ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION NEEDS IN AFRICAN, CARIBBEAN & PACIFIC (ACP) STATES FOR CTA’S PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Phase

II: Caribbean The Bahamas

Final Report Prepared by: Godfrey Eneas on behalf of the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA)

Project: 4-7-41-204-4/d

October 2005

Disclaimer This report has been commissioned by the CTA to enhance its monitoring of information needs in ACP countries. CTA does not guarantee the accuracy of data included in this report, nor does it accept responsibility for any use made thereof. The views and opinions expressed in this report are those of the author alone and do not necessarily reflect the views of CTA. CTA reserves the right to select projects and recommendations that fall within its mandate.

ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION NEEDS IN AFRICAN, CARIBBEAN & PACIFIC (ACP) STATES FOR CTA’S PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Phase II: Caribbean The Bahamas

Final Report Prepared by: Godfrey Eneas on behalf of the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA)

Project: 4-7-41-204-4/d October 2005

Table of Contents
List of Acronyms Executive Summary 1. INTRODUCTION 2. COUNTRY PROFILE 2.1 Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry 2.1.1 Agriculture 2.1.2 Fisheries 2.1.3 Forestry 2.2 Information and Communication Management Capacity 2.3 Agricultural Information Services 3. NEEDS ANALYSIS 3.1 Information Needs 3.2 Capacity Building Needs 4. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 4.1 Conclusions 4.1.1 Extent of Key Problems 4.1.2 Information Needs 4.1.3 Capacity Building Needs 4.1.4 Potential Partners and Beneficiaries: 4.2 Recommendations 4.2.1 Information Needs 4.2.2 Capacity Building Needs 4.2.3 Potential Partners and Beneficiaries ANNEXES ANNEX I. TERMS OF REFERENCE ANNEX II. COUNTRY PROFILE II.1 General Agricultural Profile II.2 Socio-Economic Profile II.3 Media and Telecommunications ANNEX III. PROFILE OF INSTITUTIONS III.1. List of All Institutions in Agriculture and Rural Development III.2 Select List of Key Institutions ANNEX IV. PERSONS/INSTITUTIONS CONTACTED ANNEX V. REFERENCES iii viii 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 6 10 10 12 16 16 16 17 19 20 21 21 22 23 24 25 32 32 48 58 69 69 74 84 86

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List of Acronyms

ACW AGCSL BAIC BAPA BCC BCL BDB BEC BEST BF BHA BPE BTC CCSSHSCSL CVBHSCSL CAIS CARDI CAIC CCA CCCU CDB CARIRI CAMID CRNM CARICOM CAHSCSL CTA COB CTL CTO CERMES CUNA DOA DCD DOF DOI DLS DLG DOS EACSL

Anglican Church Women Abaco Agricultural Cooperative Society Limited Bahamas Agricultural Industrial Corporation Bahamas Agricultural Producers Association Bahamas Chamber of Commerce Bahamas Cooperative League Bahamas Development Bank Bahamas Electricity Corporation Bahamas Environmental Science & Technology Commission Bahamas Ferries Bahamas Hotel Association Bahamas Produce Exchange Bahamas Trade Commission C.C. Sweeting Senior High School Cooperative Society Limited C.V. Bethel High School Cooperative Society Limited Caribbean Agricultural Information Service Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute Caribbean Association of Industry and Commerce Canadian Cooperative Association Caribbean Confederation of Credit Unions Caribbean Development Bank Caribbean Industrial Research Institute Caribbean Marketing Intelligence Network Caribbean Regional Negotiation Machinery Caribbean Secretariat Central Abaco High School Cooperative Society Limited Technical Centre for Agriculture and Rural Corporation College of The Bahamas Container Terminals Limited Caribbean Tourism Organization Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies Credit Union National Association Department of Agriculture Department of Cooperative Development Department of Fisheries Department of Immigration Department of Lands & Surveys Department of Local Government Department of Statistics Eleuthera Agricultural Cooperative Society Limited

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FFSS FDA FAO 4HC FTAA GBFCSL GBPA GI IDB IICA JAB IFPRI MCFCSL MCSL MAFLG MOE MOT MTI NPLPCSL NAFCSL NCICSL NLICSL NLIHSCSL QCCSL USDA U of Fla. UWI WCCU WTTC

Fish & Farm Supply Store Florida Department of Agriculture Food and Agricultural Organization 4 H Club Free Trade Agreement of the Americas Grand Bahama Farmers Cooperative Society Limited Grand Bahama Port Authority Global Insight Inter-American Development Bank Inter-American Institute For Cooperation on Agriculture Junior Achievement Bahamas International Food Policy Research Institute Mangrove Cay Fishing Cooperative Society Limited Mayaguana Cooperative Society Limited Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Local Government Ministry of Education Ministry of Tourism Ministry of Trade and Industry New Providence Livestock Producers Cooperative Society Ltd. North Abaco Fishing Cooperative Society Limited North Cat Island Cooperative Society Limited North Long Island Cooperative Society Limited North Long Island High School Cooperative Society Limited Queen’s College Cooperative Society Limited United States Department of Agriculture University of Florida University of the West Indies World Council of Credit Unions World Travel and Tour Council

Exchange rate: EURO

EURO = 1.29636 USD (May 2005)

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List of Tables
Page Table 1: Table 2: Annex II Tables II.1 Table 3: Table 4: Table 5 Table 6: Table 7: Table 8: Table 9: Table 10a: Table 10b: Table 11a: Table 11b: Table 12a: Table 12b: Table 13: Table 14: Table 15: Table 16: Table 17: Table 18a: Table 18b: Table 18c: Table 19: Table 20a: Table 20b: Table 21: II.3 Table 22: Table 23: Table 24: Table 25: Table 26: Agribusiness and Small Farm Output (Graph 1) Farm Population Grouping 1978, 1994 and 2005 Number of Holders by Island Farm Population by Age Group and Gender Number of Farmers By Age, Years in Farming and Gender Acreage under Production 1978 and 1994 Total Fishery Product Landings 1997 – 2003 Bahamas Total Recorded Product Landing Total Recorded Landings by Weight and Value (Graph 2) Bahamas Total Value of Exports Total Value of Exports (Graph 3) Bahamas Recorded Landing of Crawfish Bahamas Recorded Landing of Crawfish (Graph 4) Production Potential of Specific Crops Main Agricultural Produce 2003 All Bahamas Exports 2003 32 34 35 36 37 38 40 41 41 42 42 42 42 43 45 46 Sources of Information Needs Analysis 6 14

II.2

Population by Island and Sex (1970-2000) 49 Literacy 50 Public School Enrollment by District: Primary Schools 50 Public School Enrollment by District: Secondary Schools 51 Enrollment: Independent Schools 52 Registered Physicians, Dentists and Nurses Bahamas 53 1998-2002 Dispersion of Government Health Service Facilities, 54 Bahamas (2003) Dispersion of Government Health Services Facilities, 55 Bahamas (2000) Number of Consumers 56 Newspapers Periodicals Private Radio Stations Private Households by Island and Number of Televisions per Household Private Households by Island Indicating Number of 58 60 63 64 65

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Table 27 Table 28: Table 29: Annex III Tables Table 30: Table 31: Annex IV Tables Table 32:

Households with Satellite or Cable Wire-line and Wireless Subscribers, Bahamas Telecommunications Ltd. Private Households by Island Indicating Availability and Access to Amenities Internet Service Providers

66 67 67

Institutions Involved in Agriculture and Rural Development Select List of Key Institutions

70 74

Persons Interviewed

84

Key to type and role of institutions / organizations: Type: AS-F Farmer’s association (includes co-operatives) AS-W Women’s association AS-Y Youth association BNK Bank or credit institution CCI Chamber of commerce and industry CHU Church-based group EDU Educational institution GOV Government department/ministry NGO Non-government organization PRV REG STA STE Private enterprise, company Regional organization, project or network Statutory body State enterprise

OTH Other Role: EX IN FS PP Extension and outreach Information services Financial services Policy and planning vi

PS-E Private sector – Exporter (fresh, frozen and dried produce) PS-M Private sector – Manufacturer (e.g. tannery, bottler, refiner, roaster) PS-P PS-S RD RG TR TM RU OT Private sector – Producer (e.g. commercial farm, fishing company) Private sector – Supplier (e.g. agrichemicals, equipment, seeds) Research and development Regulation (compliance, standards) Training (at secondary, tertiary vocational level) Trade and marketing (include market development) Rural Development Other

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Executive Summary
Introduction This study, The Assessment of Agricultural Information Needs in African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) states Phase 2: Caribbean, was commissioned by the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA). The CTA was established in 1983 as an African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) – European Union (EU) organization. Its original mandate was derived out of the Lomé Convention and, in the year 2000, it was modified following the signing of the new ACP/EU framework agreement (Cotonou Agreement). The CTA’s main goal is “to develop and provide services that improve access to information for agricultural and rural development, and to strengthen the capacity of ACP countries to produce, acquire, exchange and utilize information in this area.” Objectives The objectives of the study are as follows; • To identify agricultural information needs of key actors/beneficiaries for CTA products and services. • To identify needs of potential actors/beneficiaries of CA activities and services in terms of building capacity for information and communication management. • To identify potential partners/beneficiaries for CTA activities and services. • To develop some baseline data to facilitate subsequent monitoring activities. Methodology The methodology employed in the study comprised three components: • • • Briefing session at the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI), St. Augustine, Trinidad. A desk review of available literature and information services including the findings of program findings. Face-to-face interviews were undertaken by interviewing officials and senior management personnel in ten institutions of which were from the public sector, and the remaining four were non-governmental organizations (NGO’s).

Expected result In conjunction with the above, “The study should assist the three operational units of the CTA as well as it’s local representatives to improve and better target interventions and activities aimed at political partners and beneficiaries (including women, youth, private sector and civil society organizations); to have a more informed picture of their needs and viii

aid in the elaboration of a strategy and framework of action. The study should also highlight where there are specific needs for CTA’s products and services thereby enabling improvement in the delivery of the same.” Findings With reference to information, the needs which were ascertained were statistical (sectoral and national), field data for crop forecasting and marketing, crop and livestock yields and trade information i.e. EU legislation, state of industry / agribusinesses and general public policy plans. Capacity building needs were centered on manpower development and training in order to upgrade skills and expertise in information and communication technology (ICT). Conclusions and recommendations In concluding it was apparent that the public sector lacked a clear understanding of the following: • • The importance of an effective ICT program as an integral part of the agricultural sector and as a mechanism to assist in regulating the sector. There was also little evidence that steps were being taken to establish a national information system generally and specifically in the agricultural sector.

In view of the above it is recommended that action should be taken to assist the agricultural sector of The Bahamas in formulating a strategic information plan.

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INTRODUCTION
Established in 1983, the original mandate of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) – European Union (EU), Technical Cooperation for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) has been modified following the signing of the new ACP-EU framework agreement (Cotonou Agreement) in 2000. Since 2000, the CTA’s responsibilities have been “to develop and provide services that improve access to information for agricultural and rural development and to strengthen the capacity of ACP countries to produce, acquire, exchange and utilize information in this area.” To undertake these responsibilities, the CTA, as stated in this study’s terms of reference, has designed programs around three main activities: • • • “Providing an increasing range and quality of information products and service and enhancing awareness of relevant information sources. “Supporting the integrated use of appropriate communication channels and intensifying contacts and information exchange. “Developing ACP capacity to generate and manage agricultural information and to formulate information and communication management (ICM) strategies.” (CTA, TOR)

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This is undertaken within the framework of three operational departments as defined in the CTA’s Strategic Plan (2001-2005): • • • Information Products and Services Communication Channels And Services Information and Communication Management Skills and Systems

Working in conjunction with the operational department is Planning and Corporate Services (P&CS), which performs a support role to these departments by providing “the methodological underpinning…and monitoring of the ACP environment to identify emerging issues and trends.” It is from this perspective that programs like information needs assessment emerge from the CTA.

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COUNTRY PROFILE
The Bahamas is an archipelago situated in the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Florida and northeast of Cuba. It covers an area of 13,935 sq. km. of which 10,070 sq. km. is land. The archipelago experiences a tropical maritime climate with winter incursions of modified cold air and generally neither frost, snow, sleet nor extreme temperatures. Humidity is high during the summer months, which also corresponds to the hurricane season. There are 30 populated islands in the archipelago. The 2000 census of population recorded that there were 303,611 people and, by 2003, the figure had climbed to 316,298. Life expectancy at birth for males is 68.3 years and for females 75.3 years. The average annual population growth rate was 1.9% in 2002 (DOS). HIV/AIDS is a health condition of major concern as some figures indicate there is a 3% adult prevalence rate with some 5,600 (2003 est.) living with the disease. The Bahamas gained its Independence from Britain on July 10th 1973 and continues the tradition of constitutional parliamentary democracy under a bicameral system (Upper Chamber – Senate (16 seats) and lower Chamber – 40 seats House of Assembly). Being an archipelago, there are 21 administrative districts. An overview of the economy shows that The Bahamas with its stable government and democratic traditions has developed an economy which is service orientated and dominated by tourism and financial services. With a gross domestic product (GDP), in the area of about 4.04 to 4.24 billion Euros (B$5.1 to B$5.5 billion), being fueled by strong performances in tourism (40%), financial services (15%) and a boom in the construction of hotels, resorts and residences this has led to solid economic growth in recent years. The per capita income has been estimated to be between 11,570 to 13,113 Euros (B$15,000 to B$17,000) per annum. The labor force in 2002 was 167,980 workers, and unemployment is conservatively estimated to be less than 10%. Employment is highest in the tourism sector, with agriculture accounting for less than 5%. The Bahamas is well endowed with infrastructure as there are some 29 airports with paved runways, an outstanding telecommunications system and major port facilities in Nassau and a transshipment container terminal in Freeport, Grand Bahama.

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2.1 11.

Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry The agricultural sector in The Bahamas contributes 3% to GDP. Of this, about 2% is generated by the fishing industry and the remaining 1% from agribusiness and small farmer output.

2.1.1 Agriculture 12. Agribusiness, small farmers and fisheries fall within the portfolio of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Local Government. The Ministry is responsible for the general administration of the sector. The administration is headed by a Permanent Secretary with two directors – Department of Agriculture (agribusiness and small farmers) (DOA) and Department of Fisheries (DOF). Unlike the fisheries sector, which is growing in both output and the number of individuals employed, the agribusiness and small farmer sector is facing a crisis of declining numbers in the farm population. In 1978, there were almost 10,000 individuals; by 1994 it had decreased to less than 7,000, and in 2005, the figure is possibly around 5,000. As New Providence becomes more urbanized, farming is becoming an endangered activity as land which was formerly used for farming has been redeveloped for housing purposes. In the 1994 census there were 1,825 individuals engaged in farming in the age groups 55 to 75 years and over. Using the life expectancy figure of 67 years for Bahamian males, it is likely that most of the 1,030 males are probably dead. This is also the group (667) with 15 or more years of experience. The citrus canker outbreak on Abaco will adversely affect the acreage under citrus production and the citrus export market to the United States. The government of The Bahamas has chosen the course of grove destruction to eradicate the canker. This will decrease the acreage under production thereby putting thousands of acres of cultivated land out of production as well as decreasing the number of individuals employed by agribusiness. Despite this scenario, agribusinesses and small farmers recognize their vulnerability to market forces, which have been accelerated by globalization through the liberalization of agricultural trade and the move to create a hemispheric trading body in the form of the Free Trade Area of The Americas (FTAA). As a result agribusinesses and small farmers have formed national commodity groupings or associations such as The Bahamas Agricultural Producers’ Association (BAPA), or the New Providence Livestock Producers’ Cooperative Society (NPLPCS) and participate in regional bodies like the Caribbean Poultry Association (CPA) and the Caribbean Agribusiness Association (CABA). It is anticipated that, through a reformed Produce Exchange and Packing House system in conjunction with a reinvigorated DOA and Bahamas Agricultural and Industrial Corporation (BAIC), output from agribusinesses

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and small farmers could be increased as this segment seeks to become more competitive. 2.1.2 18. Fisheries The fisheries industry employs some 1200 individuals as fishermen, food safety technicians and processing plant workers. It generates 77,140,000 Euros annually principally from the export of crawfish or lobster to global markets like the EU, Canada, and USA. The Fisheries industry is a major earner of foreign exchange for The Bahamas. Fisheries processing facilities have to meet EU food safety standards in order for Bahamian crawfish to enter the EU market. Fisheries processing facilities are located in fishing communities on Andros, Long Island, Abaco, and Spanish Wells in North Eleuthera, and also two facilities in New Providence.

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2.1.3 Forestry 20. Forestry’s output is limited, principally to exports of the Cascarilla Bark and the burning of Pinus caribae (pine trees) for charcoal for the local market. Cascarilla bark is found mainly on the islands of the South-Eastern Bahamas (Cat Island, Acklins, and Crooked Island). Only a small number of people (50) are engaged in collecting the bark for which the European Union (Italy) is the main market. In 2003 the value of exports was 203,922.52 Euros (DOA). Charcoal burning activity is unregulated and its value is difficult to ascertain, it is undertaken in some communities on North Andros, Abaco, and Grand Bahama.

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Information and Communication Management Capacity The institutions interviewed comprised the following: Public Sector – Ministries: 1 Agriculture, Fisheries and Local Government (MAFLG) 2 Tourism (MOT) 3 Trade and Industry (MOTI) Departments: 1 Agriculture (DOC) 2 Bahamas Produce Exchange (BPE) 3 Fisheries (DOF) Statutory Body: Bahamas Agricultural and Industrial Corporation (BAIC) Private Sector/ Non-Governmental Organization (NGOs) Cooperative: 1 New Providence Livestock Producers’ Cooperative Society Ltd. (NPLPCSL) 2 Bahamas Cooperative League (BCL)

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Association: Organization: 22.

The Bahamas Agricultural Producers’ Association (BAPA) Bahamas Chamber of Commerce (BCC)

In the Public Sector, there is a registry for office files for which there is a responsible office or supervisor (these people do not hold degrees, and have basic clerical training); this includes BAIC. In the MAFLG, DOA and DOF, there is no specific individual with the responsibility for public education, preparation of audio-visual or newsletters. At BAIC, the preparation of newsletters and publications is undertaken by the marketing division and steps have been taken to place ICM with the Accounts Department. The availability of equipment in the various ministries, such as scanning equipment and hardware/software is not a problem. The challenges are mainly the lack of training in the use of the equipment. Apart from the Ministry of Tourism none of the Ministries interviewed had technically trained individuals in Computer Science. The staff who generally work with computers use them principally as word processors. In the MOT, there is a dedicated department headed by a Director for Research and Development with the responsibility for tourism data and analysis via information technology. In the MOTI, in addition to a registry supervisor, there are three officers responsible for website maintenance and the monitoring of the content on the Internet, particularly matters relating to trade. In MAFLG, BPE and DOA, only senior officers (these staff generally have degrees or post-grad qualifications) have access to the Internet whereas in the DOF all officers can obtain access to the Internet. The Bahamas Government has a centralized website, which is administered through the Ministry of Finance data processing unit. Some ministries such as the Ministry of Tourism work independently. The DOA has an officer who works out of the office of the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) two days each week for the purpose of accessing agricultural information from the Internet. This is a joint program between IICA and DOA. This individual has received some training in data processing. In the Departments of Agriculture and Fisheries respectively the analytical work is completed by professional officers with some knowledge of ICT, hence the publication of statistical data. In the MOTI the individuals working on the website have no specific expertise in ICT, just on-the-job working knowledge. Among the NGOs, only the BCL and BCC have individuals with the responsibility for information. In the BCC, there is a program coordinator for publications as well as a part-time web-site Administrator. The BCL has one individual performing registry and ICM functions.

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2.3 28.

Agricultural Information Services In the public sector, particularly agriculture, the main sources of agricultural information services are the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and IICA. For the Bahamas Produce Exchange, marketing information on prices is obtained from the Florida Department of Agriculture. Some technicians in the DOA obtain information from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRT). The Ministry of Trade and Industry and The Bahamas Trade Commission receive their information on trade from the World Trade Organization (WTO), The Caribbean Regional Negotiation Machinery (CRNM), CARICOM Secretariat and the office of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). The DOF, in addition to FAO, receives a great deal of information from the University of the West Indies Centre For Resource Management and Environmental Studies (CERMES). On the other, the MOT collaborates on information services with the Caribbean Tourism Organization (CTO), the WTO, the World Travel and Tourism Council and Global Insight. With reference to NGOs, members of cooperatives and the association rely on input suppliers i.e. feed companies for their source of information. In some instances, small farmers utilize the Department of Agriculture’s Extension Services whereas agribusinesses depend on input suppliers. Entities like the BCC utilize, for trade matters, the WTO, CRNM and CARICOM. For other matters, it looks to Caribbean Association of Industry and Commerce (CAIC), Employers’ Confederations, the US Chambers of Commerce and local entities like Customs, Department of Statistics and the Ministry of Finance. The BCL receives information from the Caribbean Confederation of Credit Unions (CCCU), the Canadian Cooperative Association (CCA), IICA, World Council of Credit Unions (WCCU) and the Credit Union National Association (CUNA).

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Table 1: Sources of Information

Organization

Source

Type

Location

Category Input

Event

NPLPSC

Input Suppliers Trade Show CPA DCD DDA

Production Poultry Poultry Cooperative Policy

USA USA Region National National

Animal Feed Southeastern Poultry Commodity Group Monitoring Technical Assistance Duty Free Exemption

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Organization

Source

Type

Location

Category Input

Event

BCL CUNA WCCU CCCU CCA IICA BCC

Financial Financial Financial Financial Developmental Advisory Advisory

National USA Global Regional Body Canada Hemispheric Regional Regional Regional National

BCL

Technical Assistance Advocacy Credit Union Credit Union Cooperatives Studies, projects prod/supplier CSME CSME FTAA WTO Integration Studies Economic Statistics Statistics Workplace conditions Studies, products, seminars Group Livestock

CARICOM Trade CRNM Trade CAIC Central Bank of The Bahamas DOS BEC Business Development Financial Data

Trinidad Conference

Country Data Employers General Agribusiness Technical information Production Ornamental Horticulture Policy Programs Economy General Statistics Imports Agriculture Financial Financial

National National Hemispheric Regional Regional USA USA National National National National National National National

BAPA

IICA CABA CARDI Input Supplier Trade Show Min. of Agr. Central Bank Dept. of Statistics Customs DOA Min. of Finance Bah. Dev. Bank

Nursery Products Planning sector Economy Planning projections National food bill/consumption Technical Economy Projects

BAIC

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Organization

Source

Type

Location

Category Input

Event

IICA CIDA CDB IDB FAO CARIRI BPE FDA FAO MOT DOI CTO BHA DLG Cruise Ships Travel Agents WTTC GI DOF FAO UWI IICA IDB FAO MAFLG DOA IICA IFPRI CARDI USDA U of Fla. FDA WTO RNM

Age Industry Financial Financial Agriculture Industrial Marketing Marketing Visitors Industry Visitors Visitor arrivals Visitor arrivals Industry Industry Fisheries CERMES Technical assistance Financial Technical Technical Policy Technical Technical Technical Technical Trade Trade

Hemisphere Region Region Hemispheric Global Regional USA Global National Regional

Technical, studies, project, Workshops Project funding Projects, funding Technical Commodity prices Technical (Postharvest) Immigration cards Hotel occupancy

Family Island

Liaison By sea By air or sea

Global Global Global Region Latin America & the Caribbean Hemispheric Global Hemispheric International Regional Technical information Marine Environment Project seminars Funding Projects/studies Studies/projects Information crops and livestock

MTI BIC

USA/International USA USA Phytosanitary Global Monitoring, seeking membership Regional FTAA

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Organization

Source

Type

Location

Category Input

Event

FTAA

Trade

Hemispheric Regional

CARICOM Trade

Monitoring status/action CSME

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NEEDS ANALYSIS
In the Public Sector and among the NGOs, it is obvious that information needs are being satisfied primarily from external sources like the FAO, IICA, WTO and input suppliers as very little information, in a usable form, is emanating from national bodies or agencies. In conjunction with this, NGOs are looking to the Public Sector for basic statistical data and information to assist in planning and business decisions. This is compounded by the fact that there are manpower limitations resulting from the lack of expertise and management skills in the public sector and among the NGOs.

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3.1 35.

Information Needs One of the needs in the public sector is a sectoral update of agribusinesses and small farmers. Heavy dependence in the past has been placed on census returns. Since independence, two censuses have been conducted: one in 1978 and the other in 1994. Decision-makers in the Department of Agriculture have encountered serious difficulties in trying to plan the orderly growth and development of the sector without vital information like the number of farmers, their ages, location, type of farming/agribusiness activity. In order to address this issue, the Department has introduced an annual farmer registration scheme, or program which facilitates the granting of duty-free exemptions to bona fide farmers and agribusinesses. However, difficulties are being encountered in the analysis of the data which is captured by the scheme and devising a methodology which will enable the department to use the information as a planning tool or mechanism is proving to be challenging. The MOT has a program where it utilizes the immigration card to extract information on visitors. From this information, they have developed a database, which is the basis of their marketing program and has enabled them to pin point the demands of the visitor. A similar retrieval system could be adapted for the farmer registration scheme. The DOA has had difficulties in obtaining production yield statistics for crops and livestock (small ruminants and pigs). The diverse growing environment and climatic conditions in the southeastern Bahamas have created a demand for this type of information for crop and livestock professional officers as well as farmers. The Bahamas has a very open economy as it is heavily dependent on imports to generate revenue as well as to provide the funds to purchase goods to keep the country functioning. This impacts the Customs Department which is

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responsible for collecting the data on imports and turning that information over to the Department of Statistics. 41. Ministries like MAFLG, DOA and MTI monitor imports; however, obtaining this information on a timely basis poses difficulties due to communication differences between the different government departments. For years the Statistics Unit of the DOA has disagreed with the DOS and The Central Bank of The Bahamas in the manner in which agricultural statistics are represented to reflect the agricultural sector’s contribution to the country’s GDP. There is a central data processing facility in the Ministry of Finance as well as a Department of Statistics. Placing the information in a format which is usable by all ministries, department and statutory bodies creates difficulties. Tourism spending is an important component in determining the GDP of The Bahamas. This data is compiled by the Central Bank of The Bahamas Research Department in conjunction with the MOT. Collecting and analyzing this information in order to provide ministries like MTI and the DOA on a timely basis is proving to be a difficult task. The difficulties stem from the fact that import statistics from the Bahamas Customs Department have to be included to arrive at a figure for national food consumption. Inputting customs returns along with compiling the statistics being generated by the other ministries is the responsibility of the DOS, and this has been the basis for some of the delays in the preparation of statistics on a timely basis. Determining food consumption habits by visitors is a critical aspect of production planning for both crops and livestock as well as the processing and marketing of fresh and processed foods. The Bahamas Produce Exchange and Packing House system is constrained by the inability to obtain crop-forecasting information. This has had implications on the capability of the Produce Exchange to set prices and to meet market demands on a consistent basis, which in turn, adversely affects the capacity of The Bahamas Produce Exchange to take advantage of linkages to the tourism sector, i.e. hotels, gourmet restaurants and the fast food US franchise outlets. As a result of the liberalization of markets, the eventual membership of The Bahamas in the WTO, its participation in the FTAA, the possibility of joining the Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME), and the EU/ACP Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA), trade issues are a growing area of importance to The Bahamas. The DOF has had difficulties obtaining information on EU legislation as it relates to fisheries commodities entering the EU. For The Bahamas, the EU is a major market for Bahamian crawfish which is one of a few commodities in which The Bahamas is a major exporter on the global scene. The Bahamas Trade Commission in the MTI, and the DOA view trade information and data as critical components in the execution of their duties. Sources such as the DOS and the Central Bank of The Bahamas do not always have up-to-date information readily at hand. This can frustrate the efficiency of the analytical work of these agencies.

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BAIC is encountering challenges in finding sources of information on industrial standards for a range of commodities and cash flow analysis for the development of agribusinesses and general business plans. The most critical information need for NGOs is the availability of public sector statistics on a timely basis and policy details for macro and micro planning in order for intelligent projections to be made. This is a major concern of the BCC and BAPA. The BCL is also unable to obtain financial information and information on the status of membership from its affiliates; particularly the Producer/Supplier Cooperatives which, apart from NPLPCSL, are located in the Family Islands (in view of the fact that 85.1% of the population reside between the islands of New Providence and Grand Bahama, the remainder of the islands are referred to as The Family Islands; these islands are significantly less developed than New Providence and Grand Bahama which are the urban centers of The Bahamas) .

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Capacity Building Needs In the public sector, the Government of The Bahamas has launched an egovernment program to introduce and implement the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in all ministries and departments. However, the ministries and departments interviewed were either marginalized or constrained in ICT usage for a number of reasons such as funding, human resources and equipment. Among the Ministries interviewed, only the Ministry of Tourism had technology as a cornerstone in its strategic or business plan. Information was channeled to two departments – Research and Development and the Electronic Marketing Services. The basis for generating the data came from the immigration cards which are filled out by visitors, residents and citizens on arrival into The Bahamas. The success of the MOTs program stems from the fact that there is expertise, understanding and appreciation for the process of data collection, collation, assimilation and distribution. The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Local Government, its departments (Agriculture and Fisheries) and Sections/Units (Bahamas Produce Exchange) as well as the statutory body (BAIC) have stated that they are constrained by the lack of trained manpower in the use of ICT and the analysis of data, e.g. the Farmer Registration Program. Even though there may be a budgetary allocation to purchase equipment (computers, scanners and Internet access) or to hire personnel, the freezing of funds and employment prohibits action by the departments or units to address these constraints.

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54.

Among the NGOs, there is recognition for greater use of ICTs; however among the cooperatives and in the BAPA there are limitations due to the lack of financial resources to employ this kind of expertise. Moreover, in most Family Island communities there is the possibility to access computers and the Internet yet farmers are not linked. This is a problem faced by the Bahamas Produce Exchange and its Packing Houses where the state of crop production in the Family Islands is unknown. Despite the fact that competent extension personnel may be unavailable on some islands, the farmer could be a source of information if he or she was trained and a system established. Among the producer/supplier cooperatives, there is little communication with the BCL on issues affecting them vis-à-vis policy, marketing problems, trade concerns, and organizational matters. This stems from the fact that there is no “network” in place to foster a two-way flow of information between the cooperative affiliate and the BCL. A network among producers/suppliers cooperatives and the BCL would be a tremendous asset in generating information. As the BCC expands into the Family Islands, there is a growing need for ICTs and it is recognized that two additional employees are needed – a full-time administrator and a webmaster. In the archipelagic environment of The Bahamas, the Internet is a tool which is being increasingly appreciated; however, funding the manpower and training is difficult for Family Island communities which are competing with the urban enclaves of Nassau and Freeport for competent workers. NGOs like the BCC with its family island branches and the BCL with it’s producer/supplier cooperatives are hard pressed to find manpower with ICT expertise. Among the producer/supplier cooperative a program will have to be established to train farmers or utilize the youth who are participating in cooperative as an ICT resource. There is no agricultural research and development work taking place under the aegis of the MAFLG through its Agriculture or Fisheries departments. This has created an enormous void in the information network. The situation prevails because there is no scientifically and technologically trained manpower coming forward to participate in this aspect of agriculture. It is this deficiency which makes agribusinesses, small farmers, food processing facilities and marketing entities so dependent on external sources because the national capacity in this area is either lacking or non-existent. It is the lack of this research capacity in particular which makes it necessary for the sector to adapt production figures, particularly crop and livestock yields/output from external sources.

55.

56.

57.

13

Table 2: Needs Analysis Organization Needs Information EU Legislation - fisheries input requirements Capacity Building 1. Skilled technical staff in ICT 2. Manpower development and training 3. Systems placement 4. More efficient use of computer 1. Tourism is electronically driven requiring manpower with knowledge and expertise in content management for web platform, trouble-shooting and other needs. 2. Internal efficiency in the analysis of information. Manpower training and development in ICT: a. Packing House level b. Produce Exchange, Potter’s Cay, Nassau. Expertise in costing Handicraft trainers Establish reliable ICT system with training Development of data bank on Imports/exports Storage Establish a computerized system of BAPA’s office with trained agricultural economist to undertake analytical work e.g. agribusiness development / planning Manpower training in the use of ICT by staff and members. Upgrade of equipment. Full-time administration and webmaster

DOF

Forecasting data and information culture Music i.e. Junkanoo MOT

BPE

State of production in the field in the various Family Islands Forecasting data Commodity prices Industry standard (light industry/manufacturing) cash flow analysis Production yields (crops and livestock crop varieties Livestock breeds / handicraft identification/standards

BAIC

BAPA

BCC

Agricultural development data Absence of national agricultural development plan Absence of Agricultural statistics on farmers, location, type of production, acreages National statistics on a timely basis from public sector agencies

14

Organization

Needs Information Obtaining timely information from affiliates i.e. Producer/Supplier Coops in the Family Islands Capacity Building Financial Services – Need to become more sophisticated in electronic payments and the conduct of electronic transactions. Staff training in this aspect of ICT Expertise in producer/supplier cooperative development Devising means of communicating with members Lack resources to expand manpower thereby offer more services. More computer training for technical officers and staff. Improve information gathering at the Family Islands. Establishment of trade unit. Improve capability to put out publications and newsletters, extension booklets, marking statistics. Staff training in data collection and analysis for electronic usage and compilation Staff training in trade issues. Training in ICT use for staff.

BCL Information and data to develop business/Strategic Plan Government policy for agribusiness development NPLPCSL

Statistical data on production yields i.e. various Family Islands farming localities State of the sector between census periods Trade and marketing information Timely data on Trade and Gross Domestic Product figures

MAFLG

MTI BTC

15

4.
4.1 58.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Conclusions In an archipelagic nation like The Bahamas, access to information is fundamental as it strives to remain competitive in the two most important sectors (tourism and financial services) of its economy and attempt to maintain a viable agricultural sector so as to sustain some Family Island communities. A serious constraint in information availability is the lack of capacity in key institutions both in the public sector and among the NGOs. The situation is more acute in the public sector as the private sector has the capacity to outsource work and projects for external analysis (unlike government departments and NGOs which are constrained by budgets). In the DOA and DOF there is a lack of information to support decision making as many officers do not have access to the Internet, not only for external information, but also for information from the Family Islands. There is very little contact with other ACP countries as there is a tendency to look towards North America. In final analysis, it appears that ICT and ICM are not priority areas in order to enhance the performance and efficiency of these government departments. Extent of Key Problems Even though The Bahamas has an “e-government” program, the only ministry with a strategic plan which comprises ICM/ICT is the Ministry of Tourism, specifically in its Research and Development Department and its Electronic Marketing Services. The basis of the problem for other public sector entities interviewed was the lack of a strategic information plan. With a strategic information plan, the following problematic areas would be identified: 1. 2. 3. 4. Programs and policies that require information support; Identification of information resources needed to implement programs; Provides strategies “to capture” the required information; A strategic plan needs to be put in place to achieve goals in a timely manner, in order to make the department more ICT ‘ready’.

59.

4.1.1 60.

61.

62.

Among the NGOs there is a clear recognition and appreciation for ICM/ICT, however resources, both financial and manpower, present limitations; this is particularly in the case of the BCC and BAPA. The other aspect which is problematic to the NGOs specifically BCL and the corporative movement is the lack of knowledge of what is available to assist in generating information and what in the long term would improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their organizations.

63.

16

64. 65.

Entities like the BCL and BCC lack a strategic information plan. Generally, the following are some of the key problems: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. There is limited availability of national statistics on a timely basis. Heavy dependence on externally published information, particularly from international agencies i.e. FAO, IICA. The mechanisms to generate and analyze information from local sources in New Providence, Grand Bahama and the Family Islands are absent or not in use. No electronic networking among members of association /cooperative meetings or as affiliates with the BCL. Extreme failure to take advantage of conventional media i.e. newspaper, radio and television to communicate information. Lack of training in ICM systems and, in some cases, limited access to ICT. Consistent with the objectives of the study, the key problems have hindered: • • • Access to information products and services; Have identified the weaknesses of those organizations and their capacity to manage the information and utilize the various communication channels; There is virtually no knowledge about the products and services, which are offered by the CTA. 90% of the institutions interviewed were unfamiliar with the CTA. DOA has some familiarity.

66.

Based on the information in the data capture form, there is virtually no usage of CTA products or services. This stems from several factors, namely the decline in the importance of agriculture specifically farming for the economy of The Bahamas. For the DOF there is a market in the EU for Bahamian crawfish, however, the MOTI and the DOF had no knowledge of the CTA’s agri-trade link. With tourism and financial services dominating the Bahamian economy the orientation of The Bahamas is essentially towards the U.S.A., lessening the focus towards exploring the EU and other ACP markets.

4.1.2 Information Needs 67. The major information needs in the various institutions stemmed from the following which are listed in a broad framework in order to present a general assessment of the information needs. Indigenous data: • • Inability to obtain data locally for planning and developmental work. As a result of this inability, institutions are unable to plan properly. There needs to be more co-ordination of national statistics and access to that information.

17

Other data types: • • As a result of globalization, trade information has become critical and the ability to retrieve trade data is highly relevant. Lack of research and development focus has created a dependence on foreign data which has to be applied to, or modified for, local situations.

68.

These scenarios exist because The Bahamas lacks a national planning division to co-ordinate developmental activities; this is why departments are not generating national data on a timely basis. With effective co-ordination (essentially a national planning division) these challenges (compiling indigenous and other data) are essentially short term concerns and can be rectified within two fiscal years. This observation is based on my years as a former public officer in the public service of The Bahamas. Based on the consultant’s observations there seems to be a great appreciation of information and information technology by the NGOs in comparison to the public sector. This disparity is greatly influenced by the manner in which funds are allocated in the annual budget. Apart from the MOT, no provisions are being made to train personnel in ICT in order to generate the desired information from existing and new sources of data by the ministries and departments interviewed. In discussions with officials in the Department of Archives placing agricultural historical information and data on the Internet is not even being considered. Until there is a greater realization of the need for a national information service, information needs in the public Bahamas Electricity Corporation sector and in low priority ministries, such as Agriculture, will not receive the attention they deserve. The MOT has evolved as a distinct entity from other Ministries, hence its approach to information gathering, collation, and analysis, is based on its role in the economy. There has to be an awareness of the need to generate indigenous data. The Manager of the Produce Exchange is handicapped by the inability to obtain inventory data on fruits and vegetables from the seven packing houses on the Family Islands. If there were greater sensitivity to this need a marketing network could be instituted to address this deficiency. The implications for the introduction of ICT to the marketing network would go a long way to improve incomes in the farming communities of the various family islands. Priority needs: From the consultant’s perspective based on interviews and knowledge of the agricultural sector, the following are priorities: Information Needs: • The sector is being constrained by the lack of a research capacity hence the inability to obtain production information on crops, particularly varieties and yields. 18

69.

70.

71.

• • • •

Marketing information has been a limiting factor, particularly in linking farm output to the tourism sector. The inability to obtain national statistics on a timely basis. Analysis of trade information, particularly food consumption patterns based on food imports. Organizations such as BAPA and BCC are hampered in their planning by the inability to obtain some national information causing them to look to input suppliers and fellow organizations in the region for relevant information.

72.

Budgetary allocation in the public sector will determine the time frame in which these issues will be addressed. Some immediate provision could be made for equipment. Manpower training, dependency on the type and level of training, would be undertaken on a short term basis (short courses) or long periods requiring 12 to 24 months depending on the expertise being developed.

4.1.3 Capacity Building Needs 73. There is a general recognition among the institutions interviewed that there was a need for capacity building. The primary reasons were as follows: Human Resources: • • • • • • • Lack of skilled technical manpower in ICT; At the Ministry and Departmental levels there needs to be more attention given to manpower development in ICM/ICT; Additional staffing was required for specialized ICT areas i.e. webmaster; Lack of staff needed to analyze data; Institutions do not recognize the range of skills necessary to run successfully an information and communications program; Limited skills/lack of expertise in information resource management; When information is available, lack of manpower to put information in usable form – booklets, pamphlets.

Equipment: • In some institutions there was a lack of equipment and, in some cases, where there was equipment (computer, Internet access) there was a minimal knowledge in the use of the equipment.

Management and Development of ICT Resources: • • • Lack of training in ICM leads to the poor utilization of ICT; Some institutions are not “ICT” ready and are therefore unable to access information; Marginal understanding of the resources needed to develop and carry on information system;

19

Among the NGOs funding for training in ICM and ICT is a major limitation even though on most family islands there is access there is access to ICT via Cable Bahamas or BTC Bahamas.

Data Analysis and Generation: • • Many institutions knew the type of information which is needed to perform its duties but were unable to access it; Instances where institutions would generate the data but could not analyze it or put in a format which could assist in planning.

4.1.4 Potential Partners and Beneficiaries: 74. The Bahamas Cooperative League (BCL) is an apex organization with affiliates throughout The Bahamas. Its affiliates comprise credit unions and cooperatives. With reference to cooperatives, they embody producer/supplier cooperatives and cooperatives which are orientated to youth. These youth cooperatives are aligned with various schools in the urban areas of Nassau and Freeport as well as in the Family Islands under the aegis of a cooperative or credit union. The Producer/Supplier Cooperatives of which New Providence Livestock Producer’s Cooperative Society Limited is the most successful (income wise) is an affiliate of the BCL. Because of its national reach, BCL through credit unions and cooperatives reach women, the young, small farmers, agribusiness as its beneficiaries. BCL is a highly structured entity with 9 fulltime staff members and an annual budget of slight in excess of 1 million euros. BCL also undertakes advocacy work for the producer/supplier cooperatives and has had an outstanding working relationship with IICA in studies to strengthen the producer/supplier cooperatives. The tomato bottling project geared to improve tomato processing for the small farmer in the farming communities of the southeastern Bahamas – the poorest region of The Bahamas is an example. BAPA is a newly formed national umbrella association of agribusinesses and small farmers. In addition to the over 1,200 odd registered farmers, BAPA, as a non-profit entity, has three types of members – ordinary, allied and associate. This configuration enables it to attract a broad spectrum of individuals, groups and entities to its membership. BAIC, as a statutory body, has a national thrust. Its Grand Bahama, Marsh Harbour, Abaco, Hatchet Bay, Town, and North Andros places it in direct contact residents, particularly small farmers, women and youth. offices in Freeport, Eleuthera, Nichol’s with Family Island BAIC’s agricultural

75.

76.

77. 78. 79.

80.

81.

20

section has organized a number of institutions on a national and island levels to benefit small farmer and their communities. 82. With reference to structural stability the BCL offers the best choice when compared to BAIC, which has been known to be politically influenced operationally. BAPA has not gained full acceptance by the agri-business and small farmer community due to its newly formed status. However, the BCL has been around for almost three decades and has gained an outstanding reputation for its advocacy of the cooperative movement. The background for the above mentioned points are based on the CTA’s criteria as outlined in the 2005 program of activities. The evaluation of the individual organizations is centered on this criteria. Recommendations The Bahamas is a group of islands where the agriculture sector represents only 3% of GDP 4.24 billion Euros. Further, recent statistics show where there has been a decline in farming operations. In 1994 there were 1727 holders, today there are only 1242 – a decline of almost 500 since the last census. On the other hand, the fisheries sector is expanding. Even though the agricultural sector of The Bahamas has not been integrated into the activities of the region and has lagged behind in a number of areas, it is within this framework that the following recommendations are being made:

83.

4.2 84.

85.

4.2.1 Information Needs 86. The Bahamas needs a strategic information plan for the agricultural sector. This will address some of the information and capacity building needs, particularly: • • • 87. 88. Manpower development and training; Equipment selection, upgrade and utilization; Information generation; usage and dissemination.

In view of the fact that there is an e-government policy, a plan to implement a strategic information program would enhance this initiative. A prime institution to commence this program is the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Local Government, which has under its aegis the Departments of Agriculture, Fisheries, Local Government and Cooperative Development, and units like The Bahamas Produce Exchange and Packing Houses as well as Research. One of the challenges facing the BCL is that of obtaining reliable and timely information and data from its affiliates; some of whom are in the Family Islands. Though most of them have access to ICT; there is very little application. This has been a constraint to the development of producer / supplier cooperatives. 21

89.

90. 91.

In this regard, a national electronic network should be established with all of the producer/supplier cooperatives using the BCL as a coordinator. A network would bring some cohesiveness to this grouping and being a technological medium, could attract the youth in the Family Islands thereby having the distinct possibility of attracting a new cadre of farmers or agribusiness persons to a sector which is endangered. This will also facilitate a regional connection to the CAIS. In view of the fact that the CTA’s services are not well known in The Bahamas, it would be appropriate to introduce a pilot project to improve access to agricultural information. The CAIS could spearhead a Question and Answer Service (QAS). This is badly needed when one of the most requested information need is access to production data, particularly yields. This question and answer service (QAS) could be handled by the MAFLG or BAIC. The Produce Exchange and Packing House system plays an important role in the Family Islands as the system enables small farmers, many of whom are women, to receive an income from farming on-island. The manager of the Produce Exchange is often faced with difficulties in finding commodity prices for a range of produce grown under the traditional cut and burn system of agriculture. The present source of information is the FDA commodity prices. The Produce Exchange and Packing Houses should be linked to the Caribbean Marketing Intelligence Network (CAMID). This would also benefit the members of BAPA and NPLPCSL as well as BAIC. The Bahamas is not a member of CARDI and is therefore not a beneficiary of the work which takes place in CARDI. However, the limited applied research which takes place in The Bahamas and the need by technical officers for information and data on matters such as crop varieties and animal breeds, indicate that there is a role for PROCARIBE. Mutton producers in The Bahamas could immediately benefit from the existing CASRUNET (Small ruminants network), and CARI Fruit (fruit network). The Produce Exchange would also benefit from CAPHNET (post harvest technology network)

92.

93.

94.

95.

96.

4.2.2 Capacity Building Needs 97. • • • • Out of the Strategic Information Plan, the information resources needed would be identified. This will include the following: Human resources; Information technology and communication equipment; Information systems; Documents and reports;

22

• • 98.

Communications and public relations functions; Documentation centers and libraries registries. Some immediate provision could be made for Internet access and associated equipment. Manpower training, dependency on the type and level of training, would be undertaken on a short term basis (short courses) or long periods requiring 12 to 24 months depending on the expertise being developed. CTA programs such as those providing support to non-CTA training schemes for courses in Agricultural Information Management and agricultural communication for individuals in the MAFLC, DOA, DOF and the NGOs can address the capacity building needs of organizations like BAPA, BCC, and BCL. The CTA offers a range of products and services for the ACP states. As a CARICOM state outside of the trade component this has placed the Bahamas in a special category causing it to have a limited involvement in many EU programs. This limitation has hindered The Bahamas’ involvement with the CTA, specifically in knowledge of its services and products.

99.

100.

4.2.3 Potential Partners and Beneficiaries 101. In reviewing the CTA criteria for partners the BCL through its credit union and cooperative programs and its strong working relationships with women, youth and the small farmer (producers/supplier’s cooperative). It is a recognized national organization with a national resource base to partner with the CTA, particularly on programs which will enhance the economic status of those who are members of rural or family island organization like the producer/supplier cooperative. Out of its headquarters’ in New Providence, the BCL has the capacity to conduct on-going programs. On the other hand, BAPA is a fledgling association which shows definite promise, and BAIC’s role in the sector is still evolving. On June 1st 2005 the Business Development unit of BAIC was transferred to The Bahamas Development Bank indicating instability in philosophy and structure.

102.

23

ANNEXES

24

ANNEX I. TERMS OF REFERENCE ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION NEEDS IN AFRICAN, CARIBBEAN & PACIFIC (ACP) STATES Phase 2: Caribbean
1. Introduction The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) was established in 1983 under the Lomé Convention between the ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific) Group of States and the European Union Member States. Since 2000, it has operated within the framework of the ACP-EC Cotonou Agreement. CTA’s tasks are to develop and provide services that improve access to information for agricultural and rural development, and to strengthen the capacity of ACP countries to produce, acquire, exchange and utilize information in this area. CTA's programs are organized around three principal activities: providing an increasing range and quantity of information products and services and enhancing awareness of relevant information sources; supporting the integrated use of appropriate communication channels and intensifying contacts and information exchange (particularly intra-ACP); and developing ACP capacity to generate and manage agricultural information and to formulate information and communication management (ICM) strategies, including those relevant to science and technology. These activities take account of methodological developments in cross-cutting issues (gender, youth, information & communication technologies - ICTs, and social capital), findings from impact assessments and evaluations of ongoing programs as well as priority information themes for ACP agriculture1. In January 2002, CTA's Strategic Plan (2001-2005) was implemented and CTA's activities were distributed among three operational program areas/departments: Information Products and Services Communication Channels and Services Information and Communication Management Skills and Systems These operational departments are supported by Planning Corporate Services (P&CS) which is charged with the methodological underpinning of their work and monitoring thee ACP environment in order to identify emerging issues and trends and make proposals for their: translation into programs and activities. This current exercise, therefore, falls within the mandate of P&CS.

1

Priority information themes for ACP agriculture have formed the basis of various several studies, workshops and seminars bringing together various stakeholders, organizations and institutions active in the field of agriculture and rural development. The documents (or extracts thereof) will be provided to the consultants.

25

2. Background A comprehensive regional information needs assessment was undertaken in the Caribbean region, by CTA and the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARD!), over the period between 1995 and 1997. This study detailed the information needs, habits and priorities, of eleven sub-groups of users relevant to the agricultural and rural development sector, presented in sixteen national reports and a regional overview. The results of the studies were followed by a series of national consultations, missions and regional meetings, as well as pilot studies in information and communications management all aimed at arriving at or designing a strategy to meet information needs within the sector. The strategy proposed the development of a Caribbean Agricultural Information Service (CAIS) with a two pronged approach to improving access to information within the Caribbean region: Working with institutions at the national level to improve capacity in various aspects of information and communication management (e.g. network development, training, sensitization). Developing information products and services to meet specific information needs identified. The CAIS strategy has been implemented since 2001. A number of capacity building exercises were executed including workshops and training courses; provision of technical assistance; network development, policies and systems. Since the implementation of this strategy in 2001, there have also been a number of changes within institutions in the region with respect to their awareness and use of information and communications tools and technologies.

3. Main issues CTA works primarily through intermediary organizations and partners (nongovernmental organizations, farmers' organizations, regional organizations, etc.) to promote agriculture and rural development. Through partnerships, CTA hopes to increase the number of ACP organizations capable of generating and managing information and developing their own information and communication management strategies. The identification of appropriate partners is therefore of primordial importance. The "Evaluation of the Implementation of the Mid-Term Plan (1997 -2000)" emphasized the need for CTA to develop a more pro-active approach and elaborate criteria for decision-making with regard to the choice of partner organizations and beneficiaries. Based on this evaluation, the "Strategic Plan and Framework for Action -2001 -2005" identifies strategic issues for CTA being: improved targeting (including partnerships and beneficiaries), geographical coverage, decentralization, regionalization and thematic orientation. The Plan also expresses concern about the extent to which CTA's activities are relevant to and reach the poor, gender awareness and how to identify potential partners especially in the independent sectors. Besides partner identification and selection issues, the observation has also been made that, the Caribbean region could benefit further from CT A's program and activities. Finally, various national and regional partners with whom CT A has had a longstanding relationship have requested the current study which would serve to update

26

the earlier studies done and allow them to provide more targeted assistance to their beneficiaries.

4. Objectives and scope of the study The objectives of the study are as follows: To identify agricultural information needs of key actors / beneficiaries for CTA products and services; To identify needs of potential actors / beneficiaries of CTA activities and services in terms of building capacity for information and communication management; To identify potential partners / beneficiaries for CTA activities and services; To develop some baseline data to facilitate subsequent monitoring activities. The study should assist the three operational departments of the CTA as well as its local representatives to improve and better target interventions and activities aimed at potential partners and beneficiaries (including women, youth, private sector and civil society organizations); to have a more informed picture of their needs and aid in the elaboration of a strategy and framework of action. The study should also highlight where there are specific needs for CTA's products and services thereby enabling improvement in the delivery of the same.

5. Methodology: The consultant will use a combination of qualitative and quantitative rapid appraisal methods including: The desk review of available literature and information sources including the findings of program evaluations; The conduct of face-to-face interviews with relevant stakeholders/concerned parties; The limited use of questionnaires. The rapid appraisal approach will allow a general overview of the key issues and company / organizational profiles on a per country2 basis and may give rise to more in-depth studies as and when needed in the future.

6. Expected outcomes / output One main report per country not exceeding 20 pages according to the following table of contents: Main report 1. Executive summary
2

Out of 16 countries comprising the Caribbean ACP, only selected number will ini1ially be the subjects of studies, with domestic consultants conducting country-specific assessments. Country selection will be done by CTA on the basis of specific criteria.

27

2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

Introduction Country profile -summary structure and economic characteristics with particular attention to agricultural sector (includes fisheries and forestry): Summary of how agriculture, fisheries and forestry is organized in the country Summary of the information and communication management capacity The current source of agricultural information and services (synthesize Annex 3) Needs analysis Information needs Capacity building needs (skills, training, media, ICT, equipment) Conclusions and recommendations References

Annexes 1. Terms of reference 2. Country profile 2.1 General agricultural profile (from available documentation) Size of agricultural population (male / female / youth) Farmed land, forests, fishing areas Agricultural systems Agriculture in the economy (percentage GDP) Main agricultural produce and secondary products Main export markets Trade agreements that include agriculture Sectoral policy related to agriculture, fisheries and forests . 2.2 Scio-economic profile (from available documentation) Total active population, demographic breakdown Literacy level and languages Access to services (health, schools, electricity) .Rural urban drift 2.3 Media and telecommunications (update / check) Newspapers, periodicals, magazines, radio stations, television channels, Telecommunication services (fixed, mobile, etc.) Computers and Internet access 3. Profile of institutions List of all institutions involved in agriculture and rural development activities, including private sector and civil society organizations, with name, contact details, type and role of institution Select list of key institutions involved in agriculture and rural development, with extensive data and information on the institution, the problems faced and why it is considered a key actor.

It is also expected that the results of this study will lead to identification / update of some priority agricultural information themes which will feed into a possible prioritysetting exercise in the region in 2004.

28

6. Reporting The country reports will not exceed 20 pages (excluding annexes). The annexes should include a list of acronyms, of persons/institutions interviewed with addresses, phone, fax umbers, e-mail addresses (if any) as well as bibliography.

7. Timing Draft final report is to be submitted within three months after contract signature by CTA Final report due two weeks after receipt of comments from CTA.

8. Expertise needed The expert should have a university degree or equivalent by experience. In addition, he/she should have at least 10 years experience in field of agriculture, rural development or social/ economic sciences. He/she must have in-depth knowledge of the agricultural sector in his/her country and be able to identify key players and institutions / organizations active in this area. The ability to communicate and write clearly in English is essential, while knowledge of at least one of the local languages for communication interview purposes is an added advantage. The overall coordination will be carried out by Ms Christine Webster, Deputy Head, Planning and Corporate Services CTA, assisted by Mrs. Lola Visser-Mabogunje, Project Assistant.

9. Implementation schedule (CTA) Preparation/Finalization of ToR; Identification/ short-listing of (potential) consultants; Call for offers: January -February 2005; Selection of consultants & contractual arrangements: January -February 2005 Briefing: February 2005 Start date of contract: 15 February 2005 Implementation period 15 February -30 June 2005 End date of contract: 30 June 2005

10. Key documents to be made available to consultants Documents include: Cotonou Framework Agreement Excerpts of relevant sections of CTA's Strategic Plan and Plan of Action (2001-2005) Annual Reports Documents on priority information themes identified for the Caribbean region Documents on products & services provided by CTA Information Needs Relevant Country and Regional Reports 1997 CAIS Stakeholders Meeting Reports

11. Role of Regional Coordinator

29

Respect the timeframe as specified in Annex IV (regarding submission of reports) Help identify and vet country consultants Attend briefing meeting in Trinidad Review the terms of reference Finalize questionnaires and methodological approach after due consultation with CTA team Draw up briefing notes and guidelines for local consultants to ensure accurate and consistent application of the agreed methodology in data collection Answer queries (technical & otherwise) of local consultants During the studies, monitor and provide technical assistance to the local consultants Review preliminary country reports and findings and send comments back to local consultants Coordinate and ensure consistency of country reports Prepare the overall report taking into account the findings and recommendations of all the Caribbean country reports (table of contents to be agreed)

12. Role of Local Consultants Respect the timeframe as specified in Annex IV (regarding submission of reports) Attend briefing meeting in Trinidad Familiarize themselves with background documents received from CTA; including the Terms of Reference Undertake desk study and prepare country profile, list of institutions involved in agriculture as well as preliminary list of select institutions Undertake field visits in country specified in the contract Conduct interviews and gather information in country specified in the contract Draft preliminary country reports and send to regional Coordinator for initial comments Based on comments received from Coordinator, revise country reports and send draft final report to CTA within the specified timeframe Finalize country reports based on comments and observations received from CTA and send final report back to CTA

13. Role of CARDI Assist in the identification and vetting of Local Consultants Provide input and feedback for the Terms of Reference Make all the logistical arrangements (flights, hotel, venue of meeting, etc.) for the briefing session Participate in the pre/briefing sessions (in Trinidad) Provide backstopping for the Regional Coordinator Liaise with CARDI and Regional Coordinator throughout the study On receipt of the draft and final reports, give comments and observations to the Regional Coordinator with copy directly to CTA

30

14. Role of CTA Draw up initial Terms of Reference and prepare relevant background documents Appoint the Regional Coordinator and the ACP Local Consultants Attend briefing meeting of consultants in Trinidad Liaise with CARDI and Regional Coordinator through out the study Invite the Regional Coordinator and Local Consultants for Briefing Meetings Provide input to the Regional Coordinator with regard to fine-tuning terms of reference, questionnaires, interview guide and reporting guidelines for the consultants Provide relevant background documents to the Local Consultants & Regional Coordinator Elaborate budget and discuss contractual obligations with the Team of consultants and Regional Coordinator Pay invoices for services rendered in a timely manner on condition that all payment conditions are fulfilled Overall responsibility for the supervision and implementation of the studies Bear the agreed costs of expenditure in respect of the study (economy class return tickets to Trinidad, hotel accommodation and subsistence allowances during briefing meeting, or during agreed and specified field visits) Provide feedback and comments on draft country reports to the Local Consultants Give feedback to the Regional Coordinator on the overall report for the Caribbean _____________________

31

ANNEX II.

COUNTRY PROFILE
The Bahamas

Source: CountryReports.org II.1 General Agricultural Profile At the end of World War II, The Bahamas embarked on an economic development strategy to transform its economy from one based on agriculture to services in tourism and off-shore banking. In 2004, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of The Bahamas was pegged between 4.09 billion Euro to 4.24 billion Euro. Tourism has evolved from a seasonal activity attracting 32,018 visitors in 1949 to a year-round business of 5 million visitors in 2004, representing 40% of the GDP and generating 1.35 billion Euro in 2003 (Central Bank). Off-shore banking has been developed into a Financial Services Sector which accounts for 15% of the GDP. The economic impact of tourism and financial services on the economy has made The Bahamas an urban society. This is reflected in the fact that two urban centers – Nassau on New Providence and Freeport on Grand Bahama – accounts for 85.1% of the population of The Bahamas. Tourism and financial services have been sustainable economic activities thereby enabling the Bahamian economy to perform in an outstanding fashion throughout the second half of the 20th century. The agricultural sector, on the other hand, has remained relatively small and this is reflected in the stagnant production figures over the past three decades. (See Graph: Agribusiness and Small Farmer Output)

32

Table 3 (Graph 1): Agribusiness and Small Farmer Output
National Output: Agribusiness and Small Farmers
53.97 46.26 38.55 30.84 Millions 23.13 (Euros) 15.42 7.71 0.00 1980 19821984 1986 1988 19901992 1994 1996 19982000 2002 Year

Source: Planning Unit, Department of Agriculture, 2004 This has resulted in The Bahamas becoming a food importing country (almost 90% of its food requirements) which has been estimated to be between 192.85 million Euros to 231.42 million Euros in 2004, coming from the United States. With an expanding tourism sector, the trend is likely to increase. Despite being a food deficit country, The Bahamas does not have a food security problem. Earnings generated from tourism more than adequately pays the State’s food bill. The sector contributed only 10% of crop products, 20% of animal products consumed in the country and about 6% of value of domestic exports, largely in permanent crops, such as citrus. The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Local Government handles agricultural sectoral policies and programs through the following departments: a) Department of Agriculture: crop and livestock production and marketing b) Department of Fisheries: fisheries and marine products c) Department of Local Government: responsible for the administrative districts on the Family Islands d) Department of Cooperative Development: responsible for cooperatives and credit union regulations. The sector’s 2003/2004 budget was 10.55 million Euros, (Ministry 3.70 million Euros, DOA 5.25 million Euros DOF 2.16 million Euros). The Department of Agriculture operates, at cost 3.09 million Euros a year, a Produce Exchange with its network of Packing Houses which handles the marketing of produce from small farmers in the Family Islands. This direct purchasing in the

33

Family Islands through this government-subsidized system generates a substantial income for farm families in these Family Island communities. The Ministry is also responsible for a Fish and Farm Supply Store which is located at Potter’s Cay in Nassau. This store sells inputs at subsidized prices to the farming and fishing communities. A program is also in place to enable farmers and fishermen to purchase inputs on credit. For those who do not utilize the Fish and Farm Supply Store, farm and fishing inputs are exempt from duty either through legislation or on application to the Ministry. Farmers, fishermen and cooperatives are eligible for duty free exemptions. The Ministry also operates in New Providence an abattoir and feed mill. It is recognized that the agricultural sector has the potential to make a substantial contribution to the national economy and enhance the quality of life in the Family Island communities; however, it is necessary for the sector to increase its competitiveness by seeking to become internationally competitive. This will force the Sector to improve its production output thereby achieving higher standards of efficiency. Agribusinesses and small farmers, in most instances, are surviving financially; however the small farmer is an endangered species as this grouping is aging without youthful replacements who have migrated, particularly, from the southeastern Bahamas to Nassau and Freeport. Fisheries, on the other hand, is vibrant and expanding.

II.1.1 Size of Agricultural Population There have been two censuses of agriculture, one in 1978 and the other in 1994. Ten years have lapsed since the last census. With the life expectancy for males in The Bahamas, based on the years 1989-1991, being 68.3 years and females at 75.3 years, it can be estimated that there are about 500 farmers less than in 1994. Based on the 1994 census, about 30% of the farmers in The Bahamas are female. Table 4: Farm Population Grouping 1978, 1994, and 2005 Category No. of Farmers No. Farm Workers No. Family members who work on farm Total 1978 4,214 5,503 NA 9,717 1994 1,727 3,618 1,578 6,933 2005 1,242 -------------------

Source: FAO Policy Report and Agricultural Censuses, 2005.

34

Table 5: Number of Holders by Island These figures were compiled from the 2005 Department of Agriculture’s Registered Farmers/Agribusiness list based on applications for duty free exemption. Island Total 1994 ALL BAHAMAS NEW PROVIDENCE GRAND BAHAMA ABACO ACKLINS ANDROS CAT ISLAND ELEUTHERA EXUMA LONG ISLAND SAN SALVADOR MAYAGUANA INAGUA BAHAMAS 1,727 269 25 58 42 205 224 316 239 224 46 44 ----35 Total 2005 1,242 184 20 64 4 189 245 271 71 182 2 7 1 N/A

Source: 1994 Census of Agriculture and 2005 Registered Farmers Listing

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Table 6: Farm Population by Age Group and Gender

Age All Ages Under 10 years 10 to 14 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years 55 to 64 years 65 to 74 years 75 or more

Total 6,933 1,040 736 1,343 823 503 663 796 663 366

Total Male Female 3,504 3,429 528 384 727 419 240 276 375 354 201 512 352 616 404 263 387 421 309 165

Source: 1994 Agricultural Census

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Table 7: Number of Farmers by Age, Years in Farming and Gender
Years In Farming By Gender Holders by Age Total Total
Male Female

Less than 5 years
Male Female

5 to 9 years
Male Female

10 to 14 years
Male Female

15 or more years
Male Female

All Ages < 15 yrs 15 to <25 yrs 25 to <35 yrs 35 to <45 yrs 45 to <55 yrs 55 to <65 yrs 65 to <75 yrs >= 75 yrs

1,727 13 90 180 318 463 431 232

1,192 11 64 137 208 309 305 158

535 2 26 43 110 154 126 74

113 7 20 36 23 14 11 2

48 1 14 9 18 3 2 1

113 1 28 39 22 11 8 4

34 1 4 7 12 5 3 2

108 1 8 19 35 25 16 4

28 3 6 7 6 6 -

858 2 8 43 128 259 270 148

425 5 21 73 140 115 71

Source: 1994 Census Based on the numbers of individuals engaged in farming (6,933) and fishing (12,304), the agricultural population is estimated to be 19,237. Because of aging among farmers, a more conservative estimate would put the figure somewhere between 18,000 to 19,000 individuals engaged in farming. II.1.2 Farmed Land, Forest and, Fishing Areas II.1.2.1 Farmed Land The Bahamas comprises a land area of 5,372 sq. miles or 13,913.48 sq. km. These figures were compiled as a result of two consensus of Agriculture; these censuses were done by the Statistics Unit of the Department of Agriculture in conjunction with the Department of Statistics and technical assistance from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). In comparing the census figures for 1978 and 1994, a decline in the area occupied by farm holdings is projected as there were 89,565 acres in 1978 to 50,250 acres in 1994. It has been reported that this decrease in acreage stems from the fact that areas of pine and coppice lands which were excluded from 1994 census were included in the area of farm holdings in 1978. The 1994 Census of Agriculture shows that the 13,621 acres or 27.11% of arable land was under cultivation. Over the period 1978 to 1994 temporary crop production declined from 10,000 acres in 1978 to 3,443 acres in 1994. The acreage of permanent 37

crop production increased from 4,861 acres in 1978 to 9,684 acres in 1994. Approximately 44% of farm holdings were less than 3 acres with about 35% between 3 to 10 acres. Only 6% of holdings were larger than 50 acres. Table 8: Acreage under Production 1978 and 1994
Land Use Area Under Production (acres) 14,971 4,861.00 10,110.00 _______ Arable 89,565.00 1978 Area as %age of Arable land (%) 16.72% 5.43% 11.29% ______ ______ Area Under Production (Acres) 13,621 9,684.08 3,443.26 493.66 50,250.00 1994 Area as % of Arable Land (%) 27.11% 19.27% 6.85% 0.98% ______

Total area under Production Permanent Crop Temporary Crop Mixed Total Land

Source: Dept of Agriculture, Census of Agriculture 1978 and 1994 and FAO Review on Agricultural Policies and Legislation II.1.2.2 Forests In the early 1950s The Bahamas had a thriving lumber industry in the Pine Islands of Abaco, Grand Bahama and North Andros. In recent years, however, the industry has been non-existent. The pine in some of these areas is harvested for fence posts or burnt for charcoal. Forestry experts have advised that The Bahamas needs a comprehensive policy to enable it to manage effectively its forest resources, which have been assessed at about 500,000 acres or 2,023.44 sq. km. to generate income, while ensuring long-term sustainability. With little commercial utilization of the forest, there is the tendency to regard these areas as “wasteland.” There is a minimal forestry unit in The Department of Lands and Surveys, which has administrative responsibilities for forestry. Generally, there are three categories of forest on Crown Lands – forest reserves, protected forests and conservation forests. In the southeastern Bahamas on the islands of Acklins, Crooked Island and Cat Island, Cascarilla (Croton Eleuthera) grows in the wild on these drier islands. The Cascarilla bark is harvested from the wild (through labor intensive methods), dried and exported for use in the process of manufacturing of “Campari”. Other potential usages are i.e. oil as an ingredient in the international cosmetic industry and in “natural” medications. II.1.2.3 Fisheries The Bahamas encompasses area of 13,935 sq. km. with a shallow water area of 116,550 sq. km. Fisheries play a noteworthy role in the economy of The Bahamas as its contribution to the GDP in 2003 was 1.9%. This resulted from vessel owners and

38

operators who comprise a fishing fleet of 4,000 vessels generating US$92.7 million. (See Table: Total Fishery Product Landings) Fisheries Fisheries is an expanding industry in The Bahamas as its employment has increased from 9,300 in 1995 to 12,304 in 2004. A. EMPLOYMENT (1995 Fisheries Census): 9,300 B. ESTIMATED EMPLOYMENT (1999): 11,732 (1) (2) Primary Sector: Secondary Sector: (a) (b) (a) (b) Full Time: 8,976 Part Time: 2,756 Full Time: 472 Part Time: 100

ESTIMATED TOTAL: 12,304 Source: Data Collection, Fisheries Department

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Table 9: Total Fishery Product Landings: 1997 - 2003

YEAR PRODUCT Crawfish Tails Crawfish Whole Crawfish Heads Conch (fresh) Stone Crab Green Turtle Loghd. Turtle Nassau Grouper Other Grouper Grouper (fillet) Snappers Jacks Grunts Sharks Others TOTAL
LBS.

1997
VALUE (B$) LBS.

1998
VALUE (B$) LBS.

1999
VALUE (B$) LBS.

2000
VALUE (B$) LBS.

2001
VALUE (B$) LBS.

2002
VALUE (B$) LBS.

2003
VALUE (B$)

5,674,127 167,069 0 1,428,745 92,801 5,328 1,690 1,132,264 167,512 149,087 1,655,756 227,626 148,396 6,013 581,004
11,437,418

58,669,158 677,626 0 2,942,065 658,967 5,923 2,557 2,477,255 365,099 438,563 2,303,289 220,602 121,516 14,252 644,148
69,541,020

5,478,508 215,144 0 1,477,374 85,126 5,072 2,052 1,125,817 228,235 108,803 1,721,359 202,411 198,232 4,312 343,214
11,195,659

53,364,247 776,233 0 3,651,628 609,001 6,571 3,693 2,674,401 460,581 327,422 2,363,558 216,381 155,601 10,248 415,479
65,035,044

6,026,508 51,327 0 1,040,307 109,599 2,513 744 841,044 228,034 79,534 1,908,443 175,058 144,441 3,202 307,156
10,917,910

62,592,798 221,908 0 2,619,768 680,894 4,336 1,454 1,999,204 426,670 259,594 2,388,552 184,849 104,916 7,223 337,802
71,829,968

6,622,733 24,550 0 1,469,783 101,351 2,855 1,575 497,810 145,598 58,565 1,590,535 178,423 135,933 389 242,474
11,072,574

70,518,489 5,172,831 102,096 6,044 0 1,883 4,412,067 1,468,196 810,278 104,085 5,220 2,329 2,807 1,257 1,337,053 619,695 320,945 211,187 207,666 70,395 2,412,411 258,352 119,328 794 341,705
80,849,211

56,119,063 37,317 942 4,382,838 695,284 3,675 2,841 1,859,998 469,196 266,052 2,735,707 304,461 144,976 123 415,852
67,438,325

7,356,885 500 349 1,152,951 109,988 750 3,267 884,324 213,102 58,464 1,759,622 189,086 110,434 0 218,254
12,057,976

92,231,566 4,000 175 3,031,766 797,214 1,125 11,566 2,463,211 496,448 211,848 2,783,585 243,357 110,483 0 304,057
102,690,401

7,625,120 2,774 189 1,365,844 108,488 0 3,065 930,087 242,066 78,047 1,544,031 201,793 159,263 620 263,096
12,524,483

80,591,058 9,659 19 4,071,187 846,377 0 7,870 2,760,716 514,665 262,840 2,823,444 279,903 164,257 930 401,505
92,734,430

1,712,927 222,118 146,713 179 292,732
10,032,571

Source: Department of Fisheries, 2004

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Table 10a-10b (Graph 2)
BAHAMAS TOTAL RECORDED PRODUCT LANDINGS BY WEIGHT (LBS) AND VALUE ($B): 1980 - 2003 YEAR WEIGHT VALUE YEAR WEIGHT VALUE 1980 4,482,555 9,235,355 1992 9,450,270 59,355,741 1981 4,434,914 7,824,848 1993 10,232,377 52,113,214 1982 6,233,151 15,513,027 1994 9,866,781 64,485,371 1983 6,746,798 16,379,470 1995 9,506,524 66,438,419 1984 6,369,922 19,295,788 1996 10,147,623 61,392,363 1985 8,384,046 29,427,916 1997 11,437,418 69,541,020 1986 7,360,986 21,987,708 1998 11,195,659 65,035,044 1987 8,520,038 36,057,153 1999 10,917,910 71,829,968 1988 8,135,674 33,300,009 1989 8,300,153 37,081,235 1990 7,732,314 37,826,780 2002 12,057,974 102,690,401 1991 8,902,304 56,367,785 2003 12,524,483 92,734,430

2000 2001 11,072,574 10,032,572 80,849,211 67,438,323

TOTAL RECORDED LANDINGS BY WEIGHT (LBS.) AND VALUE (B$): 1980 - 2003

14000000 12000000 10000000

120000000

100000000

80000000 Weight (LBS.) 8000000 60000000 6000000 40000000 4000000 2000000 0 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 20000000 Value (B$)

0

WEIGHT (Source: Department of Fisheries )

VALUE

Fisheries exports in 2003 were valued at US$108.8 million of which crawfish tails accounted for US$106.2 million. (See Table: Total Fishery Product and Resource Exports: 1998-2003)

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Table 11a -Table 11b (Graph 3)
BAHAMAS TOTAL VALUE OF EXPORTS ($B): 1980 - 2003 YEAR VALUE YEAR VALUE 1980 11,812,414 1992 53,247,410 1981 9,612,457 1993 48,895,786 1982 12,837,865 1994 63,196,465 1983 13,887,706 1995 59,520,384 1984 17,088,498 1996 57,704,877 1985 19,388,779 1997 62,207,836 1986 22,311,806 1998 61,273,217 1987 25,901,832 1999 75,262,696 1988 28,770,966 2000 88,605,210 1989 30,435,578 2001 72,264,177 1990 32,544,766 1991 50,520,279

2002 2003 99,481,146 108,788,202

TOTAL VALUE OF EXPORTS:1980 - 2003 120000000

100000000

80000000

$B

60000000

40000000

20000000

0 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 YEARS
(Source: Department of Fisheries )

Table 12a – Table 12b (Graph 4)
BAHAMAS RECORDED LANDINGS OF CRAWFISH: 1982 - 2003
YEAR WEIGHT (L 1982 1,783,357 1983 1,910,022 10,528,695 1995 5,723,055 59,982,048 1984 2,538,842 14,472,595 1996 6,071,532 54,008,396 1985 4,073,394 23,469,158 1997 5,674,127 58,669,158 1986 2,630,315 15,811,796 1998 5,693,652 54,140,480 1987 3,373,613 28,651,957 1999 6,026,508 62,592,798 1988 3,749,787 26,241,857 2000 6,622,733 70,518,489 1989 4,550,079 31,124,202 2001
4,923,890 52,926,766

1990 4,266,456 32,321,028 2002
7,356,885 92,231,566

1991 5,566,299 51,012,645 2003
7,625,120 80,591,058

1992 5,993,369 54,115,036

1993 5,772,192 45,285,248

1994 5,575,720 57,263,712

VALUE (B$) 10,757,311 YEAR WEIGHT (L 1994 5,575,720

VALUE (B$) 57,263,712

BAHAMAS RECORDED LANDINGS OF CRAWFISH: 1982 - 2003

9000000 8000000 7000000 Weight (LBS.) 6000000 5000000 4000000 3000000 2000000 1000000 0 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 YEAR WEIGHT (LBS) VALUE (B$)

100000000 90000000 80000000 70000000 50000000 40000000 30000000 20000000 10000000 0 Value (B$) 60000000

(Source: Department of Fisheries )

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II.1.3 Agricultural Systems The Bahamian archipelago can be divided on the basis of vegetation and capability into two types of Islands – Pine and Coppice. The Pine Islands, namely Andros, Abaco and Grand Bahama, are located in the Northern Bahamas. These islands have large reserves of fresh water with thin layers of brown soil covering soft limestone rock. The rock has the potential to be broken down mechanically so that the thin layer of soil is mixed into the crushed rock creating a free-moving soil. This action increases the agricultural potential of the Pine Islands. Andros, Abaco and Grand Bahama combine for a total of 180, 000 acres of land that could be cultivated using mechanical agricultural technology. The Coppice Island, on the other hand, comprises the islands of the southeastern Bahamas. These islands are generally narrow, rugged, with hard rock and limited fresh waster reserves and lend themselves to labor intensiveness employing the slash and burn approach or the system of pothole farming. The Department of Agriculture launched a program to increase and diversify production in The Bahamas by targeting specific commodities for specific islands and regions. (See Table: Production Potential of Specific Crops for the Islands of The Bahamas). Table 13: Production Potential of Special Crops for the islands of The Bahamas Islands North Bahama Pine Islands: Grand Bahama, Abaco, New Providence, and North Andros Central Bahamas: South Andros, Eleuthera, Cat Island Characteristics Rainfall 40-60 inches Available Ground Water Sub-tropical Soil high pH Mechanical production possible Rainfall 40 inches, Limited Ground Water Poor shipping Non-mechanical production Low labour availability Rainfall 30-40 inches Limited Ground Water Poor shipping Non-mechanical production Rainfall <30 inches Sub-desert Severely Limited Ground Water Poor shipping Non-mechanical production Specific Enterprises Citrus, banana, avaocado, vegetables, mangoes, root crops, forage crops and hay pigeon peas. Sesame (bennie) Papaya, Sugar apple Mangoes Coconut, Pineapple Mango Pineapple, Tamarind, Melon Sugar apple, Carambola Tamarind Aloe Vera

Southern Bahamas: Long Island, Exuma, Crooked Island Southeastern Bahamas: Acklins, Mayaguana, Inagua

Source: S. Pinder “Agriculture Production in The Bahamas as Affected by Factors of Climate, Geology and Water Resources. (August 1996).

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In the southeastern Bahamas, pot-hole farming is practiced. It is a system of farming which began with the Arawaks. The rocky nature of the Coppice Islands has forced the inhabitants of these islands to develop the production technology of ‘pot-hole farming’ for this type of topography3. Mechanized technology is utilized on the Pine Islands and this has enabled large scale fruit and vegetable production to take place. This has enabled The Bahamas to become an exporter of winter vegetables and citrus. Capital intensive farming is practiced principally on Grand Bahama and New Providence where livestock operations in poultry (broiler meat and table eggs) and pork are carried out. Extensive livestock production in the rearing of small ruminants (sheep and goats) is taken on “bush pastures” on the Coppice Islands of the southeastern Bahamas. There is a burgeoning nursery industry producing a range of ornamentals for the landscapers, homes and offices. These nurseries employ the latest technology utilized in ornamental horticulture. Nursery production is one of the fastest expanding sub-sectors in the agricultural sector of The Bahamas. II.1.4 Agriculture in the Economy Agriculture (farming, fishing and forestry) is a relatively small sector in the economy of The Bahamas accounting for only about 3% of GDP (4.09 to 4.24 billion Euros). Agribusiness / farming 1% and fisheries 1.9%. The GDP of 3% in terms of dollar value is the realm of 115 - 123 million Euros. According to the Central Bank of The Bahamas, if the costs of inputs are included, the total industry output is in the low 154.28 million Euros. There has been very little growth in the Agribusiness and Small Farmer sub-sector of the agricultural sector (See Graph: Section II.1) even though the Fisheries Sub-sector has grown and expanded. In 1995, contribution to the GDP for the agricultural sector was 4%. II.1.5 Main Agricultural Produce and Secondary Products In 2003, the Government of The Bahamas through the Produce Exchange and the Packing House Network of seven outlets spent 3.32 million Euros to purchase 4.31 million kilos of various crops, principally from small farmers in the Family Islands. The Produce Exchange, as the distribution point, is located in Nassau, while Packing Houses have been sited on Eleuthera (3), Long Island, Cat Island, Exuma and North Andros.
The topography of the Coppice Islands has small pockets of fertile soil in the rocky superstructure in which vegetable seeds and fruit trees are planted.
3

44

The state-sponsored marketing system handled some 69 different types of produce of which the main ones were as follows: Table 14: Main Agricultural Produce (2003)

Produce Banana Cabbage Corn Persian Lime Onion Pineapple Hot Pepper Sweet Pepper Tomato Watermelon

Value (B$) 401,793.00 133,339.38 130,551.00 209,644.00 235,941.15 533,644.52 95,151.00 252,878.88 1,051,220.85 243,101.25

Quantity 523,467 (kilos) 251,633 (kilos) 118,436 (kilos) 17,216 (case) 370,776 (kilos) 302,878 (kilos) 20,706 (kilos) 238,624 (kilos) 785,735 (kilos) 441,083(kilos)

Source: Statistics Unit, Department of Agriculture Secondary products are items like bottled tomatoes, canned tomato paste, canned pigeon peas, exotic fruits (sapodilla, hog plums, guinep), bottled hot pepper sauce, seasonal commodities like land crabs and native mutton, coconuts, sweet potatoes, and green pigeon peas. II.1.6 Main Export Markets The fisheries Sub-Sector is the main exporter as it exports crawfish to the United States and the European Union, which are the main export markets. The U.S. is the main export market for Bahamian citrus. The U.S.A. is The Bahamas’ chief trading partner, as The Bahamas is heavily dependent on trade, especially imports since the economy is service based as a result of the dominant sectors of tourism and financial services.

45

Table 15: All Bahamas Exports 2003

ALL BAHAMAS EXPORTS 2003 Type Unit (lbs.) 42.5 42.5 45 45 50 40 Boxes 470304 419616 150714 127404 1 17011
Weight/ short tons

Avg. Price 12.70 9.67 20.87 8.00 20.00 22.51

Value $ 5971613 4059639 3144771 1019232 20 382970

Grapefruit Red Grapefruit White Lemon Orange Mango Avocado

9993.96 8916.84 3391.07 2866.59 0.03 340.22

% of Value 40.90 % 27.80 % 21.54 % 6.98% 0.00% 2.62%

Market USA USA USA USA USA USA

Pumpkin Cigars Total

50 1.5

864 100 1,186,014

21.60 0.17 25530.47

10.00 150.0 0

8640 15000 $14,601,885

0.06% 0.10% 100%

USA ____

Cascarilla Craw Fish Sponge Fisheries (other)

20.12 7,461,234 (lbs) 121,400 (lbs)

264,357 106,272,530 943,001 1,576,671

Italy USA/EU USA USA

Source: Statistical Unit, Department of Agriculture

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II.1.7 Trade Agreements that Include Agriculture With reference to international trade agreements, The Bahamas has some unique features. It is this perspective which steered the government in 2002 to establish The Bahamas Trade Commission (BTC) as the trade component of the Ministry of Trade and Industry. Prior to this arrangement, trade matters fell under the ambit of the Ministry of Finance. The role of the BTC is to facilitate more public sector/private sector discussion and consensus on trade issues, to act as a conduit for the two-way flow of information between the BTC and the general public, to monitor the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) process and to act in a liaison capacity with Caribbean Regional Negotiation Machinery (CRNM). Through the BTC, trade issues have taken on a new sense of urgency in The Bahamas. Presently The Bahamas is the only CARICOM state without membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO). Steps, however, have been taken to seek membership. With reference to CARICOM, The Bahamas is not a signatory to the Trade Protocol and, at the moment, is not a participant in the Caribbean Single Market and Economy. An educational program is being conducted in The Bahamas for the purpose of enlightening Bahamians on the benefits of CSME participation. The concerns being expressed by Bahamians relative to the CSME are the free movement of people, a single currency and the Caribbean Court of Appeal. In terms of the FTAA process, The Bahamas is a partner in the CRNM alignment and supports the CRNM in its negotiations. The Bahamas was a signatory to the Lomé Convention and continues with Cotonou Agreement, hence making it a member of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) group. The accession to the WTO by The Bahamas will have profound implications for agriculture in The Bahamas. In order to successfully accede to the WTO, The Bahamas would have to design new methods to support the agricultural sector while at the same time addressing the issue of international competitiveness. There are no special trade agreements for agricultural commodities between The Bahamas and the U.S. With the EU, the Bahamas is treated like any other ACP State. II.1.8 Sectoral Policy Related to Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry The Agricultural Sectoral policy has been centered around the following for several years: • To diversify the economic base by developing an economically viable and sustainable sector;

47

• • • • •

To make a major contribution to the attainment of food security; To increase the contribution of agriculture to the GDP; To contribute meaningfully to the provision of employment for Bahamians; To provide the means for a significant percentage of the rural or Family Island population of The Bahamas to attain a relatively good standard of living; and Within the context of the national goal of the protection and conservation of the environment, encourage all agricultural activities to provide for the improved protection and conservation of the national resources of the country.

It is within this framework that policy makers hope to protect the Sector and put it on the road to economic sustainability. Being an archipelagic nation, successive governments of The Bahamas have adopted a very guarded policy framework for the Fisheries Sub-sector. Governments of The Bahamas have adhered to the policy that the commercial fishing industry, as far as is practical is reserved for Bahamian nationals. Commercial fishing vessels fishing within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) must be 100% Bahamian owned. Seafood processing facilities have been placed on the list of areas specifically targeted for overseas investors. All investment projects with non-Bahamian interests must have the approval of the Government’s National Economic Council (NEC).

II.2 Socio-Economic Profile Despite two devastating hurricanes in 2004, the Tourism Sector was able to achieve its highest level of visitor arrivals by reaching the figure of 5 million visitors in 2004. Hurricane Francis hit in September and was the first hurricane in decades to affect the entire archipelago. In October, Hurricane Jeanne struck causing additional damage in the northern Bahamas on the islands of Grand Bahama and Abaco. These natural disasters have not dampened the investment climate in The Bahamas as the government of The Bahamas signed Heads of Agreement with two companies to engage in billion dollar tourist resort developments – billion dollars expansion by the Kerzner Group of the world-famous Atlantis property on Paradise Island and the BahaMar Group which recently purchased three hotels on the famous Cable Beach strip which will be re-developed to the tune of US$1.2 billion. These two projects with an expanded and improved international airport in Nassau are projected to fuel tourism growth and development. The expectations are that these developments will take Bahamian tourism to new heights. With this highly buoyant economy, The Bahamas has been inundated with illegal immigrants from the region especially Haiti, Jamaica, and Cuba.

48

The Bahamas has the third highest pre capita income in the region at US$16,400 per annum. Recognizing the fact that the country may be facing an urban crisis the government has devised two policy strategies to address this issue. Firstly, the government has enunciated that there will be at least one major anchor project on each island. The model for this strategy has been the island of Exuma where the multi-million dollar resort, Emerald Bay, has come on stream. Secondly, in the densely populated area of Nassau called Over-the-Hill the government has launched a massive urban renewal program to address issues like poor housing, drug addiction, unemployment, deteriorating infrastructure, crime and environmental degradation. II.2.1 Demographics A population census is conducted every ten years at the beginning of a decade. The results of the census the population of The Bahamas was 303,611, in 2001 it was estimated to be 307,000 and 316,298 in 2003 (Department of Statistics). Table 16: POPULATION BY ISLAND AND SEX FOR CENSUS YEARS 1970 –2000 Island 1970 Male Total New Providence Grand Bahama Abaco Acklins Andros Berry Islands Biminis Cat Island Crooked Island Eleuthera Exuma & Cays Harbour Island & Spanish Wells Inagua Long Cay Long Island Mayaguana Ragged Island San Salvador & Rum Cay 83661 49602 13598 3397 394 4311 300 797 1225 305 3769 1837 931 554 12 1895 249 103 382 Female 1980 Male Female 1990 Male Female 2000 Male Female 155896 109274 23970 6459 201 3906 293 831 793 178 4066 1696 1611 493 1459 130 28 508

85151 101774 51901 12261 3104 542 4534 143 706 1432 384 3767 1930 1001 555 14 1966 332 105 474 64861 16694 3746 281 3981 298 751 1075 246 4199 1786 1079 462 19 1641 220 82 353

107731 124958 70576 16408 3525 337 4326 211 660 1140 272 4132 1884 1221 462 16 1763 244 82 472 83515 20060 5201 186 4109 349 850 875 204 4019 1836 1286 518 1503 145 52 250

130091 147715 88681 101558 20838 23024 4802 6711 219 227 4068 3780 279 416 789 886 823 854 208 172 3974 3933 1720 1875 1305 1555 467 1446 167 37 268 476 1533 129 44 542

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11.2.2 Literacy Level and Languages School attendance to the age of 14 years old is mandatory in The Bahamas. This policy applies to all children who are residents of The Bahamas. Illegal Haitian immigrant children have created over-crowding in certain school districts and there are cases where these children are unable to speak English causing the Ministry of Education to engage in a program of teaching Haitian children with an English language deficiency in Haitian Creole. The Ministry of Education embarked on a program to teach Spanish by recruiting Spanish teachers from Costa Rica. Table 17: Literacy

Year 1953 1960 1963 1970 1980 1981 1990

Literacy Rate (%) 85.1 89.7 89.7 91.2 91.6 93.0 97.0

Source: Ministry of Education (2003) 2005 Public School Enrolment by District Table 18a: Primary School

District Abaco Cat Island Eleuthera Exuma Grand Bahama

Males 527 200 606 270 2057

Females Total 521 1048 160 360 599 1205 223 493 1979 4036

50

District Long Island MICAL North Andros Northeastern NP Northwestern NP South Andros Southeastern NP Southwestern NP Total

Males 192 157 466 1801 1849 188 2156 2965 13434

Females Total 164 356 125 282 458 924 1775 3576 1837 3686 167 355 2051 4207 2697 5662 12756 26190

Source: Ministry of Education (2005) Table 18b: Secondary School (2005)
District Abaco Cat Island Eleuthera Exuma Grand Bahama Long Island MICAL North Andros Northeastern NP Northwestern NP South Andros Southeastern NP Southwestern NP Total Males 275 118 510 196 2026 150 107 347 1862 1756 152 1282 1798 10579 Females Total 279 554 113 231 550 1060 220 416 1873 3899 147 297 104 211 339 686 1725 3587 1770 3526 141 293 1172 2454 1567 3365 10000 20579

Source: Ministry of Education (2005)

51

Table 18c: Independent School Enrolment (2005)
School Agape Christian School Alpha Omega Christian School Aquinas Bahamas Academy Calvary Academy C. W. Saunders Forest Heights Freeport Anglican High Grand Bahama Academy Grand Bahama Catholic High Holy Name Catholic School Jordan Prince William Kingsway Academy Lucaya International Lyford Cay School Mary Star of the Sea Nassau Christian Academy Our Lady's Primary School Queen's College South Haven Christian Academy St. Anne's Anglican School St. Anne's Catholic School St. Bede's St. Cecilia's St. Francis & St. Joseph St. Francis de Sales St. John's College St. Paul's Methodist College St. Thomas More School St. Vincent De Paul Sunland School Tabernacle Baptist Christian Academy Temple Christian Windermere High School Xavier's Lower School Discovery Primary** Smith's Memorial Academy High** Long Bay All-age** Wesley College** St. Andrew's** St. Augustine's ** Total ** Numbers indicated in red are estimated totals Males 103 42 195 189 238 236 64 185 124 204 45 386 417 74 87 189 489 198 300 14 324 35 110 168 163 159 405 166 198 52 222 238 210 30 201 Females 122 22 262 255 220 220 84 249 139 216 41 484 528 73 95 204 627 209 337 9 390 53 100 238 183 153 440 174 234 56 263 220 234 45 204 Total 225 64 457 444 458 456 148 434 263 420 86 870 945 147 182 393 1116 407 637 23 714 88 210 406 346 312 845 340 432 108 485 458 444 75 405 229 29 129 35 714 959 15938

Source: Ministry of Education 52

II.2.3 Access to Services II.2.3.1 Health The Bahamas has an outstanding healthcare system. Generally healthcare at governmentowned operated facilities are free or a minimal fee, this also includes medication. Among the healthcare professionals the following is a breakdown: Table 19: Registered Physicians, Dentists and Nurses in the Bahamas 1998-2002 (Provisional) Professions/Institutions Physicians* Public & Private Physicians Grand Total Dentists Public Private Grand Total Registered Nurses (Public)*** Princess Margaret Hospital Rand Memorial Hospital Sandilands Rehabilitation Centre Community Health Services Grand Total Trained Clinical Nurses (Public) Princess Margaret Hospital Rand Memorial Hospital Sandilands Rehabilitation Centre Community Health Services Grand Total 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

479 479 1 70 71

495 495 2 69 71

483 483 2 71 73

503 503 2 73 75

523** 523 4 75 79

360 90 84 166 700

325 66 65 163 619

381 93 105 168 747

339 99 105 172 715

345 104 108 187 744

235 56 97 64 452

233 61 73 78 445

246 62 74 82 464

218 63 69 79 429

203 63 68 74 408

*Estimate based on Registered Physicians who were active and employed in 2002. **There were 276 government-employed physicians in 2002. ***Registered Nurses include Staff Nurses and Nursing Officers of all grades

Source: Bahamas Medical Council, Bahamas Dental Council, Public Hospitals Authority Department of Public Health & Office of Director of Nursing.

53

The Healthcare Infrastructure is as follows: Table 20a: Dispersion of Government Health Service Facilities, Bahamas (2003)

54

Table 20b: Dispersion of Government Health Service Facilities, Bahamas (2000)

55

11.2.3.2 Education The budget of the Ministry of Education in the fiscal year 2004/2005 was B$200 million (154.3 million Euros) or 18% of the national budget. Education is the number one budgetary item in the budget. Being an archipelagic nation where individuals reside on 24 different islands, the Ministry of Education has established thirteen educational districts. In conjunction with the Ministry of Education, there are 41 independent schools, several of which are operated by the various Christian denominations. In the Ministry of Education system, kindergarten through secondary school is free. Tertiary level education can be obtained at the College of The Bahamas and the University of the West Indies via a government scholarship program. II.2.3.3 Electricity Electricity is supplied by a number of sources in The Bahamas. The government owned corporation, The Bahamas Electricity Corporation, supplies electricity to some 90,254 subscribers. (See Table: Number of Consumers). On Grand Bahama, electricity is generated by the Grand Bahama Power Co. Ltd. to the residents of Freeport and to the other settlements on Grand Bahama. On the smaller cays, residents use generators to supply their electrical requirements. On Spanish Wells for example, the St. George’s Cay Power Company, which is privately owned and operated by the residents, provides electricity. Table 21: Total Number of Consumers Island Abaco Acklins Andros Bimini Cat Island Crooked Island Eleuthera Exuma Total 6758 242 1153 795 1254 1096 1076 207 5061 89 40 2173 97 443 11 1197 124

North Andros Central Andros South Andros

Black Point Farmer’s Cay Main Exuma Staniel Cay

Great Harbour Cay Long Cay Long Island Mayaguana 56

Island New Providence Ragged Island Rum Cay San Salvador Total II.2.4 Rural-Urban Drift There are no figures available.

Total 67217 57 74 482 90254

57

II.3 Media and Telecommunications II.3.1 Newspapers, Periodicals and Broadcast Media II.3.1.1 Newspapers The following is a list of newspapers published in The Bahamas Table 22: Newspapers
Distribution Name Publisher Street Depots Delivery Website Postal/Tel/Fax Email Address Market Frequency

Bahama Journal The Tribune

Wendall Jones Jones Communications International Limited Mrs. Eileen Dupuch – Carrou The Tribune Limited

www.jonescommunicationsltd.com

The Nassau Guardian The Southern Times

Charles Carter The Nassau Guardian (1844) Ltd. Berkley Williams Williams’ Marketing And Advertising International

www.thenassauguardian.com

P.O. Box N-8610 Nassau, Bahamas (242) 325-3082 (242) 325-7256 P.O. Box N 3207 Nassau, Bahamas P.O. Box F-485 Freeport, G.B. (242) 322-1986 (242) 328-2398 P.O. Box N 3011 Nassau, Bahamas (242) 323-5654 (242) 302-2300 P.O. Box N 3359 Nassau, Bahamas (242) 323-8770 (242) 323-8761

bahjour@coralwave.com

All Bahamas

Daily

Business@100jamz.com Sports@100jamz.com

All Bahamas

Daily

editor@nasguard.com

All Bahamas

Daily

berkleywilliams@hotmail.c om

SE Bahamas (focus) All Bahamas

Monthly

58

Distribution Name Publisher Street Depots Delivery Website

Address Postal/Tel/Fax Email

Market

Frequency

The Punch

Ivan Johnson

The Confidential Source The Abaconian

Eden Holdings Ltd.

www.confidentialsoure.com

Ms. Kathleen & Dave Ralph

www.go-abacos.com

The Freeport News

Subsidiary of The Nassau Guardian

www.freeport.nassauguardian.net

P.O. Box N 4081 Nassau, Bahamas (242) 322-7112 (242) 326-0736 P.O. Box SS 6276 Nassau, Bahamas (242) 322-7172 (242) 322-6727 P.O. Box AB 20551 Marsh Harbour, Abaco (242) 367-2677 (242) 367-3677 P.O. Box F 40007 Freeport, G.B. (242) 352-8321 (242) 351-3449

Thepunch@coralwave.com

All Bahamas

editor@bahamapost.com

All Bahamas

Twice Weekly Monday & Thursday Thursdays

Davralph@batelnet.bs

Abaco & Cays

Twice per month

Grand Bahama

Daily

In The Bahamas, the three dailies newspapers are The Tribune, The Guardian and The Bahama Journal; all are morning papers and all were unwilling to release details on circulation numbers. The Punch, which is a tabloid, is believed to have the widest circulation. From time to time, the business section of the dailies will carry agribusiness articles. The Bahama Journal is the only paper with regular Agribusiness page, which is published on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. The Nassau Guardian is the oldest paper in The Bahamas; it was started in 1840. The Tribune has been in operation since 1903. The Bahama Journal is the newest having commenced publishing in 1988 as a weekly paper.

II.3.1.2 Periodicals The following is a list of periodicals

59

Table 23. Periodicals
Name Owner/Publisher Book Store Crossings (Magazine for Fast Ferries passengers) Travel Media International Distribution Super Mkts Other √ Website Address Postal/Tel/Fax/Email 10001 Vestal Place Coral Springs, Fla. (954) 346-0712 (954) 352-2123 JKMSN@AOL.com www.caribbeani nvestmentprofile s.com Cholmeley Cottage Cholmeley Park London, UK e.owen@investmentprofiles.co.uk P.O. Box N-3730 Nassau, Bahamas (242) 322-4546 (242) 326-3509 Visitors SemiAnnually Market Frequency

Caribbean Investment Profiles (Investment in The Bahamas) The Bahamas National Assessment Report (Ten year Review For The Barbados Program of Action, 2004) Bahamas Newsletter

Caribbean Investment Profiles Limited

Global

__

Bahamas Environmental Science and Technology Commission (BEST)

General Public

Bahamas High Commission, London

Bahamas Handbook

Etienne Dupuch Jr. Publications Ltd.

10 Chesterfield Street Mayfair, London UK 408-4488 499-9937 bahamas.hicome/on@cablenet.co.uk P. O. Box N 7513 Nassau, Bahamas info@dupuch .com

global

Quarterly

All Bahamas/ global

Annual

60

Name

Owner/Publisher Book Store

Distribution Super Mkts Other √ Website www.fidelitybah amas.com www.fidelityoffs hore.com www.bahamas.n et.bs/history/bhs

Address Postal/Tel/Fax/Email P. O. Box N 4853 Nassau, Bahamas (242) 356-7764 (242) 326-3000 info@fidelitybahamas.com P. O. Box SS 6833 Nassau, Bahamas bahistsoc@coralwave.com P. O. Box N 9240 Nassau, Bahamas (242) 325-8210 (242) 325-8065 rsealy@100jamz.com P.O. Box N 4863 Nassau, Bahamas Research@centralbankbahamas.com P.O. Box CB 12257 (242) 323-7702 (242) 328-8607 ctmagazine@yahoo.com

Market

Frequency

Fidelity Forum

Fidelity Group of Companies

All Bahamas

Monthly

Journal of The Bahamas Historical Society Bahamas Journal of Science

Bahamas Historical Society

All Bahamas

Annual

Media Publishing Ltd.

All Bahamas

October February June Quarterly

Quarterly Statistical Digest

Central Bank of The Bahamas

www.centralban kbahamas.com

Public

Consumerism Today

Consumer Publications Services Ltd.

All Bahamas

61

Consumerism Today features articles on agriculture and agribusiness. The Journal of The Bahamas Historical Society publishes articles on the history of agriculture in The Bahamas. Bahamas Journal of Science and the BEST Commission produce environmental articles on issues which may affect the Sector. The Bahamas Handbook carries agricultural statistics and publishes articles on various issues relative the Sector. The Central Bank’s Quarterly Journal provides a great deal of statistical data on the sector. The Fidelity Forum produces agribusiness information from time to time. “Crossings” is found on fast ferry vessels which evoke international trade as agricultural produce are transported by the fast ferry network. Articles on Family Island life are published in this magazine. II.3.1.3 Broadcast Media II.3.1.3.1 Radio In 1993 legislation was passed to allow private broadcasting. Prior to 1992, all broadcasting facilities were owned by The Bahamas Government; after 1992, radio broadcasting was privatized. The government of The Bahamas still owns the Broadcasting Corporation of The Bahamas, which operates radio stations in New Providence and Grand Bahama under the call name ZNS. The following are stations operating under the Broadcasting Corporation of The Bahamas: ZNS 1 ZNS 2 11540 a.m. - Can be heard throughout The Hosts Talk Shows Bahamas 24 hours daily

Programming is Religious on FM at 107.1 MH2 and 107.9 MH2 in the Southeastern Bahamas. Operates from 6:00 a.m. to 12 Midnight

ZNS – FM Power 104.5. FM – Operates 24 hours ZNS 3 – Radio Bahamas Northern Service – Operates out of Freeport, Grand Bahama. Its programming parallels ZNS 1. Can be heard in South Florida.

Postal Address: Tel: Fax: Email:

P. O. Box N 134, Nassau, Bahamas (242) 502-3800 (242) 322-6598 bcbcorp@mail.bahamas.net.bs

Agricultural news reaches all of the islands via ZNS 1. Talk shows air issues on which the subject matter deals with agriculture rather frequently.

62

Table 24: Private Radio Stations
Name Love 97 Love 97 North www.Love97fm.com Format News, talk and adult contemporary music General programs have agricultural content. 24 hours Island and urban music. 24 hours Variety of music genres. 24 hours Bahamian and Island music/ some talk radio. 24 hours Gospel music. 24 hours Adult contemporary. 24 hours Music/news. 24 hours Music/local news. 24 hours Music. 24 hours Station Location New Providence Grand Bahama Operational Range Received in Grand Bahama, Abaco, Bimini, Andros, New Providence and Eleuthera

100 Jamz www.100jamz.com More 97.9 FM Island FM Joy FM Cool 96 FM Radio Abaco 93.5 FM Splash 92 FM Mix 102.1 FM Mix102@batelnet.bs

New Providence New Providence New Providence New Providence Grand Bahama Abaco Spanish Wells Freeport, G.B.

New Providence, Abaco, Grand Bahama, Eleuthera and Exuma New Providence and Grand Bahama New Providence New Providence Grand Bahama Abaco Spanish Wells / N. Eleuthera Grand Bahama

II.3.3.3.2 Television There is one local television station in The Bahamas. It is operated by the government owned Broadcasting Corporation of The Bahamas and is styled TV13. It can be viewed 130 miles from Nassau and operates 10 hours per day Monday to Friday, 17 hours on Saturday and 16 hours on Sunday. In 1994, The Bahamas government issued a 15-year license to Cable Bahamas Ltd. for the construction and operation of a cable television system to service The Bahamas. Cable television services are available to 96% of Bahamian households. As of July 2004, Cable Bahamas had approximately 65,000 subscribers. Cable Bahamas installs, free of charge, cable services and broadband Internet access in government-operated schools and libraries. Government ministries, charitable organizations and church-operated schools also are granted free installations of cable service. Cable Bahamas

63

operates a community channel and carries the parliamentary channel, which transmits live broadcasts of parliamentary debates and proceedings. A number of Bahamians subscribe to US satellite companies like Direct TV and Dishnet for television viewing. TV 13 airs agricultural subjects and Cable Bahamas carries agricultural events on its Community Channel. A household survey by the Department of Statistics has provided data on the number of households by island with television, cable and satellite services. (See Tables for the year 2000). Table 25: Private Households by island and number of televisions per household (All Bahamas) Number of Televisions Island Total New Providence Grand Bahama Abaco Acklins Andros Berry Islands Biminis Cat Island Crooked Island Eleuthera Exuma and Cays Harbour Island Inagua Long Island Mayaguana Ragged Island San Salvador & Rum Cay Spanish Wells Total Number of Households 61,906 39,864 10,388 2,865 143 1,871 232 493 516 134 2,186 940 339 288 858 89 29 169 502 0 1 2 3 or Not more Stated 7,607 5,359 1,465 181 3 117 15 79 8 1 136 59 29 19 17 1 6 112

9,206 27,622 17,275 4,033 18,482 11,990 1,085 4,434 3,385 909 1,264 465 114 22 2 605 796 321 30 144 41 48 393 84 703 303 50 65 524 53 19 87 101 217 86 40 937 403 159 147 257 28 9 65 132 149 27 4 365 163 96 56 50 5 1 10 145

196 19 46 2 32 2 2 5 45 12 5 1 10 2 1 12

Source: Household Survey, Department of Statistics (2000)

64

Table 26: Private households by island indicating number of households with satellite or cable (all Bahamas) Island Total New Providence Grand Bahama Abaco Acklins Andros Berry Islands Biminis Cat Island Crooked Island Eleuthera Exuma and Cays Harbour Island Inagua Long Island Mayaguana Ragged Island San Salvador & Rum Cay Spanish Wells Total Households Households Households Number of with without with Households Satellite Satellite Cable 61,906 13,990 32,486 5,408 39,864 10,433 25,030 10,388 1,025 2,842 5,408 2,865 751 1,113 143 2 20 1,871 182 1,012 232 84 112 493 516 134 2,186 940 339 288 858 89 29 169 502 80 10 8 528 210 211 148 108 7 4 24 175 361 105 32 856 387 73 72 175 27 6 52 211 Not Stated 10,022 4,401 1,113 1,001 121 677 36 52 401 94 802 343 55 68 575 55 19 93 116

Source: Household Survey, Department of Statistics (2000) II.3.2 Telecommunications Services Two entities provide telecommunication services: 1. Bahamas Telecommunications Company Ltd. (BTC) It is a quasi-public corporation owned by the government of The Bahamas but operating without any subsidy. BTC offers a wide range of services including telephone, fax, telex, cellular and radio phone, private line services, packet switching, satellite service and GSM services. A 3-minute local call for: (a) Fixed – B$0.18 per minute (b) Cellular – B$0.40 per minute 65

Table 27: Wire-line and Wireless Subscribers, Bahamas Telecommunications Ltd. Year Wire-line Wireless 2000 114,347 31,524 2001 123,370 60,555 2002 126,556 106,759 2003 131,682 116,267 2004 133,936 186,007

Source: Bahamas Telecommunications Co. 2. Indigo Networks Indigo Networks entered the telecommunications business in The Bahamas in 2004 and provides a full range of fixed telephony and mobile data services. This was the first instance of liberalizing the telecommunications industry in The Bahamas. Prepaid phone card rates: Family Islands: B$0.17/minute USA: B$0.49/minute Canada: B$0.49/minute Caribbean: B$0.65/minute (including Cuba) Rest of the world: B$0.79/minute Indigo is in the process of offering residential telephone services. II.3.3 Computers and the Internet Please note the results of the household survey by the Department of Statistics. The survey highlights the number of households with the availability and access to television, computer and the interest by island. (See Table 28. Availability and Access to Amenities).

66

Table 28: Private Households by Island Indicating Availability and Access to Amenities

Island

Total New Providence Grand Bahama Abaco Acklins Andros Berry Island Bimini Cat Island Crooked Island Eleuthera Exuma & Cays Harbour Island Inagua Long Island Mayaguana Ragged Island San Salvador & Rum Cay Spanish Wells

Availability And Access To Amenities Access To Computer Internet Total Yes No Not Yes No Not Number of Stated Stated Households 87,742 24,443 63,188 111 13,557 74,064 121 59,712 13,979 3,936 134 2,149 269 555 229 132 2,409 1,133 493 302 963 96 26 309 586 18,271 3,719 967 6 269 29 72 54 7 341 213 88 41 142 5 49 170 41,379 10,248 2,955 128 1,876 240 483 502 125 2,052 920 405 261 821 91 26 260 416 62 12 14 4 3 16 10,531 1,857 518 3 99 11 20 24 156 88 46 15 62 1 8 118 49,114 12,107 3,402 131 2,046 258 535 532 132 2,237 1,045 447 287 901 95 26 301 468 67 15 16 4 3 16 -

Source: Household Survey, Department of Statistics (2000) There are presently 16 Internet Providers in The Bahamas as follows and total about 43,693 subscribers: Table 29: Internet Service Providers Monthly Charge B$ Internet Service Providers Batelnet (BTC) Bahamas Online Location New Providence New Providence Subscribers 15,200 4,900 10 hr. Dialup 10.00 (5hrs)
Webpage: 49.99 Public Announcement: 19.99 HotLinks: 9.99

DSL 34.99

Cable Bahamas

New Providence 67

22,500

9.95

36.95

Monthly Charge B$ Internet Service Providers Net-Bahamas Ltd. Future Net Ltd. Quality Business Centre Ltd Security Software Dev. Ltd Century Communications Co. Ltd. Access Bahamas Ltd. Cyber World Bahamas Ltd. Bahamas General Communications Satellite Bahamas Ltd. Location New Providence New Providence Grand Bahama Grand Bahama Grand Bahama New Providence New Providence New Providence New Providence
Special DSL System for the Family Islands: 99.00

Subscribers

10 hr. Dialup 14.95 15.00

DSL 35.95 34.99

Abaco Wireless Services Ltd. Out Island Inter-Net Ltd Integrated Data Solutions KBMP Communications Network

Abaco Abaco New Providence New Providence

Source: Public Utilities Commission (2005) The New Providence providers (Access, CyberWorld, Bahama General and KPMP) have the capacity to provide Internet services, but are not in the general marketplace; same applies to companies in Grand Bahama and Abaco. Some of these companies do not have websites or listed web addresses. These providers provide service to 1098 subscribers. Difficulties were experienced in locating these companies by telephone and address. This information was provided by the Public Utilities Commission, which is the government agency with the responsibility for licensing Internet providers.

68

ANNEX III.
Name and contacts

PROFILE OF INSTITUTIONS
Type AS-F Role TM

III.1. List of All Institutions in Agriculture and Rural Development

Name: North Long Island Cooperative Society Postal Address: Simms, Long Island Tel: Web site: Name: North Cat Island Cooperative Society Limited Postal Address: P.O. Box SS-6314, Nassau Bahamas Tel: (242) 354-6071, (242) 393-3691; Fax: (242) 354-6174, (242) 394-5834 Web site Name: New Providence Livestock and Producers Cooperative Society Limited Postal Address: P.O. Box N-7548, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 361-4332; Fax: (242) 341-2226 Web site/Email: rainbow@bahamas.net.bs Name: Grand Bahama Farmers Cooperative Society Limited Postal Address: P.O. Box F-43145, Freeport, Grand Bahama Tel: (242) 352-4500; Fax: (242) 352-3905 Web site Name: Abaco Agricultural Cooperative Society Limited Postal Address: P.O. Box AB-20875, Abaco, Bahamas Tel: (242) 367-2292; Fax: (242) 367-4971 Web site Name: North Abaco Fishing Cooperative Society Ltd. Postal Address: Treasure Cay, Abaco, Bahamas Tel: (242) 365-2040; Fax: (242) 355-2164 Web site Name: Bahamas Cooperative League Limited Postal Address: P.O. Box SS-6314, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 393-3691; Fax: (242) 393-3700 Web site/Email: fdavis@bahamascoop.org Name: Mayaguana Cooperative Society Limited Postal Address: Abraham’s Bay, Mayaguana, Bahamas Tel: Web site Name: Mangrove Cay Fishing Cooperative Society Limited Postal Address: Mangrove Cay, South Andros, Bahamas Tel: Web site

AS-F

TM

AS-F

TM

AS-F

TM

AS-F

TM

AS-F

TM

NGO

RG

AS-F

TM

AS-F

TM

69

Table 30: Annex III.1 List of Institutions (continued) Name and contacts Name: Eleuthera Agricultural Cooperative Society Limited Postal Address: Governor’s Harbour, Eleuthera, Bahamas Tel: (242) Fax: (242) Web site/Email: Name: Queen’s College Cooperative Society Limited Postal Address: P.O. Box N-7127, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 393-1666; Fax: (242) Web site/Email: www.qchenceforth.com Name: Central Abaco High School Cooperative Society Limited Postal Address: P.O. Box AB-20875, Abaco, Bahamas Tel: (242) 367-2292; Fax: (242) 367-4971 Web site/Email: Name: C.V.Bethel High School Cooperative Society Limited Postal Address: P.O. Box GT-2514, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 392-9250; Fax: (242) 392-9260 Web site/Email:nwccu@batelnet.bs Name: C.C. Sweeting Senior High School Cooperative Society Limited Postal Address: P.O. Box N-1986, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 356-5401; Fax: (242) 356-5403 Web site/Email: pwccu@bahamas.net.bs Name: North Long Island High School Cooperative Society Limited Postal Address: Simms, Long Island, Bahamas Tel: (242) 338-8551; Fax: (242) Web site/Email: n/ihigh@mail.batelnet.bs Name: Bahamas Agricultural and Industrial Corporation Postal Address: P.O. Box N 4980, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 322-3740; Fax: (242) 322-2123 Web site: www.baic.gov.bs Email: adorsett@baic.gov.bs Name: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Local Government Postal Address: P.O. Box N 3028, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 325-7502; Fax: (242) 322-1767 Web site/Email: camillejohnson@bahamas.gov.bs Name: Department Of Agriculture Postal Address: P.O. Box N 3074, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 325-7502; Fax: (242) 325-3960 Web site/Email:simeonpinder@bahamas.gov.bs Type AS-F Role TM

AS-Y

TM

AS-Y

TM

AS-Y

TM/FS

AS-Y

TM/FS

AS-Y

TM

STA

EX, IN, FS, RD, TR, TM EX, IN, FS, PP, RD, RG, TR, TM, RU EX, IN, FS, PP, RD, RG, TR, TM, RU

GOV

GOV

70

Table 30: Annex III.1 List of Institutions (continued) Name and contacts Name: Department Of Fisheries Postal Address: P.O. Box N 3028, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 393-1777; Fax: (242) 393-0238 Web site/Email: fisheries@bahamas.gov.bs Name: Department of Local Government Postal Address: P.O. Box N 3040, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 394-0445; Fax: (242) 394-5920 Web site/Email: jamesmckinney@bahamas.gov.bs Name: Department of Land & Surveys Postal Address: P.O. Box N-592, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 322-2328; Fax: (242) 322-5830 Web site/Email: Name: Bahamas Development Bank Postal Address: P. O. Box N 3034, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 327-5780; Fax: (242) 327-5047 Web site/Email: bahamasdevelopmentbank.com Name: Bahamas Environmental Science & Technology Commission Postal Address: P.O. Box N 3730, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 322-4546; Fax: (242) 326-3509 Web site/Email: bestmbs@hotmail.com Name: Bahamas Trade Commission Postal Address: P.O. Box N 4849, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 328-2700; Fax: (242) 328-1324 Web site/Email: hebong@Bahamas.gov.bs Name: Bahamas Agricultural Producers Association Postal Address: P.O. Box N 3903, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 322-2028; Fax: (242) 328-8086 Web site/Email:tallpine@coralwave.com Name: Department of Statistics Postal Address: P. O. Box N 3904, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 302-2400; Fax: (242) 502-1068 Web site/Email: Name: Grand Bahama Port Authority Postal Address: P. O. Box F 42666, Freeport, Grand Bahama Tel: (242) 352-6711; Fax: (242) 352-6184 Web site: www.gbpa.com Type Role GOV EX, IN, RD, RG, TR, TM, RU GOV IN, PP, RG, RU

GOV IN,PP, RG, RU BNK FS

STA

IN, RD, RU

PP, RG,

GOV TM

AS-F PS-P

GOV IN, RD PRV RU

PP,

71

Table 30: Annex III.1 List of Institutions (continued) Name and contacts Name: Department of Cooperative Development Postal Address: P.O. Box N 3028, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 356-3152; Fax: (242) 325-7502 Web site/E-mail: nadderley@bahamas.gov.bs Name: College of The Bahamas Postal Address: P. O. Box N 4912, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 302-4300; Fax: (242) 302-4539 Web site/E-mail: www.cob.edu.bs Name: New Providence Development Company Postal Address: P. O. Box N-4820, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 362-4177; Fax: (242) 362-4981 Web site/Email: lindroph@coralwav.com Name: Bahamas Chamber of Commerce Postal Address: P. O. Box N 665, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 322-2145; Fax: (242) 322-4649 Web site/Email: www.thebahamaschamber.com bahamaschamber@coralwave.com Name: Bahamas Produce Exchange Postal Address: P. O. Box N 3028, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 393-1061; Fax: (242) 393-3672 Web site/Email: Name: Container Terminals Limited Postal Address: P. O. Box N 8183, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 322-1012; Fax: (242) 323-7566 Web site/Email: rfarrington@tropical.com Name: Bahamas Ferries Postal Address: P. O. Box N 3709, Nassau Bahamas Tel: (242) 323-2166; Fax: (242) 322-8185 Web site/Email: www.bahamasferries.com Name: Bahamas Hotel Association Postal Address: P. O. Box N 7799, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 322-8381; Fax: (242) 502-4216 Web site/Email: bha@bahamashotels.org Name: Fish and Farm Supply Store Postal Address: P. O. Box N 3028, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 393-2311; Fax: (242) Web site/Email: Type Role GOV IN, PP, TR EDU TR, RD FS, RG, IN,

PRV

RU

CCI

TM, IN

GOV TM

PRV

OT

PRV

OT

NGO OT

72

Table 30: Annex III.1 List of Institutions (continued) Name and contacts Name: Ministry of Education Postal Address: P. O. Box N 3914, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 502-2704; Fax: (242) 322-8491 Web site/Email: www.moe.gov.bs Name: Junior Achievement Bahamas Postal Address: P.O. Box N 1562, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 322-2549; Fax: (242) 326-5657 Web site/Email: Name: 4-H Class Postal Address: P.O. Box N 3028, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 325-7509; Fax: (242) 322-1767 Web site/Email: Camilejohnson@bahamas.gov.bs Name: Anglican Church Women Postal Address: P.O. Box N 656, Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 322-3015; Fax: (242) 322-7943 Web site/Email: www.bahamas.anglican.org diosec@batelnet.bs Type GOV Role TR

GOV

AS-Y

GOV

AS-Y

AS-W

OT

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III.2 Select List of Key Institutions Name of institution: Bahamas Produce Exchange Objective/mission statement: With its network of Family Island Packing Houses, its objective is to purchase quality fruits and vegetables from small farmers. Field of specialization: Produce marketing and distribution. Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, etc; permanent: Produce Exchange – 21 (2 professional, 6 clerical, 13 general workers) Total: 65 Packing Houses – 44 (7 supervisors, 37 general workers) Branches, other sites: 7 outlets as Packing Houses – See Annex 11 (II.1.5). Annual Budget: 3,471,257.9 Euros (B$4.5 million) (2004/5). Source of funding, incl. Main donors/sponsors: Public Treasury, Bahamas Government and produce sales. Program / projects undertaken: Post harvest with the assistance of FAO. Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): Small farmers in Family Islands (1,700). Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications: Attendance at seminars/workshops, CARDI/CTA. Extent of collaboration/interaction with other institutions (name, nature): IICA, FAO, CARDI – workshops on trade and marketing/marketing projects. How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: External sources – FAO/IICA (information from studies: post-harvest, bottling, etc.). Department of Agriculture’s Extension Staff (family island state of production and some crop forecasting). Packaging houses (fruit and vegetable inventory). Florida Department of Agriculture (produce prices).

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Name of institution: Bahamas Produce Exchange Main information needs not satisfied: No publication on market forecast, newspapers and Internet not used as tool to inform farmers and radio is minimal, crop forecasting. Main problems faced in terms of information and communication management: Lack of trained manpower to gather and collate information; distribution of marketing information to buyers. Why institution selected as a key: It is the only national marketing organization geared to the agricultural sector, particularly the small farmer.

Name of institution: New Providence Livestock Producers Cooperative Society Ltd. Objective/mission statement: To meet the member needs by operating as a group in input purchases and transportation of these inputs so as to lower operating costs. Field of specialization: Services to agribusinesses. Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, temporary): 3- part-time (1 clerical, 1 professional, 1 technician). Branches, other sites: Nassau Annual Budget: 33,941 Euros (B$70,000) (2004) Source of funding, incl. Main donors/sponsors: Membership fees Program / projects undertaken: Contribution to hurricane relief program to cooperative in Family Islands. Assistance to scholarship programs. Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): Agribusinesses and small farmers. (20).

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Name of institution: New Providence Livestock Producers Cooperative Society Ltd. Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications: Spore Magazine; a farmer attended a CTA related workshop in Wageningen. Extent of collaboration/interaction with other institutions (name, nature): Bahamas Cooperative League as a member and The Department of Cooperative Development as cooperation. How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: Most information is livestock (poultry) related and comes from feed suppliers. Some information by Department of Agriculture, Extension staff. Main information needs not satisfied: Locally related to production in poultry. Main problems faced in terms of information and communication management: Heavy dependence on external sources as little expertise locally. Why institution selected as a key: This is the most successful producer cooperative in The Bahamas.

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Name of institution: Bahamas Agricultural and Industrial Corp. (BAIC) Objective/mission statement: To stimulate, facilitate and encourage the development of agriculture in The Bahamas. Field of specialization: Agriculture, light Industry Development Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, etc; permanent: 59 (16 professionals, 35 clerical/technical, 18 general workers) Branches, other sites: 3 branches (Grand Bahama, Abaco, Eleuthera) 2 Industrial Parks (New Providence) Annual Budget: 2,159,893.8 Euros (B$2.8 million) (2004/05) Source of funding, incl. Main donors/sponsors: Bahamas Government, revenue from rental properties, services and leases. Program/ projects undertaken: IICA/ Tomato Bottling Project Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): Agribusinesses, small farmer, food processors, fishermen, small business development (2530,000) How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: Sources like IICA (technical assistance with studies), FAO (various publications on crop and livestock production), Caribbean Export Agency (training information and trade shows, i.e. handicraft sector and souvenir items), Business Development (provide courses in business establishment to local entrepreneurs, i.e. start-up business courses); information generated locally through workshops and seminars. Main information needs not satisfied: Website construction/Internet user reliability. Main problems faced in terms of information and communication management: Equipment maintenance; publication preparation/ distribution Why institution selected as a key: Broad involvement with the sector.

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Name of institution: Bahamas Agricultural Producers Association Objective/mission statement: To coordinate the efforts of agribusiness throughout The Bahamas for the purpose of promoting a common interest through collective action and to be an advocate of Agribusiness interest before governments of The Bahamas and the Caribbean. Field of specialization: Agribusiness Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, etc; permanent/Temporary): 3 temporary members of staff (3 professional) Branches, other sites: Nassau Annual Budget: 77,139.06 Euros (B$100,000.00) (2005/2006) Source of funding, incl. Main donors/sponsors: Membership and revenue producing activities. Program / projects undertaken: Policy issues dealing with the growth and development of the sector, i.e. Trade (market access) Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): Farmers, fishermen, processors and agribusinesses. Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications: Spore Magazine Extent of collaboration/interaction with other institutions (name, nature): CARDI and IICA – assistance in organizing Agribusiness Forum and Workshop How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: IICA is an important source and supplier of inputs. Main information needs not satisfied: Preparation of documentation and pamphlets for distribution to membership i.e. newsletter. Main problems faced in terms of information and communication management: Lack of equipment and facilities at the moment. Not organized to disseminate information and its management Why institution selected as a key: It is the only agribusiness umbrella organization in The Bahamas. 78

Name of institution: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Local Government Objective/mission statement: To diversify the economic base by developing an economically viable and sustainable sector; to make a major contribution to the attainment of food security; to increase the contribution of agriculture to GDP, contribute to employment, to improve standard of living of Family Island residents; to conserve and protect the environment (as stated in II. 1.8). Field of specialization: Agricultural development Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, etc; permanent: Total: 657 (110 professional, 250 clerical, 106 technical, and 191 general workers) Branches, other sites: Dispersed throughout the archipelago (local government 28 administrative districts) Annual Budget: 26,227,282 Euros (B$34,000,000 (2005-06 Budget)) Source of funding, incl. Main donors/sponsors: Government Program / projects undertaken:
Land clearing on several islands. FAO is involved with post harvest project work, irrigation, and seed technology, IICA, with agribusiness development.

Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): Target audience: 53,000 (1,242 farmers, 12,300 fishermen, and 48,000 local government) Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications: Spore Magazine, Seminars, publications Extent of collaboration/interaction with other institutions (name, nature): FAO, IICA, CARDI, U.W.I. (Training, surveys, technical assistance) How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: FAO provides technical assistance as well as studies such as seed technology, irrigation, post-harvest, crop and livestock production yields, i.e. fruit trees, vegetables and small ruminants. IICA provides technical studies and advice on agri-business development. 79

Name of institution: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Local Government Main information needs not satisfied: No website, unreliability of Internet use, marginal output of publications, collating of data for publication and wide circulation. Main problems faced in terms of information and communication management: Lack or resources – Financial, equipment and trained manpower. Why institution selected as a key: This institution is key because two of its departments (Agriculture & Fisheries) are important to the economy particularly in the Family Islands. Local Government is responsible for Family Island administration. These three departments interface with the rural population who reside in the Family Islands.

Name of institution: Bahamas Cooperative League (BCL) Objective/mission statement: Assisting in the development of its affiliates in their business activities and lease with government and international organization on behalf of affiliates. Field of specialization: Producer/Supplier Cooperatives and Credit Unions Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, permanent, etc.: 9 permanent workers (6 professional, 3 clerical) Branches, other sites: Nassau Annual Budget: 1,079,946.9 Euros (B$1.4 million) 2003 Source of funding, incl. Main donors/sponsors: Membership and Bahamas Government Stipend Program / projects undertaken: Strengthening project with IDB funding and the Canadian Cooperative Association as consultants. Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): Agribusinesses and small farmers as producers and Family Island residents/communities (10-15,000). 80

Name of institution: Bahamas Cooperative League (BCL) Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications: Spore Magazine Extent of collaboration/interaction with other institutions (name, nature): IDB – for funding, IICA – Tomato Bottling Project for Producer/Supplier Cooperation and funding for environmental project; Caribbean Confederation of Credit Unions. How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: Affiliates form the basic unit for the BCL, which monitors the state of these affiliates which should provide financial data, membership levels and other concerns. BCL needs this feedback to assist producer/supplier cooperatives in its capacity as an advocate. Main information needs not satisfied: Information not coming forward from affiliates. Producer/Supplier cooperatives do not report on problems being faced by them, i.e. policy issues, market conditions, availability of inputs etc. Main problems faced in terms of information and communication management: No information because at the grass roots level, there is little activity. BCL depends on its affiliates, as it has no branch office. Producer/supplier cooperatives have management challenges. The information from the Producer/Suppliers cooperative are critical to the BCL’s overall program. The BCL has played a role in assisting NPLPCSL in obtaining duty free exemptions. Why institution selected as a key: The BCL has affiliates all over The Bahamas and these affiliates comprise a cross section of people from the various Family Islands and their involvement at the community level in economic activities.

Name of institution: Bahamas Trade Commission Objective/mission statement: To review and examine all aspects of the various, multi-lateral, regional and sub-regional trading arrangements which are expected to require Bahamian people’s participation and valuation and, if desired or necessary, Bahamian commitment. 81

Name of institution: Bahamas Trade Commission Field of specialization: International Trade Number of staff professional, clerical, technical, etc; permanent/temporary): 3 part-time employees (3 clerical/associate degree level). Branches, other sites: Nassau-based Annual Budget: 65,568.20 Euros (B$85,000) 2003/04 30,855.62 Euros (B$40,000) 2004/05 Source of funding, incl. main donors/sponsors: Government of The Bahamas Program / projects undertaken: Town meeting to educate the Bahamian public on CSME, FTAA and WTO. Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated): Civil society groups, NGOs and the Private Sector to act in consultative capacity on trade and the manner in which trade affects. This comprises 17 entities/organizations Extent of interaction with CTA – Spore Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications: Spore Magazine seems to be recognized. Extent of collaboration/interaction with other institutions (name, nature): CARICOM Secretariat and Caribbean Regional Negotiation Machinery – Trade issues. How information needs are currently met, and from where or by whom: BTC communicates via Internet

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Name of institution: Bahamas Trade Commission Main information needs not satisfied: Printed material stemming from manpower shortages. The BTC has not developed, particularly its manpower in trade expertise. This has resulted in the BTC being able to keep abreast of the literature both printed and Internet in order to provide the various sectors in the economy with an analysis of trade issues. Entities like BAPA and NPLPCSL are not provided with information on agricultural trade negotiations with the FTAA or the EU partnership agreements. The Bahamas is not a WTO member. Manpower shortages stem from the lack of training in trade expertise because of budgetary restrictions. Main problems faced in terms of information and communication management: Availability of manpower with training and expertise in the preparation of publications. Why institution selected as a key: In a service-based economy, market access issues affect agribusinesses and Family Island communities; the view of agribusinesses have to be projected.

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ANNEX IV. PERSONS/INSTITUTIONS CONTACTED
Table 32: List of Persons Interviewed Name of Person Mr. Phillip Simon Designation and Contact Information Executive Director Bahamas Chamber of Commerce P.O. Box N 665 Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 322-2145 Fax: (242) 322-4649 E-mail: Bahamaschamber@coralwave.com info@bahamachamber.com General Manager Bahamas Cooperative League P.O. Box SS-6314 Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 393-3691 Fax: (242) 394-5834 E-mail: fdavis@bahamascorp.org Director New Providence Livestock Producers’ Cooperative Society Limited P.O. Box N-7548 Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 361-4332 Fax: (242) 341-2226 Executive Secretary Director Department of Fisheries P.O. Box N-3028 Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 393-1777 Fax: (242) 393-0238 E-mail: fisheries@bahamas.gov.bs General Manager Ministry of Tourism P. O. Box N-3071 Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 322-7500 Fax: (242) 328-0945 E-mail: tourism@batelnet.bs Director 84

Mr. Francis Davis

Mr. Larry Feingold

Also: Mrs. Lori Roach Mr. Michael Braynen

Ms. Kristal Bethel

Also Mr. Gary Young

Name of Person Mrs. Della Reece Grant

Mr. Benjamin Rahming

Designation and Contact Information Manager Bahamas Produce Exchange P.O. Box N-3028 Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 393-1061 Fax: (242) 393-3672 E-mail: delreese@bahamasgov.bs General Manager Bahamas Agricultural and Industrial Corporation P.O. Box N-4980 Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 322-3740 Fax: (242) 322-2123 E-mail: adorsett@baic.gov.bs Assistant General Manager President Bahamas Agricultural Producers Association P.O. Box N-3903 Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 322-2028 Fax: (242) 328-8086 E-mail: bapa@coralwave.com Under-Secretary Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Local Govt. P. O. Box N-3028 Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 325-7502 Fax: (242 322-1767 E-mail: Simeonpinder@bahamas.gov.bs Actg. Director Sr. Marketing officer Permanent Secretary Bahamas Trade Commission Ministry of Trade and Industry P. O. Box N-4849 Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 328-2700 Fax: (242) 328-1324 E-mail: hebong@bahamas.gov.bs

Also Mr. Arnold Dorsett Mr. I. G. Stubbs

Mrs. Colleen Nottage

Also Mr. Simeon Pinder Mr. Leslie Minns Mrs. Helen Ebong

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ANNEX V. REFERENCES
Agriculture In The Bahamas: Historical Development 1982-1992 – by Godfrey Eneas, Media Publishing, Nassau, 1998. Bahamas Agricultural and Industrial Cooperation Act (#9 of 1981) Bahamas Chamber of Commerce, Promotional information package Bahamas Cooperative League 25th Annual General Meeting Program, May 28, 29 2005 Bahamas Department of Statistics Population Distribution, by Region and Quintile, 2005 Calendar. Bahamas Telecommunication Company Statistical Data on Telecommunications. Caribbean Agricultural Information Service CAIS Capacity Building Series – Strategic Information Plan Caribbean Agricultural Information Service CAIS Capacity Building Series – Caribbean OAS Pilot Experience Caribbean Agricultural Information Service CAIS Capacity Building Series – Networking for Agricultural Development Caribbean Agricultural Information Service CTA/CARDI/CAIS Project Planning and Stakeholders Meeting, June 2001 Caribbean Agricultural Information Service Guidelines For Electronic Discussion Groups Central Bank of The Bahamas. February 2005 Quarterly Statistical Digest – Volume 14, No.1 Central Bank of The Bahamas. Office of the Manager, Research Department. – April 2005. Agriculture and GDP Department of Agriculture List of Registered Farmers, 2005 Department of Agriculture. Statistics Department Second Census of Agriculture 1994 Final Results,

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Department of Agriculture Agricultural Production In The Bahamas as Affected by Factors of Climate, Geology and Water Resources (August 1996). By Simeon Pinder Department of Agriculture. Planning, Statistics and Marketing Unit – April 2004 Produce Exchange and Packing House Statistics Department of Fisheries. Fisheries Statistics Department of Fisheries. Fishery Country Profile, The Department of Fisheries, 2004 Fisheries Statistical Tables. Etienne Dupuch Jr. Publication Nassau, Bahamas Bahamas Handbook, 2005 Edition. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations – March 2001. Assistance to Review Agricultural Policies and Legislation. Food and Agriculture Organization – December 2001 Regional Special Program for Food Security IICA Draft Proposal for the Analysis of the Cascarilla Industry In The Bahamas. Inter-American Development Bank. Bahamas Assessment of Competitiveness In Agriculture, Inter-American Development Bank Study - May 2003. Kirton, Claremont and Barley Arlene Establishment of Regional Agricultural Policy Network In The Caribbean – A report prepared for CTA/IICA Workshop, Paramaribo, Suriname – December, 2000 Ministry of Education, Nassau, Bahamas. Planning Unit – (2004) Ministry of Health, Nassau, Bahamas. Health Information Unit – (2004) Ministry of Tourism Business Plan (2005) Nassau, Bahamas Ministry of Tourism Tourism Data and Marketing Solutions Document, Nassau, Bahamas

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Ministry of Tourism, Bahamas. Visitor Arrivals to The Bahamas (1945-1995) – July 1996. Ministry of Trade and Industry Mandate Nassau, Bahamas Ministry of Trade and Industry Perspective Vol. 3, 1st –2nd Quarters, 2005 Nassau, Bahamas Ministry of Trade and Industry The Bahamas Commission on Trade Mandate and Terms of Reference Nassau, Bahamas Ministry of Trade and Industry, Report of The Bahamas Commission on Trade on: The Implications of The Bahamas Joining the Caribbean Community, including the CARICOM Single Market And Economy, June 2003, Nassau, Bahamas Public Utilities Commission, Nassau, Bahamas Statistical Data – (2004) Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation Annual Report – 2003 Wageningen, The Netherlands Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation CTA Draft Program of Activities, 2005 Technical Centre For Agricultural and Rural Cooperation Information for agricultural and rural development In ACP countries; Emerging stakeholders, new media and priority themes Proceedings of a CTA Seminar, Paris, France 29th May – 2 June, 2000 Technical Centre For Agriculture and Rural Cooperation Annual Report – 2002 Wageningen, The Netherlands The Department of Statistics, Nassau, Bahamas The Bahamas in Figures 2002

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