A Project Report On

BRANDING

Submitted to fulfillment partial requirement for Master of Business Administration(Batch 2009-2011)

Guide: Prof. Poonam Arora

Prepared by: Name: Chandra Mohan Singh Rana Registration No: Specialization: Marketing

Submitted To Institute Of Business Management & Research Near Asia School, Drive-in Road, Ahmedabad-380054

Centre for Participatory and Online Programmes Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641 046, Tamilnadu

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this project work titled Market Research on Branding is a record of original work done by me under the guidance of Prof. Poonam Arora and this project work has not formed the basis for the award of any Degree/Diploma/Associate ship/Fellowship or similar title to any candidate of any University.

Dated:

Signature of the candidate Name: Chandra Mohan Singh Rana Registration No: Specialization: Marketing

Countersigned by:

Signature of the Guide:

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project work entitled BRANDING submitted to Bharathiar University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Business Administration in Marketing is a record of the original work done by Chandra Mohan Singh Rana under my supervision and guidance and this project work has not formed the basis for the award of any Degree/ Diploma/ Associate ship/Fellowship or similar title to any candidate of any University.

Date: Place: Ahmedabad

Signature of the Guide Name and Designation

Forwarded by

Prof. Poonam Arora

Dr. R. K.Balyan Director & dean IBMR Business School, Ahmedabad-380054

Submitted for University Examination held on«...........

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

We are also thankful to all those great minds who worked on the topics related to the title of this project. which helped me to increase the span of my knowledge and developed my thinking on more practical lines. On a personal note we would like to thank our family members for all their help and moral support they provided during our project.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It has been a great pleasure for me to work on this project. And. considerable support and We present our sincere thanks to Prof. Their hard-work is very helpful to understand the typical variable worked in the Branding of a product. Poonam Arora for giving us an opportunity to work on this project whereby we were given an exposure to study of Branding. Chandra Mohan Rana Dated: . at last we only want to mention that we have searched for better ways to do the things and we hope for the best. Our hard work never shines if we do not convey our heartfelt gratitude to those people from whom we have got encouragement during this project. We learnt a lot and this will help us out in the coming days. We are also thankful to all those friends and respondents who gave their valuable insights in making our project a successful one.

Mehta Academic Director IBMR Ahmedabad FACULTY IN CHARGE Prof. B. SIGNATURE SIGNATURE HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT Prof.N. Poonam Arora Faculty In charge IBMR Ahmedabad .BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report titled BRANDING is the bonafide work of Chandra Mohan Singh Rana who carried out the project work under my supervision.

To guide me through the process of research. This conceptual model starts with studying of scient ific theories and concepts of branding to create a common understanding of corporate branding and all facets of branding in particular.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Brands are among a company¶s most valuable assets. Doing so can help them achieve growth objectives more quickly and more profitably. I have added a survey with people and case studies to strengthen the literature study with real world . and smart companies today realize that capitalizing on their brands is important. I have reflected my logical and sequential research steps in a conceptual model of research.

TABLE OF CONTENTS .

sign. superior service. even if the "face" is the result of advertising copy and television commercials. This use of brand also says nothing of quality. or tangible.Introduction The term brand means different things to the different roles of buyer and seller. term. A brand is thus a product or service that¶s adds a Dimension that differentiates it in some way from other products or services designed to satisfy the same need. just the buyer's exposure to the brand's PR and media hype.relate to product performance of the brand. Brand can also identify the company behind the specific product -. Also in fine arts branding began with artists signing their works. For the typical merchant. and merchants associating brand with identity. symbol or design or a combination of them. The earliest signs of branding can be traced to Europe where the medieval guilds required that craftsmen put trademarks on their product to protect themselves and producer against inferior quality substitutes. Branding has been around for centuries as a means to distinguish the goods of one producer to those of another. branding is a way of taking everything that is good about the company -positive shopping experience. . product knowledge.that's not just a biscuit. whatever the company decides is important for a customer to believe about the company -. professionalism. intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group and to differentiate them to those for competitors´.and wrapping these characteristics into a package that can be evoked by the brand as signifier. rational. so to speak. The American Marketing Association defines a brand as ³A name. This use of brand puts a "face" behind the name. These differences may be functional. with buyers generally associating brand with a product or service. that's Britannia biscuit.

This brand loyalty can translate into willingness to pay higher price. Strong brand results in better earnings and profit performance for firms. which in turn. The intellectual property rights ensure that the firm can safely invest in the brand and can reap the benefits over a long period of time. Consumers lean about the brand with its past experience and the marketing program. . Consumers may evaluate the identical product differently depending how it is branded. Brands can signal a certain level of quality so that satisfied buyers can easily choose the product again. In this sense branding can be seen as powerful means to secure a competitive advantage. The brand name can be protected registered trademarks. First they simplify the product handling and tracing. As consumers lives becomes more complicated. Brands help to organize inventory and accounting records.to assign responsibility to a particular manufacturer or distributor. Brands also perform valuable functions for the firm. Brand loyalty provides predictability and security of demand for the firm and creates barriers to entry that makes it difficult for other firms to enter the market. Brands represent enormously valuable pieces of legal property that can influence consumer¶s behavior.Brands identify the source or maker of the product and allow consumers-either individual or organizations. creates greater value for shareholders. time starved the ability of brand to simplify decision making is invaluable.

TATA AIG medical insurance). BATA stores).How do you ³BRAND´ a product? Although firms provide the impetus to brand creation through marketing programs and other activities. A store (Big Bazaar. Branding involves creating mental structures and helping consumers organize their knowledge about products and services in a way that clarifies their decision making and in process provides value to the firm. An organization (UNICEF or BCCI). A brand is a perpetual identity that is rooted in reality but reflects the perceptions and perhaps even the ultimate choice of the consumers. it is necessary to teach the consumers ³who´ the product-by giving a name. Branding is endowing products and services with the power of brands. ultimately a brand is something that resides in the mind of the consumers. Pantene shampoo or Maruti Swift). Pushkar Mela). It is possible to brand: y y y y y y A physical good (Nestle soup. . Sachin Tendulkar). A place (The state of Kerala. A service (Kingfisher Airlines. To brand a product. A person (Shahrukh Khan. Branding can be applied virtually anywhere a consumer has a choice.

When you think of Nike. When you think of IBM. you think of safety. the fact is that more people buy Coke than any other Cola. It I this emotional relationship with brands that make them so powerful. The fond memories of childhood and refreshment that people have when they drink Coke is often more important than a little bit better cola taste. When you think of Volvo. you think of µBig Blue¶. and cultural image that you associate with the company or a product. While Brand X cola or even Pepsi-Cola may win blind taste tests over Coca-Cola. . you think of Michael Jordon or µJust Do It¶.Brand is the proprietary visual. rational. The fact that you remember the brand name and have positive associations with that brand makes your product selection easier and enhances the value and satisfaction you get from product. emotional.

and valuable relationship between an organization and its customers. Rather it is more common that specific changes to the changes to the business plan are incremental and the work of the brand strategist and designer is to interpret these changes and revise the branding strategy and resulting brand assets and define their use in the full range of marketing variables. What your company. written and vocal tools to represent the business plan and intentions of an organization. products and services stand for should all be captured in your branding strategy. A brand is a set of elements or ³brand assets´ that in combination create a unique. The brand is carried by a set of compelling visual. . but also in the management of routine marketing variables and tactics. including both visual image assets and language assets. Branding is the voice and image that represents your business plan to the outside world. This does not have to be a ³ground-up´ situation where there are wholesale changes to the business. The process of managing the brand to the business plan is important not only in ³big change situation´ where the brand redefinition is required. unmistakable.Purpose of Branding The purpose of branding is to create a powerful and lasting emotional connection with customers and other audiences. and represented consistently throughout all your brand assets and in your daily marketing activities The brand image that carries this emotional connection consists of the many manageable elements of branding system. memorable.

A positioning statement tells what business the company is in. How do we determine our Brand Identity? Brand has been called the most powerful idea in commercial world. Brand associations are the attributes that costumer thinks of when they hear or see the brand name. food quality etc. in every news release. Our advice to executives is to research their customers and find the top ranked reasons that the customers buy their product rather than their competitors. logos. culture and myth to brand identity by the use of a famous spokesperson (Bill Cosby-Jello). brand toons etc.Brand Identity Brand Identity includes brand names. kids. in communications with employees and in every sales call or media interview. yet few companies create a brand identity. a character (Pink Panther). . Ronald MacDonald. happy meal. pound that message in every ad. Do you want your company¶s brand identity created for you by competitors and unhappy customers? Of course not. A good brand name gives a good first impression and evokes positive associations with the brand. an animal (the Merrill lynch bull) etc. brand associations. starting in yellow arches in the low right corner of the screen and following with associations of Big Mac. McDonalds television are a series of one brand association after another. By continuous repetition of messages customer will think of your product and then buy it. The first step in creating a brand for your company is branding workshop. Then. what benefits it provides and why it is better than the completion? Brand personality adds emotion. and brand personality. positioning.

a favorable one. which people on the street may easily recall or recognize: . a color. a symbol. Owned Word Company V o l vo BMW Mercedes Fe der a l E xp r e s s App le Lot us Ko d a k W o rd ³S a f e t y´ ³Dr iv ing p e r fo r m a n c e ´ ³E n g i n e e r i n g ´ ³ O ve r n i g ht ´ ³Grap h ic s´ ³S p r e a d s h e e t s ´ ³F ilm´ A strong brand name should trigger another word. Slogan Many companies successfully added a slogan or tagline to their brand name which is repeated in every ad they use. Strong brands typically exhibit an owned word. Here is the list of brands that own a word.Tools for Building Brand Identity Brand builders use a set of tools to strengthen and project the brand image. Here are some wellknown brands slogans. and set of stories. a slogan.

to advertise its shoes. hoping that his or her quality transfer to the brand.COMPANY British Airways Ford LIC SLOGAN ³The world¶s favorite airline´ ³Quality is our number one job´ ³Jeevan ke saath bhi jeevan ke baad bhi´ Colors It helps for a company or a brand to use a consistent set of color to and in the brand recognition. even naming the product after them. Yellow is the color of Kodak film. Sporting goods manufacturers sign contracts with top athletes to serve as their symbols. Nike uses Michael Jordon who has worldwide recognition and likableness. . and IBM is called ³Big Blues´. Caterpillar paints all its construction equipments yellow. Symbols and Logos Companies would be wise to adapt a symbol or logo to use in their communications. Many companies hire a well-known spokesperson. IBM uses blue in its publications.

to etch the brand¶s image into customer¶s mind.Cartoons and Animations A less expensive approach is to develop a character. Companies have developed many logos or abstracts. animated. suggesting that buying an insurance is equivalent to ³owing a peace of rock ³which is of course. which are easily remembered . The advertising agency Leo Burnett has successfully created a number of memorable animated characters. The prudential insurance company features the rock of Gibraltar. solid ad dependable. The travelers¶ insurance company uses an umbrella. Here are some well known brand cartoons which people may recognize: Company Cartoon Animation ICICI Prudential Amul Butter McDonalds Pillsbury 7 Up Chintamani UtterlyButterlyGirl Ronald Doughboy Fido Dido Objects Still another approach is to choose an object to represent a company or brand. suggesting that buying insurance is equivalent to having an umbrella available when it rains.

digit-able. In rapidly evolving market for consumer. Measuring Brand Effectiveness There are many metrics to measure the potential of and actual effectiveness of brands.by people. . There are simple means to apply to test the distinctiveness of your brand. The simplest way is to apply the concept of what we call the 4 D¶s of Branding. differentiation. Brand Effectiveness With an increase in global competition. The more unique and distinct your communications. Even the way the brand name is written makes a brand recognizable and memorable. the wider the filed of effective competitive strength it will have. y Distinctiveness: your brand should be distinct when compared to your competitors and to all spoken and visual communications to which your target audiences will be exposed. and industrial products and services. defendable. the price premium associated with the products categories. branding has become a source of competitive advantage. the source of next generation competency will be branding. In this briefing we demonstrate how to calculate the brand strength. distinctiveness. and type of customers attracted to the ³Premium Products´. Marketers who match their brand with customers needs will have a sustainable competitive advantage.

It calls for managing every brand contact that customer might have with brand. Much of the brand manager¶s work is to build a brand image. Much can go wrong. symbols and other visual assets. y Defendable: you will be investing in creating your brand assets and in all cases your brand must have proprietary strength to keep others from using close approximations. The brand manager needs to make sure that brand experience matches the brand image.y Differentiation: the brand strategy and brand assets must set you¶re offering apart and clearly articulate the specific positioning intent of your offering. Building brand therefore calls for more than brand image building. This goes for all brand assets. But its job doesn¶t stop there. y Digit-able: in most businesses there is strong and growing element of electronic communications and commerce that dictate all brand assets be leveraged effectively in tactile and electronics form. The ad describing a gracious hotel chain is belied by the behavior of a surly concierge. distributors and dealers can affect brand experience. . Since all the employees. A fine brand of canned soup described in a full page color ad may be found in dented and dusty condition in the bottom shelf of a supermarket. This applies to your trade names and other proprietary words as well as to your logos.

They have no idea what an Intel chip is. This part argues that such distinctions . People may be an employee. But are or not a potential customer. Brand Aware argues that there is no difference between "Brand" and "Reputation".. Those potential employees join companies because of their reputation. They hate McDonald¶s hamburgers but might love their stock market record and therefore be a potential customer for their stock. People are aware of the Mercedes car brand. The mind it exists in may be that of a customer. but cannot envisage any circumstance under which they would (could!) buy a Mercedes. People wear many hats. or almost anybody. an investor. a potential customer. an interested observer. or not at all. but that investors buy reputations. a disinterested observer. that the media and other "stakeholders" judge a company on its reputation in some way as a distinct concept from its brand. They are aware of Marlboro (and scores of other cigarette brands) but as a non-smoker they will never convert their awareness into purchase. Awareness of a brand may be irrelevant to any purchasing decision that an individual may make. Some conventional wisdoms state that customers buy brands. but might be persuaded that it is a good thing to have in my PC and therefore buy a computer from a company that uses them..Brand and Reputation A brand exists in the mind. Male with no children are not targeted by Pampers or Huggies but still are aware of the brands. They will never buy a Boeing 777 but might be impressed by the aircraft and favor an airline that flies them. a citizen. a husband and so on.

The Brand To any individual a brand (in his mind) is a complex combination of experiences. a Compaq or a Shell. but especially for single brand companies such as a McDonalds. a Coca-Cola. . Their brands are their reputation. a product brand. These companies¶ reputations are part and parcel of their brand. financial strength etc.  He visits a corporate website. a service brand and a brand with a long history. environmental pollution. The most obvious are: -  He visits a McDonald¶s restaurant or a Shell petrol station. This is when the individual actually has a "Brand experience". It may also mean insensitivity. perceptions and associations that have grown up over time.are fallacious for all companies. beliefs. For example Coca-Cola is a company brand.  He attends an interview at the company. etc.  He views a Coca-Cola bottler's facility. They are as follows: y Experience: The most powerful influence is experiential. It is a brand which may represent (to any one individual) diversity. Perceiving the brand: An individual builds up his perceptions of a brand via a wide range of communications channels. abuse of power and other negative perceptions.  He buys a Coca-Cola branded product or service. internationality. technical excellence.

will be exposed to their advertising. These stories will come from a variety of primary and secondary sources:  Press releases  Press conferences  Reporting of "events"  Investigative journalism  Stories passed to the media by third parties (Non governmental organizations etc. y Advertising: Over time an individual who lives in a country in which the company/brand is active. This advertising may be in a wide range of media:  TV commercials for products and services  Recruitment ads inviting employment applications  "Corporate" TV commercials promoting the company's "reputation"  Web based advertising  An ad for the company¶s branded products or services in a wide variety of print media. He contacts the company office for information. etc. or travels to one on business or vacation. y Media reports and stories: Individuals will be exposed to a wide variety of reports about companies in the media (print and broadcast) where the editorial content is only partly influence able by the company (in some cases) or not at all (in most cases).) .  He buys a share in the company.  Billboards on highways  Radio  Point of sale etc.  He meets an employee of the company.

it will probably be viewed as a commodity. In naming a product or service the company may face many possibilities: it could choose name of the person (Honda. When price is the only thing that counts then the low cost producer wins. quality (Safety stores.y Professional/business interest: For some individuals to interface professionally. These individuals have a special interest in the companies and they include: -  Financial analysts and journalists with an interest in share performance  Existing or potential suppliers of products and services  Existing or potential industrial/commercial customers 1. performances and expectations does it evoke? What degree of preferences does it create? Choosing a Brand Name A brand name first must be chosen then its various meanings and promises must be built up through brand identity work. They will usually procure their information from a variety of sources and via a variety of channels of communication. or from a specific business need. When something is not a brand. or an artificial name (Exxon. In choosing a brand name. Calvin Klein). with famous companies (or to observe them) is part of their job. What does the brand name mean? What associations. Some are: y y It should suggest something about the product benefits. Kodak). location (American airlines).7 Building the Brand The art of marketing is largely art of brand building. Among the desirable qualities of a brand name. But just having a brand is not enough. Healthy choice). it must be consistent with the value positioning of the brand. Then price is the thing that counts. It should suggest product qualities such action or color .

Thus a Mercedes automobile attributes a picture of wellengineered car that is durable. short names help a lot to recognize the product to the customers. . Building Positive Associations The best known brand names carry associations. y Benefits: A strong brand should suggest benefits. Thus Mercedes triggers the idea of well performing car that is enjoyable to drive and prestigious to own. not just features. y y It should be distinctive.y It should be easy to pronounce. For example. the brand builder should consider five dimensions that can communicate meaning: y Attributes: A strong brand should trigger in buyers mind certain attributes. here is a list of words that people say they associate with McDonalds: y y y y y y Kids Fun Happy Meal Ronald Mc. then it would be a weak brand. recognize and remember. Donald Quality Toys In trying to build a rich set of positive associations for a brand. rugged and expensive. It should not carry poor meanings in other countries and languages etc. If a car brand does not trigger any attribute.

brands when their very name connotes positive attributes. the empowering ³Just . company values. Thus we would expect Mercedes to draw buyers who are older. Thus Mercedes is proud of its engineers and engineering innovations and is very organized and efficient in its operations. benefits. personality and users in the buyer¶s mind. Thus if Mercedes were a person we would think of someone who is middle age. The brand builder¶s job is to create a brand identity that builds on those dimensions. y Users: A strong brand should suggest the type of people who buy the brand. Most strong brands employ multiple brand elements. Choosing Brand Elements Brand elements are those trademarks devices that serve to identify and differentiate the brand. serious. well-organized and somewhat authoritarian.y Company Values: A strong brand should connote values that the company holds. In summary. affluent and professional. Nike has distinctive ³swoosh´ logo. If Mercedes were an animal we might think of lion or its implied personality. The fact that it is a German company adds more pictures in the mind of the buyers about the character and the culture of the brand. y Personality: A strong brand should exhibit some personality traits.

The latter three are more defensive and are concerned with how the brand equity contained in the brand element can be leveraged and preserved in the face of various opportunities and constraints. and in other . The first three can be characterized by brand building in terms of how brand equity can be build through judicious choice of brand element. A brand element provides positive contribution to brand equity. y Meaningful: To what extent is brand element credible and suggestive of the corresponding category? Does it suggest something about a product ingredient or a type of person who might use the brand? y Likeability: How aesthetically appealing does consumers find the brand element? Is it inherently likeable visually. verbally. The test of the brand building ability of these elements is what consumers think or feel about the product if they only knew about the brand element. y Memorable: How easily is the brand element recalled? How easily recognized? Is this true at both purchase and consumption? Short brand name like tide.Do It´ slogan and the mythological ³Nike´ name based on the winged goddess of victory. Nike can help. Brand element can be chosen to build as much as brand equity as possible. Brand Element Choice Criteria There are six criteria in choosing brand element.

etc retain their trademarks rights and not become generic. Jell-O. y Protectable: How legally protectable is the brand element? How competitively protectable? Can it be easily copied? It is important that names that become synonymous with product categories such as Kleenex. brand elements should be easily recognized and recalled and inherently descriptive and persuasive. Memorable or meaningful brand elements can reduce the burden on marketing communications to build awareness and link brand associations. The different associations that arise from likeability and appeal of the brand elements may also play a critical role in the equity of brand. . Sunsilk etc evoke much imagery. she doesn¶t look a day over 35.ways? Concrete brand names such as Wheel. y Transferable: Can a brand element be used to introduce new products in the same or different categories? To what extent does the brand element add to brand equity across geographic boundaries and market segments? y Adaptable: How adaptable and updatable is the brand element? Betty corker received 8 makeovers through the years-although she is 75 yrs old. If consumers do not examine much information in making their product decisions. Brand elements can play a number of roles. Xerox.

" y The Marketing Science Institute (1988) defines brand equity as. it is the consumer that is the most critical component in defining brand equity. However. brand equity represents the degree to which a brand's name alone contributes value to the offering (again. But ultimately. Some researchers in the field of marketing have defined brand equity as follows: y Lance Leuthesser. and parent corporations that permit the brand to earn greater volume or greater margins than it could without the brand name and that gives the brand a strong. et al (1995) writes that "« brand equity represents the value (to a consumer) of a product. and some would even argue the financial markets. from the perspective of the consumer). the consumer. In other words. channel members. there are several common characteristics of the many definitions that are used today. including the firm. "The set of associations and behaviors on the part of the brand's customers." . above that which would result for an otherwise identical product without the brand's name. the channel. From the following examples it is clear that brand equity is multi-dimensional. The term means different things for different companies and products. sustainable. There are several stakeholders concerned with brand equity. and differentiated advantage over competitors.What is Brand Equity? There is no universally accepted definition of brand equity.

The reasons for doing this are usually to set a price when the brand is sold and also to include the brand as an intangible asset on a balance sheet (a practice which is not used in some countries). While there are many methods for making this measurement. Brand value involves actually placing a dollar or rupee value on a brand name." Brand loyalty will be a factor that affects the overall brand value. it is important to note that there is a significant difference between an "objective" valuation created for balance sheet purposes. and the actual price that a brand may get when sold? . y y A measure of the strength of consumers' attachment to a brand. Because of the importance of each of these elements of brand equity. they will each be briefly explained." the second "brand loyalty. the first can be classified as "brand valuation. Of those three concepts. some of which will be described shortly. Brand Equity as Brand Value. A description of the associations and beliefs the consumer has about the brand.when it is sold or included on a balance sheet. and brand description will usually affect or explain some of the brand loyalty." and the third "brand description.Brand equity can be defined as three distinct elements: y The total value of a brand as a separable asset -.

What this means is that there is no such thing as an absolute value for a brand.' . y Attitudinal measures--focus on general evaluative measures such as 'liking' or 'disliking. and time to respond to competitive innovations. It represents a barrier to entry. This involves determining what future cash flows the company could achieve if it owned and took advantage of the brand.A brand is likely to have a much greater value to one purchaser than another depending on the synergy that exists. and brand value needs to be considered as only one component of the overall equity of a brand. For acquisitions. The variety of measures used for brand loyalty usually is a combination of one or more of the following: y Price/demand measures--focus on a brand's ability to command a higher price or make consumers less sensitive to price increases than price increases for competing brands. the value of a brand to a certain purchaser is often estimated through scenario planning. a basis for a price premium. y Behavioral measures--focus on consumers' behavior. Brand Equity as Brand Loyalty Loyalty is a core dimension of brand equity and is a way to gauge the strength of a brand.

see no immediate effects.´ The optimism for the concept can be stated on the fact that when one would say as a predictor of future financial performance. y Brand Loyalty and Equity refer to the notion that some brands are "stronger" or better than others. An example of this sort of belief is: ³If the businesses were split up.and I would fare better than you. and you could have all the bricks and mortar . I would take the brands. . such as sales or profit and these are accounted for in the firm¶s profit and loss figures. However. if reported. would be valuable for capital marketers and shareholders. brand equity. You could spend lots of money on advertising. The motivation for brand equity comes from the observation that many marketing efforts "realize" benefits. Brand equity has the potential to become the set of measures of business performance that matter most. there is the possibility that management might choose between taking realized benefits and "storing" them future. trademarks and goodwill.y Awareness measures--focus on identifying a brand as being associated with a product category. At least one advertising agency offers to partner companies in this sort of activity. but you could save your job by saying that you had "built the brand". One of the most common times this argument is used is when discussing the role of advertising versus sales promotion.

. Future strength might be in terms of some sort of long-term competitive advantage or the ability to sustain brand extensions. It might be the ability to not be substituted when out of stock...So.g. But the question is as always how do we know? That is are we actually building the brand with all our advertising (or other brand building 4 p¶s decisions e.. fancy packing.g.g. extended warranties). So that is a problem. high price. We need to be clear just what people mean when they talk about brand equity or brand loyalty. which might be represented by a high share of category requirements. or building brands.So marketing strategies could be putting money into (or out of) the brand equity bank account. consumers predominantly buying your brand. This "strength" can take a number of forms. it might be the ability to charge a price premium. e. having a positive brand Attitude. e. is that there are many different definitions and viewpoints on what exactly brand equity is and how to measure it. or high proportion of sole-buyers. Consumers saying good things about your brand. after sales service. limited / premium distribution rights. hopefully you have got the idea theories about brand loyalty and equity are used to represent aspects of brand strength. One of the things is that as with many concepts in marketing.

These techniques can be both qualitative and quantitative. and so we need to know ways that this might show up in. which attempt to gauge the strength of a brand. The first four categories represent customer perceptions of the brand along the four dimensions of brand equity. associations and awareness. These attributes or associations are major creators of brand loyalty. But this is an evasion. A wide variety of techniques exist for matching consumer associations with perceptions of a brand. These attributes then can be measured with multi-dimensional scaling to position the attributes relative to one another. They work by getting the respondent to link each brand with pictures or words. Brand Equity as Brand Description Brand description.Brand loyalty / Equity advocates One of the ruses used by proponents of brand equity or loyalty is to claim that these measures do not capture all the important aspects of brands strength. concerns the actual attributes of the brand. the final component of brand equity. Qualitative Measures of Brand Equity The Brand Equity Ten are ten sets of measures grouped into five categories.loyalty. perceived quality. The fifth includes two sets of market behavior measures. . We want to be able to detect that our efforts are doing something to the brand.

price elasticities. A price premium can be determined by simply asking consumers how much more they would be willing to pay for the brand. Customer Satisfaction: A direct measure of customer satisfaction can be applied to existing customers. its popularity and its innovative qualities. leadership taps the dynamics of consumer acceptance. if enough consumers are buying into the brand concept it must have merit. This can be measured by asking consumers about the product's leadership position. y Perceived Quality and Leadership Measures Perceived Quality is one of the key dimensions of brand equity and has been shown to be associated with price premiums. First.y Loyalty Price Premium: A basic indicator of loyalty is the amount a customer will pay for a product in comparison to other comparable products. The focus can be the last use experience or simply the use experience from the customer's view. Second. leadership often taps innovation within a product class. Namely. Third. people are uneasy swimming against the tide are a likely to buy a popular product. Leadership/Popularity has three dimensions. It can be calculated by asking consumers to directly compare similar brands. brand usage and stock return. .

Organizational Associations: This dimension considers the type of organization that lies behind the brand. Relative market price can be calculated by dividing the average price at which the product was sold during the month by the average price at which all the brands were sold. Calculating market price and distribution coverage can provide or more accurate picture of the product's true strength. Price and Distribution indices: Market share can prove deceptive when it increases as a result of reduced prices or promotions. y Market Behavior Measures Market Share: The performance of a brand as measured by market share often provides a valid and dynamic reflection of the brand's standing with customers. Brand Personality: This element is based on the brand-as-person perspective. the brand personality can provide links to the brands emotional and self-expressive benefits. and brand knowledge and brand opinion. brand dominance. recall. . For some brands. y Awareness Measures Brand awareness reflects the salience of the product in the consumer's mind and involves various levels including recognition.y Associations/ Differentiation Measures Perceived Value: This dimension simply involves determining whether the product provides good value for the money and whether there are reasons to buy this brand over competitive brands.

If management feels it is necessary to change the direction of a brand or change a product it must be careful not to change too quickly. Many programs that are implemented to boost short-term sales or market share may be detrimental to the long-term viability of the brand. it is the customer that truly defines what brand equity means. the equity delivered to the consumer is also changed. In the end. On these occasions. Proctor & Gamble has started to test market a program to move away from using coupons to a system of every day low prices. consumers met changes with adverse reactions. There are many examples of companies that have changed a product or brand too much or too quickly. The product has certain attributes or characteristics that deliver the equity to the consumer.Managing Brand Equity Consistency is the key to successfully building and managing brand equity. Ultimately. because consumers may become loyal to the coupon or promotion and not to the product itself. For example. Constant promotional programs erode margins and eventually brand loyalty. and consumers reacted so poorly to the new product that the old formula was reintroduced and the new formula eventually was discontinued. Managing brand equity is a continual process with long-term implications. It is critical for managers to realize that brand equity can have positive as well as negative effects on a product or company. Unfortunately. The most famous example is Coca-Cola. brand equity is damaged. This is. . many brand managers are forced to focus on short-term goals such as market share and profits. They changed the formula of their flagship product Coke. Having a long-term outlook and projecting a consistent image of your brand to the customer will maximize the results of building brand equity. If any of these attributes are changed or eliminated. The consumer through the product experiences brand equity. in part.

In many categories. and eventual bankruptcy. promotion and trade deals. Graham Phillips. Financial managers are important because they can fully analyze the costs of maintaining and building brand equity. For example. all of which can be easily duplicated by competition.In 1988. but it is actually a crossfunctional team effort. decay. This would lead to ever decreasing profits. the responsibility of tracking . of the research and data that companies will use for deciding strategic issues." This quote clearly demonstrates the importance of managing brand equity. It develops most. said. Many people may think that building and maintaining brand equity is solely the responsibility of brand managers. It may be more cost effective to extend a current brand than introduce a new brand. Once a definition of brand equity is established. if not all. Marketing research can also help determine how brand equity is actually measured. launching a new brand is extremely consuming in terms of money and time. About the only aspect of the marketing mix that cannot be duplicated is a strong brand image. brand equity is the only point of differentiation between products. Marketing research is critical for many obvious reasons. "I doubt that many would welcome a commodity marketplace in which one competed solely on price. Chairman of Ogilvy and Mather Worldwide.

i. Helps buyers evaluate quality of products especially if unable to judge products characteristics. The brand¶s manager understands what the brand means to customers. . The pricing strategy is based on consumer perceptions of value. The brand portfolio and hierarchy makes sense. Branding benefits buyers as well as sellers in the following manner To Buyer: y y y y Help buyers identify the product that they like/dislike. The brand is properly positioned. The brand stays relevant.The World Strongest Brand Share 10 Attributes y y y y y y y The brand excels at delivering the benefits consumers truly desire. y y Helps reduce buyers¶ perceived risk of purchase.. The brand makes use of and co-ordinates a full repertoire of marketing activities to build equity. The company monitors source of brand equity. sustained support. Identify marketer Helps reduce the time needed for purchase. Rolex or Mercedes. y y y The brand is given proper.e. Buyer may derive a psychological reward from owning the brand. The brand is consistent.

BPL telephones. advertising and promotional costs. lower co. i.To Seller: y y y Differentiate product offering from competitors Helps segment market by creating tailored images.. .e. Example. designs. y y y y Easier cooperation with intermediaries with well known brands Facilitates promotional efforts. Helps foster brand loyalty helping to stabilize market share.. y y Reduce price comparisons Brand helps firm introduce a new product that carries the name of one or more of its existing products.half as much as using a new brand. Contact lenses Brand identifies the companies¶ products making repeat purchases easier for customers. Firms may be able to charge a premium for the brand..

Hutch¶s Boy-Girl duo. the Handiplast Boy. Fido-Dido of 7Up etc are some of the examples of the toons used for marketing the product. the claymation Chintamani of ICICI. the Amul girl. ³Most advisers are using animation for top of the mind recall´ says McCann Erickson¶s Prasoon Joshi. ³Creative people have to look at different ways to get message across. and if that means exploring other forms of art. Kellogg¶s animated kid and bear are intertwined in people¶s minds. heartshaped kisses for the audience. O&M¶s Piyush Pandey says his firm encourages the idea of breaking form. Digital characters are fast stepping into the realm of corporate brands. and also serve as a memory hook to pick a particular brand from clutter´. an O&M creative. The toons in All Out Mosquito repellent ad. pick on sleeping politicians to get their value across. then why not?´ . as well as the classic Asian paint¶s ex-mascot Gattoo. Nike also used ³swoosh´ logo sign to bring immediate recall value. McCann¶s new commercial for Coca-Cola¶s vanilla variant has the model blowing animated. ³Toon illustrations create excitement.TOON BRANDING Toon Branding Looks like the ad industry can¶t have enough of animation. while the Claymation characters Of Amaron.

and then there was the trend of using real kids. The number of animation ad films produced per year in the past five years has increased at least eight times and feature films like Hum Tum (had cartoons of Saif Ali Khan And Rani Mukherjee coming in between the film)are backing the overall trend around animation. or it could be a sacrosanct image. but the kid was killed after he was linked to child labour. almost becoming part of the logo of the brand ± like A-I am Maharaja or Amul Girl. companies across sectors are more willing than ever before to use animation in their ad films. now it¶s two every month. With a string of animated commercials such as Pepsodent (Bhoot Police).they¶ve all got the cool punch with animation. Be it Bollywood actress Mallika Sherawat asking Fido to make her more curvy or Aishwarya Rai diving into the sea with a Frisbee or. an animated poodle talking to Rani Mukherjee and her gang of friends in the Fanta commercial. Industry officials say animation could be used as creative idea to express a particular value. However at times they are given a hasty burial.HLL¶s Annapoorna uses Flintstone like characters to drive its USP. ICICI Prudential¶s Chintamani and Anand Rathi Securities happening in the past few months. ³We used to do three animation ad films a year five years ago.Suresh. Creative director. for that matter. a division of Famous Studios. Asian Paint¶s Gattoo was the rage. First it was retro advertising. E. As mnemonics flow thick and fast characters get established in the consumers mind. Famous House of Animation. .´ says. The ad world¶s latest obsession is with animation.

the Chintamani ad was initially a radio jingle.´ says Abhishekh Bhatia.³Animation is no kid stuff anymore. Grrr Honda. Malaysia. Moreover. Lion King. general manager. ³It¶s a nice way of doing a boring script. Mr. One sees a fair number of youth and adult targeted content happening in the form of animation in films and TV shows these days. all of which have cutting edge animation. media. There are other viewpoints too. it broke the clutter and became likeable in a very non-financial advertising style. With Claymation (clay + animation).Lova Lova. It is a style and a lot of people are catching on it but this is not the end of it. But there are scripts that needs animation to prove the point as in the case of Oye Bubbly (Pepsi Commercial) last year.Welde claims to have used animation where it could add to the creative quotient of the commercial which give something unexpected to the audience. VP and Senior Creative Director at JWT.´ says Rahul Welde. ³However a real character interacting with an animated character is not a novelty. ³Gross thinks at time look cute in animation rather than the real thing. Hindustan Unilever Limited. who was then involved in launching the campaign from ICICI Prudential. The popularity of cartoons among youngsters.´ says Anuja Chauhan.Kill Bill. be it Euro RSCG¶s Waterboy.´ points Ashish Chakravarty. Prudential Assurance. The contribution to the sales of pension schemes of the group rose 30% after the campaign. Unileaf Tea or Levi¶s Mr. say in case of a fat man. Shrek. director marketing. Run Lola Run. Contract Advertising. head creative.a gradual transformation over the past few years. . most of the global award winning campaigns have used animation extensively.

with the use of animation. However. many complex issues. we need to work for three weeks to get it absolutely right.for instance the stunt in the Lux Commercial couldn¶t be done so perfectly by the real character (here Aishwarya Rai) vis-à-vis the animated character. Animation ad also helps keep costs down. 70-80 Lakh. can be done away with.´ says Chauhan of JWT . 30-40lakh on an average.Besides the advantage of visual appeal. what creative directors hate about animation is the fact that it takes a lot more time ³For A Fido itself. Industry sources say a simple animation ad is less expensive than an ad with decent production quality that costs around Rs. such as stunts. Animated ones cost around Rs.

SAMPLE OF QUESTIONNAIRE SPECIAL FOCUS ON TOON BRANDING Q1. Indentify the following toon mascots and their products or either of the one: ____________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ .

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ 1 page of questionnaire st Q2. Do you relate any product with toons? ² Always ² Sometime ² Often ² Very Rare . Can you recognize a product on the basis of its brand mascot alone? ² Always ² Sometime ² Often ² Very Rare Q3.

If you are to launch a new product will you depend on a brand personality of a toon mascot to build the brand image of your product? Give reasons? A7.Q4. Which is your most memorable toon mascot? ² Amul Butter Girl ² Fido Dido ² Chintamani (ICICI) ² Any other __________________ Q6. Do you think nowadays brand mascots are losing importance to brand personality? ² Yes ² No ² Don¶t Know Q5. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ . Why do you think this brand mascot is the most memorable one? A6. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 2nd page of questionnaire Q7.

accessories. Would you like if toon mascots are also advertised through clothing.Q8. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Q9. bags etc? ² Yes ² No ² Depends on the mascot ² Don¶t know NAME: AGE: PROFESSION: _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ . What features do you think a toon mascot should possess so as to remember over a long period of time? ² Cute ² Happy Face ² Suitable to the product ² Innovative ² Entertaining ² Any other _____________________ Q10. Toon Mascot is mare popular in the rural or urban areas? Give reasons? A8.

Identi fy the fo llow ing toon ma scot s and thei r products or either of the one? 1 6 No.St a t i s ti c a l D a t a Q1. o n l y 1 5 p e r s o ns w e r e no t a b l e t o id e nt i f y a l l t he p r o d u c t s c o r r e c t l y. c o m w a s t he l e a s t p o p u la r o n e . T h e mo s t i d e nt i f i e d ma sco t is 7up Fido -D ido whereas mo n s t e r . e . . of 40 respondents (out of 100) % 40% 20% 25% 15% 0 0 I n t e r p re t a t i o n : O u t o f t h e 1 0 0 r e s p o nd e nt 4 0 w e r e a b l e t o i d e nt i f y a l l t he p r o d u c t s c o r r e c t l y o n t he ba s i s of it s toon ma s c o t a lo ne w hic h co me s up to 4 0 % . of toons correctly identified 5 20 4 25 3 15 2 0 1 0 No. W he r e a s o n l y 1 5 % i.

. Can you recognize a product on the basis of its brand mascot a lone? 2 Recognition of product on basis of brand mascot Always Sometime 55 Often 35 Very Rare 0 No. Whereas only 10% were always able to recogni ze the product on the basis of its brand mas cot. of 10 respondents (out of 100) % 10% 55% 35% 0 Interp retation: Of the 100 respondents 55 said.Toons identified 6 toons 5 toons 4 toons 3 toons 2 toons 1 toon Q2. that they were sometimes able to recognize the product on the basis of Brand Mascot alone whi ch comes to around 55% of the total sample size.

of respondents (out of 100) % 8% 8 40% 46% 6% I n t e r p re t a t i o n : O u t o f 1 0 0 r e s p o nd e nt s 4 6 p e o p l e o ft e n r e l a t e d t he p r o d u c t s w it h t he i r t o o n m a s c o t s w h i c h c o me u p t o a r o u nd 4 6 % . W h e r e a s o n l y 6 % o f t he r e s p o nd e nt s t o o ns . Do you relate any product with toons? 3 Ability of relating products with toons Always Sometime 40 Often 46 Very Rare 6 No. ve r y rarely re lat e d t he products w it h .Recognition of product always sometimes often very rare Q3.

D o y o u t h i n k n o w a d a y s B ra n d M a s c o t s a r e l o s i n g i m p o rt a n c e t o B ra n d P e r s o n a l i t y ? 4 Brand Mascots are losing importance to Brand Personality Yes No 51 Don t No 15 No.Ability to relate product with toon always sometime often very rare Q 4 . of 34 respondents (out of 100) % 34% 51% 15% .

Which i s you r mo st memo rab le toon ma scot? 5 Most Memorable Toon Mascot Amul Butter Fido Dido Girl Chintamani Any Other No.I n t e r p re t a t i o n : 5 1 % o f t he t o t a l p e o p l e s u r ve ye d ha d t he o p i n io n t ha t Brand Mascots are no t lo s i n g i m p o r t a n c e t o B r a nd P e r s o na l it y w he r e a s 1 5 % h a d no o p i n io n r e g a r d i n g t h e s a m e . of 84 respondents (out of 100) % 84% 14 2 0 14% 2% 0 I n t e r p re t a t i o n : o n t h e ba s i s o f t he s u r v e y c o nd u c t e d 8 4 % o f t he r e s p o n d e nt s o p t e d fo r A m u l B u t t e r G ir l a s t he i r m o s t m e m o r a b l e t o o n m a s c o t fo l l o w e d b y F i d o D i d o a n d C h i nt a m a n i w i t h 1 4 % a n d 2 % r e s p e c t i v e l y . Q5.

of 34 respondents (out of 100) % 34% 20 14% 12% 20% 20% . W h y d o y o u t h i n k t h i s B ra n d M a s c o t i s m o s t m e m o ra b l e o n e ? 6 Reason for Amul Butter Girl being most memorable Long Lasting Cute/ Happy 14 Good Animation 12 Attention Seeking 20 Innovative No.Most memorable toon Mascot amul butter girl fido Dido chintamani any other Q 6 .

I n t e r p re t a t i o n : Ac c o r d i n g t o t he s u r v e y c o nd u c t e d A m u l B u t t e r G ir l i s t he m o s t m e mo r a b l e t o o n m a s c o t b e c a u s e it ha s b e e n i n t h e m a r k e t s i n c e a ve r y lo n g t i m e a nd a l s o it i s v e r y a t t e nt io n s e e k i n g b e c a u s e i t i s a l w a ys r e l a t e d t o t he c u r r e nt a f f a i r s . Reasons to like toon barnading long lasting cute/happy good animation attention seeking innovative .

71% thoug ht of using both the toon mascot and personality for the l aunch of their product. 28% of the total population surveyed opted to depend on a toon mascot for the launch of their new product 5.Q 7 . of 34 respondents (out of 100) % 34% 6 25% 6% 10% 25% Interp retation: 34. 35 28 21 14 7 0 Toon Mascot Brand Personality Both Some Other Method Depends On product . I f y o u a re t o l a u n c h a n e w p r o d u c t w i l l y o u depend on a b rand p ersona lity o r a toon ma scot to b u i l d t h e b ra n d i m a g e o f y o u r p r o d u c t ? 7 Dependence for the launch of new product Toon Mascot Brand Personality 25 Both Some Other Depends On Method product 10 25 No.

14% of the total population surveyed suggested that toon mascots are more popular in the urban areas due to high literacy rate whereas 28.14% 28. Toon Mascot is mo re popular in Rural or Urban areas? 8 Popularity (X-axis) Urban No. of 13 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis Rural 10 Both 3 % 37.57% 8. .Q8.57% had the opinion of the toon being more popular in the rural areas because they identify the product on the basis of toons.57% Interp retation: 37.

What features do you think a toon mascot should possess so a s to be remembered over along period of time? 9 Features of toon mascot to make him memorable (X-axis) Cute Happy Face Suitable product 25 to Innovative Entertaining No. of 11 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis 15 17 19 .35 28 21 14 7 0 Urban Rural Both Q9.

29% Interp retation: 71. accessories.43% 42. bags etc? . Would you like if the toon mascots are also advertised through clothing.51% 54.86% 71.% 31. 35 28 21 14 7 0 Cute Happy Face Suitable to product Innovative Entertaining Q10.43% thought that the toon mascot should possess the features which are suitable to the product followed by the toon being entertaining and innovative.43% 48.

bags etc. 35 28 21 14 7 0 Yes No Depends On Mascot Don t Know .86% 57. of 13 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis 1 % 37.14% would really like the promotion of toon mascot through clothing . bags. accessories. etc (X-axis) Yes No Depends On Don t Know Mascot 20 1 No.14% 2.86% Interp retation: 57.10 Promotion of Toon mascots through clothing.14% of the total population surveyed suggested that the above mentioned promotion strategy should be used depending upon the mascot whereas 37. accessories.14% 2.

4 Theore tica l Data From the survey conducted the following findings can be concluded: y Out of the 35 respondent 15 were able to identify all the products correctly on the basis of its toon mascot al one which comes up to 42. 14% of the total sample size. y Out of the 35 respondents 20 said.71% of the respondents very rarely related the products with toons.57% were always able to recognize the product on the basis of its brand mascot y Out of 35 respondents 16 people often related the products with their toon mascots which come up to around 45.7%. that they were sometimes able to recogni ze the product on the basis of Brand Mascot al one which comes to around 57. So if more companies opt for this strategy then the relati on of the toons and products will definitely i ncrease. which means that more interesting toon advertisements. Whereas only 8. impressing the viewers. Whereas only 5. 86% hence it can be concluded that toon mascots have almost been successful in their purpose of Brand recall .1. more brand recall. .

Thus it can be concluded people would really appreciate if companies use toons for promoting their products.28% of the total populati on surveyed opted to depend on a toon mascot for the launch of their new product 5.y 51. y 37. Brand mascot has i ts own identi ty and will definitely be more appealing to the advertising and promotion audience as it is a very innovative concept of y On the basis of the survey conducted 85. 71% thought of usi ng both the toon mascot and personality for the launch of thei r product.57% had the opini on of the toon being more popular in the rural areas because they identify the product on the basis of toons.14% of the total population surveyed suggested that toon mascots are more popular in the urban areas due to high literacy rate whereas 28.29% had no opinion regarding the same.71% of the respondents opted for Amul Butter Girl as their most memorable toon mascot followed by Fido-Dido and Chi ntamani with 14. 29%and 2. So companies operating in the .86% respectively y According to the survey conducted Amul Butter Girl is the m ost memorable toon mascot because it has been in the market since a very long time and also it is very attention seeking because it is always related to the current affairs y 34.43% of the total people surveyed had the opinion that Brand Mascots are not l osing importance to Brand Personality whereas 14.

y 71.14% of the total population surveyed suggested that promotion of the toon mascots through clothes.43% thought that the toon mascot should possess the features which are suitable to the product followed by the toon being entertaining and innovative.rural areas can use more of toons to make their brand easily recog nized and popular amongst the rural masses. y 57. accessories and bags depends completely on the suitability of the toon that means that i f the company usi ng a toon mascot is thinking of using such promotional channels should design the toon in a manner that will be sui table and liked by the targe ted audience 4. PERSO NAL REVIEW .

In real sense I am a Branded Baby . mobile phones but only Branded . it gives me great pleasure buying favorite things from a branded company so that it represents quality. worthiness for the money that spend for it. television sets. In this sector some brands are so highly successful their brand name is the first to hit the customer s mind while the purchase of that product. once the brand or the company gives good quality product the customers become loyal to that brand and make it a point to spread positive word of mouth about the particular brand s product. Like me other people are also crazy about the brands of the products that they purchase. accessories. foot wears. costliness. Some examples for the same context are: PRODUCT Coconut Oil Detergents Toothpaste Pencil Photocopy Book BRAND NAME Parachute Ariel Colgate Nataraj Xerox Navneet . This is relevant for the purchase of durable goods like mobile phone.1 Why it s Branding? As a teenager I am very much fond of clothes. washing machines etc.4. People nowadays have very good knowledge about brands that are available for a particular product and also for different types of product. They gather enough information about different brands that are available for the product that they are willing to buy. bags. But in case of FMCG products.

Not only FMCGs nowadays companies of other products have also made a mark on the minds of people and are able to share the same priority for the purchase. Brands and Branded products are mainly popular in amongst the age group of 16-30 yrs. And some examples of such brands are:

PRODUCT Jeans (Denim) Shoes Glares Make-up equipments Watches

BRAND NAME Spykar Jeans Adidas Fast Track Lakme Fast Track or Titan

Brand popularity is applicable not only for products but also for services and entertainment

y

Entertainment: By Entertainment I mean to say that people are now so much influenced by the brand that they also want to spend their leisure time under a Branded Roof . If a family is about to go for shopping definitely they would visit a renowned branded mall Shopper s Stop, Center One, R-Mall, Orbit Mall, Big Bazaar and many others which have created a good brand image. If friends are planning to go out for a movie, they would go to Multiplexes and Cine Plazas which also provides them with the facility of shopping and also cafeterias where they have a good time with their friends.

y

Services: Services have also become branded and popular amongst masses. Anything that girl needs to do to enhance her beauty she will first rush to branded outlets of the companies like Lakme, L Oreal etc. For fitness purposes people prefer popular fitness centers like Talwarkars, Gold s Gym etc. People also avail banking services from market leaders like ICICI Bank, HDFC Bank etc. Availing of transport services also happens through branded providers like Raj Travels and Tourism, Jet Airways.

As being a management student it was a wonderful opportunity for me to work and research on a topic which interests me a lot. While working on this project I gained immense knowledge about branding which plays a very important role in the commercial world and also forms the base for commercial successes.

4.2 Difficulties faced
Working on this project was very much enriching, knowledgeable and tiring experience. Enriching and knowledgeable, because it gave me a lot of knowledge relating to how to go about with branding of a product. Not only about how to create a brand name for a product but it also taught me that once created a brand name how to maintain and continue with the quality and consistency of the product.

Experience of working on this project was a tiring one because, although Branding and Toon Branding are not new concepts, then too not many people or even students are not aware of it. They needed an explanation about what is toon branding and even searching information about different aspects of branding needed hard work.

As the project consists of special focus on Toon Branding I have also included case study on Amul Butter Girl which is a successful story for Toon Branding. As important decisions like whether to go for toon branding or not? are taken by the top management therefore I required an appointment with the

personnel of the firm who had enough knowledge about this topic, but I was not successful in doing so. The reasons behind the same are:

y y

Location difficulties The firm is so innovative in its concept of toon branding that the management definitely had no time for the appointment.

In spite of all these difficulties I was very successful in getting all the information about Amul Butter Girl because of excellent website designed by Amul. Lastly I want to thank my guide, other professors and friends who helped and encouraged me to work on this project.

4.3 Suggestions

While working on the project I have gained almost complete knowledge about branding therefore I would always support branding and even suggest the companies to opt for it. Because it is a process through which the product will be able to find a place in the minds of the people within this competitive world and also gain the loyalty of the customer if the product spells quality.

But the company should make a very correct and appropriate decision so as to how branding is to be done i.e. the process of branding. The firm should use a brand personality, brand mascot or a toon mascot for the promotion of the brand. The choice of different elements used to create a brand identity such as color, owned name, slogans, and symbols etc. should be done correctly so that there are no misconceptions in the minds of the consumers to understand the use and capability of the product.

It is definitely a good idea if the firm is opting for toon branding because that is the latest advertising mantra used by many companies but it should be only used if it suits the requirement of product

Fido Dido is all about fun. But Chintamani will not be able to share the same popularity as Fido Dido because it is not used in all the Ads of the firm and also the positioning of the toon matters in this case. Not only advertisements toon mascots can also be promoted through prints on accessories. clothing bags etc. Whereas in case of Chintamani. All the hoardings of Amul Butter Girl are so innovative and animated in such a manner that it makes the people aware of the current happenings in the world of politics. Always up to some Mischief . For example: Fido Dido (7UP) which is promoted through these methods is already a great success. .advertisements. Liked by girls and the list follows. Toon branding is no doubt a good way to create a brand image. film industry. it makes the boring script interesting but care has to be taken by the firm that the designing of the toon is to be done in a manner that not only the toon mascot is memorable or the toon advertisement is remembered but also the sales of the product increases. quality. and also Chintamani (ICICI). and need of the product to the customer. Teenagers and specially children like the images of Fido Dido on their T-Shirts. and other industrial sectors and together spreads a message to use Amul butter in all situations of life. but here again the company will face limitations because it purely depends upon the designing of the toon mascot that whether it will be accepted or liked on these things. bags etc because the positioning of this toon mascot has been done as a Cool Guy . which means that the toon mascot utilized should also represent the utility. it is mainly used to promote the investment plans of ICICI so all the advertisements aims at increasing the importance of investments in the life of individuals and finally it leads to No Chinta Only Money . A good example in this context would The Amul Butter Girl (Amul Butter).

Titan. In order to facilitate proper comprehension of the same. which in Titan's case happens to be watches. a brand needs to actively advertise in order to stay healthy and maintain market share. though possessed of a wide product line. y The Law of Advertising: Once born. I illustrate the points as follows: y The Law of Contraction: A brand becomes stronger when its focus is narrowed. has stuck to its focus.CONCLUSION The study done so far in the context of a brand and the special focus on toon branding leads to many important conclusions. . This does not imply carrying a limited product line. If done right. advertising is more of an investment than an expense. but rather limiting and focusing a brand on only one type of core product.

the jewellery was called Tanishq. There is a difference. in order to fit the eyes. or perceptions of the names. To do so would be to undermine the power of the Titan brand. y The Law of the Name: In the long run. Mercedes. than with watch making. Thus. Visual symbols (again with the possible exceptions of Nike's "swoosh" or Mercedes' 3-pointed star) are highly overrated. and companies are companies. As mentioned previously Titan more or less owns the word "quality" in the minds of the consumers. Examples of such brands are Volvo. who though highly regarded in Indian industry are associated more with heavy industries such as steel and truck building. Each brand should be kept unique and special. which is that of being watch experts ? Hence. who own the word "prestige" and Coca-Cola. The meaning lies in the words. y The Law of Quality: Though quality is essential to the survival and growth of any brand. When Titan decided to diversify into the jewellery segment. Titan is owned by the Tata Group. at least when viewed in the context of the Indian watch market. Titan. as it is between their names. though well recognizable is . y The Law of Shape: A brand's logotype should be well designed. the fact remains that brands are not built by quality alone. a brand is nothing more than a name. who own the word "cola". The Titan logo. they did not call their new brand 'Titan Jewellery'.y The Law of the Word: Any brand worth it's salt should strive to "own" a word or words in the mind of the consumer. thereby implying that it is perceived as a quality product. The difference between products is thus not so much between the products. y The Law of the Company: Brands are brands. who own the word "safety". in spite of the high standing of the Titan name in the minds of the Indian consumers. seems to own the word "quality". as well as it's perception of being a quality product combine to work towards building the strength of the Titan brand. y The Law of Siblings: There is always a time and a place to launch a second brand. it's actual quality. not the symbol. but when this is done it should be ensured that both brands have separate and distinct identities.

positioning it's watches as high quality. Titan has often sponsored cricket tournaments. the following factors should also be kept in mind: y Define the core brand's position and value clearly: A product should be properly positioned and its value (which includes price. in order to effectively build brand equity. and someone nice to do business with. Indian made watches. including the now legendary 1997 Titan Cup. These should thus be emphasized upon. are vital to the success and survival of any brand. As mentioned in the section regarding the law of the word. Therefore. while Coca-Cola stands for red and appears in running handwriting. In keeping with India's obsession with cricket. and emphasizing upon it's value for money as well as it's classy image. its value as a brand building tool has more often than not. This is exactly what Titan has done. modern looking letters. a prime example of which is Star World's "The Practice". or PR. positioning it as a good corporate citizen. For example.always accompanied by the words "TITAN" in a clear. Titan also sponsors a number of popular television programmes. event and entertainment sponsorships. Pepsi stands for blue and appears in capital. Unfortunately. . the two words most highly identified with Titan are quality" and "Indian". been undervalued. crisp typeface-denoting power (through the use of capital letters) and class at the same time. y The Law of Colour: A brand should use a colour and typeface that is the opposite of its major competitor. quality and image) should be properly defined. and other forms of PR help to define the personality of a company or brand. y Don't neglect Public Relations: Public Relations. Newsletters.

Secondly. Titan is currently being offered by both Outlook magazine and WelcomAward (the privileged customer programme of the WelcomGroup chain of hotels) in their various promotional offers. Titan has their own privileged customer club. who is still perceived as a company offering solid and reliable. This works for Titan in two ways. but is also what helps him distinguish the brand from its competitors. "An Indian company offering international quality".6 Lakh members. HMT. Interestingly. while Titan has never actively promoted the fact that it's parent company is the Tata Group. at the same time it has never really done much to hide the fact. Titan Signet. which has an impressive 1. First of all. it's emphasis on 'international quality' successfully negates it's major Indian competitor. The most sensible and effective forms of promotions are measures such as establishing a privileged customer club offering customer points redeemable for discounts and rebates. Needless and irrelevant contests tend to shift the customer's attention from the product being promoted to the prize being offered (be it a trip to the US or a new car). and can perhaps best be described in six words. Titan's USP is two fold. Titan emphasis on being Indian enables it to effectively meet their threat.y Realize that promotions can be tricky: Promotions ought to be used to create recognition and build brand loyalty. Thus while capitalizing on the Tata name. it has built its own identity as an Indian brand offering high quality watches at prices significantly below those of comparable foreign brands. yet singularly unstylish and staid looking watches. with the plethora of foreign brands available in the country today. y Always remember the USP: A USP (Unique Selling Proposition) is not only what gives the customer a reason to buy the brand. A better (and far less expensive) way to promote a brand would be to allow it to be used by other companies in their promotional offers. .

As the market environment changes with the addition of say. greater competition. Such was the case with HMT.y If you can't be first. With the entry of the "high performance" sports watch brands in the form of Tag Hauer. When Titan entered the market in 1987. a company offering reliable and economically priced watches. With the growing entry of foreign brands into the market. most of which were priced economically. y Expand sensibly: Extensions should always be logical and market driven and not mere "product explosions". youth oriented "style" brands such as Esprit and Swatch. Titan thus started out being a company offering a wide variety of models. be better: Being the first entrant in any category earns pioneer status for a brand and gives it the advantage of being the probable market leader. with the added USP of being a more stylish alternative to HMT. however be undertaken arbitrarily. its main competitor was HMT. so did Titan. It should not. brand extension should be undertaken. Similarly. again priced extremely competitively. . However with it's emphasis on it's USP and aggressive advertising. or changing customer wants and perceptions. Titan introduced it's own line of chronographs priced significantly lower than the competition at a mere Rs 5000-6000. however. to counter the entry of foreign. Titan introduced the 'Fastrack' sub brand. Omega and Breitling. Titan continued to introduce sub brand after sub brand to meet every new challenge. Titan convinced the market that it produced the better product and thus destroyed HMT's near monopoly of the Indian watch market. As times changed.

wikipedia.yahoo.com www.BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: y - Marketing Management: By Philip Kotler and Kevin Lane Killer y - Brand Building: By Philip Kotler y Branding Management: By Philip Kotler Branding: By Philip Kotler Websites: y - y y y y www.google.amul.com . com www.com www.

k Amul Hits of 1995 96 On the introduction of the show Amul surbhi Name Game .

Waste Bengal .

Amul Hits of 1996 .97 On the infighting within the Congress government during the general election On the large number of Lok Sabha candidates from the film industry When Atal Behari Vajpayee became Prime Minister .

98 When Bihar Chief Minister Laloo Prasad Yadav was involved in the Fodder Scandal On Laloo Prasad Yadav's refusal to vacate the Chief Minister's seat.Amul Hits of 1997 . AMUL's salute to India on Independence Day. .

Amul Hits of 1998 99 .

On Women Bus Conductors· Amul Hits of 1999 2000 .`TITANIC' On the famous song aati kya khandala from the movie ghulam.On the popular Oskar award winning film .

On winning the Gold for Hockey in the Asian Games. Haul of 10 wickets by kumble Amul Hits of 2000 .2001 .Based on the Starr report on Bill Clinton.

Match fixing charges against South African cricket captain Hansie Cronje" .April 2000 "India's population touches one billion" .May 2000 "On the first anniversary of the Kargil issue". Amul Hits of 2001 2002 .

April 2001.April 2001 On launch of the Hindi film `LAGAAN' .June 2001 Amul Hits of 2003 2004 . Protest over the proposed flyover in Mumbai by renowned singer and prominent citizens ."On the recent Mumbai Stock Exchange scam involving top brokers" .

."The Centre for Science and Environment" that leading las and carbonated soft drinks contain dangerously high level of pesticide residues which are likely to be hazardous for health .June 2003 Controversy on the findings by NGO .the episode then going to media April 2003 Pun on Bollywood highly popular horror film .August 2003.Two Bollywood stars engage in threatening telephonic calls .

May'04 Model turned Actress Preeti Jain's allegation against noted film director Madhur Bhandarkar having sexually exploited her on the pretext of arranging roles in films .Amul Hits of 2004 2005 On Dr.July'04 Launch of 'ZOOM' India's first glamour and lifestyle family entertainment television channel September'04 . Manmohan Singh being elected Prime Minister of India .

April'05 On Mallika Sherawat's first international film 'The Myth' with Jackie Chan .Amul Hits of 2005 .2006 On the Maharashtra Government's decision to close down dance bars all over the state barring Mumbai .May'05 .

2007 Protests against the proposed flyover on Peddar Road in Mumbai .April '06 Controversy on increasing height of Sardar Saravor Dam (Narmada Dam) on Narmada River in Gujarat .On Greg Chappell of Australia being appointed new coach of the Indian Cricket Team May'05 Amul Hits of 2006 .April '06 .

On French Captain Zinedine Zidane shown red card sending him off for vicious headbutting Italian defender in the chest during the World Cup Football Final - July '06

On hysteria amongst people at the seafront in Mahim - Central Mumbai to drink sea water which reportedly turned sweet - August '06

Australian cricketers unpleasant behavior of push and shove towards BCCI President Mr. Sharad

Pawar at ICC Champions Trophy prize distribution ceremony at Brabourne Stadium in Mumbai, India - November '06

Indian Bollywood actress Shilpa Shetty winner of British reality television show Big Brother February 2007

Amul Hits of 2007 2008

On Bollywood superstars Amitabh and Jaya Bachchan's son Abhishek's wedding with Aishwarya at their residence Prateeksha in Mumbai - April 2007.

On Super Jumbo A380 Airbus double-decker the world's largest civilian passenger aircraft in India for first time - May' 07.

Richard Gere Hollywood actor and Shilpa Shetty Bollywood actress in a controversial incident in public at an AIDS function in India - May, 2007.

Bollywood romantic comedy film CHEENI KUM (A Sugar Free Romance) in which superstar Amitabh Bachchan shares time with little girl his neighbor, suffering from leukemia, wise beyond her years - June '07.

July '07. the Bollywood movie with focus on women's hockey featuring star-actor Shah . It was built by Mughal Emperor Shah JAhan as a symbol of enduring love for his wife Mumtaz on the outskirt of Agra . Police in Mumbai.India's Taj Mahal a masterpiece of architecture of 17th Century in the worldwide race for inclusion in the new Seven Wonders of the World. CHAKDE! INDIA. India conduct breathalyzer or conventional tests on motorists at night to crackdown on drunken driving to avoid road accidents .July '07.

Team India celebrate after winning the inaugural ICC WORLD TWENTY 20.Rukh Khan playing coach of the Indian Women's Hockey Team to bring fame to India . .September' 07.November '07. SOUTH AFRICA 2007 cricket World Cup in Johannesburg . Bollywood actress and dancing queen Madhuri Dixit in the movie "Aaja Nachle" (Let's Dance) in which music and dance being the essence of the movie .August '07.

. Upcoming releases in November 2007 of two Bollywood movies SAAWARIYA ² innocent. pure love story and Om Shanti Om ² a love story ² October 2007. .