereal crops, Cotton crop, Oilseed crops, Sugarcane crop, Grain legume crops, Vegetable crops and medicinal plants, Fruit crops and ornamentals, Forage crops, Gum Arabic, Forestry, Land and water, Crop protection, Food processing, Agricultural engineering, socioeconomics, Pesticides, Biotechnology and Genetic resources. In each programme research thrusts are identified, weighted and prioritized according to economic importance, export potential, food security etc.

Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, etc; permanent / temporary): ARC employee about 3350 classified as follows: • 477 Professional staff (researchers) with Ph. D. and M. Sc. degrees in various disciplines of agriculture. • 890 Technical staff some with B. Sc. in agriculture. • The rest of employees are clerks and workers. Branches, other sites: ARC has 24 research stations all over the sudan. In addition, there are 6 specialized research centres as flows: • Crop Protection Research Centre (in Wad Medani). • Land and Water Research Centre (in Wad Medani). • Forests Research Centre (in Soba-Khartoum). • Food Research Centre (in Shambat-Khartoum North). • Dry Land Research Centre (in Elobeid). • Grains Research Centre (in Wad Medani). Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro equivalent): The annual budget is classified as follows: • 28.8 million SDG (about 9.0 million Euro) for salaries. • 8.25 million SDG (about 2.5 million Euro) as operation costs including the cost of execution of experiments.

105

Name of Institution: Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC) Source of funding, incl. main donors / sponsors: The main sources of funding are: • Government with about 90% covers the staff salaries, cost of operation and fund research programmes. • Externally funded projects (covers the operation cost and research activities and trainings (if any) relevant to the project activities agreed upon. • Private companies- input suppliers (pesticides, fertilizers) they pay fees to cover costs of experiments on the product submitted for testing.

Programme / projects undertaken: The activities relevant to ICM includes: • Annual reports: Each programme produces a separate annual report. In addition one annual report is produced highlighting the various programmes and any other activities. • Sudan Journal of Agricultural Research (Available online): An annual refereed journal, that accepts for publications papers reporting results of original research in all aspects of agriculture from scientists both from Sudan and other countries. • Proceedings of the Meetings of some National committees (National Pests and Diseases Committee, National Crop Husbandry Committee). • Books: Many ARC scientists edit books on agriculture in the Sudan. ARC also publishes these books. • Design and regular updates of the ARC web site. • Establishment of a local network connected all ARC section at the Headquarter. Some stations (Elobeid, Shambat and ElHudeiba are linked with the Headquarter through network). • Production of technical bulletins, leaflets and booklets on various toics on agriculture. • In-service training that covers all staff of the ARC. Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): ARC has a wide range of target audience, this includes but not limited to: • Agricultural production schemes (Gezira, Rahad, Suki and New Halfa). • Rainfed mechanized agriculture. • Traditional rainfed sector. • Livestock sector. • Forestry and range sector. • Food processing industry. • Agricultural markets. • Universities: ARC researchers actively participating in eaching and supervision of postgraduate students in all universities in Sudan.

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Name of Institution: Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC) Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training, ….: The Head, Central library is aware of CTA’ Products and Services. She benefits from participationin three training courses organized by CTA in Kenya and Ethiopia. The other staff interviewed is also aware of existence of CTA. He bebefit from CTA SDI service. Appreciation of CTA’s products and services: The interviewed staff highly evaluated CTA’s products and service an considered it as very useful. The training received was evaluated as relevant and significantly helped in achieving ICM tasks at ARC. Head, Central library emphasized that: she have participated in a number of training workshops, meetings and conferences organized by CTA and other partners such as FAO, CABI and ASARECA/RAIN. These activities have greatly improved our work skills and sharing of agricultural information at national, regional and international levels. They further requested ARC to contribute further to their ICM carrier by providing up to date information and approaches in addition to availing its products and services to include more staff from ARC.

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Name of Institution: Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC) Extent of collaboration / interaction with other institutions (name, nature): ARC has a very wide range of interactions and collaborations at national, regional and international levels. This includes: National Level: ARC works in close collaboration with the following local institutions and stakeholders in order to promote a viable and sustainable agricultural sector:

• • • •

Universities, e.g. University of Khartoum, University of Gezira, Sudan University for Science and Technology, Juba University and Kordofan University. Farmers’ unions, e.g. Gezira and Managil Farmers’ Union State and Federal Ministries of Agriculture Other MOST institutions, e.g. Animal Wealth Research Corporation, National Research Council) Non-governmental organizations, e.g. The Sudanese Society for environmental Protection. Sudan Practical action, Sudanese Society for Organic agriculture.

International Level: ARC enjoyed considerable support, mainly in the form of joint research projects, germplasm exchange and capacity building, from the following international organizations: • International agricultural research centers under the Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research CGIAR: IITA, CIMMYT, ICRISAT, IRRI, CIAT, ISNAR, ILRI, IFPRI, IWMI, ICRAF, CIP, IPGRI, ICARDA, WARDA. Regional agricultural research associations e.g. ASARECA, ARRINENA. Intergovernmental Organizations: FAO, IAEA, UNDP, UNEP. IFAD. Organizations for international cooperation: USAID, CABI, ODA, CIRAD, DFID, DAAD, GTZ, JICA, SIDA, FINNIDA, DANIDA, CTA.

• • •

With regard to ICM and ICM related activities: ARC developed national agricultural information network and have collaboration with regional and international partners such as SNAIN, FAO/AGRIS, ASARECA/RAIN, AARINENA/RAIS, The Twinning of Agricultural Information Systems Project (Sudan, Egypt and ICARDA), ITOCA, TEEAL, In addition to national institutions such as the Sudan Academy of Sciences. National / sectoral policies impacting ICT use / information and communication within the institution: No national or sectoral polices mentioned impacting or enabling ICT use in ARC. Although, lack of strategies and polices in ICM greatly affect ongoing and planning for future activities.

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Name of Institution: Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC) How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: Internal Sources: • The central library with collections of books, periodicals, journals and annual research report is the main source of information for researcher and outside visitors (university staff, students, projects) staff. • The central library consist of databases of AGORA, ICRISAT library is used also for search. • The central library and all sections are connected with internet with DSL service which used also for searching purposes as well as for communication. National and international sources: • ARC researcher rely on wide sources and links with regional and international organization in exchange of information such as FAO, ICRADA, ASARECA, CTA, ICRA, UNDP, DANIDA, DAAD. • ARC researcher actively participating in conferences, seminars and workshops at regional and international level through which they obtain, exchange of information. Main information needs not satisfied (including types and format of information): ARC and according to its wide mandate require a broad range of information that include: • Integrated pest management. • Insect sterile techniques. • Post harvest treatments for fruits against fruit flies. • Application of biotechnology in agriculture. • Drought tolerant germplasm on Sorghum, millet and groundnut. • Climate change and strategies to coupe with. • Measures for soil reclamation. • Development of new grain and oil seed cultivars of high productivity. • Optimum use of natural resources with special regard to efficient water utilization. • Forests management and conservation. • Food processing techniques especially for rural environment. • Weather forecasting and climatic data. • Technical information on ICTs and software (anti-viruses). • Information on electronic archiving, information marketing. • Data analysis software (Genstat, SPSS,..).

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Name of Institution: Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC) Successes/main problems faced in terms of information communication management: ICM Staff:

and

2 information Science and Library studies specialists, 1 B. A holder, 3 Diploma in information Science and Library studies, 5 technicians. In addition to 4 IT staff members well qualified in the field of computer sciences. ICM staff skills include: • Library and Information management. • Library automation. • Database management systems. • Web site design and development. • Networking, hardware maintenance. • Electronic library, data processing, data entry ICM division contributed and shared in a number of national and, regional projects led by ASARECA/RAIN, AARINENA/RAIS, AOAD, ITOCA, TEEAL and other partners supported by international organizations such as FAO and The Twinning of Agricultural Information Systems Project (Sudan, Egypt and ICARDA) Constraints in ICM include: • Lake of fund. • Absence of institutional information management strategies and policies. • Failure to use common agricultural information management standards and tools in agricultural libraries. • Information centres, making it difficult to share information resources in digital format. • Lack of cooperation and coordination among agricultural libraries and information centres. • Lake of effective information policy. • High cost of maintenance. Improvement is needed for the above-mentioned constraints. Priority must be given to the establishment of an effective national agricultural knowledge management policy. Successes/main problems faced in terms of knowledge management (e.g. availability list of organisations / clients using your products, databases, etc.): The available resources include: • Adequate number of computers, hardware, software (Windows XP). • Local/wide area networks (L/WAN). • Mobile phones, internet access, posting website updates. • Use of teleconferencing, geographic information systems (GIS). • Electronic library (Lan, TEEAL), intranet and databases.

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Name of Institution: Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC) Why institution selected as a key: ARC is a statutory body responsible for agricultural research in Sudan. ARC is conducting 95% of agricultural research in Sudan. It has 17 research stations and 5 centres spreading all over the country. Through technology generation and transfer of technology, ARC provides information on agricultural production to all farming systems in the country in addition; it is active in training and publication activities. Other observations: ARC is well equipped and resources institution. The staff are highly qualified in all disciplines of agriculture. ARC and according to its mandate provide technical information to all farming systems all over the country. In addition, ARC has world recognition and linkage with many international centres and networks.

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Name of institution: State Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation-El Gadarif State (GSMA) Address: P. O. Box 235, EL Gadarif, Sudan Tel.: + 249 441 843766/844383 Fax.: + 249 441 843493 Email: agricmi@gadarifstate.gov.sd Web site: www.gadarifstate.gov.sd Type of institution: GOV. Role: EX, IN, PP, PS-P, RU and TR. Objective / mission statement: The terms of reference of the state ministries of agriculture have been outlined to serve the followings: • Plan state projects and formulate agricultural policies within the context of the general policy directives and in coordination with the central Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. • Extend agricultural services to producers, including extension, protection, cooperation, rural economics, animal health, and training. • Improve the investment climate, develop agricultural technology, supervise state corporations and help to sustain agricultural development. • Monitor and evaluate agricultural performance and supply the central ministry with statistics and information through the agricultural information networks. • Modernize the traditional sector; supervise the execution of integrated rural development programmes as well as woman’s development projects. • Implement programmes to develop the natural resources, to combat desertification, un-authorized felling of trees and overstocking the natural grasslands. • Coordinate policies and programmes with neighbouring states especially with respect to crop protection, joint grazing areas, forests and water points and stock routes. • Coordinate the activities of state government units to enhance agricultural development. • Manage state strategic storage of food crops. • Participate in setting up research programmes to improve production and to initiate and develop technology that suits the local conditions. Field of specialisation: • • • • • Transfer of improved technologies generated by the agricultural research station situated in El Gadarif. Provide extension service to various farmers in the state. Provide in-service training on various agricultural disciplines, including (computer training). Publish updated training manuals and leaflets for farmers on various crops (30.000 copy/year), in addition to publishing electronic information resources (CDs). Collect data on the area under cultivation, production and productivity.

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Name of institution: State Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation-El Gadarif State (GSMA) Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, etc; permanent / temporary): The total number of staff is 378 classified as follows: • 330 are professional staff with B. Sc. and M. Sc. in agricultural sciences (crop protection, forestry, Agric. Engineering, crop production and Agric. Economics). • 11 technical staff with diploma and B. Sc. in computer science. • 41 are clerks. Branches, other sites: The state ministry of agriculture has representatives in 10 localities spreading all over the state. The execution of programme at state level is usually done by the staff stationed at these localities with direct supervision of the staff at the ministry level. The Departments with the state ministry include: • Agricultural extension and technology transfer. • Crop protection. • Horticulture. • Soil reclamation. • Economics and statistics. • Range and fodder. • Forests. • Seed propagation. • Administrative and financial affairs. Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro equivalent): • • The annual budget is about 2,790,000 SDG for salaries (about 900,000 Euro). About 270,000 SDG operational budget (87,096 Euro)

Source of funding, incl. main donors / sponsors: The main source of funding is the government. Some funds are self-generating by some activities of Forests and Horticultural departments (about 10% of the total budget).

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Name of institution: State Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation-El Gadarif State (GSMA) Programme / projects undertaken: The current programme of work include the following activities: • Survey and demarcation of land ownership. • Plan for the agricultural land to be grown, type of crops and area. • Pest control operations against birds and grasshoppers in June, against Dura andat in May covers all the state. • Execution of shelter belts in collaboration with communities. • Technology transfer and application through extension services of some agricultural technologies in demonstration plots with farmers’ participation. • Provide some agricultural inputs (improved seeds, pesticides) in collaboration with ABS. • Produce CD every 10 days contains weather data and information on weather forecast especially rains. • Produce extension leaflets on each crop grown in the state with up-dated information. • Organize three exhibitions per year on agricultural activities in the state. • Produce monthly and annual technical reports with activities performed by the ministry. Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): The ministry of agriculture at El Gadarif state as a center of the mechanized rainfed agriculture in Sudan, is targeting different groups of farmers classified according to the area owned to: • Large -scale farmers (with 200 ha and above). • Agricultural companies (with 400-20,000 ha). • Small-scale farmers (with 20-200 ha). The total area cultivated annually in the state is around 2.4 million ha and the number of farmers is about 10,000 farmers. Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training, ….: One of the interviewed staff (head of ITTD) knows about CTA and he visited CTA in 1980s to have collaboration in obtaining CTA publications. Currently, There is no any department that is receiving any product or services from CTA. Appreciation of CTA’s products and services The interviewed staffs are like to receive CTA publications especially Spore Magazine and looking forward to receive QAS service due to scattered beneficiaries and difficulties in meeting with farmers especially during rainy season. The isolated staff of the state ministry of agriculture in Gadarif state are in need to participation in CTA annual seminars, CTA training programmes and seminar support programme to gain new information, knowledge and to exchange ideas with other participants from abroad.

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Name of institution: State Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation-El Gadarif State (GSMA) Extent of collaboration / interaction with other institutions (name, nature): The state ministry of agriculture at El Gadarif state has collaboration with the following institutions: • ARC supplies the ministry with technological information and research results on agriculture through the agricultural research station situated in El Gadarif. • Federal ministry of agriculture exchange of information and coordination in setting of polices. • National TV exchange of information and execution of joint programmes on agriculture and rural development for broadcasting. • State radio and TV collaborates with the state ministry in broadcasting programmes in agriculture and rural development. • Weather forecasting department provide information of weather and rain forecast. • AAAID execution of joint programmes on zero tillage in addition to some joint investment projects. • International Agricultural Centre (Egypt) provides training in various fields of agriculture. • Sudan Academy of Science and Technology, International Quality Assurance provides training on administration and quality control.

National / sectoral policies impacting ICT use / information and communication within the institution: The national and state polices are both positively impacting the use of ICT and ICM through: • Initiation of the E government. • Provide support to establish and manage web sites, local networks and Internet access. How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: The current sources of information are: • ARC provides information on technological packages of crops. • Internet: source of information on prices, weather forecast and agricultural machinery and equipment. • International Assurance Centre and Administration Development Centre (in Khartoum) both provide services on maintenance of computers and management of local network in addition to training activities. • Booklets, videos and annual reports produced by the different departments of the MoA. • Internet is use as information source for climate data, to obtain market information as well as for correspondence.

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Name of institution: State Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation-El Gadarif State (GSMA) Main information needs not satisfied (including types and format of information): Information is needed to improve extension method to better target the different clients (prepare of training materials, use of audio-visuals). • Information on pest control especially sorghum midge Contarinia sorghicola. • Weather forecast information with high precision especially for rains (amount and distribution). • Information on market prices and market analysis. Training needs: • Training on Software programmes used on production of TV programmes and videos (2 persons). • Training on GIS for farm planning (2 persons). • Advanced computer training on web site management, updates (3 persons). Successes/main problems faced communication management: • • • • in terms of information and •

Limited budget allocated for production of database and publications. Limited technical capacity in management and maintenance of computer network (the network totally stopped due to miss-management). Limited access to target audience for collection of data on area cultivated, production and productivity especially during the rainy season. Limited number of PCs and the available ones are of limited memories.

Successes/main problems faced in terms of knowledge management (e.g. availability list of organisations / clients using your products, databases, etc.): • • • • • The state ministry succeeded in producing CD for weather forecast every 10 days because agricultural production in the state is totally dependant on rains. Production of electronic library (cassettes, videos, CD) that contains programmes on agriculture and rural development. The state ministry managed to organize three agricultural exhibitions per year. The TTE department is committed to production and distribution of 30,000 leaflets on technical information on agriculture and rural development. The technical staffs responsible for knowledge management are of low experience and mostly have no degree in the area of knowledge management.

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Name of institution: State Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation-El Gadarif State (GSMA) Why institution selected as a key: Gadarif State is the center of large mechanized rainfed crop production system from which the bulk of sorghum and sesame is produced (the area cultivated annually is about 2.4 million ha.). The ministry of agriculture at state level is responsible for providing information and services to the sector. This sector also gain importance through providing temporary working opportunities to labours coming from other parts as seasonal labours. In general, a good season in this sector is an indication of food security in the country. Other observations: GSMA is appeared as one of the main agricultural production areas in the country. Crops produced are for use as food for local consumption (sorghum) with the surplus for export in addition to cash crops (sesame) for export. Recently new crops came in such as sunflower. The state has high potential for food security for Sudan and the neighbouring countries.

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Name of institution: Forests National Corporation (FNC) Address: P. O. Box 658, Khartoum 2, Sudan. Tel.: + 249 183 471575 Fax.: + 249 183 472659 Email: info@fnc.gov.sd Web site: www.fnc.gov.sd Type of institution: GOV Role: EX, PP, PS-P and TR. Objective / mission statement: FNC is a parastatal service-oriented and independent body corporate. Such independent marked the transition from a government department. As a selffinancing entity, it has much more functional freedom to meet its recurring expenses. The FNC is empowered to exercise technical supervision over all forests throughout the country and entitled to issuing directive or take measures for protection and management of reserved and unreserved forests across the country. During the period since its establishment, FNC has been able to demonstrate its potential by setting up its structural, technical and financial system. Field of specialisation: Field of specialization and current programme of work of FNC include: • Provide community needs from forest products. • Combating desertification through execution of tree belts with community participation, • Rehabilitation of the Nile course. • Resource conservation through forest management. • Partnership between FNC and local communities in planning, protection and getting benefits from forest reserves. • Set private ownership of land to local communities as in the gum Arabic belt. Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, etc; permanent / temporary): The total number of staff of the FNC including staff at state level is 3,198 classifies as follows. • 219 Professional staff some (about 4 holds Ph.D.) in forestry and forests management. • 310 Technical staff with B. Sc. in forests or Diploma. • 396 are clerks. • 2,159 are labourers.

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Name of institution: Forests National Corporation (FNC) Branches, other sites: FNC operates through 15 state administrators in Northern Sudan, however the representation of FNC in Southern Sudan is negligible and major changes are expected to take place soon as a direct result of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. The sectors within the headquarter office include: • Technical sector: deals with planning, forest management and information and communication. • Investment sector: deals with investment and production. • Administrative and financial sector: deals with personnel and financial affairs Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro equivalent): The annual budget (as in 2007) was 40.600.000 SDG (13.096.000 Euro). This budget covers the salaries and operation cost and development for all FNC administrators all over the Sudan. The budget approved for 2008 with 2.7% increase from that in 2007. Source of funding, incl. main donors / sponsors: FNC is a self-generating fund. Other sources of funding come from joint projects with FAO, SOS, UNHCR, IFAD and GNPC. Programme / projects undertaken: • • • • • • • • • • Execution of Donor-assisted projects that help the local communities to establish and register their own forests. Provide extension services through their extension agents at state level. Provide in service training in different aspects of forestry in collaboration with universities, ARC and external donors such as FAO, SOS, and IFAD. Afforestation activities in partnership with local communities that resulted in increased plantations as well as seedlings production by several folds. Carry forest products consumption survey to indicate Sudan’s consumption of forest products. Studies on forest inventory, forest products and services provided. Combating desertification through execution tree belts in collaboration with the rural communities. Produce leaflets/booklets on different technological aspects of forestry, which serve as extension guides for extension staff. Produce annual reports on the activities performed as well as future plans. FNC hosts the Sudanese forests society that produce Sudan silva journal.

Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): FNC through its mandate is targeting all population due to its wide rage of activities and services provided. Especially

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Name of institution: Forests National Corporation (FNC) Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training, ….: None of the interviewed staff know about CTA or of its products and services. FNC did not receive any products or services before except in late 1980s, CTA organized a seminar in collaboration with FNC on Land use. Appreciation of CTA’s products and services: FNC interviewed staff doesn’t aware of the existence of CTA. No any products or services are received by FNC. Extent of collaboration / interaction with other institutions (name, nature): The FNC has collaboration with the following institutions: • ARC provides technological information on forests and forest management with special emphasis on gum and gum production technologies. • MoA collaborates with FNC in issuing polices and regulation on forestry sector. • Ministry of Justice issue laws aiming at forests protection. • The Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources through execution of joint programmes and exchange of information. • IGAD through joint studies on forest resources management. • COMESA exchange of information. • FAO, AOAD, IUCN through execution of joint programmes on forests and exchange of information. • Broadcast media especially newspapers cover events and activities of FNC beside regular articles on forests and the environment. National / sectoral policies impacting ICT use / information and communication within the institution: The initiation of the project of e-government positively enhances ICT and ICM within FNC resulted in allocation of budget for ICTs and establishment of database to avail all information on forests in Sudan to all stakeholders and communities. How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: The sources that FNC depends on for the information needed are: • ARC provides technical packages for forests management and publishes journal articles on forestry as well as advisory body. . • University of Khartoum provides technical information and advisory services. • FAO, COMESA, ICRAF, IGAD and AOAD jointly execute projects and conduct studies on forestry related issues. • Technical networks (Afrinet, NGARA, CIFOR), provide and exchange information with FNC. • Internet: information source as well as for correspondence.

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Name of institution: Forests National Corporation (FNC) Main information needs not satisfied (including types and format of information): The information needed are technological information on: • Wood technology. • Forests protection (Fire, pests and diseases) and forecasting. • Technical information on appropriate use of ICTs in extension and as communication tools. Training needs on: • Training on remote sensing and cartography for integrated and sustainable forests management (3 persons). • Training on network management, web design and databases (2 persons). • Extension methods and PRA tools (3 persons). • Basic computer training on Windows and spread sheets (12 persons). Successes/main problems faced communication management: in terms of information and

FNC has one library at it’s headquarter that contains joint projects documents, activities preformed by FNC and annual reports. The work is going on to establish database of technical activities of FNC. The main constraints are: Limited budget allocated for ICM and training. Limited capacity of staff in management of network (the network stopped due to technical problems). • Limited number of ICTs with limited memory. Successes/main problems faced in terms of knowledge management (e.g. • •

availability list of organisations / clients using your products, databases, etc.):
Not Available Why institution selected as a key: FNC manages and supervises activities related to forests in Sudan in addition, setting of polices and regulations targeted protection and conservation of forests. It operates through sub departments at state level to provide information and services (e. g. seeds, seedlings ...). NFC has collaborative activities with many national and international organizations (e.g. FAO, SOS, DANIDA, ...) in the field of natural resource management. Other observations: FNC has a wider diffusion in all geographical regions of Sudan with well trained staff in forestry. At regional and international level FNC has relation with many institutions and involved in networks concerned with forests and environment.

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Name of institution: Gezira State Television (GSTV) Address: Television residential area, Wad Medani, Sudan. Tel.: + 249 511 844014 Fax: + 249 511 844014 Email: salahgasim@hotmail.com Web site: Under construction Type of institution: GOV Role: EX, IN, RU and TR. Objective / mission statement: The GSTV was established in 1973 with a principle objective to broadcast extension messages targeted farmers in the Gezira scheme. Although, it is still doing so but the mission of GSTV now broadened to cover: • Contribute to social and economic development through broadcasting of relevant programmes. • Mobilization of community with special emphasis on youth and gender to raise awareness towards development. • Participate in execution of programmes and projects targeting rural communities. • Training of graduate and post graduate students in communication and communication technologies (TV broadcasting). • Participate in extension campaigns targeting farmers in Gezira and Rahad irrigated schemes.

Field of specialisation: The current programme of work is broadcasting programmes for duration of 7 hours per day targeting the above objectives. The main programmes are that focus on agriculture and rural development are: • The green Gezira (1 hour twice a week). • Rahad El Khair (1 hour twice a week). • The family and child (45 min. once a week) • Resource development (1 hour once a week). • News (twice a day). Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, etc; permanent / temporary): The total number of staff is 103 classifies as follows: • 13 Professional staff with B. Sc. in engineering (different disciplines). • 10 Technical staff with Diploma in administration and short courses in computer sciences. • 80 are clerks. The number of ICM staff is 2, with a background in computer science.

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Name of institution: Gezira State Television (GSTV) Branches, other sites: There are no any branches or sites other than the broadcasting station located in Wad Medani. The sections include: • Video and editing. • Graphics. • News. • The library. • Broadcasting. • Photography. • Sound and light management. Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro equivalent): The total annual budget is 1,896,000 (611,419 Euro) classified as follows: • 1,656,000 (534,000 Euro) for salaries. • 240,000 (77,419 Euro) operation costs.

Source of funding, incl. main donors / sponsors: The government provides 50% of the fund while the other 50% covered from advertising.

Programme / projects undertaken: • • The programme includes the daily work on broadcasting programmes (7 hours/day) in addition to work on transformation of old VHS video tapes into new digital system. The GSTV is performing training to graduate and post graduate students in TV broadcasting.

Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): The GSTV which formerly called Gezira Rural TV is targeting inhabitants of Gezira state (about 4.7 million) in addition to some inhabitants in the neighbouring state (Sennar, White Nile and Gadarif States) covered by the broadcasting service (about 1 million). Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training, ….: The interviewed staff had no prior knowledge of CTA. The GSTV also has no any collaboration with CTA. Appreciation of CTA’s products and services: The interviewed staff (Head, of TV station) doesn’t aware about the existence of CTA. No any CTA’s products or service are received before.

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Name of institution: Gezira State Television (GSTV) Extent of collaboration / interaction with other institutions (name, nature): GSTV has collaboration with the following institutes: • Government of Gezira state: provide information on information policy and strategic plans to be achieved. • National radio and TV Corporation: exchange of information, programmes, execution of joint programmes and provide advice on suitable equipment and maintenance. • ARC: provide technical information on agriculture through direct contact with researchers or publications. • University of Gezira: Exchange of information on agriculture and rural development, training of staff. • Gezira and Rahad Schemes: Exchange of information, execution of joint programmes and cover field (field days, exhibitions) events. • Some civil community societies (Environment conservation Society, Red Crescent, Nile Friends, Diapatics Friends Society).

National / sectoral policies impacting ICT use / information and communication within the institution: The national and state policy both favour the expand use of ICTs in information and communication but, insufficient funds allocated for ICTs is jeopardizing efficient utilization of ICTs. How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: The information needed are: • Types, specifications and maintenance of equipment: provided by the National radio and TV. • Technical information on agricultural and rural development: provided by ARC, Gezira and Rahad Schemes and University of Gezira. • Gezira state (different departments, e.g. health, education …): provides technical information. • Internet is used as source of news, technical information and communication. • GSTV participate in internal and regional fairs and exhibitions.

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Name of institution: Gezira State Television (GSTV) Main information needs not satisfied (including types and format of information): The GSTV is in need of the following information: • Management of information that is available in (CDs, videos …). • Availability and source of Cameras and accessories to cover outside events. • Programme Unit (AVID). Training needs: • Training on editing, picture and sound management (2 persons). • Computer training on some programmes used for preparation of materials for broadcasting (graphics, oracle) (3 persons). The suitable format of information is required in CD-ROMs, suitable for broadcasting and for storage in the library. Successes/main problems faced communication management: • • • • in terms of information and

Management of the TV library to transform old video tapes into digital system is one of the main problems. Non-availability of trained personnel to manage the library (currently managed by an untrained person). Limited budget allocated for ICM, and it depends on the income generated from advertising which in all cases fluctuating. Maintenance of ICT resources is a major problem and need to contact the National radio and TV in Khartoum, this process usually takes time and very costly.

Successes/main problems faced in terms of knowledge management (e.g. availability list of organisations / clients using your products, databases, etc.): • • • The GSTV developed a local network with access to Internet; but with low efficiency and needs maintenance because it is managed by an untrained person. Difficulties to access technical information in a format suitable for broadcasting. Difficulties to contact beneficiaries to conduct need assessment, due to limited capacities of staff and shortage of funds.

Why institution selected as a key: GSTV was established in 1973 as a first rural TV in Sudan with main objective to transfer agricultural messages to farmers in the cotton growing area of the Gezira Scheme. The broadcasting area now covering GS, Rahad Agricultural Scheme and parts of Sennar and White Nile State. But, now time allocated for agricultural and rural development programmes is generally low. The GSTV considered having great potential as source of information for farmers in the area.

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Name of institution: Gezira State Television (GSTV) Other observations: GSTV was established in 1973 as a first rural TV in Sudan. GSTV has an advantage of being located in the Centre of irrigated schemes with great potential in communication for agriculture and rural development. Recently, GSTV suffer from insufficient technical capacities of its staff, critical shortage in equipment due to two fire accidents attacked its building. Much will be achieved by GSTV with regard to communication for agriculture and rural development if the capacity building needs are met.

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Name of institution: Sudanese Agriculturists Union Address: Riyadh, Ebeed Khatim St., Khartoum, Sudan Tel.: +249 912493182 Fax.: + 249 183 228837 Email: Hshomo@gmail.com Web site: www.sudanau.net Type of institution: NGO. Role: Ex, IN, RD, RU and TR. Objective / mission statement: • • • • Empowerment of agriculturists towards rural development. Participation in setting plans and projects in agriculture. Creation of linkage and cooperation with regional and international organization to serve agricultural development in the country. Popularisation of establishment of consultancy firms and professional offices in agriculture.

Field of specialisation: • Undertaking some ICM activities such as production of monthly newsletter, developing databases and teaching resource materials. In addition, SAU has established electronic library equipped with 5 computers to serve its 13500 members. Provide in-service training in computer sciences. Provide access to Internet and its electronic library. Provide services and advices to their members regarding agricultural investment activities.

• • •

Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, etc; permanent / temporary): The total number of staff of the SAU at the head office is 30 classified as follows: • 20 Professional staff with M. Sc. and Ph. D. in agriculture • 5 Technical staff with background in agriculture and computer sciences (web design and programming). • 6 Clerks. The number of ICM staff is 8 classified as follows: • 3 professional staff with Ph. D. in information and training. • 3 Technical staff with background in computer sciences. • 2 clerks.

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Name of institution: Sudanese Agriculturists Union Branches, other sites: SAU has 15 state associations all over the Sudan. The departments within the head office include: • Information and communication. • Training. • Social services. • Finances. • Investment. • Media. Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro equivalent) The annual budget is 200,000 SDG (64,500 Euro). Source of funding, incl. main donors / sponsors: This fund is secured through the members’ fees, investment activities and donations from other organizations. Programme / projects undertaken: The main activities of SAU and its achievements are: • Provide digital services through its Information Centre to include Internet accessibility, web site for news, newsletter and publications (both digital and print). • The SAU has an electronic library consist of ICARDA library, AGRIS and NAL catalogue. Members have free access to the information of all these links. • Seminars and workshops on development and research topics. • Facilitate acquisition of land for agriculturists to start small and medium business e.g. cropping, food processing, livestock etc. • Liaise with the government for any problems that face the members. • Oversee professional societies (Economic Society, Agricultural Engineering Society, and Agronomy Society). • Train unemployed agriculturists to acquire skills that prepare them for establishing business or funding a job. • Contributes to development through committees initiated by the government. Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): The activities SAU is targeting the followings: • All Agriculturalists (with background in agricultural education). • Agricultural production corporations (such as Gezira scheme and Rahad) • Agricultural colleges. The total number of SAU members is 13 000 all over the country.

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Name of institution: Sudanese Agriculturists Union Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training, ….: The interviewed person (Head, Information Center) was previously head of training at ICRAF and ICARDA, He is aware of CTA and its products and services. The library of SAU didn’t receive any publications from CTA. Also the staff doesn’t participate in any activity (seminars, training) organized by CTA. Appreciation of CTA’s products and services: CTA publications especially databases are highly needed by the SAU as information sources in building agricultural training resources. Members of SAU can also benefit from CTA seminars and training activities to gain information and build skills. SAU is ready to collaborate with CTA in co funding of seminars and training activities to various stakeholders in agriculture and rural development in Sudan. Extent of collaboration / interaction with other institutions (name, nature): The SAU has collaborations with the following institutions: • University of Khartoum, MoA, Sudan University of Science and Technology collaborate with SAU in training of staff and in exchange of information. • ARC and ARRC provide and exchange technological information in addition to joint activities of seminars and workshops. • ICARDA, Arab Agricultural Engineers Union exchange of information and training activities. National / sectoral policies impacting ICT use / information and communication within the institution: No national or sectoral policy that negatively or positively impacting ICT use or information and communication in SAU. How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: The sources that provide SAU with information are: • Journal articles produced ARC, U of K, U of G and ARRC provide technical information on crop production and animal science. • Booklets and leaflets produced by ARC and MoA in various agricultural topic. • SAU obtain information from some research networks that the Union has access to such as ICARDA library and AGORA. • Internet, the SAU in connected with Internet with DSL service. • The SAU exchange visits with relevant associations in the Arab region and with some African counties such as Egypt, Ethiopia, Libya, Kenya and South Africa. • The SAU regularly organize and participate in national, regional and international workshops and discussion forums related to agriculture and rural development.

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Name of institution: Sudanese Agriculturists Union Main information needs not satisfied (including types and format of information): The information needed are: • Information on Agriculture in sort of educational and training resources. • Information on other similar associations in the region and information centres to collaborates and exchange information with. • Training on editing for print publications and preparation of training materials SAU has plans to achieve: • Databases of agricultural experts in Sudan • Database of agricultural businesses. • Image database. • Conduct training programmes in the use of some computer programmes, the Internet and databases; four scheduled in the Association’s headquarters and four scheduled for members in selected major towns in Sudan. . Successes/main problems faced in terms of information and communication management: • • • • • 1. 2. Creation of an electronic library that contains AGORA (about 948 international bulletin), CGIAR learning and TEEL library (about 1000 bulletins in agriculture). Establish and management of Union web site. Publication of five extension booklets (by crop). SAU currently issue a bimonthly Arabic newsletter in digital and printed format and distributed to members all over the Sudan. Creation of databases that contains the following information: ILRI's Publications database contains all publications, which have been produced ILRI staff members and corporate documents of the Institute such as annual report. ICARDA database: This database contains publications written by researchers from ICARDA and its NARS collaborators. Documents published by ICARDA or for which we have obtained copyrights are available in full text. AGRIS is a cooperative system in which participating countries input references to the literature produced within their boundaries and, in return, draw on the information provided by the other participants. To date 240 national, international and intergovernmental centres participate. The NAL catalogue (AGRICOLA) provides citation to agricultural literature. IRRI electronic library allows you to search for materials owned by the -allows links to E ,rice databases ,IRRI Library from the main catalog text documents and online databases-Journals for full

3.

4. 5.

Among the constraints mentioned, limited fund allocated for ICM was the main problem. Poor maintenance of equipment due to non-availability of a trained person and limited access to updated software (Windows and anti- viruses).

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Name of institution: Sudanese Agriculturists Union Successes/main problems faced in terms of knowledge management (e.g.

availability list of organisations / clients using your products, databases, etc.):
Not Available Why institution selected as a key: SAU is an association of agriculturists it has about 13500 members all over Sudan. The association is undertaking ICM activities targeting to benefit its all members with their different needs. SAU need necessary skills and capacities to conduct research and manage business in a scientific way. SAU has wide diffusion by its state branches. Other observations: N/A

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Name of institution: Arab Sudanese Seed Company (ASSCO) – Elobeid Seed Station (ESS) Address: North Kordofan state, Elobeid Tel.: + 249 611 825115 Fax.: + 249 611 827791 Email: ibrahimmurkaaz2006@yahoo.com Web site: www.asscoseed.com Type of institution: PRV. Role: EX, PP, PS-M, PS-P, PS-S, RU and TM. Objective / mission statement: The company produces processes, and markets improved and hybrid seeds of selected group of field, vegetable and fodder crops. The crops include: sorghum, millet, sesame, maize, groundnut, sunflower, faba beans, onion, okra, cucumber, Roselle, cowpea. Field of specialisation: The current specialisation of ESS is: • Production of improved seeds of sorghum, groundnut, sesame, millet and cowpea through contracted farmers. • Carry extension campaigns in participation with other stakeholders (state ministry of agriculture, ARC). • Execution of demonstration plots that represents improved cultivars. • Conduct training activities on seed and seed technology. • Collaborates with state radio and TV in broadcasting agricultural programmes. Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, etc; permanent / temporary): The total number of staff at ESS is 13 classified as follows: • 2 professional staff with B. Sc. and M. Sc. in agriculture (Agronomy) with 20-25 years experience in the field of seeds. • 6 Technical staff with Diploma and secondary certificate. • 5 Clerks The ICM staffs at ESS are: one technical staff with Diploma in computer sciences and 2 clerks. Branches, other sites: The company owns four field stations and two processing and marketing centres. The stations are located at Dongola (northern State), El Hudieba (River Nile state), Sennar (Sennar state) and El Girba (Kassala state). Each station is managed by a resident director specialized in seed production. The stations are provided with maintenance facilities, stores, electricity and drinking water. There is a seed-processing unit in each station. The processing and marketing centres are located at: Gadarif state, and El Obeid (northern Kordofan state) Towns.

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Name of institution: Arab Sudanese Seed Company (ASSCO) – Elobeid Seed Station (ESS) Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro equivalent): The annual budget of ESS as in 2007 was 290.000 SDG (93.548 Euro) classified as follows: • 170.000 SDG (54.838 Euro) for salaries. • 120.000 SDG (38.709 Euro) operation cost (telephone and electricity bills, stationeries, etc.) Source of funding, incl. main donors / sponsors: The funding sources are: marketing of seeds, processing of seeds for export purposes and processing of farmers seeds. Programme / projects undertaken: • • • • • • • • • Production of improved seeds of sorghum (150 ton), groundnut (600 ton), sesame (115 ton), millet (200 ton) and cowpea (10 ton) through contracted farmers. Processing of seeds of sesame, Roselle and watermelon for export purposes. Together with the extension staffs of the state, MoA provides extension services and organizes field days on seed production and improved varieties. Provide seed prices to different stakeholders (NGOs, Government). Organize and participate in field days and execution of demonstration plots with improved seeds. Provide training in seed and seed technology for graduate and postgraduate students. Participate in exhibitions at national (Khartoum International Fair) and regional (Dubai) levels. Organize training course on windows and Internet application. Produce annual report.

Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): ESS is serving all farmers in Kordofan and Darfur states. The total number of farmers in these states is about 5 million comprising 90% of the total farmers in the traditional sector in Sudan. Farmers can directly order their seeds from the station or through contracts organized by their association through the state ministry of agriculture. The station also has some seed donations distributed to certain areas. Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training, ….: The director of ESS is not aware of existence of CTA or its products and services.

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Name of institution: Arab Sudanese Seed Company (ASSCO) – Elobeid Seed Station (ESS) Appreciation of CTA’s products and services: The interviewed person (Head, El Obeid Seed Station) is not aware of the existence of CTA or of its products and services.

Extent of collaboration / interaction with other institutions (name, nature): ESS collaborate with the following institutions and stakeholders: • Joint activities (demonstration plots, training) with ARC Elobeid station in addition ARC provides information on recently released crop varieties. • Seed demand information and marketing for FAO, CARE, IFAD and state ministry of agriculture. • Provide technical information to state radio and TV. • Exchange of information with other seed companies in Sudan. National / sectoral policies impacting ICT use / information and communication within the institution: ESS is subjected to the information policy stated by the company headquarters in Khartoum. No any sectoral or national policy impacting ICT use and ICM was mentioned. How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: The sources that provide ESS with information are: • Booklets and leaflets produced by ARC and MoA on new crop varieties released. • FAO, CARE, IFAD provide information on quantities needed from each crop variety according to need assessment surveys. • State ministry of agriculture provides information on seed gaps and area cultivated. • Internet provides information on seed price and some technologies on seed processing. • Fairs and exhibitions at national (Khartoum International Fair) and regional (Dubai) level. • Workshops and seminars organized at state and national levels.

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Name of institution: Arab Sudanese Seed Company (ASSCO) – Elobeid Seed Station (ESS) Main information needs not satisfied (including types and format of information): Technical information on ICTs and their use in archiving. Information on seed market and demand enable ESS better planning for the amount of seed required. Technological information on: • Grading systems and seed technology of different crops. • Agricultural technologies to raise productivity. • Information on seed treatment methodologies especially in case of small quantities. Training needs on: • Computer training on data analysis programmes and management of local networks. • Grading standards for field and horticultural crop seeds.

Successes/main problems faced communication management: •

in

terms

of

information

and

There is no section or unit that is responsible for ICM or ICTs in the station. The individual staffs manage information within the station. All available information is stored in form of paper files that subjected to decay and damage by various means. • Technical capacities of staff are very low. • High cost of ICT maintenance. There are future plans to: • Establish computer databases and digital library for documentation of various activities linked with the headquarter network in Khartoum. • Produce leaflets on crop varieties supplied by the station. • Structure of a software for the stores to provide information on the daily in and out linked with the account section Successes/main problems faced in terms of knowledge management (e.g.

availability list of organisations / clients using your products, databases, etc.):
• • • Limited technical knowledge to maintain the local network. Insufficient budget and capacity to produce leaflets and extension materials on crop varieties. No problems were mentioned regarding availability of ICTs but, maintenance is done by untrained or sometimes by unauthorized persons.

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Name of institution: Arab Sudanese Seed Company (ASSCO) – Elobeid Seed Station (ESS) Why institution selected as a key: ASSCO is the most active company in the field of providing improved seeds. It operates through four field stations and two processing and marketing centres and large farms each with seed specialists. ASSCO Kordofan station is one of the biggest and active stations it provides improved seeds of sorghum, millet, groundnut, sesame and cowpea to Kordofan and Darfur states where the bulk of farmers of the traditional rainfed sector are located Other observations: Elobeid seed station is one of the biggest seed stations of ASSCO. It provides improved seeds for all Kordofan and Darfur states (western Sudan). It is well and efficiently managed to secure quality improved seeds in addition to some seed technology (for sesame and watermelon) for seeds intended for export. ASSCO looking forward to have collaborations with relevant companies in the region.

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Name of institution: National Centre for Research (NCR)- Documentation and Information Centre (DIC) Address: P. O. Box 2404, Khartoum, Sudan Tel.: + 249 183 770776 Fax.: + 248 183 770701 Email: info@ncr.sd Web site: www.ncr.sd Type of institution: EDU and GOV. Role: IN, PP, RD, TR and advisory body Objective / mission statement: • • • To act as a national depository of scientific work in Sudan. To collect and retain scientific, technical, social and economic International and local literature in electronic format and hard copy. To make known the literature of Sudan and facilitate their dissemination within Sudan and abroad in the form of an Abstracting Journal. The bibliographic databases of the documents abstracted are available in the Center in hard copy and their search is guided by search engine. To contribute towards formulation and development of regional and international networks and link up with the national information systems and encourage cooperation and coordination between libraries and the Center. To answer specific inquiries by users from the international database available in CD’s provided by the regional and international donors.

Field of specialisation: In 1974, Documentation and Information Centre [NCR-DIC] (formerly National Documentation Centre) was set up to for the following activities: • It plays an important role in disseminating information and organization of activities that create users awareness and understanding in important issues of national concerns. • Support research, development planning, decision-making and projects monitoring and evaluation. • Serves as national depository of scientific knowledge and information. • Slays an important role in disseminating information and organization of activities that create users awareness and understanding in important issues of national concerns. • Provide information services and access to international databases through AGORA, CAB abstracts, HINARI.

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Name of institution: National Centre for Research (NCR)- Documentation and Information Centre (DIC) Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, etc; permanent / temporary): The total number of staff at DIC is 35 classified as follows: • 9 are professional staff, 2 with Ph. D. and the other 7 are having M. Sc. their experience ranging from 10 to 27 years in the field of information management. • 24 are technical staff with B. Sc. in information, library sciences, computer sciences, with experience ranging from 2 to 30 years in their fields. • 2 are clerks (secretary and accountant). The DIC consists of 5 departments: Information Systems and Services, Acquisition, Sudan library, Main Library and Administrative department.

Branches, other sites: None. Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro equivalent): The annual operational budget of the DIC is about 38.400 SDG (1000 Euro). This budget allocated for stationeries and other disposable items. Source of funding, incl. main donors / sponsors: There are two main sources of funding for DIC: • The pool budget allocated from the NCR. • Funds from CTA, WHO and UNEP in form of publications and databases. Programme / projects undertaken: • • • • • • • • The Centre provides regular training courses in computerization of publications using WINISIS/CDS/ISIS programme. NCR-DIC provide free access to its computer database the consist of the Sudanese collections and some external databases (AGGORA) NCR issue booklets and leaflets on various topics on agriculture in addition to the technologies generated by the centre. Records of NCR research results. On going research register. Provide photocopies of the available literature (Abstracting services) (Sudan Science Abstracts). In collaboration with ARC the DIC runs training on AGRIS and building electronic libraries. Creation of local and wireless network within the centre.

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Name of institution: National Centre for Research (NCR)- Documentation and Information Centre (DIC) Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): DIC targeting wide range of beneficiaries that include: Researchers, Decision makers (Planners), students (both under and postgraduates) and academics. The statistics indicated that 27% of the audience are researchers, 70% are students and 3% are decision makers. With regard to the sources accessed: 56% access Sudan database, 30% for the international database, 5% accessed the referred database while 9% for the library. Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training, ….: The interviewed person (head, Information Services and systems department) is aware about CTA products and Services and was attended a training course on web design organized by CTA in Kenya. The DIC also benefit from CTA training courses on CDS/SIS/CD-ROM services/web design organized during (19932000). The DIC also receives CTA publications (Spore magazine, SDI and CD Rom databases). Appreciation of CTA’s products and services: NCR is currently receiving some CTA publications such as Spore magazine, DORA, SDI and sometimes (upon request) receive CD-ROM/Databases. The interviewee (head, Information services and systems) participated in some training courses organized by CTA in Kenya. They evaluated CTA products and services as excellent and useful. With regard to training, the trainee mentioned that the topics of training are carefully selected to meet the requirement of participant therefore; the materials helped her much to manage her job efficiently. They requested CTA to continue support by availing it products and increase the range of services to include more staff from NCR.

Extent of collaboration / interaction with other institutions (name, nature): DIC has collaboration and interactions with the following institutions and stakeholders: • Externally, UNESCO, ASESCO, CTA, AOAD exchange of information and training activities. • Internally: ARC and University of Khartoum exchange of information and organize joint capacity building programmes. National / sectoral policies impacting ICT use / information and communication within the institution: The NCR-DIC has scientific and technical information policy which is upgraded to Comprehensive National Strategy, quarter century policy of the ministry of Science and Technology. The government policy started in 2002 that favour sharing and spreading of information is quietly success.

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Name of institution: National Centre for Research (NCR)- Documentation and Information Centre (DIC) How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: The information needed are currently met from collaboration with the following: • Journal articles that publish research results published by ARC, U of K, U of G and ARRC. • Proceedings of conferences, workshops and seminars at national, regional and international levels. • Internet. • External sources: obtained from CTA, UNDP, UNSECO, Ford Foundation, WHO and IDRC. • Through exchange visits during conferences, study tours of the NCR staff. • Personal communications of staff with other scientists at national and international levels. Main information needs not satisfied (including types and format of information): DIC needs a wide range of information that includes primary, secondary and tertiary information in the field of electronics. Technological information on renewable energy, medicinal plants and herbs, traditional medicine, remote sensing and electronic documentation. Training is needed on web design, e content management, building electronic collection, electron publishing, research management and electronic archiving. Successes/main problems faced in terms of information and communication management: DIC is able to produce the following resources in ICM: • Database for foreign collection (main library). • Sudan bibliography databases (Sudan library). • National Register for current research. • National Records of NCR. The main problems are: • Limited financial resources allocated for ICM and there is no separate fund allocated for ICM (pool budget). • Technical problems in maintenance of equipment (expensive). • Limited access to updated software (anti viruses). • Not yet digital technology adopted in electronic documentation. • Lack of cooperation and coordination at national level Successes/main problems faced in terms of knowledge management (e.g.

availability list of organisations / clients using your products, databases, etc.):
The databases at the DIC are used by a majority of beneficiaries. It considered as centre of excellence to obtain scientific information on agriculture. There are future plans to establish wireless network with all Departments of NCR.

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Name of institution: National Centre for Research (NCR)- Documentation and Information Centre (DIC) Why institution selected as a key: It is one of the institutions that serve as national depository of scientific knowledge and information. It plays an important role in disseminating information and organization of activities that create users awareness and understanding in important issues of national concerns. Other observations: NCR appears as the most equipped and resourced for ICM. The database includes wide range of journal collections. The Centre provides wide range of information in agriculture through it databases.

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Name of Institution: Gezira Scheme (GS) Address: Gezira Scheme , Headquarter , Barakat , Gezira State, Sudan Tel.: + 249516880061 Fax.: +249155400016 Email: barakat@sudanmail.net.sd Web site: Under construction Type of Institution: GOV. Role: EX, IN, RU and TR Objective / mission statement: The Gezira scheme is a well known agricultural scheme with about 880.000 ha of land under one administration. The scheme was set to meet the following objectives: • Maximum utilization of resources to raise income and productivity. • Contribute to national objectives of providing working opportunities, food security and exports. • Secure farmers rights in selecting the crops grown according to technical limitations. • Environmental conservation. Field of specialisation: GS now is carrying variety of activities which can be outlined in the followings: • Provide technical services to farmers such as extension, crop protection, seed propagation and technology transfer. • Farmers training on water management through Water Users Association created according to 2005 Act as a new strategy. • In-service training of different categories of staff according to their needs and capacities. • Provide production inputs such as seeds, fertilizers and credit in collaboration with relevant stakeholder. • Issue weekly newspaper (El Gezira) on agriculture. This newspaper is established since 1950. • Organize marketing opportunities of some crops (cotton) in collaboration with Sudan Cotton Company. • Monitor and evaluate crop performance and respond to concern department any observed problems. • Organize field days and extension campaigns.

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Name of Institution: Gezira Scheme (GS) Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, etc; permanent / temporary): The total number of staff 4941 classified as follows: • 330 professional staff, agriculturists with B. Sc. and M. Sc. in various disciplines of agriculture (mainly agronomy, crop protection and horticulture). • 30 professional staff, engineers (mechanical, and civil). • 400 accountants and 51 clerks mostly with secondary school education or diploma with training accounting. The number of ICM staff responsible for ICM in GS is 9 stationed in the department of Information, classified as follows: • One professional with background in information technology. • 4 technical staff with B. Sc. in computer science. • 4 clerks. Branches, other sites: There are no branches other than the Headquarter offices located in Barakat (about 7 km south of Wad Medani). But the scheme in divided into 18 sections (Blocks) to ease management. There are two offices: • Khartoum office: it function is administrative for contacts with the central government. • Port Sudan office: to facilitate imports and exports of commodities, equipments of the scheme. Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro equivalent): The total annual budget is about 44 million SDG (13.9 million Euros). This budget intended for salaries and operation costs of administration.

Source of funding, incl. main donors / sponsors: The above budget is covered from administration fees charges per area grown. These fees vary according to the type of crop grown ranging from 20 to 35 Euro per ha.

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Name of Institution: Gezira Scheme (GS) Programme / projects undertaken: The scheme activities are oriented toward production of cotton, sorghum, groundnut, vegetables and wheat with recent trends in introduction of new crops such as maize, sunflower and Soya bean. • Provide extension services to farmers in the scheme and organize periodical field visits by a technical committee with representation of members from agricultural institutions in the Gezira. • Issue weekly extension newspaper (El Gezira, since 1950). • Organize extension meeting and demonstration plots with farmers’ participation. • Participate in broadcasting radio and TV programmes in agriculture in collaboration with Gezira state radio and TV. • Training of staff at different professional levels and provides training for students. • Participate in exhibitions at national (Khartoum Int. Exhibition) and regional (Dubai) levels. • Supervise crop protection operations on cotton and wheat performed by contracted companies. • Selection and maintenance of seed farms of sorghum, wheat and cotton for seed production. • Ginning of harvested cotton. • Produce annual report. Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): The GS is targeting all farmers in the scheme, which are about 13.000 in 18 section on a total area of 880.000 ha. Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training, ….: The interviewed person (head of information section) is not aware about CTA and its products and services. None of the staff in the scheme benefited from the services provided by CTA. Also the scheme didn’t receive and products or services from CTA. Appreciation of CTA’s products and services: No CTA product or service being received by any staff.

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Name of Institution: Gezira Scheme (GS) Extent of collaboration / interaction with other institutions (name, nature): GS has collaboration with the following institutions and stakeholders in agriculture and rural development: • ARC: provide the scheme with technological packages of crops and responds to various agricultural problems facing crop establishment. The ARC-Gezira Research Station located in Wad Medani, is established in 1918 with a mandate to serve agricultural activity in the Gezira. • University of Gezira: Exchange of information and provide capacity building programmes. • International Bank: through joint studies and provide consultancy and advisory services with special regards to production relations and rehabilitations programmes. • FAO: exchange of information and execution of joint projects. • AOAD and AAAID exchange of information and joint investment activities. • International agricultural Centre (Egypt): exchange of information, visits and training activities. National / sectoral policies impacting ICT use / information and communication within the institution: There are no any national or sectoral polices that impacting ICT use or ICM in the GS. How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: • • • • • • • • • Booklets produced by ARC and university scientists. Videos obtained from internal sources such as GSTV or from outside greatly help the GS in providing effective and widely diffused extension services. Direct contact with scientists from ARC or through joint activities GS obtain technological information on crops grown, Technical pamphlets. Extension leaflets and workshops proceedings issued by research institutions and universities. MoA provide technical assistance such as formulation of polices regarding credit, marketing and obtaining agricultural inputs. Feedbacks from farmers during field visits organized by a technical committee with representation of most stakeholders in agriculture in Gezira. Internet is used as a source for input prices, markets information, communication and press releases. Exchange visits with through signed agreements between the GS and partners outside Sudan (e.g. Sudanese Egyptian Protocol, Turkish, and Syrian). GS and through national (Khartoum International fair) and regional (Dubai) obtain information on marketing opportunities and information on sources, prices of agricultural inputs.

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Name of Institution: Gezira Scheme (GS) Main information needs not satisfied (including types and format of information): The GS is seeking wide range of information to meet the strategic plans of 2005 Act. The information needed covers wide range of technological (on crops) and technical (ICTs): • Suitable crops to provide alternatives for farmers according to the 2005 Act. • Technological information on IPM to reduce excessive pesticide use especially on vegetables. • Water use efficiency information for the recently structured body (Water Users Association). • Mechanization of agricultural practices. • Information on agricultural insurance. • Niche markets and fair trade opportunities. Training needs: • Web design and web management (update), 2 persons. • Training is needed for extension staff on the use of audio-visuals, training materials and extension methodologies (about 15 extension agents). • Training on editing and print materials to upgrade the quality of the extension newspaper produced by the scheme (2 persons). Successes/main problems faced in terms of information and communication management: Financial resources: No sufficient funds with a budget allocated specially for ICM, but pool budget for information department. The weekly extension newspaper that the scheme issuing since 1950s is now stopped due to limited budget and technical problems in printing. ICTs resources: are of poor quality and numbers with no adequate training of personnel in some programmes such as spread sheet. GS has no web site on the Internet. A Japanese aid in 1988 established a wireless telecommunication network that covers the whole scheme and the scheme depend on to collect information as well as for communication. Successes/main problems faced in terms of knowledge management (e.g.

availability list of organisations / clients using your products, databases, etc.):
Information generated by the GS on the total area under cultivation, crops grown, production and productivity, is used by some national institutions (MoA, Bank of Sudan and Federal Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning) for planning and decision-making regarding credit, inputs. Statistical division at GS provides statistical information to researchers and postgraduate student.

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Name of Institution: Gezira Scheme (GS) Why institution selected as a key: It is a worldwide known agricultural scheme with about 880,000 ha of cropping land under one administration with free flow irrigation (the cheapest in the world). It is the main scheme for production of long staple cotton with recent trend towards growing more wheat and vegetables. The scheme contributes to the livelihood and rural development for about 5 million inhabitants in the Gezira area and significantly contributing to achieving food security in the country. The GS provides extension services and information packages for solving agricultural problems; it is also active in training activities. Other observations: GS in the worldwide know scheme with an area of about 900.000 ha under one administration. The scheme was considered to be the backbone of Sudan economy. Cotton grown in the Gezira was the main source of foreign currency earnings of Sudan. Recently the scheme facing serious problem in obtaining credit to finance the different operations. There is a restructuring efforts supported by International Bank resulted in an Act called 2005 Act that adopt some strategies to improve the situation.

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Name of Institution: Rayaam Daily newspaper (RAN) Address: Khartoum P. O. Box 6562 Language: Arabic Pages: 12 Web site: www.rayaam.info Email: atabani@rayaam.info Type of institution: MED. Role: IN, TR. Objective / mission statement: Rayaam is a daily newspaper established since 1945, as apolitical, social newspaper. It also provides wide coverage for economic, rural and agricultural issues. The newspaper has wide coverage on the Sudanese community and been distributed in other Arabian countries.

Field of specialisation: • • • • Publication of political news. Provide coverage through reports, analysis to different rural, agricultural and environmental issues. Advertisement services. Generate discussion forms (through it web site) on various issues.

Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, etc; permanent / temporary): The total number of staff is 48 classified as follows: • 4 with B. Sc. in Fine art. • 20 Journalists (various degrees). • 18 with B. Sc. in computer sciences (different options including designers). • 6 are clerks and secretaries (with basic computer training. The skills of the staff include: Advertising, Design, and Editing. ICM staff is 18 in total classified as follows: • One professional staff specialized in editing. • 15 technical staff with background in computer sciences, their experience ranging from 4 to 10 years. • 2 clerks.

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Name of Institution: Rayaam Daily newspaper (RAN) Branches, other sites: No branches other than the head offices located in Khartoum. The technical divisions include sections of: • Political. • Economic. • News and press release. • Investigations. • Sports. • Technical (deals with ICTs).

Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro equivalent): Difficult to estimate. Source of funding, incl. main donors / sponsors: There are two funding sources: • Income generated from the daily distribution of the newspaper. • Income from advertising

Programme / projects undertaken: The programme of work include: • Publishing of the daily newspaper that distributed through agents to all cities and towns in Sudan. It is also distributed in some Arabian countries such as Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Egypt, Yemen, UAE and Libya. • Administer and maintain the newspaper web site. • Participate in events, seminars and discussion forums. • Journalists are active members in some committees at national level concern with planning and form of strategies and polices. Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): The Rayaam newspaper is targeting all Sudanese community Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training, ….: The technical manager is not aware of the existence of CTA or its products and services. He also noted that there are no staffs in the newspaper to benefit from CTA services. Appreciation of CTA’s products and services: No any CTA’ products and services received but, they are willing to have collaboration with CTA in agricultural information and ICM in general. They also are looking forward to CTA to respond to their capacity building needs.

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Name of Institution: Rayaam Daily newspaper (RAN) Extent of collaboration / interaction with other institutions (name, nature): Rayaam has a wide range of collaboration with government, non government organization. It receives articles for publications from staff in government, non government organization (staff from ARC, universities are regular and important contributors). The newspaper also provides advertising services to all sectors. In addition, the newspaper participates in exhibitions at national and regional level. The newspaper provides training opportunities in design, editing to graduate and post graduate students. National / sectoral policies impacting ICT use / information and communication within the institution: There is no sectoral or national policy that constraining or enabling ICT use. How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: The information needed are met through: • Annual reports and statistics produced by all governmental and NGOs. • Direct contact of journalists with the source of information to get in-depth and detailed information. • SMC provides information to newspapers. • Internet to obtain information and news. • Universities, MoA, ARC, FAO provide technical information and through contribution of some staff writing articles on agriculture. • Exchange of information with other press releases, newspapers. Main information needs not satisfied (including types and format of information): The information needed include: • Technical information on ICTs and appropriate use in journalism. Training needs: • Basic computer training in needed for the newly recruited staff to be acquainted with the use of computer programmes (7 to 10 staff). • Advance training in needed on web design, web management and updates (2 persons). • Training is needed on editing and print publication management (2 persons). • Training of two staff on Agricultural journalism.

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Name of Institution: Rayaam Daily newspaper (RAN) Successes/main problems faced communication management: • • • in terms of information and

The Rayaam newspaper secure high distribution rate. The first Sudanese newspaper to have web site and having the daily issue online (since 1999). Technical capacities of staff in ICM need to be further developed by securing training in editing, management of print publications.

Successes/main problems faced in terms of knowledge management (e.g.

availability list of organisations / clients using your products, databases, etc.):
The newspaper has adequate number of staff running the daily work programme. The number of PCs at the newspaper is also adequate but there are technical problems faced such as maintenance and management of online information. The interviewee raised the point of lack of cooperation and coordination at the national level between broadcast media in general in exchange of information. The newspaper role agricultural communication is generally low. This attributed by the interviewee to lack of professional journalism in agriculture, also scientific information obtained from agricultural information sources (ARC and universities) is difficult for journalist to transfer it into material suitable for publication on newspaper. Why institution selected as a key: It is a daily newspaper since 1945 with a considerable circulation figure. The newspaper has a daily page that covers economic and agricultural news. It has great potential in communication for agriculture and rural development if received some capacity building needs. Other observations: N/A

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Name of Institution: Agricultural Bank of Sudan (ABS) Address: P. O. Box 1363 Gamhoria Avenue, Khartoum. Tel.: + 249 183 777949 Fax. + 249 183 777949 Email: Web site: Under construction Type of institution: BNK. Role: FS, PP, PS-E, RU and TM. Objective / mission statement: The ABS, created since 1957 is a specialized bank, which finances the country's main farming activities including irrigated farming, mechanized farming and traditional farming. It provides mainly (80% of the loan portfolio) seasonal loans for up to one year and medium-term financing exceeding one year. The ABS provides farmers with cash loans for farming and harvesting, and in-kind loans (75%) in the form of production inputs and requirements (fertilizer, burlap sacks, improved seeds, insecticides and farm machinery).

Field of specialisation: • • • • ABS's branches open current accounts, savings accounts, investment accounts, and cash checks. Process transfers and accept letters of guarantee and letters of credit. ABS purchases and sells production inputs and handles the export of crops. One of the used Islamic lending methods is As-Salam, which includes cash lending and in-kind repayment. Provides loans and import agricultural inputs (fertilizers, machinery, seeds).

Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, etc; permanent / temporary): The total number of staff is about 1950. This number includes: • 254 Professional staff (with B. Sc. and M. Sc. in agriculture-various disciplines). • 430 Technical staff (with Diploma, computer training). • The rest are clerks. The ICM staffs at the ABS consist of one professional staff (librarian), 5 staff with B.Sc. in computer science and 2 clerks. The technical capacities of ICM staff at ABS were found to be the poorest among the all visited institutions. Branches, other sites: ABS has 89 branches all over the Sudan. Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro equivalent): The annual budget exact figure is not available.

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Name of Institution: Agricultural Bank of Sudan (ABS) Source of funding, incl. main donors / sponsors: Main sources include: • Central Bank. • Deposits. • Government. Programme / projects undertaken: The programme of ABS includes: • Provide credit to finance agricultural operations in all farming systems of Sudan. • Provide credit to production families especially in rural and agricultural communities to run small business targeting poverty alleviation. • Provide credit for exportation of agricultural machinery (tractors, ploughs …). • The ABS manages grain silos located at El Gadarif city and participate in other cool storage activities of some vegetables. • Export activities, exporting of sesame, sorghum, Roselle. • Provide extension services aimed at creation of awareness to the services provided. • Produce booklets (not regularly) on the activities and services. • Manage a library in the central office that contains studies, textbooks and bulletins on banking. • The ABS regularly organizes in-service training and workshops. Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): The ABS is targeting: • Agricultural schemes (Gezira, Rahad, Suki and New Halfa). • Farmers in mechanized and traditional rainfed agriculture. • Households through financing small enterprises for small agricultural production. Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training, ….: The interviewed staff (head of the training centre and a training officer) doesn’t aware of the existence of CTA. No staff member has benefited from CTA products and services. Appreciation of CTA’s products and services: No products or services received.

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Name of Institution: Agricultural Bank of Sudan (ABS) Extent of collaboration / interaction with other institutions (name, nature): The ABS has wide collaboration and interactions at local and regional level which could be summarized in the followings: • Internal collaboration: with U of K, Administrative Development Centre and Sudan Academy of Sciences to provide training needs. • Ministry of finance provides information on policies and strategies related credit and finance of agricultural activities. • External collaboration: Administration centres in Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Iran provides technical help and consultancies on credit management and loans. National / sectoral policies impacting ICT use / information and communication within the institution: No any polices were mentioned that enabling or constraining use of ICT or information and communication. Head, of training Centre, mentioned that absence of strategies and polices on ICM is one of the major constraints in ICM activities in the Bank. How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: The information needed are currently supplied by: • • • • • Annual reports produced by governmental departments such as Bank of Sudan, MoA and production schemes. The ABS rely on some local institutions such as Ministry of Finance and MoA to provide information on polices and strategies. ABS has collaboration with centres in Jordan and Egypt for providing training on administration, finance and accounting. ABS exchange visits and experience with relevant institutions working in agricultural credit in Syria, Iran and Malaysia. Internet is used to obtain sources of agricultural inputs, markets and international crop prices.

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Name of Institution: Agricultural Bank of Sudan (ABS) Main information needs not satisfied (including types and format of information): The ABS needs a wide range of information summarized in the followings: • Technical information on ICTs and appropriate use in ICM. • Market information especially international markets. • Extension methods and use of ICTs to demonstrate activities of the bank during extension campaigns and workshops organized by the bank. • Regional and international relevant institution to establish linkage and partnerships to exchange information especially with regard to agricultural insurance which the bank has plans to enter this field. Training and capacity building needs: 1. Basic computer training to acquire staff with the uses of computer some programmes specially Windows (25 persons). 2. Training on web design and updates (4 persons). 3. Training on managing data and records (spread sheet programmes such as Excel) (50 persons to be utilized in the different branches all over the country).

Successes/main problems faced communication management: • • •

in

terms

of

information

and

Limited number of PCs is the major constraints in information and communication faced by the bank. The number of PCs estimated as 1 computer for every 5 persons. The technical capacities of staff are generally low. High cost and inefficient ICT maintenance.

Successes/main problems faced in terms of knowledge management (e.g.

availability list of organisations / clients using your products, databases, etc.):
The ABS suffer from Institutional changes of ICM unit that been allocated to different departments within a short period of time. In addition to lack of strategies and polices at institutional level Why institution selected as a key: ABS is a funding agency that provides funds to all farmers in all sectors to cater for the different agricultural operations. ABS is also active in providing services such as machinery and fertilizers and improved seeds. The bank manage has activities in storage of grains and cool storage of some vegetables. The bank operates through a network of branches that cover all the country. Other observations: N/A

155

Name of Institution: National Information Centre (NIC) Address: P. O. Box 11711, Nile Avenue, Khartoum, Sudan. Tel.: + 249 183 796902 Fax.: + 249 183 798081 Web Site: www.nicsudan.gov.sd Email: nicsudan@sudanet.net Type of institution: GOV. Role: IN, PP, RG, TR. Objective / mission statement: NIC is a national unit governing the information landscape of the Government of Sudan. The objectives of NIC are: • Care for information of various types, systems and apparatus. • Promote the system of information and use of the same in the country. • Construct specialized information networks. • Feed various state organs with information for efficient and effective administration of the state affairs for economic and social development. • Secure the secrecy of strategic information. Field of specialisation: • • • • • • • • ICT infrastructure. IT applications, training. E legislation and E government planning and implementation. Foster collaboration between existing government units to help in developing improved services. Promote quality contents and information across government. Reduce cost by eliminating redundancy in publishing materials. Increase efficiency and effectiveness of government information services. NIC acts as government advisory body in information services.

Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, etc; permanent / temporary): The total number of staff is about 80 classified as follows: • 10 professionals staff with skills in information and information management, Information technology). • 25 Technical staff with skills in networking, telecom, project management. • 20 Clerks. • 10 labours. • 15 temporary staff. Branches, other sites: Beside the main office in Khartoum NIC has: • Federal branches in federal ministries. • Branches in state ministries.

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Name of Institution: National Information Centre (NIC) Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro equivalent): The annual budget is about 1.000.000 SDG (about 322.580 Euro) Source of funding, incl. main donors / sponsors: The main source of funding in the government beside some loans. Programme / projects undertaken: The programme of work include the following activities: • Providing the national network backbone and e-Governance support to Central Government, State Governments, IT Administrations, Districts and other Government bodies. • Offers a wide range of ICT services including Nationwide Communication Network for decentralised planning, improvement in Government services and wider transparency of national and local Governments. • Assists in implementing Information Technology Projects, in close collaboration with Central and State Governments, in the areas of (a) Centrally sponsored schemes and Central sector schemes, (b) State sector and State sponsored projects, and (c) District Administration sponsored projects. • Endeavours to ensure that the latest technology in all areas of IT is available to its users. • Besides IT related activities, NIC is also establishing a national information policy to govern how government information is collected, analysed, stored, disseminated and disposed of. Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): NIC is targeting users of the system. Private companies. Cooperation, associations. Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training, ….: The Director, E government initiative doesn’t aware of the existence of CTA and its products and services. No any of the staff at NIC benefit from service of CTA. Appreciation of CTA’s products and services: No products or services received. NIC through the director of E government initiative greatly welcome establishing partnership with CTA to benefit from its products and services. He emphasized that CTA will greatly help the centre in building strategic plans on information and in ICM in Sudan.

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Name of Institution: National Information Centre (NIC) Extent of collaboration / interaction with other institutions (name, nature): NIC has collaboration with the followings: • ITU, provide NIC with information on new technologies and ICTs applications. • ADB provide loans and execute joint project. • UNDP, UNISCO, AEC provide technical information and joint project execution. National / sectoral policies impacting ICT use / information and communication within the institution: No national or sectoral policy was mentioned impacting ICT use or information and communication within NIC. How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: NIC rely on the followings information sources: • Proceedings and technical reports of government ministries, the concerned departments: provide NIC with information on ICT uses, problems, policy needs, • International organizations such as UNISCO, UNDP provide NIC with information ICTS, applications. • Universities provide technical information through studies and consultations. • Exchange visits with relevant institutions in Africa (e.g. South Africa, Kenya) and Arab region. • Through participation of NIC staff in workshops and seminars inside and outside Sudan. • Internet is used to obtain recent information on information and ICM. Main information needs not satisfied (including types and format of information): Information are needed on: • Technical information on ICTs such as appropriate uses, maintenance. • Information on editing of print publication is needed to improve the bulletin being issued by the centre. • Information marketing. Training needs: • Training on web design (2 persons), web updates and management of networks (3 persons).

158

Name of Institution: National Information Centre (NIC) Successes/main problems faced communication management: • in terms of information and

NIC issue quarterly magazine that deals with recent trends and information technology and information and communication management. • Issue a page in some daily newspapers. • Undergo in-service training for staff on computer and information management. • NIC appears as well resourced in term of availability of PCs, printers and local network connecting all sections. Constraints: • Shortage of funds. • Technical capacities of staff especially the newly recruited staff. • Lack of coordination and cooperation with government departments especially at state level.

Successes/main problems faced in terms of knowledge management (e.g.

availability list of organisations / clients using your products, databases, etc.):
Not Available Why institution selected as a key: NIC is a leading institute in the area of Information technology and networking of information in Sudan. NIC is providing the national network backbone and e governance support to central and state government. It provides its services to wide range of institutions including government and private sector. The centre is active in policy formulation at federal and state levels on information and communication management. The centre is considered as government focal point in information management. Other observations: E-government initiative that targeting all government departments to enhance online information and usage is being supervised by a committee headed by NIC. The role of NIC in information management can be further utilized with emphasis on agricultural information.

159

Name of Institution: University of Khartoum - Shambat Library complex (SHAM) Address: P. O. Pox 321, Shambat, Khartoum North Tel.: + 249 912614998 Email: Suzan@yahoo.com Web site: www.uofk.dl.uofk.edu Type of institution: EDU Role: IN, RD Objective / mission statement: SHAM is part of the main university library serving the agricultural colleges. A high library committee runs the main library. The deputy vice chancellor of the university personally headed the committee. The university librarian, the convenor of the committee, is directly responsible to the vice chancellor to look after the benefit of the university library with its different branches. Responsibilities of the faculties in addition to some other bodies of the university are members of the committee. Sham was created to serve the information needs of the agricultural colleges’ staff and students (both graduate and post graduate students) of the university of Khartoum. SHAM also extended it information services to other universities and research centres. Field of specialisation: • • • • Provide access to various information sources in the library. Provide access to Internet via 24 computers. Abstracting, catalogue and other various tasks relevant to ICM. Issue booklets, bulletin and leaflets (not regular) on various agricultural topics.

Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, etc; permanent / temporary): The total number of staff is 15 classified as follows: • 1 Professional staff with M. Sc. in library sciences and information. • 6 Technical staff with economics, library and computer sciences background. • 8 are clerks. Branches, other sites: There are no branches other than the complex in Shambat. The section within the complex are: • The digital library. • University Thesis. • Classification and catalogue. • Books section. • Periodicals

160

Name of Institution: University of Khartoum - Shambat Library complex (SHAM) Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro equivalent): The annual budget classified as follows: • 42.000 SDG (about 13,500 Euro) for salaries. • 2,400 SDG (about 774 Euro) for stationeries. Source of funding, incl. main donors / sponsors: The government is the only source of funding. Programme / projects undertaken: The programme of work include: • Issue a bulletin every three months. • Construction and management of a web site. • Management of some databases within a local network. • Provide basic computer training (Windows and Internet applications) to some technical staff in the complex. Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): The library complex in created to serve the agricultural faculties and centres belong to U of K. Which are: • Faculty of agriculture. • Faculty of Vet. Medicine. • Faculty of Forests. • Faculty of Animal Production. • Meat Promotion Exports Institute. • Desertification Studies Centre. • Camel Research Centre. Beside this, SHAM is providing its services to staff members and postgraduate students from other universities. About 500 staff members and 2500 students are using SHAM facilities. Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training, ….: The two interviewed staff is aware of the existence of CTA and its products and services. The library is receiving Spore magazine, some CTA publications and DORA. Appreciation of CTA’s products and services: CTA publication received evaluated as very good materials that enrich the library. Many topics covered in these materials are found relevant to most of the library audience. It is simple, easy to understand and covering much issues with regard to agriculture and rural development in Africa. The interviewed staff requested CTA to expand its products and services specially training courses to increase staff capacities in ICM.

161

Name of Institution: University of Khartoum - Shambat Library complex (SHAM) Extent of collaboration / interaction with other institutions (name, nature): SHAM has collaboration with the following institutions: • FAO provide publications, reports of studies, research reports and proceedings of conferences and workshops all provided in print format. • ICARD provide training in information and information management, databases including access to ICARDA library. • ARC and NCR exchange of information. National / sectoral policies impacting ICT use / information and communication within the institution: No any national or sectoral policy was mentioned impacting ICT use or information and communication within SHAM. How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: The information needed are currently from the following sources: • Journal articles: most of agricultural and rural development journals issued in the Sudan are available in hard copies in the library. • Proceedings of workshops, studies. • Research networks (AGORA), ICARDA library. • CTA annual reports, SDI service and reference books in agriculture. • SHAM staff exchange visits with ICARDA, ICRAF. • Internet is used through DSL connection to obtain information provided by online journals such as African Journals online. Main information needs not satisfied (including types and format of information): Technical information on ICTs and their uses in ICM. Training needs are: • Training on information technology (construction of databases and databases management) (2 persons). • Training on web site design and management and networks (1 person). • Information marketing. • Production of electronic archives and CD production (2 persons).

162

Name of Institution: University of Khartoum - Shambat Library complex (SHAM) Successes/main problems faced communication management: in terms of information and

SHAM is able to develop the followings in the are of ICM: • Database of the university thesis (abstracts). • Database on books available at the library. • Database on periodical. • Electronic catalogue represents the contents of the library. • Issue technical bulletin every three months. There are future plans to develop electronic archive and to produce CDs with abstracts on certain topics. The problems include: • Very low budget allocated for ICM activities (can hardly covers stationeries). • Limited number of PCs (24) compared to the daily visitors (around 250 people). • Unavailability of the origin software (anti-viruses). • Slow network with many defects, high cost of maintenance. • Technical capacities of staff to perform some tasks are low. Successes/main problems faced in terms of knowledge management (e.g.

availability list of organisations / clients using your products, databases, etc.):
Not Available Why institution selected as a key: U of K is a leading education institute with a number of faculties and centres specialized in agriculture and rural development (Agriculture, Forestry, Animal production....). The university is also active in research, training and publishing in agriculture. The institution selected SHAM, provides information services to wide range of university staff, researchers and students. Other observations: SHAM is used by a very high number of graduate, postgraduate and university lecturers not only from U of K, but from about 5 universities in Khartoum. The centre is considered as one of the most important sources of agricultural information in the Sudan. Because it consist in addition to the databases, many studies as university thesis in agriculture.

163

4. LIST OF PERSONS INTERVIEWED
Name Mrs. Ahlam I. Musa Prof. Abdelrahman K. Osman Mr. Azhari G. Hassan Mr. Mustafa Sharaf Mr. Salah Abu Elgasim Mr. Ibrahim M. Ibrahim Mr. Elsir E. M. Elhassan Mr. Elkazim A. M. Elbashir Ms. Tahani R. Ahmed Mr. Abdelrahman E. Eltayeb Prof. Mohamed E. I. Shomo Ms. Rafa A. Ghobrial Mr. Lugman M. Mohamed Ms. Mashair A. Eltighani Ms. Amal M. Murgan Function Head, Central library, ARC Director, Dry Land Research Centre, ARC Head, Information department Head, Technology transfer and extension Director, Gezira State TV Head, Elobeid seed Centre - ASSCO Head, Technology transfer and extension Information Technologist Training Officer Head, Training centre Head, Information Centre Head, Information Services and Systems Senior Forest Officer Head, Projects and Studies Department Director, Operation Room Institution ARC ARC GS GS GSTV ASSCO GSMA GSMA ABS ABS SAU NCR FNC FNC MoA Telephone + 249 912411839 + 249 918092678 + 249 912320552 + 249 122538023 + 249 122995535 + 249 912948528 + 249 918014066 + 249 122907115 + 249 912991967 + 249 912144710 + 249 912493182 + 249 915504104 + 249 912821901 + 249 912837890 + 249 915806672 Address ahlamusa@yahoo.com P. O. Box 126, Wad Medani arkosman@hotmail.com P. O. Box 429, ElObeid azharimh@maktoob.com Email: P. O. Box: salahgasim@hotmail.com P. O. Box: Ibrahimmurkaaz2006@yahoo.com P. O. Box: P. O. Box 255, El Gadarif Email: P. O. Box 255 El Gadarif Email: P. O. Box 1363 Khartoum Email: P. O. Box 1363 Khartoum Email: Hshomo@gmail.com P. O. Box: rafaasham@yahoo.com P. O. Box 2404 Khartoum fnc@gmail.com P. O. Box 658 Khartoum Mashair_tigani@hotmail.com P. O. Box 658 Khartoum P. O. Box 285 Khartoum

165

Name Ms. Magda A. Babiker Ms. Bakhita M. Elshafie Dr. Abubaker Hamad Mr. Abdel Hameed Hassan Ms. Suzan E. Ahmed Mr. Khalid E. Mohamed

Function Web manager Director, Agricultural economics dep. Director, e government Technical Director Head, Nour agric. Information unit Librarian, Shambat complex

Institution MoA MoA NIC RAN SHAM SHAM

Telephone + 249 912959111 + 249 911169560 + 249 183 764146 + 249 912175192 + 249 912614998 + 249 912497834

Address sandowla@gmail.com P. O. Box 285, Khartoum P. O. Box 285, Khartoum Email: a.hamad@ntc.org.sd P. O. Box 11711, Khartoum Hameeds-48@hotmail.com P. O. Box 6562, Khartoum suzanmajid@yahoo.com P. O. Box 321, Khartoum North khalidelzain@hotmail.com P. O. Box 321, Khartoum North

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