Promoting Renewable Energy

:
Global Technology Cooperation, Innovation and Investment
1st Worl d Renewabl e
E n e r g y T e c h n o l o g y
Congress and Expo held at
Hotel LeMeridien New Delhi
from 18th to 20th March
2010 was a grand success.
The congress was attended
by 410 nati onal and
international delegates
f r o m 3 0 c o u n t r i e s .
st rd
21 - 23 Le Meridien New Delhi April 2011,
Organised by
FOCUS ON THE
FUTURE
RAGA
Supported by
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
Government of India
World Re-EnergyTech-2011 Secretariat
F1-F2, Pankaj Grand Plaza, CSC Complex, Mayur Vihar - I, Delhi - 110091, India • Tel: +91 11 24538318. Fax: +91 11 43019379
Dr. Anil K Garg, President - World Renewable Energy Technology Congress & Expo-2011
Cell : +91 9971500028 / 9999071071 / 9910135500 • E-mail : dranilgarg2010@gmail.com, dranilgarg@wretc.in
Punit Singh : +91 9213901510 • E-mail: punit.nagi@wretc.in
st rd
21 - 23
April, 2011
Le Meridien
New Delhi
India
www.wretc.in
from the editor’s desk
Chief Patron
Dr Farooq Abdullah
Minister for New and Renewable Energy,
New Delhi
Patron
Deepak Gupta
Secretary, MNRE, New Delhi
Editor
Arun K Tripathi
MNRE, New Delhi
Editorial Board
N P Singh, Chairman
Bibek Bandyopadhyay
Praveen Saxena
B Bhargava
D K Khare
Parveen Dhamija
B S Negi
D Majumdar
R K Vimal
Production team
Madhu Singh Sirohi, Suparna Mukherji,
R Ajith Kumar, R K Joshi, and T Radhakrishnan,
TERI, New Delhi;
N Ghatak, MNRE, New Delhi
Editorial office
Arun K Tripathi
Editor, Akshay Urja
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Disclaimer
The views expressed by authors including those of
the editor in this newsletter are not necessarily the
views of the MNRE.
Volume 3 • Issue 4 P February 2010
Published, printed, and edited for and on behalf of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy,
Government of India, from B-14, CGO Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi, by Dr Arun Kumar
Tripathi. Printed at M/s Brijbasi Art Press Ltd, E46/11, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase II, New
Delhi – 110 020, India
Dear Reader,
The NAPCC (National Action Plan on Climate Change),
launched on 30 June 2008, in India points out, ‘India
is a tropical country, where sunshine is available for
longer hours per day and with greater intensity. Solar
energy, therefore, has great potential as the future
energy source. It also has the advantage of permitting the decentralized
distribution of energy, thereby empowering people at the grassroots level.’
While launching the NAPCC, Dr Manmohan Singh, Hon’ble Prime Minister
of India, mentioned, ‘Our vision is to make India’s economic development
energy efcient. Over a period of time, we must pioneer a graduated shift
from economic activity based on fossil fuels to one based on non-fossil fuels,
and from reliance on non-renewable and depleting sources of energy to
renewable sources of energy.’ This indicates the interest and commitment
of the Government of India to bring renewable energy in the mainstream of
the country’s energy supply chain.
The JNNSM (Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission), one of the eight
missions under the NAPCC, has an ambitious target of installing 20 000 MW
of grid-interactive solar power, 2000 MW of-grid solar applications, and
20 million sq m of solar collector area for thermal applications by 2022.
The JNNSM, launched in November 2009, is gradually taking shape. This will
create a huge market for solar energy in the country, and the whole world
is looking forward to this opportunity. The task is gigantic and challenging.
This will also help to mitigate the increasing gap between demand and
supply of energy, particularly in the case of electricity in the country.
This should be seen as a great opportunity and all stakeholders should
come forward and join hands to convert this into a reality.
The villages which are beyond the reach of power grids can meet their
electricity needs through distributed generation of solar power plants.
The JNNSM with its target of of-grid solar applications can address this issue.
However, the role of corporate houses, non-government organizations,
private entrepreneurs, and ESCOs (Energy Service Companies) is crucial for
setting up such power plants in remote villages that follow a sustainable
business model.
Our endeavour is to keep you abreast with every step of the JNNSM, and
in this issue, a detailed insight about the JNNSM has been presented. In this
context, this issue of the magazine is dedicated to solar energy. I hope you
will fnd it interesting, useful, and informative. Please do send your reaction,
suggestion, and contribution to make Akshay Urja a meaningful and useful
magazine for one and all.
With best wishes
ARUN K TRIPATHI
<aktripathi@nic.in>
A bi-monthly newsletter of the
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy,
Government of India
(Published in English and Hindi)
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
2 FEBRUARY 2010
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Since the last three years, my child
has been giving me his environmental
studies book to read out to him. I
realized then that India, as a developing
nation, has to balance our eco system.
So now I am trying to open a small
business of solar products, which would
somewhat, if not fully, reduce the load
on electricity generated by polluted
means. I would be marketing as well as
spreading awareness about solar energy
and other energy saving products.
Last week, I chanced upon Akshay
Urja, Ministry of New and Renewable
Energy’s bimonthly magazine, and I am
thoroughly impressed and humbled
by the enormous amount of useful
information in it, which can be used as
a guiding tool for people like us.
Krishna M Pamidi
83, of. C H Street,
Near Marine Lines fyover,
Mumbai–400 002
You have been kind enough to send
a complimentary copy of Akshay Urja
Volume 3 Issue 1 August 2009 issue
for the use of our studious students,
brilliant faculty, tireless researchers, and
dedicated professionals in the pursuit of
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Since your bi-monthly newsletter is
very useful and relevant to our clientele,
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including our name in your mailing list.
In case some issues of volume 2 are still
available, please mail them to us.
Pravin Naidu
75, Kalpataru Housing Society,
Om Nagar, Kalmana Road, near new
water tank,
Ranala (G P), Kamptee, Dist.
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I have been working as the Director
and Chief Executive Ofcer of
Dear Reader,
Thank you very much for your
encouragement. The editorial
team of Akshay Urja will make
every efort to make this newsletter
highly informative and useful to
all our readers. We welcome your
suggestions and valuable comments
to make further improvement in
terms of content and presentation.
Editor
Akshay Urja
TREDA (Tripura Renewable Energy
Development Agency) for more than
three years. And I am deeply impressed
by the publications of MNRE’s (Ministry
of New and Renewable Energy)
newsletter Akshay Urja, under the
leadership of Dr A K Tripathi, Director,
MNRE. The editorial written by
Dr Tripathi in the last issue has given
me deep thoughts which are valuable.
I have developed a keen interest in
the diferent programmes of the MNRE on
NCES (non-conventional energy sources)
and up-to-date achievements, future
programmes, and so on. In fact, I want to
be associated with the development of
renewable energy sources in India and
abroad, even when I shall not be working
in TREDA in the future.
Subhash Chowdhury
Director and CEO, TREDA
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I am a professor of Mechanical
Engineering in AVIT (Aarupadai Veedu
Institute of Technology). I have gone
through your newsletter, Akshay
Urja, and found it interesting and
informative. The reading of this news
bulletin is very much necessary for the
engineering student community. The
faculty and students enhance their
knowledge by reading Akshay Urja.
Prof. K V Krishna Sastry
Professor and Head of Department,
Mechanical Engineering Department,
AVIT, Vinayaka Missions University,
Chennai
Indian Railways Institute of Electrical
Engineering is a centralized training
institute under the Ministry of Railways,
Government of India, which imparts
training to the electrical department
ofcers of the Indian Railways.
Your esteemed publication titled
Akshay Urja is being received regularly.
The readers/members of this institute
have got immense beneft out of the
articles published in the magazine. It
is very useful for project work, research
study, and provides latest technical
know-how and information on current
afairs related to various aspects. It
is preserved carefully in our library
for future use as reference to be used
by the trainee ofcers of the Indian
Railways and others.
P K Badhyopadhyay
Librarian/Assistant Librarian and
Information Officer, Indian Railways
Institute of Electrical Engineering
Nasik Road, Maharashtra—422101
GREEN INITIATIVES
Installation of biomass gasifier
in Village Sondra, Siltara, Raipur,
by Arpee Ispat Pvt. Ltd . . . 37
Raj Bhavan Kolkata goes
green . . . 38
Volume 3 • Issue 4 P February 2010 contents
I nt er nat i onal
IBM’s kesterite solar cell beats
efciency record . . . 9
US renewable energy industries
say long-term growth reliant on
government action . . . 9
US geothermal energy capacity
increased 6% in 2009 . . . 9
More needed to promote renewable
energy in Jordan ... 10
Ofshore wind farm sites set out in
Scotland . . . 11
RE NE WS
Nat i onal
India and Japan to jointly
develop Solar City . . . 4
NTPC to foray into solar power
projects ... 4
CLP Power to invest $800
million in renewable energy by
December 2010 . . . 4
Minister urges researchers to
come up with cheaper means to
store solar energy . . . 5
RE TECH UPDATE
Glitter-sized solar PV may revolutionize the
way solar energy is collected and used ... 14
FEATURE ARTICLE
Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar
Mission: towards building solar
India ... 15
Solar Energy Conclave ...23
Delhi International Renewable Energy
Conference 2010 ... 28
Energy forever: IREDA’s solar
fnancing schemes ... 30
Quantum structured photovoltaic cell:
design and advancements ... 33
1
4
2
3
2
8
3
3
1
5
3
7
RE EVENTS
India–Iceland Workshop on
Renewable Energy ... 39
Third World Future Energy
Summit at Abu Dhabi ... 39
The frst national conference
on GRIHA ... 40
Tenth DSDS ... 41
Workshop on energy-efcient
solar/green buildings ... 41
Indo-Australian Solar Energy
Workshop at Amity University
Campus, Noida ... 42
CHILDREN’S CORNER . . . 44
BOOK REVIEW . . . 45
BOOK / WEB ALERT . . . 46
FORTHCOMING EVENTS . . . 47
RE STATISTICS . . . 48
RE News
India and Japan to jointly
develop Solar City
A
Japanese delegation led by
Kazuhiro Haraguchi, Minister for
Internal Afairs and Communications,
Japan, recently met Dr Farooq Abdullah,
Union Minister for New and Renewable
Energy, India. The meeting discussed
the various aspects of cooperation
between the two countries in the feld
of renewable energy. The two sides
decided to jointly develop one city in
India as ‘solar city’.
The Solar City project aims to reduce
a minimum of 10% of its projected
demand of conventional energy at
the end of fve years through energy
efciency measures and generation
from renewable energy installations.
The Indian government has, so far,
given in-principle approval to 34 cities
in the country to be developed as
Solar Cities.
Japan wants to promote ‘Midori
no Bunken’, which aims at changing
centralized society to community-
based society so as to enhance
self-sufciency within a region through
maximizing natural resources (forest,
sea, food) and energy, with emphasis
on not relying on electricity generated
by others. It focuses on renewable
energy like solar, wind, micro-hydel,
and biomass energy. The two sides
also agreed to strengthen cooperation
in Research and Development
for promoting renewable energy.
As part of the exchange programme,
a 10-member delegation from India
will participate in the Japan-India
New and Renewable Energy Seminar
in Tokyo later this month. The
delegation will include representatives
from the central government, state
governments, and nodal agencies.
MNRE
NTPC to foray into solar power
projects
T
he NTPC (National Thermal Power
Corporation) is set to enter the solar
power generation feld in a big way with
a plan to develop four grid-connected
solar thermal power projects. The
total capacity of all the four proposed
projects is 320 MW (megawatt). Two
of the projects were coming up in
Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. The one in
Uttar Pradesh, with a capacity of 25 MW,
would be the biggest ever solar project
in the country. WISE (World Institute
of Sustainable Energy), a non-proft
organization, is preparing a feasibility
report for one of the four projects for
the NTPC.
Meanwhile, the state government is
likely to hold a meeting with renewable
energy project developers in the wake
of the dissatisfaction expressed by the
developers over some of the clauses
in the recently brought out renewable
energy policy.
The developers have opposed the
mandatory clause for providing
5% equity in the projects to farmers
who will lose their land to projects,
though farmers’ leaders and social
science experts have welcomed
the equity provision as a move that
would provide some kind of regular
income to farmers. The developers are
also opposed to the provision which
stipulates the hand over of the project
to the government after a period of 30
years and the ‘high fee’ being charged
for granting the various clearances.
THE HINDU
CLP Power to invest $800
million in renewable energy by
December 2010
C
LP Power India Pvt Ltd, a Hong
Kong-based CLP Group company,
will invest $800 million to augment
its power generation capacity from
renewable resources to 650 MW by the
end of this year.
Out of the total target, 346 MW is
under construction, while 104 MW is
operational. The company has also
identifed locations for building the
remaining capacity.
‘We hope to take this capacity to
650 MW by the end of this year,’ said
Mahesh Makhija, CLP Power India
Vice-President Renewables, adding
that the company would pump in
$800 million for the same.
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
4 FEBRUARY 2010
national news
CLP
Power has
identifed locations
in Gujarat, Maharashtra,
Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu for setting
up these renewable energy projects. The
projects would be funded through a debt
and equity ratio of 70:30. The company is
in talks with various banks and fnancial
institutions for loans and with various
international companies for sourcing
equipment for the power projects.
‘We are talking with two German
companies for buying equipment for
200 MW capacity,’ he said. Out of the
650 MW, equipment for 350 MW have
been sourced from Germany-based
Enercon, and another 100 MW from the
Danish company Vestas.
Apart from the company’s
renewable energy portfolio, it is also
developing a two 660 MW thermal
power project at Jhajjar in Haryana
at an investment of Rs 60000 million.
The frst unit of this project would be
commissioned by the end of 2011.
BUSINESS STANDARD
Minister urges researchers to
come up with cheaper means to
store solar energy
D
r Farooq Abdullah, Union Minister
for New and Renewable Energy,
has called for research targetted at
reducing the cost of storing solar energy
in the context of the JNNSM (Jawaharlal
Nehru National Solar Mission), which
aims to generate an installed capacity
of 20 000 MW of solar energy by 2022.
Inaugurating the CO
2
(carbon
dioxide) Research and Green
Technologies Centre and the Rajeswari
Towers (Staf Quarters-II) at the VIT
(Vellore Institute of Technology)
University recently, Dr Abdullah
said that under the JNNSM,
in the next three years, the
Government of India hopes to add
1300 MW of solar energy, of which
1100 MW would be grid-connected
and 200 MW would be utilized for
providing electricity to villages which
have not seen any electricity so far.
‘Here comes the problem of storage
of energy. Today, we store energy
in batteries, using distilled water.
But there are a number of villages in
Jammu and Kashmir which are at a
height of 8000–9000 feet above the sea
level where they do not have distilled
water. They have to use the available
water in the canals and streams, as a
result of which the batteries would
stop functioning. Batteries that do not
use water are expensive, and therefore,
we have to reduce the prices of such
batteries,’ he said.
Dr Abdullah said that till date,
there was no answer to the question
of fnding an inexpensive means
of storing energy. Under these
circumstances, institutions such as VIT
University should undertake research
to fnd out ways of storing energy at the
right voltage.
The MNRE (Ministry of New and
Renewable Energy) would provide all
the help to the institute in undertaking
such research. He has told the windmill
manufacturers to produce windmills
which could be easily transported to
hilly areas. He also called for research
on the production of power from
the abundant kitchen wastes in the
country. He would hold a meeting with
architects in Chennai to discuss with
them the ways of constructing energy-
efcient buildings.
Referring to the proposal of the
Government of India to install micro-
hydel projects in the villages, especially
those which did not have electricity,
the minister stressed the need for using
cheaper technology. ‘The products
must be good and cheap. Unless you
produce cheaper products, they cannot
be used by ordinary people,’ he said.
THE HINDU
No-pollution three wheelers
unveiled in New Delhi
W
ith the recent unveiling of eco-
friendly three wheelers powered
by non-polluting hydrogen, India
will soon have ‘no pollution’ vehicles
running on its roads.
Dr Farooq Abdullah, Union
Minister of New and Renewable
Energy, drove a hydrogen-run trial-
based auto, ushering in an era where
vehicles running on the road with the
renewable and non-polluting fuel will
be a common sight. The vehicles were
showcased on the sidelines of the frst
day of the three-day World Hydrogen
Technologies Convention.
These three wheelers, powered by
hydrogen fuel, will run at the speed
of 50–70 km per hour and can ply in
sub-zero temperature up to –30
o
C. A
vehicle that runs on fossil fuel can be
changed into a hydrogen one by simply
installing hydrogen conversion kits.
5
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010
national news
About 20 scientists and engineers
worked for seven years to develop
these vehicles. ‘Today, we are working
at experimental and research levels as
the prices are high. World over, research
is going on how to reduce the cost of
production of hydrogen, yet reduce
the carbon footprint of production of
hydrogen. I am very sure that the cost
will become comparable in the next 5 to
10 years,’ said Anand Kumar, Director,
Research and Development, Indian Oil
Corporation. He added that to make
hydrogen fuel easily available and
afordable for commercial purposes,
the government should subsidize it.
India hopes that one million
hydrogen-fuelled vehicles, mostly two
and three wheelers, will ply on the
road by 2020. The three wheelers have
been developed by automobile makers
Sonalika Group, in cooperation with
the Banaras Hindu University.
WWW.THAINDIAN.COM
Nasheed: India can provide the
lead in using renewable energy
I
ndia has the intellectual capacity,
strength, and ability to fuel the next
industrial revolution, said Maldives
President Mohamed Nasheed at the
recent edition of the Partnership
Summit, organized by the CII
BHEL to focus on transmission
equipment, renewable energy
W
ith competition intensifying in
the power generation equipment
business, BHEL (Bharat Heavy Electricals
Ltd) is planning to step up focus on
other areas of operations, including
the transportation sector, transmission
equipment, and renewable energy.
The state-owned frm is planning to
form SPVs (special purpose vehicles) for
increasing the focus on some of these
businesses, company ofcials said.
A bevy of competitors has begun
to enter into the high-end power
equipment business, including the
L&T-Mitsubishi Heavy Electric combine,
Bharat Forge-Alstom, Toshiba-JSW,
Italian frm Ansaldo, and a host of
Chinese frms.
Despite the increasing competition
in its mainstay power equipment
business, BHEL expects to revise
upwards its Rs 45 000-crore turnover
target for 2011/12, backed by
an increasing thrust on its other
business areas.
BHEL is already working on plans
to invest close to Rs 2000 crore to set
up a 250 MW solar PV (photovoltaic)
production facility for processing silicon
wafers, solar cells, and PV modules. The
facility will be set up in a joint venture
with Bharat Electronics Ltd. It is also in
(Confederation of Indian Industry). He
called for partnership among Asian
countries to take on global challenges,
and said that India could provide the
lead in using renewable energy to
combat climate change.
‘We did not advance out
of the Stone Age because we
ran out of stones,’ he quipped.
The world could not assume
that there was still a future
with fossil fuels. ‘We believe
in business over bureaucracy.’
The government’s rightful
place in the globalized
world was in regulation,
environment protection, and
provision of social security
nets, he added.
THE HINDU
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
6 FEBRUARY 2010
national news
the process of tying up technology for
high-end wind turbine sets.
WWW.THEHINDUBUSINESSLINE.COM
Siemens to invest $346 million
in India’s renewable sector
I
n order to expand its presence in
the country, Siemens plans to invest
$346 million in India’s renewable sector
over the next three years. About a
third of the new investment would be
directed towards the development
of wind turbine technology with an
expected product launch by 2012.
Some of the money will go towards
solar development as well. ‘We are
taking advantage of the Indian growth
opportunity and adding specifcally
tailored products. These are in addition
to our high-end technology global
portfolio,’ said Peter Loscher, Chief
Executive Ofcer of Siemens.
WWW.SILICONINDIA.COM
Airvoice plans 13GW renewable
energy project in India
M
obile phone and commodity
export frm Airvoice Group has
joined hands with Satluj Jal Vidyut
Nigam to build 13GW (gigawatt) of
solar and wind capacity in India. The
companies plan to invest $50 billion
over a period of 10 years, claiming it to
be the largest single renewable energy
project in the world.
The majority of the capacity
planned – 10GW – will be generated
through photovoltaic installations,
and the remainder through wind
farms. Sanjay Kapoor, Chairman and
Managing Director of Airvoice Group,
told the Hindustan Times that his
company had identifed 12 potential
sites for the solar installations and four
districts in Karnataka.
The frst phase – 100MW of solar
and 200MW of wind capacity – is
expected to be commissioned in the
next 36 months. Tendering for the
1.5MW wind turbines is to begin shortly
and the company is already in talks
with Eurowinds and Suzlon. Satluj Jal
Vidyut Nigam has 48% equity in the
new company.
WWW.SILICONINDIA.COM
Indian PV market to reach
2575MW by 2015
A
nalysis from Frost and Sullivan’s
India Solar Photovoltaic Market
fnds that the aggregate module
production capacity in the Indian
market was 972MW in 2008 and
estimates this to reach 2575MW
in 2015.
The Indian solar PV (photovoltaic)
market has come of age in the last
two to three years, with the market
growing from a ten-member sector
to a well-organized market with more
than 30 world-class PV module and
cell suppliers. The aggregate module
production capacity rose from less than
60MW in 2005 to more than 1000MW
in 2009, setting India up as a possible
major manufacturing hub for the global
solar PV market.
The market can look forward to
large-scale private investments across
the PV value chain, especially in the
production of polysilicon feedstock,
silicon wafers, PV modules and cells, as
well as balance of system components.
‘Successive reforms in the power
sector and a plethora of policies
initiated at the central and state levels
to control greenhouse gas emissions
and promote renewable energy has
restored investor interest in the solar
power industry,’ says Frost and Sullivan
industry analyst Hemanth Nayak.
‘Several private frms are expected
to make large investments to avail
fnancial incentives and leverage the
cost advantages of solar PV production
in India.’
‘The Indian solar PV market is likely
to grow in terms of PV modules and cell
exports to various developed nations
in the world,’ notes Nayak. ‘In fact, up
to 75% of the total module production
in India is anticipated to fnd its way to
diferent solar markets in the European
Union in the next two to three years.’
Investors in solar power stand to
gain greatly from the implementation
of a renewable energy credit trading
system, since it could signifcantly
augment the chances of the
development of solar farms, which are
currently dependent on government
subsidies. Participants can be hopeful
7
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010
national news
about the future, as the solar PV
market has already achieved global
standards. In terms of quality, the
PV modules and cells manufactured
in India are considered at par with
those manufactured in the developed
nations. ‘India, with its advantages of
lower labour costs, ofers domestic
PV suppliers opportunities to
manufacture economical, yet high
quality modules and cells, enabling
them to gain an edge in the world
market,’ observes Nayak.
WWW.EETINDIA.CO.IN
Three new facilities initiated at
Solar Energy Centre
U
nder a new initiative of academia–
industry–government partnership,
Dr Farooq Abdullah, Union minister of
New and Renewable Energy, recently
laid the foundation stone for three
more technical facilities in the R&D
(Research and Development) campus
of the Solar Energy Centre. Speaking on
the occasion, Dr Abdullah emphasized
the need for such intense indigenous
research and development in the area
to establish India as a global leader in
solar energy.
The initiated facilities include the
Solar Thermal Testing, Research, and
Simulation facility being developed
by a consortium led by the IIT (Indian
Institute of Technology) Bombay.
The facility would have
a grid-connected solar
thermal power plant of
1 MW capacity. This will
also include a test setup
to enable companies
and research institutions
to test the performance
of diferent solar
concentrator options,
coatings and materials,
components, and systems
for a solar thermal power
plant. In addition, the IIT Bombay-led
consortium is also developing a solar
power plant simulator to simulate
the performance of the actual solar
thermal plant through component
and system models based on
appropriate mathematical equations.
The consortium members of this
unique facility include Tata Power,
Tata Consulting Engineers, Larsen and
Toubro, Clique, KIE Solatherm, and the
Solar Energy Centre.
The second facility is a pilot project
based on an indigenously developed
solar concentrator technology that
promises delivering low cost thermal
energy. Megawatt Solutions, a Chennai-
based company, has partnered with the
Solar Energy Centre to demonstrate
technical and commercial viability of
the technology that can harness solar
energy through the
thermal route for various
applications like industrial
process heating, air-
conditioning, and power
generation.
The consortiums in
both these pilot projects
for development of solar
thermal energy represent
a new model for academia,
industry, and government
partnership for techno-
logy development and
research. Reliable and
cost-efective PV (photovoltaic)
modules and robust engineering of
a PV system are extremely important
for the widespread utilization of solar
PV technology.
Dr Abdullah also laid the foundation
stone of a 20 kW solar PV power
plant for validation of various design
confgurations. The confgurations of
the plant have been designed by the
Centre and are being installed by Solar
Semiconductor Private Ltd with power-
conditioning units supplied by Optimal
Power Synergy India. The PV module
reliability R&D facility of the Centre has
recently been expanded and enhanced
through a cooperative research
project with the National Institute
of Advanced Industrial Science and
Technology, Japan. The facility works
on long-term performance evaluation
of diferent technology PV modules to
determine module life times, expected
degradation or failure rates, through
testing under actual feld conditions.
Shri Deepak Gupta, Secretary, Ministry
of New and Renewable Energy,
stated that the eforts of the Solar
Energy Centre are well in line with the
objectives of the Jawaharlal Nehru
National Solar Mission that envisages
setting up Centres of Excellence in the
country for solar energy research.
MNRE
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
8 FEBRUARY 2010
Dr Farooq Abdullah, Union Minister of New and Renewable Energy,
during the foundation stone laying ceremony for new technical
facilities at the Solar Energy Centre.
international news
IBM’s kesterite solar cell beats
efficiency record
I
BM Research demonstrated kesterite
solar cell with 9.6% efciency, beating
the previous efciency record of
6.8% for similar structures. This brings
kesterite closer to the efciency of
established solar cell formulations.
abundant elements such as zinc and
tin, IBM aims to lower the BOM cost for
solar cells and enable mass production
of kesterite PV devices, which are
based on copper, tin, zinc, sulphur,
and selenium.
To move from indium to tin and
zinc, however, IBM had to invent a
new deposition technique since zinc
does not mix well into solutions.
The new method reduces the zinc to
nanoparticles that can be dispersed
in a solution with the copper and tin,
then spin-coated and heat-treated
in the presence of sulphur or
selenium vapour.
Last year, a Japanese research
group at Nagaoka National College
of Technology used a kesterite-based
formulation to achieve thin-flm cell
that exhibited 6.8% efciency. IBM says
it was able to improve that by 40%.
IBM plans to optimize the
architecture further, in hopes of raising
its efciency above 11% in order to
beat both CIGS and CdTe formulations.
The team will also experiment with
alternative to spin coating, such as dip
coating, spray coating and slit casting.
WWW.EETINDIA.CO.IN
US renewable energy industries
say long-term growth reliant on
government action
T
hanks to the stimulus package, US
(United States) geothermal and
solar industries achieved record growth
in 2009. However, both industries say
long-term growth relies on more clean
energy public policy being passed.
Money from the American Recovery
and Reinvestment Act will continue
to fow into alternative energy
sectors in 2010. Nevertheless, trade
associations such as the Geothermal
Energy Association and the Solar
Energy Industries Association say that
there are particular actions that the
government needs to take in order to
continue to develop a green economy,
ranging from the faster processing of
project applications to the passing of a
renewable energy standard and a clean
energy bill.
WWW.ENERGYBOOM.COM
US geothermal energy capacity
increased 6% in 2009
D
espite the recession, the US
geothermal energy capacity
expanded by a robust 6% in 2009,
due to six new geothermal plants
which came online, adding 176.68 MW
(megawatt) of capacity.
Three projects came into service in
Nevada, with one apiece in California,
Oregon, and Utah. According to the
GEA (Geothermal Energy Association),
the total online capacity in the US
reached 3152.72 MW, as of August
2009. Geothermal also added 750
full-time jobs and 2827 construction-
related jobs, thanks to the $800 million
investment in the technology.
Thin-flm solar cells hold the promise of
low-cost, renewable energy source that
could make fossil fuels obsolete. But so
far, the cells’ reliance on rare elements
and expensive vacuum deposition
manufacturing has impeded their
progress. IBM Research has proposed
solutions to both stumbling blocks
by demonstrating a kesterite PV
(photovoltaic) cell that uses common,
abundant elements and is produced
using an inexpensive nanoparticle- and
spin-coat-based ‘printing’ technique.
‘Enough sunlight falls on the Earth
in one hour to power the whole planet
for a year, but solar cells currently
contribute less than a tenth of a per
cent to our electricity supply, mostly
because of their high cost and the short
supply of key elements,’ said David
Mitzi, IBM researcher and manager of
PV science and technology. ‘We want
to lower the manufacturing cost and
increase the supply of the elements
needed for thin-flm PV devices.’
Today, thin-flm solar cells are
based on chalcogenides, such as CIGS
(copper-indium-gallium-selenium)
and CdTe (cadmium telluride). Indium
and tellurium are rare elements, and
the former is already in short supply
because it is used to make transparent
transistors. By substituting more-
9
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
10 FEBRUARY 2010
international news
Currently, 144 new geothermal
plants are under development.
The accelerating growth of geothermal
projects could bring the nation
7000 MW of new baseload geothermal
power in the next few years, raising
the prospects of 10 GW of geothermal
power in the coming years. At that
level, geothermal power will satisfy the
needs of over 10 million people and
still have tremendous growth potential.
New technology advances will continue
to expand the recognized power
potential of geothermal resources.
The DOE (Department of Energy)
ofcially recognizes a near-term
potential of at least 20 GW, or 5% of
US power needs, with longer-term
possibilities well over 100 GW. And
the number of states with geothermal
power will reach double digits in 2010.
The stunning progress of the
geothermal industry this year has been
propelled by state and federal policies.
The two largest geothermal producers,
California and Nevada, each raised
their renewable standards—California
to 33% by 2020 and Nevada to 25% by
2025. Utilities in those states are looking
at geothermal energy to fll these needs.
In addition, the DOE’s loan
programme for innovative technologies
to geothermal technology and the loan
guarantee programme for renewable
projects using commercial technology;
the sale of land by the Bureau of
Land Management which resulted
in the sale of 255 355 acres of land
and total revenue of approximately
$9 million; the allocation of
$338 million in Recovery Act funding
for the exploration and development of
new geothermal felds and research into
advanced geothermal technologies;
and so on contributed to the growth
of geothermal. The US also took major
steps towards advanced geothermal
technology through investment in EGS
(Enhanced Geothermal Systems).
WWW.ENERGYBOOM.COM
‘More needed to promote
renewable energy in Jordan’
D
espite progress with the recently
endorsed Renewable Energy Law,
more needs to be done to encourage
green energy projects at the local level
in Jordan, experts announced recently.
In the fnal recommendations of
the National Dialogue on Renewable
Energy, participants called for
incentives in the temporary legislation
to be expanded to include small
businesses, public facilities, and
individuals. They issued various
recommendations to ensure that
Jordan achieves the national energy
strategy’s goal of 10% of its energy mix
coming from renewable sources within
the next decade.
As part of the recommendations,
President of the JRES (Jordan
Renewable Energy Society) HRH Prince
Asem Ben Nayef stressed that the
private sector should not wait for large
projects to begin investing in the sector.
Experts also called for a programme to
certify Jordanian companies that have
international news
experience in the sector to ensure that
international companies are aware of
the available local subcontractors and
encourage the use of local frms and
materials. As part of the qualifcation
process, incentives granted in the
law would be restricted to companies
that have a minimum of fve years
experience in the renewable energy
feld and have produced facilities with
at least 10 megawatts capacity.
Among the recommendations,
experts called for authorities to launch
an awareness campaign to promote
the law’s incentives for investors in the
sector, develop specialized university
courses on renewable energy based
on the British model, and produce a
special programme to organize various
companies working in the industry. They
also recommended the development
of the capacities of companies working
in the sector, issuing a green building
code in order to improve thermal
insulation, encouraging the adoption
of energy-saving and renewable energy
technology, and establishing a ‘green
bank’ in Jordan.
Under the Renewable Energy Law,
the National Electric Power Company
will be obligated to purchase any and
all electricity produced by renewable
energy power plants and cover the
cost of connecting renewable energy
projects to the national grid. The law
also sets guidelines for net metering,
allowing citizens with solar power or
wind turbines to sell electricity back to
their electricity provider.
WWW.ZAWYA.COM
Offshore wind farm sites set out
in Scotland
P
lans to build 10 wind farms of the
coast of Scotland moved a step
forward after the Crown Estate gave
companies the green light to explore
the sites.
Scottish Power and E.ON are among the
nine frms to be awarded ‘exclusivity
agreements’ for locations, which
include the Solway Firth and Wigtown
Bay. This will allow developers to begin
surveying the sites, while a government
environmental assessment is
conducted. The wind farms have the
potential to generate 6GW (gigawatt) of
power if approved.
Rob Hastings, Director of the Marine
Estate at the Crown Estate, said that the
deals were good news for Scotland. He
added, ‘We very much look forward to
working with the companies on the
development of these sites and the
realization of the enormous potential
that these sites have to ofer.’
Jason Ormiston, chief executive
of Scottish Renewables, said, ‘Today
heralds an exciting phase in the
progress of the renewable energy
industry in Scotland. The combined
capacity of these projects will make
a massive contribution to Scotland’s
eforts in tacking climate change,
helping to deliver reliable and
afordable supplies of electricity to
consumers and, very importantly, the
Scottish economy.’First Minister Alex
Salmond said that the windfarms would
boost the government’s green energy
ambitions. He said, ‘Scotland has a
fantastic competitive advantage in
developing ofshore renewables—with
up to 25% of Europe’s ofshore wind,
wave, and tidal energy potential, and a
world-class scientifc capacity and skills
base. The Scottish government has
set targets to meet 50% of electricity
demand from renewables by 2020.
BBC
USTDA to promote renewable
energy in MENA
I
n a bid to improve the energy
scenario in MENA (Middle East and
North African) region, the USTDA
(United States Trade and Development
Agency) has decided to sponsor
‘MENA Power–2010’ in Egypt during
24–26 May 2010.
The forum will take place with a
view to highlight the US president’s
commitment of supporting growth
in the MENA by deploying new
and innovative renewable energy
technologies. It is slated to match
policymakers and project sponsors from
Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon,
Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey, the
West Bank, and Yemen with US-based
technology and fnancing options to
help meet the region’s growing energy
needs. It will promote long-term
strategic and commercial relationships
between the Middle East, North Africa,
and the US power industry.
‘We look forward to bringing
together key power sector stakeholders
and technology providers from
the region and the US to facilitate
ongoing collaboration,’ said Leocadia
I Zak, USTDA’s Acting Director. ‘While
these opportunities are good for the
environment, they also create jobs
and spur growth and development,’
said Zak.
11
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010
international news
The two-and-a-half-day conference
agenda will focus on sector development,
policy issues, and fnancing options,
as well as project opportunities in
areas such as gas-fred combined
cycle, cogeneration, solar, wind, hydro,
biomass, integrated desalination/
power, rural electrifcation, transmission
and distribution upgrades, smart grid,
and regional interconnections.
WWW.COMMODITYONLINE.COM
100% renewable energy for
Australia by 2020?
A
ustralia currently has a target
of 20% of the electricity supply
to come from renewable energy
sources by 2020. Beyond Zero
Emissions, a climate change solutions
research group, recently released
details of its ZCA2020 (Zero Carbon
Australia 2020 Project). The project
is a costed, with detailed blueprint
for a transition to 100% renewable
energy in 10 years using proven,
commercialized technology.
Australia has the best solar
resource of any developed country and
considerable wind energy resources.
Baseload solar power is now a reality.
While solar electricity was previously
limited to when the sun was shining,
solar thermal systems now operate
24 hours a day, thanks to cheap energy
storage methods utilizing molten salt.
The group says that 60% of
the electricity supplied by a 100%
renewable stationary energy sector
could be provided by concentrating
solar thermal with molten salt heat
storage and 40% by wind power.
Rooftop solar power systems could
also produce electricity during sunny
periods, and hydroelectricity and
crop residual biomass would provide
back-up energy when needed.
The ZCA2020 Stationary
Energy Sector Report states that
AU$35–40 billion per year investment
would be required over a 10 year
period in order for Australia to turn to
a 100% renewable stationary energy
sector. The investment required for
ZCA2020 implementation over the
10 years would be 3%–3.5% of the
GDP (gross domestic product).
WWW.ENERGYMATTERS.COM.AU
Obama’s biofuels boost
E
PA fnalizes rule to implement
renewable fuels standard of
36 billion gallons by 2022
Recently, US (United States)
President Barack Obama announced a
series of steps that his administration
is taking as part of its comprehensive
strategy to enhance American energy
independence, while building a
foundation for a new clean energy
economy, and its promise of new
industries and millions of jobs. At a
meeting with a bipartisan group of
governors from around the country, the
President laid out three measures that
will work in concert to boost biofuel
production and reduce our dangerous
dependence on foreign oil.
First, the EPA (Environmental
Protection Agency) has fnalized a rule
to implement the long-term renewable
fuels standard of 36 billion gallons by
2022 established by Congress.
The Renewable Fuels Standard
requires biofuel production to grow
from last year’s 11.1 billion gallons to
36 billion gallons in 2022, with 21 billion
gallons to come from advanced biofuels.
According to the administration,
increasing the use of renewable fuels
will reduce the dependence on oil by
more than 328 million barrels a year
and reduce greenhouse gas emissions
more than 138 million metric tonnes a
year when fully phased in by 2022. For
the frst time, some renewable fuels
must achieve greenhouse gas emission
reductions – compared to the gasoline
and diesel fuels they displace – in order
to be counted towards compliance
with volume standards.
Second, the US Department of
Agriculture has proposed a rule on
the BCAP (Biomass Crop Assistance
Program) that would provide fnancing
to increase the conversion of biomass
to bioenergy. The President’s Biofuels
Interagency Working Group released
its frst report, Growing America’s
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
12 FEBRUARY 2010
13
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010
Inviting advertisements for Akshay Urja
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Tel. +91 11 2436 3035 or 2436 0707 • Fax +91 11 2436 3035 or 2436 1298 • E-mail aktripathi@nic.in
Fuel, authored by group co-chairs,
Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack,
Secretary of Energy Steven Chu, and
EPA Administrator Lisa P Jackson. The
report lays out a strategy to advance the
development and commercialization of
a sustainable biofuels industry to meet
or exceed the nation’s biofuels targets.
Third, President Obama announced
a Presidential Memorandum creating
an Interagency Task Force on Carbon
Capture and Storage to develop a
comprehensive and coordinated federal
strategy to speed the development and
deployment of clean coal technologies.
The President calls for fve to
10 commercial demonstration projects
to be up and running by 2016.
WWW.CSPNET.COM
‘Hydrogen Highway’ in South
Wales to promote renewable fuel
C
onservation of non-renewable
source of energy and saving the
environment has become one of the
greatest concerns for all countries.
As per the reports, the government
of United Kingdom has made a
signifcant efort to boost the
use of alternative fuel. Peter
Hain, Welsh Secretary, recently
said that they have planned to
introduce hydrogen route in
South Wales.
According to the reports, M4
route of South Wales will start to
operate as ‘hydrogen highway’
for encouraging the news of
alternating fuel. The authorities
have planned to locate
refuelling stations in diferent
points of the highway so that
people do not have to face any
inconvenience for flling their
cars with the alternative fuel.
It has been reported that
the aim behind this efort is to
increase the use of electric- and
hydrogen-powered vehicles.
Peter Hain, after announcing
the decision to open ‘hydrogen
highway’, said that the less number of
replenishing stations has been one of
the major obstacles in the development
of renewable fuel. To overcome the
obstacles, their future aim would be to
establish a link between replenishing
points with London and Swindon. It has
also been reported that the authorities
are considering an extension till Midlands.
By 2015, the highway is expected to
have complete infrastructure for running
environment-friendly cars.
THAINDIAN
international news
S
andia National Laboratories
is a multi-programme
laboratory operated by
Sandia Corporation, a wholly
owned subsidiary of Lockheed
Martin, for the United States DOE’s
(Department of Energy) National
Nuclear Security Administration.
And its scientists have developed
tiny PV (photovoltaic) cells that
may revolutionize the way solar
energy is collected and used.
The cells can turn a person into
a walking solar battery charger
if they are fastened to fexible
substrates moulded around
unusual shapes, such as clothing.
The solar particles, fabricated of
crystalline silicon, may have a variety of
applications. They are expected to be
eventually less expensive and have greater
efciencies than current PV collectors that
are pieced together with 6-inch square
solar wafers. The cells are fabricated using
MEMS (microelectronic and microelectro-
mechanical systems) techniques common
to today’s electronic foundries.
Sandia lead investigator Greg Nielson
said that the research team has identifed
more than 20 benefts-of-scale for its
microphotovoltaic cells, including new
applications, improved performance,
potential for reduced costs, and higher
efciencies. ‘Eventually, units could be
mass-produced and wrapped around
unusual shapes for building-integrated
solar tents and maybe even clothing,’
he said. This would make it possible for
hunters, hikers, and military personnel
in the feld to recharge batteries for
electronic devices. In addition, such
microengineered panels could have
circuits imprinted that would help perform
other functions customarily left to large-
scale construction. According to Vipin
Gupta, Sandia feld engineer, ‘PV modules
made from these microsized cells for the
rooftops of homes and warehouses could
have intelligent controls, inverters, and
even storage built in at the chip level.
GLITTER-SIZED SOLAR PV MAY REVOLUTIONIZE THE WAY SOLAR
ENERGY IS COLLECTED AND USED
RE tech update
may turn of entirely.’ Because
fexible substrates can be easily
fabricated, high-efciency PV for
ubiquitous solar power becomes
more feasible, said Okandan.
Each cell is formed on silicon
wafers, etched and then released
inexpensively in hexagonal
shapes, with electrical contacts
prefabricated on each piece,
by borrowing techniques from
integrated circuits and MEMS.
Electricity can presently be
harvested from the cells with
14.9% efciency. Of-the-shelf
commercial modules are 13%–
20% efcient. A widely used
commercial tool, called a pick-
and-place machine, can place up to 130
000 pieces of glitter per hour at electrical
contact points pre-established on the
substrate. Also, the placement takes place
at cooler temperatures, which cuts down
the cost of production.
Solar concentrators – low-cost,
prefabricated, optically efcient
microlens arrays – can be placed directly
over each cell to increase the number
of photons arriving to be converted
into electrons. Due to the small cell size,
cheaper and more efcient short focal
length microlens arrays can be fabricated.
High-voltage output is possible directly
from the modules because of the large
number of cells in the array, reducing
the costs associated with wiring. Other
possible applications for the technology
include satellites and remote sensing.
The project combines the expertise
from Sandia’s Microsystems Center;
Photovoltaics and Grid Integration
Group; the Materials, Devices, and
Energy Technologies Group; and the
National Renewable Energy Lab’s
Concentrating Photovoltaics Group.
The work is supported by DOE’s Solar
Energy Technology Program and Sandia’s
Laboratory Directed Research and
Development programme.
Such an integrated module could greatly
simplify the cumbersome design, bid,
permit, and grid integration process that
our solar technical assistance teams see in
the feld all the time.’ The manufacturing
and installation costs would also be
reduced, as microcells require relatively
little material to form well-controlled and
highly efcient devices.
From 14 to 20 micrometers thick, they
are 10 times thinner than conventional
6-inch-by-6-inch brick-sized cells, yet
perform at about the same efciency. As
per Sandia researcher Murat Okandan,
‘they use 100 times less silicon to generate
the same amount of electricity…Since
they are much smaller and have fewer
mechanical deformations for a given
environment than the conventional cells,
they may also be more reliable over the
long term.’ Moreover, the cells can be
fabricated from commercial wafers of
any size. And if one cell proves defective
in manufacture, the rest still can be
harvested, while if a brick-sized unit goes
bad, the entire wafer may be unusable.
‘The shade tolerance of our units
to overhead obstructions is better than
conventional PV panels,’ said Nielson,
‘because portions of our units not in shade
will keep sending out electricity where
a partially shaded conventional panel
Representative thin crystalline-silicon PV cells that are
14–20 micrometres thick and 0.25–1 millimetre across. (Image by
Murat Okandan)
SOURCE: SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
14 FEBRUARY 2010
feature article
T
he NAPCC points out, ‘India
is a tropical country, where
sunshine is available for
longer hours per day and
in great intensity. Solar
energy, therefore, has great potential
as future energy source. It also has
the advantage of permitting the
decentralized distribution of energy,
thereby empowering people at the
TOWARDS BUILDING SOLAR INDIA
J AWAHARLAL
NEHRU NATIONAL
SOLAR MISSION
grassroots level’. Based on this vision, a
national solar mission is being launched
under the brand name ‘Solar India’.
The JNNSM (Jawaharlal Nehru
National Solar Mission) is a major
initiative of the Government of India
and state governments to promote
ecologically sustainable growth, while
addressing India’s energy security
challenge. It will also constitute a
major contribution by India to the
global efort to meet the challenges of
climate change.
OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS
The objective of the JNNSM is to
establish India as a global leader in
solar energy by creating the policy
conditions for its difusion across the
country as quickly as possible. The
‘Our vision is to make India’s economic development energy-efcient.
Over a period of time, we must pioneer a graduated shift from
economic activity based on fossil fuels to one based on non-fossil fuels
and from reliance on non-renewable and depleting sources of energy
to renewable sources of energy. In this strategy, the Sun occupies
the centre stage, as it should, being literally the original source of all
energy. We will pool our scientifc, technical, and managerial talents,
with sufcient fnancial resources, to develop solar energy as a source
of abundant energy to power our economy and to transform the lives
of our people. Our success in this endeavour will change the face
of India. It would also enable India to help change the destinies of
people around the world.’
—Dr Manmohan Singh, Hon’ble Prime Minister of India, during the launch of India’s
NAPCC (National Action Plan on Climate Change) on 30 June 2008
15
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
16 FEBRUARY 2010
feature article
Mission will adopt a 3-phase approach.
P Phase 1: the remaining period of
the Eleventh Five-year Plan and the
frst year of the Twelfth Five-year
Plan (2012/13)
P Phase 2: the remaining period of
the Twelfth Five-year Plan (2013–17)
P Phase 3: the Thirteenth Five-year
Plan (2017–22)
At the end of each plan and mid-term
during the Twelfth and Thirteenth
Plans, there will be an evaluation of
progress – review of capacity and
targets for subsequent phases – based
on the emerging cost and technology
trends, both domestic and global.
The immediate aim of the Mission
is to focus on setting up an enabling
environment for solar technology
penetration in the country, both
at centralized and decentralized
levels. The frst phase will focus on
capturing the low-hanging options in
solar thermal; on promoting of-grid
systems to serve populations without
access to commercial energy; and
modest capacity addition in grid-based
systems. In the second phase, capacity
will be aggressively ramped up to
create conditions for upscaled and
competitive solar energy penetration
in the country. The Mission targets:
P To create an enabling policy
framework for the deployment of
20 000 MW of solar power by 2022.
P To ramp up capacity of grid-
connected solar power generation
to 1000 MW by 2013; an additional
3000 MW by 2017 through
the mandatory use of the RPO
(renewable purchase obligation) by
utilities backed with a preferential
tarif. This capacity can be more
than doubled – reaching 10 000MW
installed power by 2017 or more
– based on the enhanced and
enabled international fnance and
technology transfer.
P To create favourable conditions
for solar manufacturing capability,
particularly solar thermal, for
indigenous production and market
leadership.
P To promote programmes for of-
grid applications, reaching 1000
MW by 2017 and 2000 MW by 2022.
P To achieve 15 million sq m solar
thermal collector area by 2017 and
20 million by 2022.
P To deploy 20 million solar lighting
systems for rural areas by 2022.
MISSION STRATEGY (PHASE I
AND II)
The frst phase will announce a broad
policy framework to achieve the
objectives of the JNNSM by 2022.
This will create the necessary
environment to attract industry
and project developers to invest in
research and domestic manufacturing
and development of solar power
generation, creating the critical mass
for a domestic solar industry. The
Mission will work closely with state
governments, regulators, power
utilities, and local self-government
bodies to ensure that the activities
and policy framework being laid
out can be implemented efectively.
Since some state governments have
already announced initiatives on solar,
the Mission will draw up a suitable
transition framework to enable an early
and aggressive start up.

A. Utility connected applications:
constructing the solar grid
The key driver for promoting solar
power would be through a RPO
mandated for power utilities, with a
specifc solar component. This will
drive utility-scale power generation,
whether solar PV (photovoltaic) or solar
thermal. The Solar Purchase Obligation
will be gradually increased, while the
tarif fxed for solar power purchase will
decline over time.
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B. The below 80
0
C challenge—
solar collectors
In its frst two phases, the Mission
will promote solar heating systems,
which are already using proven
technology and are commercially
viable. The Mission is setting an
ambitious target for ensuring that
applications, domestic, and industrial,
below 80 °C are solarised. The key
strategy of the Mission will be to make
necessary policy changes to meet
this objective:
P Make solar heaters mandatory,
through building byelaws and
incorporation in the National
Building Code
P Ensure the introduction of efective
mechanisms for certifcation and
rating of manufacturers of solar
thermal applications
P Facilitate measurement and
promotion of these individual
devices through local agencies and
power utilities
P Support the upgrading of
technologies and manufacturing
capacities through soft loans to
achieve higher efciencies and
further cost reduction
C. The off-grid opportunity—
lighting homes of the power-
deprived poor
A key opportunity for solar power lies in
decentralized and of-grid applications.
The Mission plans to:
P Provide solar lighting systems
under the ongoing remote village
electrifcation programme of
the MNRE (Ministry of New and
Renewable Energy) to cover about
10 000 villages and hamlets. The use
of solar lights for lighting purposes
would be promoted in settlements
without access to grid electricity,
and since most of these settlements
are remote tribal settlements,
90% subsidy is provided. For other
villages which are connected to
grid, solar lights would be promoted
through market mode by enabling
banks to ofer low cost credit.
P Set up standalone rural solar power
plants in special category states
and remote and difcult areas such
as Lakshadweep, Andaman and
Nicobar Islands, and Ladakh. Border
areas would also be included.
P Encourage the promotion of
other of-grid solar applications,
including hybrid systems to meet
power, heating, and cooling
energy requirements.
The Mission would consider
up to 30% capital subsidy (which
would progressively decline over
time) for promoting such innovative
applications of solar energy and would
structure a non-distorting framework to
support entrepreneurship, up-scaling,
and innovation.
The government will provide
budgetary support for a soft refnance
facility, which would be provided
through IREDA (Indian Renewable Energy
Development Agency). IREDA would, in
turn, provide refnance to NBFCs (non-
banking fnancial companies) and banks,
with the condition that it is on-lend to the
consumer at rates of interest not more
than 5%. The Mission would provide an
annual tranche for the purpose, which
would be used to refnance operations
for a period of 10 years, at the end of
which, the funds shall stand transferred
to IREDA as capital and revenue grants
for on-lending to future renewable
energy projects.
D. Manufacturing capabilities:
innovate, expand, and disseminate
Transforming India into a solar energy
hub would include a leadership
role in low-cost, high quality solar
manufacturing, including balance
of system components. Proactive
implementation of SIP (Special
Incentive Package) policy, to promote
PV manufacturing plants, including
domestic manufacture of silicon
material, would be necessary.
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An incentive package, similar to SIPS,
could be considered for setting up
manufacturing plants for solar thermal
systems/devices and components. The
SME (small and medium enterprise)
sector, which forms the backbone for
manufacture of various components
and systems for solar systems, would
be supported through soft loans for
expansion of facilities, technology
upgradation, and working capital.
IREDA would provide this support
through refnance operations.
E. R&D for Solar India: creating
conditions for research and
application
A major R&D (research and
development) initiative would be taken
up to focus on:
P improving efciencies in existing
materials, devices, and applications
and reducing costs of balance
of systems, establishing new
applications by addressing
issues related to integration
and optimization
P developing cost-efective storage
technologies to address both
variability and storage constraints,
and targetting space-intensity
through the use of better
concentrators, application of
nanotechnology, and use of better
and improved materials. The
Mission will be technology neutral,
allowing technological innovation
and market conditions to determine
technology winners.

A Solar Research Council will be
set up to oversee the strategy, taking
into account the ongoing projects,
availability of research capabilities,
and resources and possibilities of
international collaboration.
An ambitious human resource
development programme will be
established to support an expanding
and large-scale solar energy
programme, both for applied and R&D
sectors. In Phase I, at least 1000 young
scientists and engineers would be
incentivized to get trained on diferent
solar energy technologies as a part of
the Mission’s long-term R&D and HRD
(human resource development) plans.
Pilot demonstration projects
would be closely aligned with the
Mission’s R&D priorities and designed
to promote technology development
and cost reduction. The Mission,
therefore, envisages the setting up of
the following demonstration projects
in Phase I, in addition to those already
initiated by MNRE and those, which
may be set up by corporate investors:
1. 50–100 MW solar thermal plant
with 4–6 hours’ storage (which can
meet both morning and evening
peak loads and double plant load
factor up to 40%).
2. A 100-MW-capacity parabolic
trough technology-based solar
thermal plant.
3. A 100–150 MW solar hybrid plant
with coal, gas, or biomass to address
variability and space constraints.
4. 20–50 MW solar plants with/
without storage, based on central
receiver technology with molten
salt/steam as the working fuid and
other emerging technologies.
5. Grid-connected rooftop PV systems
on selected government buildings
and installations, with net metering.
6. Solar-based space-cooling and
refrigeration systems to meet
daytime and summer season peak
load. These could be installed on
selected government buildings
and installations.
PROPOSED ROADMAP
The aspiration is to ensure large-
scale deployment of solar-generated
power for grid-connected as well
as distributed and decentralized
of-grid provision of commercial energy
services. The deployment across the
application segments is envisaged
as follows:
POLICY AND REGULATORY
FRAMEWORK
The objective of the Mission is to create
a policy and regulatory environment
which provides a predictable incentive
structure that enables rapid and
large-scale capital investment in solar
energy applications and encourages
technical innovation and lowering
of costs.
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Although in the long run, the Mission
would seek to establish a sector-
specifc legal and regulatory framework
for the development of solar power,
in the shorter time frame, it would be
necessary to embed the activities of the
Mission within the existing framework
of the Electricity Act 2003.
P Specifc amendments would
be made to the Electricity Act
2003, given the magnitude and
importance of the activities under
the JNNSM.
P The National Tarif Policy 2006
would be modifed to mandate
that the state electricity regulators
fx a percentage for purchase of
solar power. The obligation may
start with 0.25% in phase I and go
up to 3% by 2022. This could be
complemented with a solar specifc
REC (Renewable Energy Certifcate)
mechanism to allow utilities and
solar power generation companies
to buy and sell certifcates
to meet their solar power
purchase obligations.
P The guidelines for fxing feed-in-
tarif for purchasing solar power
issued by the CERC (Central
Electricity Regulatory Commission)
will be revised on an annual basis.
In order to enable the early launch
of Solar India and encourage rapid
scale up, a scheme is being introduced
in cooperation with the Ministry of
Power, the NTPC (National Thermal
Power Corporation Ltd), and the Central
Electricity Authority, which would
simplify the of-take of solar power
and minimize the fnancial burden on
the government.
Solar power will be bundled with
power out of the cheaper unallocated
quota of central stations and sold to
state distribution utilities at the CERC-
regulated price. This will bring down
the gap between the average cost
and the sale price of power. For the
purpose of bundling, power has to be
purchased by an entity and re-sold to
the state power distribution utilities.
Such function can be done only by
trading companies/Discoms, as per the
existing statutory provisions.
The NTPC has a wholly owned
subsidiary company engaged in
the business of trading of power—
NVVN (NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam
Ltd). NVVN will be designated as the
nodal agency by the MoP (Ministry of
Power) for entering into a PPA (Power
Purchase Agreement) with solar power
developers to purchase solar power fed
to 33 KV and above grid, in accordance
with the tarif and PPA duration as fxed
by the CERC. The MoP shall allocate
to NVVN the equivalent megawatt
capacity from the Central unallocated
quota from the NTPC power stations,
at the rate notifed by the CERC for
bundling together with solar power.
NVVN will undertake the sale of the
bundled power to state utilities at
the rates determined as per the CERC
regulations. The above arrangement
would be subject to review by the
government in case of signifcant price
movement in the market. The above
arrangement will be limited to utility-
scale solar power generated from
a maximum anticipated capacity of
1000 MW in the frst phase. When
NVVN supplies the bundled power to
state utilities at the rates determined
as per the CERC regulations, the state
utilities will be entitled to use the solar
part of the bundled power to meet their
RPOs under the Electricity Act 2003. The
CERC may issue appropriate guidelines
in this regard. At the end of Phase I,
well-performing utilities with proven
fnancial credentials and demonstrated
willingness to absorb solar power shall
be included in the scheme, in case it is
decided to extend it into Phase II.
The requirement of phased
indigenization would be specifed while
seeking the development of solar power
projects under this scheme. The size of
each project would be determined,
and the tarif and tax regime for key
components and segments would be
suitably fne tuned.
The Mission will encourage rooftop
solar PV and other small solar power
plants, connected to LT/11 KV grid. It is
envisaged that distribution utility will
pay the tarif determined by the State
Table 1 JNNSM TARGETS
Application segment Target for Phase 1 Target for Phase 2 Target for Phase 3
(2010–13) (2013–17) (2017–22)
Solar collectors 7 million sq m 15 million sq m 20 million sq m
Off-grid solar 200 MW 1000 MW 2000 MW
applications
Utility grid power, 1000–2000 MW 4000–10 000 MW 20 000 MW
including rooftop
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
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Electricity Regulatory Commission for
the metered electricity generated from
such applications (whether consumed
by the grid-connected owner of the
rooftop/ground-mounted installation
or fed into the grid). A normative
Generation Based Incentive will be
payable to the utility, which would be
derived as the diference between the
solar tarif determined by the CERC
for the concerned solar generation
technology less an assumed base
price of Rs 5.50/kWh with 3% annual
escalation. Funds will be disbursed
through IREDA. The distribution
utilities will be entitled to account such
electricity generated and consumed
within their license areas for the
fulfllment of RPOs. The metering and
billing arrangements between the
utility and the rooftop PV operator will
be as per the guidelines/regulations of
the appropriate commission.
State governments would also
be encouraged to promote and
establish solar generation parks with
dedicated infrastructure for setting up
utility-scale plants to ensure ease of
capacity creation.
Fiscal incentives
It is also recommended that custom
duties and excise duties concessions/
exemptions be made available on
specifc capital equipment, critical
materials, components, and project
imports.
SOLAR MANUFACTURING IN
INDIA
One of the Mission objectives is to
take a global leadership role in solar
manufacturing (across the value chain)
of leading-edge solar technologies and
target a 4–5 GW equivalent of installed
capacity by 2020, including the setting
up of dedicated manufacturing
capacities for poly silicon material to
annually make about 2 GW capacity
of solar cells. As there is no indigenous
capacity/capability for solar thermal
power projects currently, new facilities
will be required to manufacture
concentrator collectors, receivers,
and other components to meet the
demand for solar thermal power plants.
To achieve the installed capacity target,
the JNNSM recommends the following:
P Local demand creation: The 20 GW
plan, supported with right level
of incentives for solar generation
coupled with large government
pilot/demonstration programmes,
will make the Indian market
attractive for solar manufacturers.
P Financing and incentives: SEZ
• Incentives under SIP policy to
set up integrated manufacturing
plants (i) from poly silicon
material to solar modules and
(ii) thin flm-based module
manufacturing plants. Under the
SIP scheme of the Department of
Information Technology, there
are 15 applications in the domain
of solar PV, which includes cell
manufacturing (both crystalline
and thin flm) and poly-silicon
manufacturing among others.
The combined capacity projected
by these 15 companies could
result in the production of 8–10
(special economic zones) like
incentives to be provided to
the manufacturing parks which
may include:
• Zero import duty on capital
equipment and raw materials,
and excise duty exemption
• Low interest rate loans, priority
sector lending
GW solar power by 2022, which
would be sufcient for meeting
the Mission targets even after
accounting for exports.
• It is also recommended that solar
components be covered under
the Bureau of Energy Efciency’s
star rating programme to ensure
high standards.
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Similar incentives will be required for
manufacturing CSP (concentrated solar
power) systems and their components.
A committee may be set up to formulate
a policy for promoting solar thermal
manufacture in the country.
P Ease of doing business: In consultation
with states, create a single window
clearance mechanism for all
related permissions.
P Infrastructure and ecosystem
enablers: Create 2–3 large solar
manufacturing tech parks
consisting of manufacturing units
(across the solar value chain),
housing, ofces, and research
institutes. These will have 24×7
power and water supplies and will
need to be located near large urban
centres, with good linkages to ports
and airports to ensure rapid access
to imported raw materials and high
quality engineering talent.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
This Mission will launch a major R&D
programme in solar energy, which
will focus on improving efciency in
existing applications, reducing costs
of Balance of Systems, testing hybrid
co-generation, and addressing
constraints of variability, space-
intensity, and lack of convenient
and cost-efective storage. The
R&D strategy would deal with fve
categories—i) basic research with long-
term perspective for the development
of innovative and new materials,
processes, and applications; ii) applied
research aimed at improvement of the
existing processes, materials, and the
technology for enhanced performance,
durability, and cost-competitiveness
of the systems/devices; iii) technology
validation and demonstration
projects aimed at feld evaluation of
diferent confgurations, including
hybrids with conventional power
systems for obtaining feedback on the
performance, operability, and costs; iv)
development of R&D infrastructure in
PPP (public-private partnership) model;
and v) support for incubation and start
ups. To support the R&D strategy, the
Mission may include the following:
P Setting up a high-level research
council to review and update
the technology roadmap to
achieve more rapid technological
innovation and cost reduction.
It would comprise of eminent
scientists, technical experts, and
representatives from academic
and research institutions, industry,
government, and the civil society to
guide the technology development
strategy. The council may invite
eminent international experts in
the feld to support its work.
P A NCE (National Centre of
Excellence) shall be established
to implement the technology
development plan formulated by
the research council and serve as
its secretariat. It will coordinate
the work of various R&D centres,
validate research outcomes, and
serve as an apex centre for testing
and certifcation and for developing
standards and specifcations for
the solar industry. It is envisaged
that the Solar Energy Centre of the
MNRE will become part of the NCE.
P The research council, in coordination
with the NCE, inventorize existing
institutional capabilities for solar
R&D and encourage the setting
up of a network of Centres of
Excellence, each focusing on an
R&D area of its proven competence
and capability.
P The NCE will provide a national
platform for networking among
centers of excellence and research
institutions, including foreign R&D
institutions and high-tech companies.
P The NCE will serve as the funding
agency to support performance-
linked solar R&D programmes. This
will include funding, or co-funding,
of pilot demonstration projects in
areas relevant to Mission objectives.
Funding will need to be adequate,
predictable, and should typically
cover a time frame extending from
5–10 years.
P The NCE will be the main interface
with international research
institutions, research groups from
foreign countries, high-tech start-
up companies, and multilateral
programmes (such as those
which may emerge from current
negotiations under the United
Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change). It will
encourage joint projects between
international partners and Indian
centres of excellence, with sharing
of IPR (intellectual property right),
as also encourage the setting up
of R&D bases in India by advanced
high-tech companies from abroad.
P The NCE will coordinate with
the IMD (Indian Meteorological
Department), ISRO (Indian Space
Research Organization), and other
concerned agencies for the detailed
mapping of ground insulation,
particularly in high potential solar
regions of the country.
P In drawing up the Solar Technology
Development Plan, the research
council will review ongoing and
proposed R&D initiatives of the
MNRE, the Department of Science
and Technology, the Ministry of
Earth Sciences, and other agencies
and institutions, and incorporate
them, as appropriate, in its plan.
The Mission could tie up
with institutions like CIIE (Centre
for Innovation, Incubation, and
Entrepreneurship) based in IIM (Indian
Institute of Management) Ahmedabad
to incubate solar energy start-ups
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feature article
and SMEs in India through mentoring,
networking, and fnancial support.
A fund could be established to aim
at supporting at least 50 start-ups
developing and deploying solar-related
technologies across India over the next
fve years and would be managed by a
professional entity. The initiative shall
be structured ideally in a PPP model
to be able to provide risky capital to
the aspiring entrepreneurs. It would
also attract contributions from private
stakeholders, amounting to, at least 10%
of that of the government. The returns
generated on the government support
to the fund shall be ploughed back for
further promoting incubation activities
in this space. The Mission would also
explore the possibility of collaborating
with the CSIR (Council of Scientifc and
Industrial Research) to launch an Open
Source Solar Development initiative on
similar lines as the Open Source Drug
Discovery platform of the CSIR.
HUMAN RESOURCE
DEVELOPMENT
The rapid and large-scale difusion of
solar energy will require a concomitant
increase in technically qualifed
manpower of international standard. It
is envisaged that at the end of Mission
period, the solar industry will employ
at least 100 000 trained and specialized
personnel across the skill spectrum.
The following steps may be required
for HRD:
P IITs (Indian Institute of Technology)
and premier engineering colleges
will be involved to design and
develop specialized courses in solar
energy, with fnancial assistance
from the government. In addition,
a countrywide training programme
and specialized courses for
technicians will be taken up to
meet the requirement of skilled
manpower for feld installations
and after sales service network. The
Directorate General of Education
and Training under the Ministry
of Labour has agreed to introduce
training modules for course
materials for the technicians.
P A government fellowship programme
to train 100 selected engineers/
technologies and scientists in solar
energy in world-class institutions
abroad will be taken up. This may
need to be sustained at progressively
declining levels for 10 years.
P A National Centre for Photovoltaic
Research and Education at IIT,
Mumbai, will be set up, drawing
upon its Department of Energy
Science and Engineering and
its Centre for Excellence in
Nano-electronics.
INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
FOR IMPLEMENTING THE
MISSION
This Mission will be implemented by
an autonomous solar energy authority
and/or an autonomous and enabled
Solar Mission, embedded within
the existing structure of the MNRE.
The authority/mission secretariat
will be responsible for monitoring
technology developments, review and
adjust incentives, manage funding
requirements, and execute pilot
projects. The Mission will report to the
Prime Minister’s Council on Climate
Change on the status of its programme.
INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION
Strategic international collaborations
and partnerships aimed at meeting
the priorities set out under the
Mission would be developed, along
with efective technology transfer
mechanisms and strong IPR protection.
FINANCING THE MISSION
ACTIVITIES
The fund requirements for the Mission
would be met from the following
sources or combinations:
P Budgetary support for the activities
under the JNNSM established under
the MNRE;
P International funds under the
UNFCCC, which would enable
upscaling of Mission targets
The MNRE has already issued draft
guidelines for rooftop PV and other
small solar power plants connected
to distribution network (below 33 kV)
under the JNNSM; for selection of new
grid-connected solar projects under
Phase 1 of the JNNSM; and for migration
of existing under-development grid-
connected solar projects from existing
arrangements to the JNNSM.
We hope that the JNNSM is a
great success and helps to provide
power even to the remotest part of
our nation.
For more, visit the MNRE website
(www.mnre.gov.in).
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feature article
O
n 11 January 2010, the
MNRE (Ministry of New
and Renewable Energy),
along with FICCI
(Federation of Indian
Chambers of Commerce and Industry),
organized the ‘Solar Energy Conclave
2010’ at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi.
The conclave provided a common
platform to share the experiences of
various stakeholders, including that
of the NRIs (non-resident Indians), in
promoting solar energy in India and
making the JNNSM (Jawaharlal Nehru
National Solar Mission) targets a reality.
The one-day conclave was attended
by speakers and icons from central
and state governments, experts from
academia and research institutions,
key industry representatives, NRIs, and
other related organizations.
With the launch of JNNSM, India is
set to harness its huge solar potential.
The event showcased the opportunities
and the potential of solar energy
development in the country. It provided
a common ground for NRIs and Indian
stakeholders to join hands to make
the JNNSM a success and facilitate
further expansion.
The words of Dr Manmohan
Singh, Prime Minister of India
‘I am very happy to be here today to
launch the highly innovative JNNSM
under the brand name ‘Solar India’. This
national solar mission has the pride of
place in India’s National Action Plan
on Climate Change. Its success has the
Solar
energy conclave
Dr Manmohan Singh, Hon’ble Prime Minister of India; Jairam Ramesh, Union Minister of
Environment and Forests; Dr Farooq Abdullah, Union Minister of New and Renewable
Energy, and other dignitaries during the Solar Energy Conclave.
potential of transforming India’s energy
prospects and contributing to national
as well as global eforts to combat
climate change. This Mission is one of
the major priorities of the second term
of our government and I congratulate
Dr Abdullah and my other colleagues,
particularly Shri Shyam Saran, for the
work they have done in bringing this
to fruition.
Increased use of solar energy is
a central component of our strategy
to bring about a strategic shift from
our current reliance on fossil fuels to a
pattern of sustainable growth based on
renewable and clean sources of energy.
I sincerely hope that this solar mission
will also establish India as a global
leader in solar energy, not just in terms
of solar power generation but also in
solar manufacturing and generation of
this technology.
The importance of this Mission is not
just limited to providing large-scale grid-
connected power. It has the potential
to provide signifcant multipliers in our
eforts for transformation of India’s rural
economy. Already, in its decentralized
and distributed applications, solar
energy is beginning to light the lives
of tens of millions of India’s energy-
poor citizens. The rapid spread of solar
lighting systems, solar water pumps,
and other solar power-based rural
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
24 FEBRUARY 2010
applications can change the face of
India’s rural economy. We intend to
signifcantly expand such applications
through this Mission. As a result, the
movement for decentralized and
disbursed industrialization will acquire
an added momentum, a momentum
which has not been seen before.
The target of 20 000 MW (megawatt)
of solar-generating capacity by the
end of the Thirteenth Five-year Plan
is no doubt an ambitious target. But
I do sincerely believe that the target is
doable and that we should work single-
mindedly to achieve it as a priority
national endeavour.
The carefully crafted regulatory
and incentive framework that has been
unveiled today has several innovative
features. We expect that it will lead to
a rapid scale up of capacity. This will
encourage technological innovation
and generate economies of scale,
thereby leading to a steady lowering
of costs. Once parity with conventional
power tarif is achieved, there will be no
technological or economic constraint
to the rapid and large-scale expansion
of solar power thereafter.
Clearly, technological innovation
will be a key factor in ensuring the
success of this Mission. We will need to
fnd ways of reducing the space intensity
of current solar applications, including
through the use of nanotechnology.
Cost-efective and convenient storage
of solar energy beyond daylight hours
will be critical to its emergence as a
mainstream source of power. In the
meantime, we may need to explore
hybrid solutions, combining solar
power generation with gas, biomass, or
even coal-based power.
It was the vision of Prime Minister
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru that enabled
India to create world-class scientifc
and technological capacities in the
feld of atomic energy and space
sector. It is these strengths in science
and technology that eventually have
created the IT (information technology)
revolution in India and made it a global
power. I am convinced that solar
energy can also be the next scientifc
and technological frontier in India after
atomic energy, space, and IT.
There exists in our country immense
talent and research capabilities already
engaged in the solar energy feld, both
in the private and public sectors. It is
clear that a large number of ministries
and authorities will have to work in
tandem if we are to make a success
of this important Mission. The Solar
Mission should evolve as a single
national platform for coordination
among our scientifc, industrial,
and regulatory establishments in a
synergetic manner.
feature article
National Solar
Mission’s success
has the potential of
transforming India’s
energy prospects
and contributing
to national as well
as global eforts
to combat climate
change.
25
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010
I am happy that the Federation
of Indian Chambers of Commerce
and Industry has been associated
with this event. The role of industry in
this Mission’s success will be critical.
Eventually, if the ambitious rollout of the
Mission is to become a living reality, we
will have to create many ‘Solar Valleys’
on the lines of the Silicon Valleys that are
spurring our IT industry across the four
corners of our country. These valleys
will become hubs for solar science,
solar engineering, and solar research,
fabrication, and manufacturing. I urge
the Indian industry to see the National
Solar Mission as the huge business
opportunity that it is going to be.
The Sun has long been recognized
as a primal source of all energy on earth.
In an ancient civilization like India, the
Sun has been worshipped as the God
who bestows life and sustains it. The
bounty of the Sun is truly inexhaustible,
renewable, and free. It is to this source
of energy that humankind must turn
to meet the twin challenge of energy
security and climate change.
With these words, I wish the JNNSM
every success.’
The words of Dr Farooq Abdullah,
Union Minister, MNRE
‘This Mission is named after India’s frst
and visionary Prime Minister, Jawaharlal
Nehru. For him, India’s development
needed to be anchored in its mastery
over cutting-edge technologies. The
Solar Mission is very much in line with
his vision, which has made India today,
a leading nuclear and space power.
He would have been equally keen and
proud to see India attaining the same
level of advancement in solar energy.
I am confdent, that under the
leadership of our Hon’ble Prime
Minister Dr Manmohan Singh, we shall
make India a global solar power as well.
This mission on solar energy is one
of the eight National Missions which
comprise India’s National Action Plan
on Climate Change. It has the twin
objectives of contributing to India’s
long-term energy security and ensuring
its growth in an ecologically sustainable
manner. We are living in a world of
rapidly depleting fossil fuel resources
where access to conventional energy
resources such as oil, gas, and coal is
becoming increasingly constrained.
For the security of our energy needs,
the deployment of renewable energy
sources in our energy mix is imperative.
Also, we cannot be oblivious to climatic
and environmental dangers inherent
in the large-scale use of fossil fuels. In
this context and in view of the high
solar radiation over the country, the
rapid development and deployment
of solar energy applications provides
an efective and sustainable solution.
Sir, your presence on this occasion
demonstrates the commitment of the
Government of India to develop and
adopt clean energy technologies for
the development of modern India.
The long-term policy vision of the
Solar Mission has been put together as
a document, which has been enriched
by stakeholder discussions and inputs.
I would like to thank all my ministerial
colleagues for their valuable inputs
and support, as also Mr Shyam Saran,
Special Envoy of the Prime Minister.
The Solar Mission will be implemented
in three stages, leading to an installed
capacity of 20 000 MW by the end
of the Thirteenth Five-year Plan in
2022. It is envisaged that as a result of
rapid scale up as well as technological
developments, the price of solar power
will continue to decline and attain
parity with grid power at the end of
the Mission, enabling accelerated and
large-scale expansion thereafter.
Quite obviously, in order to set
the stage for achieving this ambitious
target, what we do in the next three to
four years will be critical. Our policies
and programmes in the frst phase of
the Mission will be critical to guide and
decide the future course of action. As
we all know, today, the initial cost of
solar is very high, especially for grid
power generation. We aim to bring
down the cost as quickly as possible.
This will allow us to provide power to
our villages and rural homes. We have
planned three major initiatives under
the National Solar Mission to achieve
feature article
The Solar Mission
will be implemented
in three stages,
leading to an installed
capacity of
20 000 MW by the end
of the Thirteenth
Five-year Plan in 2022.
feature article
this (i) create volumes which will allow
large-scale domestic manufacture,
(ii) announce a long-term policy to
purchase power; and (ii) support
R&D (research and development)
to reduce material consumption
and improve efciency and develop
new materials and storage methods.
The implementation of the Mission
will proceed on the basis of the
technology advancements and cost
reduction, which will be necessary for
rapid scale-up and to achieve the target
of 20 000 MW.
The Mission has decided to establish
an investor-friendly mechanism which
reduces risk and at the same time,
provides an attractive, predictable,
and sufciently extended tarif for the
purchase of solar power. The focal
point, for the next three years, will
be the NVVN (NTPC Vidyut Vyapar
Nigam), which is the power trading
arm of the NTPC (National Thermal
Power Corporation Ltd). The NVVN will
purchase solar power at rates fxed
by the Central Regulatory Electricity
Commission and for a period specifed
by the latter. When the state utilities
purchase solar power from the NVVN,
they will get an equivalent amount of
thermal power from it. The bundling
of more expensive solar power with
cheaper thermal power will enable a
much cheaper tarif for the consumer,
estimated at about Rs 5 or less per unit,
and this will also enable concerned
states to meet their renewable
power purchase obligation, which is
now mandatory.
I wish to record my deep
appreciation and grateful thanks to
my senior Cabinet colleague, Shri
Shinde ji, who as the Minister of Power
has made this arrangement possible.
I am confdent that with the investor-
friendly arrangement put in place for
grid-connected solar power, we should
be able to achieve the ambitious
targets set out by the Solar Mission. I am
happy to inform you, Sir, that we have
already taken the frst steps in this
regard and that 2MW each of solar
power plants have recently been
commissioned at Asansol, West Bengal,
and at Amritsar, Punjab.
There are several of-grid solar
applications which are already
commercially viable or near viability,
where rapid scale up is possible. Solar
thermal heating applications, such as
water heaters, fall in this category. We
can go for a rapid scale up in a short
time, and considerably reduce the
burden on our grid. By 2022, we aim
to install 20 million sq m solar thermal
collectors in the country and save
about 7500 MW power generation
capacity. We are conscious that the
achievement of this target requires
regulatory and incentive measures
as well as an extensive awareness
campaign. We are working together
with fnancial institutions, industry, as
well as user groups to put together the
correct set of incentives that will enable
the achievement of these targets. I
would like to take this opportunity to
request all state governments to aid
this process by taking appropriate
regulatory measures such as making the
use of solar water heaters mandatory
for certain types of consumers.
Solar lighting systems for rural and
remote areas are also being purchased
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
26 FEBRUARY 2010
The bundling of more
expensive solar power
with cheaper thermal
power will enable a
much cheaper tarif
for the consumer, and
enable concerned
states to meet their
renewable power
purchase obligation.
27
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010
feature article
commercially in several parts of the
country. Large-scale use of solar lights
can save substantial quantities of
kerosene and also subsidy. We want
20 million solar lights to be installed
by 2022, which would result in a saving
of about 1 billion litres of kerosene
every year. We are working with banks,
especially rural banks, to ofer soft
loans to consumers for this purpose.
My ministry will help the banks do
this through refnancing or interest
rate subsidy. We are aware that there
are areas in the country such as the
island states and border areas which
are still dependent upon diesel for
power generation. In such areas, we
propose to provide up to 90% support
for setting up solar power plants. In
many other solar applications, where
the initial cost is still very high, we are
considering proposals for providing up
to 30% grant-in-aid.
Sir, I have already mentioned about
R&D being one of the key endeavours
of the Solar Mission to bring down
costs and promote deployment of solar
technologies. In pursuance of this goal,
we in the ministry, have embarked
on a focused R&D programme which
seeks to address the India-specifc
challenges in promoting solar energy.
We are adopting a technology-neutral
approach. Instead of backing a particular
technology, we are trying to address
the current drawbacks in using solar
energy; for instance, the evolving of a
cost-efective and convenient storage
for solar power is high on priority in
our R&D eforts. We shall also work, in
parallel, on accelerating the process
of development of the domestic solar
industry. We believe that economies of
scale, indigenization, and cutting-edge
research shall together lead to the cost
reductions that are necessary for the
rapid scale up and deployment of solar
technologies. I am proud to inform
you sir, that only yesterday, we laid
the foundation stone of three major
research projects, including one in PPP
(Public-Private Partnership) mode in
our Solar Energy Centre at Gurgaon,
near Delhi.
Research and deployment needs
skilled and trained manpower. Under
the Solar Mission, we aim to address
this issue as well. We would involve
various stakeholders in human resource
development and other capacity-
building eforts. As the frst step, we
have decided to ofer fellowships
to research students to work at our
premier research centres and train
them in solar energy technologies.
Sir, in launching the National
Action Plan on Climate Change, you
had given a pride of place to the Solar
Energy Mission. You have a vision of
India emerging as a world leader in
this sector. On our part, we are working
in close coordination with all other
stakeholders, especially the states, to
translate your vision into a practical,
measured, and cost-efective plan of
action. I would like to assure you once
again that we are fully committed to
translate your vision to make solar
energy afordable and to make India a
global solar power.
To sum up
The event highlighted the impact of the
policy framework announced by the
government and provided a platform
for exchange of ideas. The event also
stressed upon the changing solar
technology for both solar photovoltaic
and solar thermal applications, and
the need to take proactive measures
for capacity building in advanced
technologies and mass production of
solar power.
The sessions covered the JNNSM;
solar photovoltaic technology and
applications; solar thermal technology
and applications; investment and
fnancing opportunities in solar
energy; Indian policies, R&D (research
and development); human resource
development; and knowledge sharing.
The event helped to gain a better
understanding of the mutual needs and
strengths. It provided exposure to state-
of-the-art technologies and acted as a
platform for sharing of experience. In
addition, it fuelled technology and R&D
collaborations, and ofered business
and networking opportunities among
the members of the solar community.
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
28 FEBRUARY 2010
feature article
T
he Indian delegation
participating in the
Ministerial Session of WIREC
(Washington International
Renewable Energy
Conference) 2008 announced that the
Government of India will host the 4th
DIREC (Delhi International Renewable
Energy Conference) in 2010. Following
this, necessary steps have been
initiated by the government and the
MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable
Energy) to host the conference from 27
to 29 October 2010 at New Delhi/NCR
(National Capital Region).
DIREC 2010 is part of the initiative
taken at the 2002 World Summit
on Sustainable Development in
Johannesburg, acknowledging the
signifcance of renewable energies
for sustainable development,
especially for combating poverty
and for environmental and climate
protection. The Delhi Conference – an
international platform for government,
private sector, and non-governmental
leaders – is the 4th global ministerial-
level conference on renewable energy,
following the successful editions at
Washington in 2008 (WIREC), Beijing in
2005, and Bonn in 2004.
The DIREC 2010 comprises of
multiple events—a global ministerial-
level meeting; a trade show; a business
conference; and ofcial side events.
DIREC 2010 will bring together the
industry, fnancers, policy-makers,
scientists, decision-makers, buyers, and
sellers in a bid to develop and drive new
initiatives, provide insights, showcase
sustainable product development and
green business opportunities, and
facilitate interaction between entities
from all over the world. This would elicit
practical applications that are most
relevant globally at this juncture.
The international forum will
endeavour to address the goal of
advancing renewable energy for
sustainable development. The cabinet-
level government functionaries from a
number of countries will join the civil
society partners and private sector
leaders to discuss the opportunities
and challenges of rapid deployment
of renewables globally. DIREC 2010
will also provide policymakers from all
levels of government a robust menu of
policy options and practical measures
Delhi international renewable
energy ConferenCe 2010
29
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010
feature article
that have been proven successful in
accelerating the difusion of renewable
energy technologies.
The participants will address and
showcase key drivers of renewable
energy production and applications,
including the following.
P Upscaling global efort for joint R&D
(research and development) and
technology transfer models.
P Innovative fnancing and funding
for mainstreaming renewables.
Addressing trade and investment
barriers for upscaling renewables.
Sustainable renewable energy
business models for grid-integrated/
decentralized applications.
P Policy initiatives that can facilitate
rapid scale-up of adoption
of renewables
DIREC 2010 aims to provide a
platform for technology displays, new
VENUE AND ACCESS
Inaugural Plenary Session
Vigyan Bhawan Auditorium
Maulana Azad Road
New Delhi–110 001
Conference and Exhibition
India Exposition Mart Ltd
Plot No. 25, 27, 28, 29, Knowledge
Park–II, Greater Noida
Uttar Pradesh – 201 308
applications, and innovations; to display
global R&D with respect to climate
change and green environment; to
demonstrate the sectoral strength of
the global renewable energy industry;
and to facilitate: (i) buyers and sellers
matching (ii) one-to-one meetings
for setting up of joint ventures in the
renewable energy sector, and (iii) to
provide an unparalleled opportunity
to connect with the best-in-industry
and benchmark products and
services in order to enhance global
competitiveness. The conference will
ultimately lead to renewed commitment,
with concrete proposals in support of
activities at the country level.
Packed with a full-scale trade show
with press conferences and product
launches; an exciting multi-track
business conference; side/parallel
events/presentati ons/i nteracti ve
sessions, held over three days, on
each of the key technologies (wind,
solar, hydro, ocean, geothermal, and
biomass/biofuels/waste energy); and
cross-cutting sessions on markets,
fnance, and policy, the DIREC 2010 will
build on the success of the previous
conferences with support of national
and international sponsors.
Beside participation in the
conference, side events, sectoral
sessions, and trade show, the event
will provide opportunity for one-
to-one meetings for on-the-spot
discussions/interactions within the
conference premises to entrepreneurs
seeking collaborations, technology
transfers, setting of joint ventures, and
investments. Arrangements for such
meetings shall be made on request from
the concerned parties.
DIREC 2010 will be hosted by the
MNRE in association with partner
organizations and managed by M/S
Exhibitions India Group, New Delhi.
REN21 – the Renewable Energy
Network – will be a key partner in the
conference. With more than 9000
delegates/participants, over 250
industry leading speakers, and 600
exhibitors from 40 countries, the event is
expected to be the premier renewables
gathering ever held in India.
For more information,
visit http://direc2010.gov.in.
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
30 FEBRUARY 2010
feature article
E
nergy is a basic requirement for economic development. Every sector of
the national economy – agriculture, industry, transport, commercial, and
domestic – needs inputs of energy. Thus, consumption of energy in all
forms has been steadily rising all over the country.
In this background, there is urgent need for the country to develop
a sustainable path of energy development. Promotion of energy conservation and
increased use of renewable energy sources are the two best options for the same.
The MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) has been implementing
comprehensive programmes for the development and utilization of various
renewable energy sources in the country. And helping the ministry in this
endeavour is IREDA (Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Ltd), a leading
organization that provides efcient and efective fnancing in renewable energy
and energy efciency/conservation sectors.
IREDA, established in 1987 under the administrative control of the MNRE, aims
to promote, develop, and extend fnancial assistance for renewable energy and
energy efciency/conservation projects. The motto is ‘energy forever’. The agency
gives fnancial support to specifc projects and schemes for generating electricity
and/or energy through new and renewable sources, and conserving energy through
energy efciency. It aims to improve the efciency of services provided to customers
through continual improvement of systems, processes, and resources.
IREDA provides fnancial assistance to several sectors, including solar energy.
It has three main schemes— Solar Photovoltaic Market Development Programme;
Solar Thermal Programme; and Solar Water Pumping Programme.
ENERGY FOREVER
IREDA’S SOLAR
FINANCING SCHEMES
SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC MARKET
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
Schemes applicable
IREDA provides soft loans under the
following categories.
Direct users: Directly approach IREDA to
get loan for SPV (solar photovoltaic) system.
Minimum loan amount is Rs 5 lakh.
Intermediary: Any fnancial institution, bank,
manufacturer, NGO (non-governmental
organization), and the like can become an
intermediary of IREDA for on-lending soft
loan to diferent end users. Minimum loan
amount is Rs 10 lakh.
Incentives available
Accreted depreciation: 80% on the
frst year.
SOLAR THERMAL PROGRAMME
Schemes applicable
IREDA is providing soft loan under two
diferent categories—direct user scheme
and intermediary scheme.
31
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010
Direct user scheme: Directly approach
IREDA to get loan for SPV (solar photovoltaic)
system. Minimum loan amount is Rs 5 lakh.
Intermediary scheme: Any fnancial
institution, bank, solar thermal manufacturer,
corporate body, NBFC (non-banking
fnancial company), state nodal agency,
reputed NGO can become intermediary of
IREDA for on-lending soft loan to diferent
end users for diferent kinds of application.
Minimum loan amount is Rs 10 lakh.
Incentives available
Interest subsidy is available to the
end users for both domestic and
commercial application.
Depreciation: 80% on the frst year.
SOLAR WATER PUMPING
PROGRAMME
Schemes applicable
The programme is open to all categories
of users, including individuals, farmers,
NGOs, cooperative societies, corporate
bodies, autonomous institutions, research
organizations, banks, and state/central
government agencies, subject to the
condition that the benefciaries give an
undertaking to the implementing agency
that they do not own a SPV water pumping
system and the present system would be
utilized for water lifting applications.
Incentives available
Accreted depreciation: 80% on the
frst year.
GUIDELINES FOR GENERATION
BASED INCENTIVE
Grid interactive solar power
generation projects
With a view to develop and demonstrate
technical performance of grid interactive
solar power generation and achieve
reduction in the cost of grid connected
solar systems and solar power generation
in the country, the MNRE will support grid
interactive solar power generation projects
as demonstration projects in the country. The
MNRE will consider support for a maximum
capacity up to 50 MW during the Eleventh
Five-year Plan period. IREDA will assist the
MNRE in fund handling, monitoring, and
other associated activities in this regard.
1. Eligible organizations
All existing registered companies, central
and state power generation companies,
and public/private sector PV power project
developers, who have set up or propose to
set up a registered company in India, will
be eligible for consideration of generation
based incentive. Individuals, NGOs,
fnancial institutions, societies, and other
unorganized investors are not eligible to
participate directly.
2. Eligible projects and eligibility
criteria
P Grid interactive SPV power generation
plants of a minimum installed capacity
of 1 MWp (megawatt-peak) per plant
at a single location will be eligible for
generation based incentive. Modular
units can also be set up for achieving
the same.
P A maximum cumulative capacity
of 10 MWp of grid interactive SPV
power generation projects can be set
up in a state.
P Any project developer who fulfls the
procedural requirements and the
guidelines specifed by the MNRE. The
developer can set up projects up to
a maximum of 5 MWp in the country,
either through a single project or
multiple projects of a minimum capacity
of 1 MWp each.
P The projects will be undertaken on
‘Build Own and Operate’ basis.
P Setting up of captive grid interactive
SPV power plant or captive utilization of
SPV power is not covered.
P Project developer desirous of availing
the accelerated depreciation beneft
for the project under section 32 of
the Income Tax Act 1961 would not
be eligible.
3. Generation based incentives
Wherever the state electricity regulatory
commissions have fxed a separate tarif
for solar power or has fxed tarif during
the period for which the MNRE is providing
incentive, the utilities will ofer a minimum
of that tarif to the SPV grid interactive
power projects in their respective states. In
the absence of such tarif orders, the utilities
will ofer the highest tarif for purchasing
power to the PV power project developers,
which is being ofered by the utilities for
purchasing power in their respective states
on medium term, or the highest tarif being
provided for purchase of power from any
other energy source for which orders/
guidelines are already issued for that state.
The PPA (power purchase agreement)
would draw reference to the State Electricity
Regulatory Commission’s order in this
regard and enclose copies of the same. The
Ministry will not consider proposals that do
not follow these guidelines on PPA.
P The MNRE may provide, through IREDA,
a generation-based incentive of a
maximum of Rs 12 per kWh (kilowatt
hour) to the eligible projects which are
commissioned by 31 December 2009,
after taking into account the power
purchase rate (per kWh) provided by the
State Electricity Regulatory Commission
or the utility for that project.
P The maximum amount of generation
based incentive applicable for a project
will be determined after deducting
the power purchase rate for which the
PPA has been signed by the utility with
a project developer, from a notional
amount of Rs 15 per kWh. In all cases,
the maximum amount of generation-
based incentive shall not exceed Rs 12
per kWh.
P Any project that is commissioned after 31
December 2009 would be eligible for a
maximum incentive with a 5% reduction
and ceiling of Rs 11.40 per kWh.
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
32 FEBRUARY 2010
feature article
P The generation-based incentive will
continue to decrease, as and when the
utility signs a PPA at a higher rate. The
proposed annual escalations agreed
with the utility, as in force, should be
refected in the PPA.
P It may be available for a maximum
period of 10 years from the date of
approval and regular power generation
from that project, provided the utility
continues to purchase power from that
grid interactive PV power plant.
P The incentive will be released by
IREDA to the eligible PV power project
developer on quarterly basis.
4. Progress report
The project developers of all approved
projects will be required to submit annual
progress report about the project and the
annual report of the company, which has
set up and own the grid interactive PV
power plant.
Grid interactive solar thermal
power generation
With a view to develop and demonstrate
technical performance of grid interactive
solar power generation and achieve
reduction in the cost of the grid connected
solar systems and the cost of solar power
generation in the country, the MNRE
will support grid interactive solar power
For further information, application format, details of incentives, and other related guidelines, visit the IREDA website (www.ireda.in) or the
MNRE website (www.mnre.gov.in). Order no.32/61/ 2007-08/PVSE for grid interactive solar power generation projects and 8/1/2007-08/ST for
grid interactive solar thermal power generation.
generation projects as demonstration
projects in the country.
P The MNRE will consider support for a
maximum capacity of 50 MW (including
SPV as well as solar thermal power
generation) during the Eleventh Five-
year Plan period. IREDA will assist the
MNRE in fund handling, monitoring, and
other associated activities in this regard.
P The generation based incentive for solar
thermal power generation project will
be limited to a maximum of Rs 10 per
kWh. The same method to determine
the eligible incentive will be adopted in
this case.
P The broad guidelines specifed for grid
interactive solar power generation
projects will also be applicable for
grid connected solar thermal power
generation projects.
P The technical performance optimization
parameters will change as necessary.
Inviting articles for Akshay Urja
The need to have a sustainable supply necessitates the exploitation of available
energy sources, and among these, renewable resources are at the forefront. It is now
an established fact that RE (renewable energy) can be an integral part of sustainable
development because of its inexhaustible nature and environment-friendly features.
RE can play an important role in resolving the energy crisis in urban areas to a great
extent. Today RE is an established sector with a variety of systems and devices available
for meeting the energy demand of urban inhabitants, but there is a need to create
mass awareness about their adoption. Akshay Urja is an attempt to fulfl this need.
20 000 copies are being disseminated in India and abroad.
Akshay Urja publishes news, articles, research papers, case studies, success stories,
and write-ups on RE. Readers are invited to send material with original photographs
and statistical data. The photographs should be provided on hard copy or as high
resolution (minimum 300 DPI) fles on a CD. Akshay Urja will pay suitable honorarium for
each published article of about 1500 words and above to the authors. The publication
material in two copies, along with a soft copy on CD/foppy/e-mail may be sent to
Editor, Akshay Urja
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Block – 14, CGO Complex,
Lodhi Road, New Delhi – 110 003
Tel. +91 11 2436 3035 • Fax +91 11 2436 3035 • E-mail aktripathi@nic.in
w w w . m n r e . g o v . i n
33
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010
feature article
T
his review article looks at
the novel approach to high
efciency PV (photovoltaic)
cells, which are based on the
use of quantum properties
of materials that arises when material is
reduced to nano domain. These include
tandem cells; hot-carrier solar cells;
solar cells producing multiple electron-
hole pairs per photon through II (impact
ionization); multiband and impurity-
band solar cells; and TPV (thermo-
photovoltaic)/thermo-photonic cells.
In solar cells, using semiconductor QDs
(quantum dots), slow hot carrier cooling
QUANTUM STRUCTURED
PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL
DESIGN AND ADVANCEMENTS
Samarth Jain
Silhouette Rainbows, Kailash Turn, Sikandra, Agra—282 005
can be achieved, thus producing either
enhanced photocurrents through II
or enhanced photo voltages through
hot electron transport and collection.
The advantage of incorporating
QW (quantum wells) in PV cells is
the fexibility ofered by bandgap
engineering. Efciency up to 70% can
be reached using these concepts.
Working principle
The maximum thermodynamic efciency
for the conversion of unconcentrated
solar irradiance into electrical free
energy in the radiative limit assuming
detailed balance and a single threshold
absorber was calculated by Shockley
and Queissar in 1961 to be about 31%.
As conversion efciency is one of the
most important parameters that need
to be optimized for implementing PV
and photochemical cells on a truly large
scale, several schemes for exceeding the
theoretical limit have been proposed
by various research groups and are
under active investigation. Here we will
discuss only hot carrier and II solar cells
and the efects of size quantization on
the carrier dynamics that control the
probability of these processes.
A major factor limiting the conversion
efciency in single-bandgap cells to
31% is that the absorbed photon energy
above the semiconductor bandgap is
lost as heat through electron-phonon
scattering and subsequent phonon
emission, as the hot photo generated
carriers relax to their respective band
edges. The main approach to reduce
this loss in efciency has been to use a
stack of cascaded multiple p-n junctions
with bandgaps better matched to the
solar spectrum. In the limit of an infnite
stack of bandgap perfectly matched
to the solar spectrum, the ultimate
conversion efciency at one-sun
intensity can increase to about 66%.
Another approach is to use the hot
carriers before they relax to the band
edge via phonon emission. There are two
fundamental ways to use the hot carriers
for enhancing the efciency of photon
conversion. One way produces an
enhanced photovoltage and the other
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
34 FEBRUARY 2010
feature article
produces an enhanced photocurrent. To
achieve the former, the rates of photo-
generated carrier separation, transport,
and interfacial transfer across the
contacts to the semiconductor must all
be fast compared to the rate of carrier
cooling. The latter requires that the rate
of II (that is inverse Auger efect) be
greater than the rate of carrier cooling
and other relaxation processes for
hot carriers.
Hot electrons and hot holes
generally cool at diferent rates
because they generally have diferent
efective masses; for most inorganic
semiconductors electrons have
efective masses that are signifcantly
lighter than holes and consequently,
cool more slowly. Another important
factor is that hot-carrier cooling rates
are dependent upon the density of the
photogenerated-hot carriers (viz, the
absorbed light intensity).
In recent years, it has been proposed
and experimentally verifed in some
cases that the relaxation dynamics of
photogenerated carriers may be largely
afected by quantization efects in the
semiconductor (that is in semiconductor
QWs, quantum wires, QDs, superlattices,
and nanostructures). When the carriers
in the semiconductor are confned by
potential barriers to regions of space that
are smaller than or comparable to their
deBroglie wavelength or to the Bohr
radius of excitons in the semiconductor
bulk, the hot-carrier cooling rates may
be dramatically reduced, and the rate
of II could become competitive with
the rate of carrier cooling. However,
the solar spectrum contains photons
with energies ranging from 0.5 to 3.5
eV (electronvolt). Photons with energies
below the semiconductor bandgap are
not absorbed, while those with energies
above the bandgap create electrons and
holes (charge carriers) with a total excess
kinetic energy equal to the diference
between the photon energy and the
bandgap. This excess kinetic energy
creates an efective temperature for an
ensemble of photogenerated carriers
that can be much higher than the lattice
temperature. Such carriers are called ‘hot
electrons and hot holes’ and their initial
temperature upon photon absorption
can be as high as 3000
o
K (degree Kelvin),
with the lattice temperature of 300
o
K.
In bulk semi-conductors, the
division of this kinetic energy between
electrons and holes is determined by
their efective masses, with the carrier
that has the lower efective mass
receiving more of the excess energy.
However, in QDs, the distribution of
excess energy is determined by the
quantized energy level structure in the
QDs and the associated selection rules
for the optical transitions between the
hole and electron levels.
In the Shockley–Queissar
analysis, a major factor limiting the
conversion efciency to 32% is that the
absorbed photon energy above the
semiconductor bandgap is lost as heat
through electron-phonon scattering
and subsequent phonon emission, as
the carriers relax to their respective band
edges (bottom of conduction band for
electrons and top of valence band for
holes) and equilibrate with the phonons.
The main approach to reduce this
loss and increase
efciency above the
32% limit has been
to use a stack of
cascaded multiple
p–n junctions in
the absorber with
bandgaps better
matched to the solar
spectrum (Fig 1).
In this way higher-
energy photons
are absorbed in the
hi ghe r - ba ndga p
s e mi c o ndu c t o r s
and lower-energy
photons in the lower-bandgap
semiconductors, thus reducing
the overall heat loss due to carrier
relaxation via phonon emission.
Relaxation Dynamics of Hot
Exciton’s in QDs
As discussed, slowed hot-electron
cooling in QWs and superlattices that is
produced by a hot phonon bottleneck
requires very high light intensities to
create the required photogenerated
carrier density of greater than about
1×1018cm
-3
. This required intensity,
possible with laser excitation, is many
orders of magnitude greater than
that provided by solar radiation at the
Earth’s surface maximum solar photon
fux is about 1018cm
-2
s
-1
; assuming a
carrier lifetime of 1 ns and an absorption
coefcient of 1×105cm
-1
, this translates
into a photoinduced electron density of
about 1014cm
-3
at steady state. Hence,
it is not possible to obtain slowed hot
carrier cooling in semiconductor QWs
and superlattices with solar irradiation
via a hot phonon bottleneck efect;
solar concentration ratios greater than
104 would be required, resulting in
severe practical problems.
However, the situation with three-
dimensional confnement in QDs
is potentially more favourable. In
Figure 1 Carrier relaxation dynamics in semiconductor
35
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010
feature article
the case of QD, slowed hot-electron
cooling is theoretically possible even
at arbitrarily low light intensity; this
efect is simply called a ‘phonon
bottleneck’, without the qualifcation
of requiring hot phonons (a non-
equilibrium distribution of phonons).
Furthermore, it is also anticipated that
the slowed cooling could make the
rate of exciton multiplication (inverse
Auger efect) an important process in
QDs. PL (photoluminescence) blinking
in QDs (intermittent PL as a function of
time) has been explained by an Auger
process whereby if two electron–holes
pairs are photogenerated in a QD,
one pair recombines and transfers its
recombination energy to one of the
remaining charge carriers, ionizing it
over the potential barrier at the surface
into the surface region. This creates a
charged QD that quenches radiative
emission after subsequent photon
absorption; after some time, the ionized
electron can return to the QD core
and the PL is turned on again. Since
this Auger process can occur in QDs,
the inverse Auger process, whereby
one high-energy electron–hole pair
can generate two electron–hole pairs,
can also occur in QDs. The following
discussion will present a discussion of
the hot carrier cooling dynamics.
Multiple Exciton
Generation
in QDs
The formation of multiple
electron–hole pairs per
absorbed photon in
photoexcited bulk semi-
conductors is a process
typically explained by II. In
this process, an electron
or hole with kinetic
energy greater than the
semiconductor bandgap
produces one or more
additional electron–hole
pairs. The kinetic energy
can be created either by applying an
electric feld or by absorbing a photon
with energy above the semiconductor
bandgap energy. The former is well-
studied and understood. The latter
process is less studied, but has been
observed in photoexcited p–n junctions
of Si, Ge, and InSb (Silicon, Germanium,
and Indium antimonide).
However, II has not contributed
meaningfully to improved quantum
yield in working solar cells, primarily
because the II efciency does not reach
signifcant values until photon energies
reach the ultraviolet region of the
spectrum. In bulk semiconductors, the
threshold photon energy for II exceeds
that required for energy conservation
alone because, in addition to
conserving energy, crystal momentum
must be conserved. Additionally, the
rate of II must compete with the rate of
energy relaxation by electron–phonon
scattering. It has been shown that the
rate of II becomes competitive with
phonon scattering rates only when the
kinetic energy of the electron is many
times the Eg (bandgap energy).
However, in QDs, the rate of electron
relaxation through electron–phonon
interactions can be signifcantly
reduced because of the discrete
character of the electron–hole spectra.
The rate of Auger processes, including
the inverse Auger process of exciton
multiplication, is greatly enhanced due
to carrier confnement and increased
electron–hole Coulomb interaction.
Furthermore, crystal momentum need
not be conserved because momentum
is not a good quantum number for
three-dimensionally-confned carriers.
Indeed, very efcient multiple electron–
hole pair (multi-exciton) creation by
one photon was reported recently in
PbSe (Lead Selenide) nanocrystals by
Schaller and Klimov. They reported
an excitation energy threshold for the
formation of two excitons per photon at
3 Eg, where Eg is the absorption energy
gap of the Nanocrystal (HOMO-LUMO
[highest occupied molecular orbital–
lowest unoccupied molecular orbital]
transition energy). Schaller and Klimov
reported a QY (Quantum Yield) value of
218% (118% II efciency) at 3.8 Eg; QYs
above 200% indicate the formation of
more than two excitons per absorbed
photon. Other researchers have
recently reported a QY value of 300% for
3.9 nm diameter PbSe QDs at a photon
energy of 4 Eg, indicating the formation
of three excitons per photon for every
photoexcited QD in the sample.
Evidence was also provided to show
the threshold for MEG (multiple exciton
generation) by optical excitation is 2
Eg (not 3 Eg as reported previously for
PbSe QDs), and it was also shown that
comparably efcient MEG occurs also in
PbSe nanocrystals.
A new possible mechanism for MEG
was introduced that invokes a coherent
superposition of multiple-excitonic
states, meaning that multiple excitons
are essentially created instantly upon
absorption of high-energy photons.
Most recently, MEG has been reported
in CdSe (cadmium selenide) QDs and
PbTe (lead telluride) QDs, and seven
excitons per photon were reported in
PbSe QDs at 7 times the bandgap. The
Figure 2 Multiple quantum dots with varying bandgaps
arranged for full spectrum conversation
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
36 FEBRUARY 2010
researchers report a QY of 300% for
2.9nm diameter PbSe QDs when the
energy of the photon absorbed is four
times that of the bandgap. But multiple
excitons start to form when the photon
energy reaches twice the bandgap.
QDs made of PbS (lead sulphide) also
showed the same phenomenon.
QW and Superlattices
QWs are thin layers of lower bandgap
material in a host material with a higher
bandgap. Early device designs placed
the QWs in the doped regions of a p–n
device. But superior carrier collection
is achieved when an electric feld is
present across the QWs. More recent
QWC designs have employed a p–i–n
structure with the QWs located in the
intrinsic region; a schematic bandgap
diagram is shown in Figure 2.
The carriers escape from the QWs
thermally and by tunnelling. The
photocurrent is enhanced in a QWC
(Quantum Well Cell) as compared to
a cell made without QWs (also known
as barrier control), and experimentally,
it is observed that the voltage is
enhanced as compared with a bulk
cell made of the QW material. Hence,
QWCs can enhance the efciency if the
photocurrent enhancement is greater
than the loss in voltage. The number
of QWs is limited by the maximum
thickness of the i-region maintaining
an electric feld across it.
QWCs have been investigated quite
extensively on GaAs (gallium arsenide)
and InP (Indium phosphide) substrates.
Historically, the frst p–i–n QWCs were in
the material system AlGaAs (aluminum
gallium arsenide)/GaAs (barrier/well)
on GaAs. AlGaAs is closely lattice
matched to GaAs and the bandgap
can be easily varied by changing the
Al fraction up to about 0.7, where the
bandgap becomes indirect.
QWCs have practical advantages
due to both quantized energy levels
and the greater fexibility in choice
of materials. In particular, this allows
engineering of the bandgap for a better
match with the incident spectrum.
The absorption threshold can be
varied by changing the width of the
QW and/or by changing its material
composition. This fexibility can be
further increased by employing strain-
compensation techniques. This way,
longer wavelengths for absorption can
be achieved than what is possible with
lattice-matched bulk material, allowing
optimization of the bandgap. For TPV
applications, the same concept of strain
compensation can be applied to extend
the absorption to longer wavelengths.
This is important for relatively low
temperature sources combined with
appropriate selective emitters, for
example based on holmia or thulia.
Several studies indicate that QWCs
have a better temperature dependence
of efciency than bulk cells.
Conclusion
The relaxation dynamics of photo-
excited electrons in semiconductor
QDs can be greatly modifed as
compared to the bulk form of the
semiconductor. Specifcally, the
cooling dynamics of highly energetic
(hot) electrons created by absorption of
supra-bandgap photons can be slowed
by at least one order of magnitude
(4–7 ps [physical slot] versus 400–
700 fs [sampling frequency]). This
slowed cooling is caused by a so called
‘phonon bottleneck’ when the energy
spacing between quantized levels in
the quantum dot is greater than the
LO-phonon (longitudinal optical–
phonon) energy, thus inhibiting
hot electron relaxation (cooling) by
electron–phonon interactions. In order
to produce the slowed hot electron
cooling via the phonon bottleneck, it is
necessary to block an Auger process that
could bypass the phonon bottleneck
and allow fast electron cooling. The
Auger cooling is blocked by rapidly
removing the photogenerated hole
before it undergoes Auger scattering
with the photogenerated electron, or
by injecting electrons into the LUMO
level (conduction band) of the QD
from an external electron donating
chemical species and then, exciting
these electrons with an infrared pulse.
Slowed electron cooling in QDs ofers
the potential of using QDs in solar cells
to enhance their conversion efciency.
Slowed cooling in QDs could lead to
their use in solar cell confgurations,
wherein II (the formation of two or
more electron–hole pairs per absorbed
photon) or hot electron separation,
transport, and transfer can become
signifcant, thus producing enhanced
photocurrents or photovoltages and
corresponding enhanced conversion
efciencies with thermodynamics
limits of 66% (one sun).
The primary advantage of
incorporating QWs in PV cells is
the fexibility ofered by bandgap
engineering by varying QW width
and composition. The use of strain
compensation further increases this
fexibility by extending the range of
materials and compositions that can
be employed to achieve absorption
thresholds at lattice constants that do
not exist in bulk material. In a tandem
or multi-junction confguration,
QWCs allow current matching and
optimizing the bandgaps for higher
efciencies. Light-trapping schemes
are an important technique to boost
the quantum efciency in the QWs.
DBRs (distributed Bragg refectors)
are particularly suited for QWCs in
multi-junction devices, allowing light
transmission to the lower bandgap
junctions underneath.
feature article
37
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010
A
rpee Ispat Pvt. Ltd is
situated at Village Sondra,
Siltara (Phase II), is a
manufacturer of cast iron
castings. It used to burn
huge amounts of coal to dry the casting
molds. However, this not only wasted
a lot of energy, but also caused a lot
of pollution. On the advice of CREDA
(Chhattisgarh State Renewable Energy
Development Agency), it decided to
adopt the clean energy process and
install a biomass gasifer.
In October 2008, the company
installed a biomass gasifer of 300 kW
thermal power capacity. The gasifer
has been manufactured by S R Biofuels,
Raipur. Wood chips are fed into the
gasifer. The producer gas is then burnt
in the present mold heater. This has
considerably enhanced the efciency of
the process of mold heating. It has not
INSTALLATION OF
biomass gasifier
IN VILLAGE SONDRA, SILTARA, RAIPUR, BY ARPEE ISPAT PVT. LTD
only reduced fossil fuel consumption,
but has also prevented pollution.
A reduction of 4–5 hours has been
observed in the mold-drying process. In
addition, the company also saves more
than 3 tonnes of coal use every day.
Encouraged by the success of this
project, the company installed another
SR Gasifer of 300kW (thermal) capacity
in May 2009. The company now saves
more than 6 tonnes of coal every
day, that is, more than 2000 tonnes
per year. This efort of R P Ispat Pvt.
Ltd and CREDA is also avoiding the
emission of more than 4000 tonnes of
carbon dioxide and 900 kg of sulphur
dioxide every year. This is their major
contribution towards the environment
and energy conservation.
Courtesy: CREDA
green initiative
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
38 FEBRUARY 2010
I
t is now widely accepted that
renewable sources of energy
help achieve socioeconomic
development, while ensuring
environmental protection. In this
regard, the MNRE (Ministry of New
and Renewable Energy) has recently
launched a scheme to utilize diferent
renewable energy devices like solar
photovoltaic power system, solar
thermal system, and energy-efcient
devices at places of national and
international importance for India.
The main aims are to publicize
renewable energy technologies and
systems and to disseminate information
about them.
The Raj Bhavans of India are also
part of this scheme. And the Raj
Bhavan in Kolkata has become the
country’s frst Raj Bhavan to launch
a solar power project for supplying
energy to the building. On 8 December
2009, Hon’ble President of India,
Shri Pratibha Devisingh Patil, launched
the project by switching on 12 solar
RAJ BHAVAN KOLKATA
goes green
energy-operated LED (Light Emitting
Diodes) fxtures in the Bhavan.
Green initiatives
The Raj Bhavan in Kolkata has, in
recent years, taken several initiatives to
make it a ‘green’ and energy-efcient
building. In 2008, an audit of its energy
consumption was carried out to
initiate corrective steps and necessary
developmental measures. Accordingly,
several changes have been made. This
includes reduction in electricity and
fuel consumptions; reduction in
maintenance expenditure; recycling
of papers; setting up of rainwater
harvesting projects; introduction
of herbal garden; conservation of
biodiversity through plantation of
saplings of tree species that once
existed; and so on.
The solar project
The latest step in this regard is the
Rs 1 crore project that envisages
building a 50 KW grid-interactive solar
photovotaic power station in the Raj
Bhavan, along with a 2000 litre solar
water heating system. Use of LED
lights is also part of the project. The
grid-interactive solar power plant would
export power to the focal power grid
and remain live in the absence of grid
power. It will cater to 30% of the energy
needs of the Raj Bhavan. The expected
annual energy output of the power
station would be 60 000 kWh (kilowatt
hour). This initiative will not only
reduce the electricity consumption, but
will also lead to signifcant reduction
in carbon dioxide emission due to
the reduced consumption of coal.
‘Once the project is complete, the
Raj Bahvan can save on an average
Rs 5 lakh annually on electricity bills.
Also, coal consumption will be reduced
by 600 kg a day,’ said S P Gon Chaudhuri,
Managing Director, West Bengal Green
Energy Development Corporation.
The proposed renewable energy
activities in Raj Bhavan are expected
to be completed by March 2010 and
work in this respect has already been
started. The initial phase to illuminate
the front pillars of the Bhavan has been
completed. The entire project has been
approved and funded by the MNRE
and the scheme is being executed
by the West Bengal Green Energy
Development Corporation Ltd.
During the inauguration ceremony,
Dr Farooq Abdullah, Union Minister of
New and Renewable Energy, said that
his ministry has set aside Rs 1 crore for
each of the Raj Bhavans in the country
to implement similar solar projects.
He thanked Governor Gopal Krishna
Gandhi for pioneering the Raj Bhavan
scheme. He said that there are plans to
include heritage sites like the Victoria
Memorial and the old temples located
in various parts of the country in a bid
to popularize renewable energy. And
the Raj Bhavan, Kolkata, has paved the
way for such initiatives in the country.
green initiative
39
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010
T
he MNRE (Ministry of New and
Renewable Energy) recently
organized the India–Iceland
Workshop on Renewable Energy, with
focus on development and utilization
of geothermal energy and small hydro
power. The workshop discussed issues
related to cooperation between India
and Iceland for the development
of geothermal sector in India by
assessing the geothermal resources
and its utilization for power generation
and thermal applications. It also
deliberated on cooperation in the area
of small hydro power sector. About
100 delegates from India and Iceland
participated in the workshop.
The chief guest at the inaugural
session of the workshop was Dr Olafur
Ragnar Grimsson, President of Iceland.
Dr Farooq Abdullah, Union Minister of
New and Renewable Energy; Preneet
Kaur, Minister of State for External
Afairs; and Dr R K Pachauri, Director-
General of TERI (The Energy and
Resources Institute) and Chairman of
the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change), also participated in
the workshop.
India–Iceland Workshop on Renewable Energy
Dr Farooq Abdullah, Union Minister of New and Renewable Energy, addressing the
Indo-Iceland Workshop on Renewable Energy in New Delhi on 15 January 2010. Dr Olafur
Ragnar Grimsson, President of Iceland; Preneet Kaur, Minister of State of External Affairs,
India; and Dr R K Pachauri, Director-General, TERI, are also seen.
Dr Farooq Abdullah said that bilateral
cooperation with Iceland is essential to
make progress in the area of geothermal
energy development. He listed out areas
likely for cooperation between the two
countries including technology transfer
on deep drilling, reservoir assessment,
and setting up of geothermal
demonstration power plants.
‘Iceland being well-recognized by the
UNESCO (United Nations Educational,
Scientifc, and Cultural Organization)
to provide training in geothermal
energy development should consider
training a group of Indian engineers
and scientists on all the aspects
of geothermal energy utilization’,
said Dr Abdullah.
Third World Future Energy Summit at Abu Dhabi
Dr Farooq Abdullah, Union Minister
for New and Renewable Energy,
participated in the discussions at
the Energy Minister’s Round Table
during the plenary session of the
Third World Future Energy Summit at
Abu Dhabi, UAE (United Arab Emirates).
In his remarks, he highlighted India’s
energy strategy aiming at efciency
and security, and the achievement
of an optimum, environment-
friendly mix of primary resources for
energy generation.
RE event
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
40 FEBRUARY 2010
Dr Farooq Abdullah, Union Minister of New and Renewable Energy, addressing the GRIHA
National Conference in New Delhi on 04 January 2010.
‘We are working for the development
of renewable energy sources using
the latest technological developments
for around three decades now to
meet our energy requirements from
these energy sources as much as
possible. Compared to many other
countries our progress is good.
Millions of decentralized energy
systems, solar lighting systems,
irrigation pumps, aero-generators,
biogas plants, solar cookers, biomass
gasifers, and improved cook stoves
are now being used in the country.
India today stands among the top
fve countries in terms of renewable
energy capacity, with an installed base
of over 15 gigawatt, which is around
10% of India’s total power generation
capacity, and contributes over 3% in
the electricity mix…India is open to any
research collaboration to achieve this
objective with any of you. Our talented
pool of manpower, our diversity of
climate, our tradition of pursuit of
wisdom and our frm commitment to
achieve a sustainable energy future
would make any collaboration fruitful.
We extend our hands of cooperation
to all of you.’
The first national conference on GRIHA
Recognizing the importance of green
buildings, GRIHA (Green Rating for
Integrated Habitat Assessment)
Secretariat, with the help of TERI
(The Energy and Resources Institute)
and the MNRE (Ministry of New and
Renewable Energy) organized the frst
GRIHA National Conference. Dr Farooq
Abdullah, Union Minister of New and
Renewable Energy was the chief guest
for the event. Other dignitaries present
on the occasion were Deepak Gupta,
Secretary, MNRE; Dr R K Pachauri,
Director-General, TERI; and Siva
Kishan, Chief Executive Ofcer, GRIHA
Secretariat. The one-day conference on
GRIHA and Green Buildings included an
exhibition of Green Building Materials
and Technologies.
Inaugurating the event in New
Delhi, Dr Abdullah said that the
new buildings should be functional,
aesthetically beautiful, as well as
energy efcient. Emphasizing the need
to consider regional conditions while
planning, the minister said that it is
time to work towards a world free of
fossil fuels. He said, ‘Either we wake up
now or sleep forever.’ While giving his
special remarks, Deepak Gupta said,
‘The ministry has incentivized GRIHA
to promote large-scale design and
construction of green buildings that
include re-imbursement of registration
fee, cash awards, and so on. The
Government of India now proposes
that all its new buildings must be
GRIHA 4 Star compliant, subject to site
conditions. We now have to go beyond
buildings and develop green habitats,
so that all new urban complexes
or cities adhere to these principles.
The ministry, along with TERI and
other stakeholder institutions, are
preparing a comprehensive capacity
building programme.’
Explaining the importance of green
buildings, Dr R K Pachauri said, ‘There
is a building boom in India that is only
going accelerate and we need to build
in a way that does not get locked in
inefciency. To bring about a major
change, ratings based on solid scientifc
principles, architectural techniques,
and methods that stood the test of
times are essential. TERI has been at the
forefront of this and is fortunate to get
MNRE’s support and encouragement
in this process. GRIHA is suited to
Indian conditions than any other
overseas ratings.’
ADaRSH, a platform to facilitate
a pan-India, ongoing interaction
and networking between building
professionals, developers, and
re event
re event
government ofcials was formally
launched. In addition, to make green
building a household name, computer
games for school children on green
buildings were inaugurated during
the conference.
More than 300 participants –
architects, engineers, developers,
government ofcials from Central
Public Works Department, National
Building Construction Corporation,
National Thermal Power Corporation,
and the likes – attended the
conference. The conference sought
inputs of leading design professionals
and industry people in developing
GRIHA guidelines for the entire range
of development activities and to
frame guidelines for existing buildings
and large agglomerations like special
economic zones and townships, as
GRIHA currently provides guidelines
only for new buildings. The conference
will now be annual afair to provide
a platform for exchange of ideas and
thoughts for various stakeholders in
this industry.
Tenth DSDS
T
he message of the three-day
10th DSDS (Delhi Sustainable
Development Summit) , held
under the aegis of TERI (The Energy and
Resources Institute), sent out a clear
message to the global community—
while the impacts may vary, the nations
need to come together as a part of
the global community to combat the
efects of climate change.
Themed ‘Beyond Copenhagen: new
pathways to sustainable development’,
the DSDS 2010 saw the participation
of more than 300 delegates—key
stakeholders from various parts of
the world comprising the Heads of
State, ministers, representatives from
multilateral and bilateral development
organizations, governments,
corporate sector, non-governmental
organizations, academia, and
research institutions.
Providing a platform for 34 leading
exhibitors to showcase their cutting-
edge climate change technologies
and projects to a global market, TERI
organized the third International
Climate Change Exhibition on the
sidelines of DSDS 2010. Inaugurating
the exhibition, Dr Farooq Abdullah,
Union Minister of New and Renewable
Energy, hailed it as an excellent platform
for companies to showcase their new
environment-friendly technologies
that facilitate low carbon growth, and
for the public to become aware of
such technologies that can contribute
towards efective adaptation to
climate risks.
Dr Manmohan Singh, Hon’ble Prime Minister of India, and other dignitaries at the inauguration of the DSDS 2010
41
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
42 FEBRUARY 2010
O
n 25 February 2010, the MNRE
(Ministry of New and Renewable
Energy) and UPNEDA (Uttar
Pradesh New and Renewable Energy
Development Authority) jointly
organized a one-day Workshop on
Energy-efcient Solar/Green Buildings
with various stakeholders at Hotel
Radisson, Noida. The workshop was
attended by policy-makers and heads/
senior ofcials of various interested
sectors like architects, builders, banks,
government, and so on. The participants
deliberated on the development of
energy-efcient solar/green buildings
in diferent types of residential and
non-residential dwellings. The
workshop helped to enable
stakeholders to utilize these concepts
in the existing and proposed buildings.
Representatives from TERI (The
Energy and Resources Institute)
and user organizations, along with
senior architects, shared their views
on energy-efcient green buildings.
While various manufacturers gave
presentations on solar water heating
systems, technology providers spoke
about kitchen waste treatment plants.
In addition, there was a presentation
on solar hybrid technology for
green buildings.
The event was attended by
Dr A K Tripathi, Director, MNRE;
Siva Kishan, CEO (Chief Executive
Ofcer), GRIHA Secretariat, TERI;
Prof. K C Chari of Birla Institute of
Management and Technology;
Vidhur Bhardwaj, senior architect
and Director of 3C Company; Anurag
Bajpai of Green Tree Building Energy
Pvt. Ltd; Yashwant Thakur, Technical
Director, Suryakiran Technologies Inc.;
Amit Kumar of TATA BP Solar; Ajay
Aggarwal of Mailhem Enterprises;
and Atul Saxena, CEO, Growdiesel.
The workshop concluded with an
interaction with participants.
re event
Indo-Australian Solar Energy Workshop at Amity
University Campus, Noida
A
mity Institute of Renewable
and Alternative Energy, Amity
University, organized a two-
day Indo-Australian Solar Energy
Workshop beginning 9 February 2010
at the university’s campus in Noida.
Supported by Department of Science
and Technology, Delhi, the workshop
witnessed speakers and delegates from
the IITs (Indian Institute of Technology)
of Chennai, Kanpur, Guwahati, Delhi
and Roorkee. The workshop was
inaugurated by Dr Lachan Strahan,
Acting High Commissioner, Australia.
In his inaugural address, Dr
Ashok K Chauhan, Founder President
of Amity Universe, promised that
the projects developed out of the
discussions and deliberations during
the two-day workshop would be
commercially utilized. Dr Chauhan
formally announced the launch of
the Amity Indo-Australian Commerce
Science and Technology Foundation.
The foundation will work in the areas
of commerce, science, and technology
and thereby, attempt to bring credit to
both the countries.
Dr Strahan said, ‘The challenge
before us, as a planet and as a race, is to
fnd a living which is in harmony with
the planet. I agree that IT has opened up
wonderful new ways of communication
but there is no substitute for coming
together and meeting each other face
to face. It has been two months that the
Copenhagen conference took place
where the world community grappled
with the challenge of climate change.
We all acknowledge that it was a
difcult conference and agreement to
so many issues was not reached.’
Talking about the solution to the
problem, Dr Strahan added, ‘We also
know that technology must be a part
of the solution to climate change;
we must fnd ways of developing
cleaner sources of energy. Solar
energy must be a part of that solution.
The two governments – Indian and
Australian – have recognized the
fundamental importance of solar
energy. India has its own solar energy
mission; it has sets its ambitious
targets for solar power generation. The
Australian government has set its own
renewable energy targets of 20% by
2020. This conference will strengthen
the expanding relationship between
India and Australia.’ Most of the
speakers pointed out one common and
important fact that India and Australia
are blessed with abundant solar
Workshop on energy-efficient solar/green buildings
43
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010
re event
energy, which should be utilized to the
fullest extent.
Dr C K Prahlada, Chief Controller,
DRDO (Defence Research and
Development Organization), said, ‘Both
the countries have abundant sun to play
with. Normally, the DRDO deals with
missiles, aircrafts, torpedoes, and so
on. But of late, we have started looking
at solar energy for various reasons. For
example, we do develop unmanned
air vehicles but now we are talking
about solar-powered unmanned air
vehicles which can keep roaring for
days and days. The need of the hour
is low-cost, low-weight solar batteries
made of plastic or polymer. The DRDO
is encouraging institutes and students
to carry on research in this area, and in
the next 10 years, a lot of opportunities
exist for this in the solar energy sector.’
Dr V K Jain, Director, Amity Institute
of Renewable and Alternative Energy,
and Chairman of the workshop, said,
‘India is blessed with 300 sunny days in
a year, which means over 5000 trillion
kilowatts of solar energy in a year.
But the cost of solar energy needs to
be reduced to make it a viable source
of energy’.
While addressing the distinguished
gathering during the valediction of
the workshop, Dr Farooq Abdullah,
Union Minister for New and Renewable
Energy, Government of India, said, ‘We
will give some grants to the institutes
to undertake fundamental research
in this area. Mutual cooperation is
very important between nations. I am
disappointed from the Copenhagen
Summit; it did not come up to my
expectations. We need easy technology
transfer between countries. We should
talk less and have easy access to
scientists and ideas of other countries.
I will request Dr Chauhan to send your
students from the Renewable Energy
Institute to the R-Park in Gurgaon
which is run by the Ministry [Ministry
of New and Renewable Energy], you
will see there what research has been
done by the Government of India itself.
Amity University should promote the
use of solar energy in its hostels and
all its institutions. We need people,
engineers…human resources in this
area and Amity will provide us the
same.’ Dr Chauhan promised the
Dr Abdullah to establish an Amity
campus in Jammu and Kashmir, so that
the students there can access the best
of education.
The topics discussed during the
workshop included ‘Silicon Solar Cells/
New Technologies’, ‘High Efciency
Flexible Solar Cells’, ‘Dye Sensitized
Solar Cells’, ‘Solar Thermal Systems’, and
‘Phase Change Thermal Storage for Solar
Application’. The workshop had a very
good representation from educational
institutions, research laboratories/
institutions, industries, and ministries.
Dr Farooq Abdullah, Union Minister of New and Renewable Energy, India, speaking at the Indo-Australian Solar Energy Workshop,
organized by Amity University, Noida.
FEBRUARY 2010

children’s corner
Send in your answers to the following address. The frst three correct entries
will be published in the next issue of Akshay Urja.
The Editor, Akshay Urja
Room No. 1009A, 10th Floor, Paryavaran Bhavan, CGO Complex
Lodhi Road, New Delhi – 110 003
E-mail aktripathi@nic.in or suparna.mukherji@teri.res.in
Unscramble the 12 word puzzles, one letter to each square, to make words that will help you
to fnd the answer.
India recently launched……………
UNS _____ _____
OHRDY _____ _____ _____ _____
ACENL _____ _____ _____
HATELRM _____ _____ _____ _____ _____
WEELNRAEB _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____
EMNEATH _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____
IINAD _____ _____ _____ _____
AEFS _____ _____ _____
SREEU _____ _____ _____ _____
DNWI _____ _____ _____
AONCBR _____ _____ _____ _____ _____
YNEEGR: _____ _____ _____ _____ _____
Answer here: a National
Green scramble
45
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010
book review
E
nergy-Efcient Buildings in India and
Sustainable Building: Design Manual
(Vol. 1 and 2) are two novel publications
related to green/sustainable buildings
in India. Published by TERI (The
Energy and Resources Institute), these
publications bring to fore the various
aspects of sustainable building in India.
While Energy-Efcient Buildings in India
has been developed under the aegis
of TERI and the MNRE (Ministry of New
and Renewable Energy), Sustainable
Building: Design Manual is part of
a project involving Institut Català
d’Energia, Spain; INSTITUT CERDÀ,
Spain; London Borough of Merton,
United Kingdom; Sustainable Energy
Action/Renewable Energy in the Urban
Environment, United Kingdom; Haryana
State Energy Development Agency,
India; and TERI.
Let us frst review Energy-Efcient
Buildings in India. Covering 41 projects
from India’s various climatic zones, this
book provides thorough insights into
the context, techniques, and benefts
of energy-efcient buildings. The
projects highlight design responses to
varied climatic conditions, appropriate
materials and construction methods,
implementation of energy-efcient
systems, and efective utilization
of renewable energy to reduce
pressure on grid power. Edited by Mili
Majumdar, Associate Director-SBS,
GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated
Habitat Assessment), the book is the
result of a comprehensive survey of
ENERGY-EFFICIENT BUILDINGS IN INDIA and
SUSTAINABLE BUILDING: DESIGN MANUAL
several energy-efcient buildings. This
book will inspire and beneft architects,
designers, urban planners, engineers,
municipal authorities, policy-makers,
students, and concerned citizens to
build for a better tomorrow. The book
serves as a handy reference document
and a guide to correct our building
concepts and practices.
Sustainable Building: Design Manual
is available in two volumes. Its frst
volume – titled Policy and Regulatory
Mechanisms – proposes an approach
based on policy strands, to be applied
in tandem, with good practices and
regulatory controls that can be easily
implemented in Gurgaon. It provides a
set of international real-time case studies,
with experiences of local authorities;
issues, gaps, and barriers to policy
implementation; market mechanisms
to drive sustainable development; self-
reinforcing policy tools, pricing policy
packages, energy services, and so on;
and recommendations for amendments
in the by-laws of Gurgaon. Volume two
– titled Sustainable Building Design
Practices – targets practitioners and
focuses on an integrated approach to
sustainable building design processes.
It serves as the technical base for
assessing building performance and
meeting sustainability goals through
appropriate strategies. Its focal points
include sustainable site planning; water
and waste management; solar passive
building design; building materials
and technologies; embodied energy
and lifecycle analysis, and sustainably
managed alternatives; efcient
energy systems; and sustainable
design checklist.
The two publications, therefore,
cater to the needs of architects, builders,
planners, and all key stakeholders
involved in the process of designing,
planning, and constructing buildings.
The books aim to demonstrate the
available knowledge and technologies
to contribute to the design of
better, more efcient, and more
sustainable buildings.
Reviewed by Suparna Mukherji, TERI Press
ENERGY-EFFICIENT BUILDINGS IN INDIA
Edited by Mili Majumdar 2002
New Delhi: TERI and MNRE ● 252 pp.
ISBN: 81-85419-82-5 ● Price: Rs 860
SUSTAINABLE BUILDING: DESIGN
MANUAL (Vol. 1)
New Delhi: TERI ● 145 pp.
ISBN: 81-7993-052-1 ● Price: Rs 501
SUSTAINABLE BUILDING: DESIGN
MANUAL (Vol. 2)
New Delhi: TERI ● 301 pp.
ISBN: 81-7993-053-X ● Price: Rs 501
3
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Energy-efficient
buildingsinIndia
Editor
Mili Majumdar
Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources
333
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book / web alert
The solar electricity handbook 2009: a simple,
practical guide to using electric solar panels
and designing and installing photovoltaic
solar pv systems
Michael Boxwell.2009
UK: Code Green Publishing
Solar electricity is a wonderful concept—take
free power from the Sun and use it to power
electrical equipment. No ongoing electricity
bills, no reliance on an electrical socket—
‘free’ energy that does not harm the planet.
The Solar Electricity Handbook is a practical and straightforward
guide to using electric solar panels. Assuming no previous knowledge of solar
panels, the book explains how solar panels work, how they can be used, and the
steps you need to take to successfully design and install a solar electric system
from scratch using photovoltaic solar panels. Accompanying this book is a
solar resource website containing lots of useful information, lists of suppliers,
and on-line solar energy calculators that will simplify the cost analysis and
design processes.
The book is suitable for enthusiastic novices and professionals. Clear
examples, diagrams, and example projects are given to demonstrate the true
capabilities of these systems. It is one of the most comprehensive books on
solar electric systems available today.
ISBN: 978-1-907-21501-8 • Price: $13.49
Power Trip: from oil wells to solar cells—our
ride to the renewable future
Amanda Little.2009
New York, US: HarperLuxe
In the tradition of Eric Schlosser’s Fast Food
Nation and Thomas L Friedmam’s Hot, Flat,
and Crowded, prominent journalist Amanda
Little maps out the history and future of
America’s energy addiction in a wonk-
free, big-picture, solutions-oriented
adventure story.
The author embarks on a daring cross-country
power trip and describes, in vivid, fast-paced prose, the most
extreme and exciting frontiers of America’s energy landscape. At her side,
we visit an ofshore oil rig, the cornfelds of Kansas, the Pentagon’s fuel-
logistics division, the Talladega Superspeedway, New York City’s electrical
grid, and laboratories creating the innovations of a clean-energy future. Little
illustrates how abundant oil and coal built the American superpower, even as
they posed political and environmental dangers to the nation and the world.
More importantly, we learn how the same American ingenuity that got us into
this mess can get us out of it. With next-generation candor and optimism, Little
explores the most promising clean-energy solutions on the horizon, arguing
that everything we know about our past teaches us that we can solve the
problems of our future.
Hard-hitting yet forward-thinking, Power Trip is a lively and impassioned
travel guide for all readers trying to navigate our shifting landscape and a clear-
eyed manifesto for the younger generations who are inheriting the Earth.
ISBN: 978-0-061-88514-3 • Price: $25.99
Internet resources
SOLAR WEBSITES
Solarwebsites.
com contains
a veritable
gold mine of
information on
the subject of
solar energy and
is packed with
every kind of solar
power website
that you can imagine.
Whether you are looking for a solar power system for
you home, cabin, or boat, or you are seeking information
on telemetry systems, water pumping, solar refrigeration,
or anything to do with solar energy, this is the right place.
It covers solar power for homes and businesses; solar
panels for RVs, boats, and cabins; solar energy for military
and industrial applications; solar energy information for
students, engineers, architects, and hobbyists; solar power
for villages; solar water pumping, lighting, computers, and
appliances; and so on.
Have all your questions concerning solar power
answered on this website. You will learn everything from
how to make your own solar panel to what is involved
in building your own multi-megawatt-sized solar energy
farm. Learn which technologies are ready for prime time
and which technologies are just lab curiosities. Learn how
to size, choose, fnance, and get the best deal on a solar
system. Learn the secrets that some solar dealers would
rather you did not know. Simply put, fnd everything there
is to know about solar right here on this website.
India Solar
As the name
suggests,
Indiasolar.com
provides all the
information on
the solar power
sector in India. It
aims to encourage
and motivate,
educate and
create awareness, instill respect and appreciation for
renewable sources of energy and the environment as a
whole in the minds of the people of India. It also hopes to
promote, spread, and increase investment, business, and
entrepreneurship in renewables in India. It not only gives
a general overview of the renewable sources of energy
in India, but also provides information on the Ministry of
New and Renewable Energy and the nodal agencies of
India. It covers solar photovoltaics, solar water heating,
Solar Cookers, and so on. It is loaded with the lists of
manufacturers, suppliers, and inputs. Along with these,
it features a survey on solar water heater users in India
and the test centres. It also contains links to websites and
events, and market and business opportunities.
www. sol ar websi t es. com
www. i ndi asol ar . com
47
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010
forthcoming events
2nd PV Summit Asia
15–16 April 2010
Beijing, China
Tel: 86 21 624788 98
Fax: 86 21 624788 38
E Mail: info@merisis-asia.com
URL: www.merisis-asia.com/pv2010
SolarTech’ Leadership Summit
21–22 April 2010
San Ramon, California, USA
Tel: 1 408 844 7122
Fax: 1 408 844 9470
E Mail: frodet@solartech.org
URL: www.calsolarsummit.org
Thin-Film Industry Forum
22–23 April 2010
Berlin, Germany
Tel: 49 30 726 2963 00
Fax: 49 30 726 2963 09
E Mail: info@solarpraxis.de
URL: www.solarpraxis.de
PHOTON’s 8th Solar Silicon
Conference
27 April 2010
Stuttgart, Germany
Tel: 49 241 4003-102
E Mail: offce@viaexpo.com
URL: www.photon-expo.com
5th European PV-Hybrid & Mini-Grid
Conference
29–30 April 2010
Barcelona, Spain
E Mail: kolleg@otti.de
URL: www.otti.de
Photovoltaics Summit 2010
3–5 May 2010
San Diego, California, USA
Tel: 1 207 781 9635
E Mail: christopher.smith@pira-
international.com
URL: www.photovoltaicssummit.com
SNEC PV Power Expo 2010
5–7 May 2010
Shanghai, China
Tel: 86 159 21921158
E Mail: cathychu2007@163.com
URL: www.snec.org.cn
Power Gen India and Central Asia
21–23 April 2010
Bombay Exhibition Centre
Goregaon, Mumbai
URL: www.power-genindia.com
Empower India 2010
25–27 June 2010
Chennai Trade Centre
URL: www.empower-india.com
Delhi International Renewable
Energy Conference
27–29 October 2010
Expo Centre - Expo XXI, National
Capital Region of Delhi
URL: www.direc2010.gov.in
International Green Energy Expo
Korea 2010
7–9 April 2010
Daegu, South Korea
Tel: 82 53 6015 082
Fax: 82 53 6015 372
E Mail: green@energyexpo.co.kr
URL: www.energyexpo.co.kr
International Conference on
Concentrating Photovoltaic
Systems
7–9 April 2010
Freiburg, Germany
Tel: 49 0761 4791448
Fax: 49 0761 4791444
E Mail: info@cpv-conference.org
URL: www.cpv-conference.org
ENERSOL Expo 2010
7–10 April 2010
Tunis, Tunisia
Tel: 216 71 79 0830
Fax: 216 71 79 4200
E Mail: enersol@exposervicestunisie.com
URL: www.exposervicestunisie.com/
enersol
6th International Congress & Exhibition
on Energy Effciency and Renewable
Energy Sources
14–16 April 2010
Sofa, Bulgaria
Tel: 359 32 9 45459
Fax: 359 32 9 60012
E Mail: offce@viaexpo.com
URL: www.viaexpo.com
Solarexpo and Greenbuilding 2010
5–7 May 2010
Verona, Italy
Tel: 39 0439 849855
Fax: 39 0439 849854
E Mail: press@solarexpo.com
URL: www.solarexpo.com
Solar Maghreb
11–12 May 2010
Algiers, Algeria
Tel: 44 207 099 0600
Fax: 44 207 900 1853
E Mail: info@greenpowerconferences.com
URL: www.greenpowerconferences.com
Solar 2010
17–22 May 2010
Phoenix, United States
Tel: 1 303 443 3130
Fax: 1 303 443 3212
E Mail: ases@ases.org
URL: www.ases.org
2010 International Renewable
Energy Fair
18–20 May 2010
Poznan, Poland
Tel: 48 618692-552
Fax: 48 618692-952
E Mail: poleko@mtp.pl
URL: greenpower.mtp.pl/en
Semicon Singapore 2010
19–21 May 2010
Singapore
Tel: 1 408 94379-87
Fax: 1 408 94379-15
E Mail: dtracy@semi.org
URL: www.semiconsingapore.org
PV America
24–26 May 2010
Tampa, Florida, United States
Tel: 1 202 628 7745
Fax: 1 202 628 7779
E Mail: info@seia.org
URL: https://events.jspargo.com
4th Renexpo Central Europe 2009
27–29 May 2010
Budapest, Hungary
Tel: 49/7121/3016-0
Fax: 49/7121/3016-200
E Mail: international@energie-server.de
URL: www.renexpo-budapest.com
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4
48 FEBRUARY 2010
renewable energy statistics
Renewable energy at a glance in India
MW – megawatt; kW – kilowatt; MW
p
– megawatt peak; m
2
– square metre; km
2
– kilometre square
Achievement as on
S.No. Source/system Estimated potential 31 March 2010
I Power from renewables
A Grid-interactive renewable power (MW) (MW)
1 Wind power 45 195 11807.00
2 Bio power (agro residues and plantations) 16 881 861.00
3 Bagasse cogeneration 5 000 1338.30
4 Small hydro power (up to 25 MW) 15 000 2735.42
5 Energy recovery from waste (MW) 2 700 65.00
6 Solar photovoltaic power — 10.28
Sub total (A) 84 776 16817.00
B Captive/combined heat and power/distributed renewable power (MW)
7 Biomass/cogeneration (non-bagasse) — 232.17
8 Biomass gasifer — 122.14
9 Energy recovery from waste — 46.72
10 Aero generator/hybrid systems 0.99
Sub total (B) — 402.02
Total (A+B) — 17219.02
II Remote village electrifcation — 5554 villages/hamlets
III Decentralized energy systems
11 Family-type biogas plants 120 lakh 41.85 lakh
12 Solar photovoltaic systems 50 MW/km
2
120 MWp
i. Solar street lighting system — 88 297 nos
ii. Home lighting system — 550 743 nos
iii. Solar lantern — 792 285 nos
iv. Solar power plants — 2.39 MW
p
v. Solar photovoltaic pumps 7247 nos
13 Solar thermal systems
i. Solar water heating systems 140 million m
2
3.25 million m
2
collector area collector area
ii. Solar cookers 6.72 lakh
14 Wind pumps 1347 nos
IV Awareness programmes
15 Energy parks — 511 nos
16 Aditya Solar Shops — 302 nos
17 Renewable energy clubs — 521 nos
18 District Advisory Committees — 560 nos
For further information and updates, visit the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy website
www. mn r e . g o v . i n
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL
SOLAR MISSION
Towards building solar India
The JNNSM (Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission) is a major
initiative of the Government of India and the state governments to promote
ecologically sustainable growth, while addressing India’s energy security
challenge. It will also constitute a major contribution by India to the global
effort to meet the challenges of climate change.
The Mission phases
• Phase1:theremainingperiodoftheEleventhFive-yearPlanandthefrst
yearoftheTwelfthFive-yearPlan(2012/13)
• Phase2:theremainingperiodoftheTwelfthFive-yearPlan(2013–17)
• Phase3:theThirteenthFive-yearPlan(2017–22)
The Mission targets
• To create an enabling policy framework for the deployment of 20 000
MWofsolarpowerby2022.
• Torampupcapacityofgrid-connectedsolarpowergenerationto1000
MW by 2013; an additional 3000 MW by 2017 through the mandatory
useoftheRPO(renewablepurchaseobligation)byutilitiesbackedwith
apreferentialtariff.Thiscapacitycanbemorethandoubled–reaching
10000MWinstalledpowerby2017ormore–basedontheenhanced
andenabledinternationalfnanceandtechnologytransfer.
• To create favourable conditions for solar manufacturing capability,
particularly solar thermal, for indigenous production and market
leadership.
• Topromoteprogrammesforoff-gridapplications,reaching1000MWby
2017and2000MWby2022.
• Toachieve15millionsqmsolarthermalcollectorareaby2017and20
millionby2022.
• Todeploy20millionsolarlightingsystemsforruralareasby2022.
Application segment Target for Phase I Target for Phase II Target for Phase III
(2010–13) (2013–17) (2017–22)
Solar collectors 7 million sq m 15 million sq m 20 million sq m
Of-grid solar applications 200 MW 1000 MW 2000 MW
Utility grid power, including rooftop 1000–2000 MW 4000–10 000 MW 20 000 MW
RNI No. DELENG/2007/22701
Delhi International Renewable Energy Conference 2010
27–29 October 2010 • Expo Centre and Mart, Greater Noida (National Capital Region of Delhi, India)
Upscaling and Mainstreaming Renewable Energy for Energy Security, Climate Change and Economic Development
India is hosting the next International Renewable Energy
Conference (DIREC, 2010) during October 27–29, 2010 at
New Delhi. The Conference in Delhi is a part of initiative taken
atthe 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in
Johannesburg acknowledging the signifcance of renewable
energies for sustainable development – especially for
combating poverty and for environmental and climate
protection.
The Delhi Conference is the fourth in the series, following
events at Washington in 2008, Beijing in 2005 and Bonn in
2004 and is expected to be the premier all-Renewables
gathering in India ever, with an attendance of over 9,000
delegates, over 250 industry leading speakers, experts,
academicians, Government leaders, fnancial institutions
and around 500 exhibitors from all over the world, which will
make it the largest event of its kind.
DIREC 2010 aims to showcase India as an investment
destination for renewable energy; to provide a platform
for technology displays, new applications and innovations;
to display global research & development with respect to
climate change and green environment; to demonstrate
the sectoral strength of the global renewable energy
industry; and to facilitate: (i) buyers and sellers matching
(ii) one to one meetings for setting up of joint ventures in the
Renewable Energy Sector and (iii) to provide an opportunity
to Indian Renewables Manufacturers to benchmark their
products against the best in the world and enhance their
competitiveness. The Conference will ultimately lead to
renewed commitment, with concrete proposals in support of
activities at the country level.
The DIREC 2010 will build on the success of the previous
conferences with the support of National and International
Sponsors. REN21 — the Renewable Energy Network — will be
a key partner in the DIREC, 2010. Cabinet-level government
functionaries from a number of countries will join civil society
partners and private sector leaders to discuss the opportunities
and challenges of a global, rapid deployment of renewable
energy. The conference will bring together ministers, highlevel
decision makers and policy level thinkers from a number of
participating countries. DIREC, 2010 ofers industry leaders
the ability to share their insights, strategies, technologies, new
products and staf capabilities with their audiences.
For further details, visit
www. di r ec2010. gov. i n
Organized by Supported by Managed by
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
Government of India
Exhibitions India Group

Organised by
RAGA

Supported by

FOCUS ON THE FUTURE

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Government of India

21st - 23rd April 2011, Le Meridien New Delhi
1st World Renewable Energy Technology Congress and Expo held at Hotel LeMeridien New Delhi from 18th to 20th March 2010 was a grand success. The congress was attended by 410 national and international delegates from 30 countries.

Promoting Renewable Energy : Global Technology Cooperation, Innovation and Investment

21st- 23rd April, 2011 Le Meridien New Delhi India

F1-F2, Pankaj Grand Plaza, CSC Complex, Mayur Vihar - I, Delhi - 110091, India • Tel: +91 11 24538318. Fax: +91 11 43019379 Dr. Anil K Garg, President - World Renewable Energy Technology Congress & Expo-2011 Cell : +91 9971500028 / 9999071071 / 9910135500 • E-mail : dranilgarg2010@gmail.com, dranilgarg@wretc.in Punit Singh : +91 9213901510

World Re-EnergyTech-2011 Secretariat

E-mail: punit.nagi@wretc.in

www.wretc.in

from the editor’s desk
Volume 3 • Issue 4 P February 2010 A bi-monthly newsletter of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India (Published in English and Hindi)
Chief Patron Dr Farooq Abdullah Minister for New and Renewable Energy, New Delhi
Patron Deepak Gupta Secretary, MNRE, New Delhi Editor Arun K Tripathi MNRE, New Delhi Editorial Board N P Singh, Chairman Bibek Bandyopadhyay Praveen Saxena B Bhargava D K Khare Parveen Dhamija B S Negi D Majumdar R K Vimal Production team Madhu Singh Sirohi, Suparna Mukherji, R Ajith Kumar, R K Joshi, and T Radhakrishnan, TERI, New Delhi; N Ghatak, MNRE, New Delhi Editorial office Arun K Tripathi Editor, Akshay Urja Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Block No. 14, CGO Complex, Lodhi Road New Delhi – 110 003 Tel. +91 11 2436 3035, 2436 0707 Fax +91 11 2436 3035, 2436 2288 E-mail akshayurja@nic.in Web www.mnre.gov.in Produced by TERI Press TERI, Darbari Seth Block, IHC Complex Lodhi Road, New Delhi – 110 003 Tel. +91 11 2468 2100, 4150 4900 Fax +91 11 2468 2144, 2468 2145 E-mail madhus@teri.res.in Web www.teriin.org Printed at Brijbasi Art Press Ltd E46/11, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase II New Delhi – 110 020, India Publisher and Printer Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, New Delhi Disclaimer The views expressed by authors including those of the editor in this newsletter are not necessarily the views of the MNRE.

D

ear Reader,

The NAPCC (National Action Plan on Climate Change), launched on 30 June 2008, in India points out, ‘India is a tropical country, where sunshine is available for longer hours per day and with greater intensity. Solar energy, therefore, has great potential as the future energy source. It also has the advantage of permitting the decentralized distribution of energy, thereby empowering people at the grassroots level.’ While launching the NAPCC, Dr Manmohan Singh, Hon’ble Prime Minister of India, mentioned, ‘Our vision is to make India’s economic development energy efficient. Over a period of time, we must pioneer a graduated shift from economic activity based on fossil fuels to one based on non-fossil fuels, and from reliance on non-renewable and depleting sources of energy to renewable sources of energy.’ This indicates the interest and commitment of the Government of India to bring renewable energy in the mainstream of the country’s energy supply chain. The JNNSM (Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission), one of the eight missions under the NAPCC, has an ambitious target of installing 20 000 MW of grid-interactive solar power, 2000 MW off-grid solar applications, and 20 million sq m of solar collector area for thermal applications by 2022. The JNNSM, launched in November 2009, is gradually taking shape. This will create a huge market for solar energy in the country, and the whole world is looking forward to this opportunity. The task is gigantic and challenging. This will also help to mitigate the increasing gap between demand and supply of energy, particularly in the case of electricity in the country. This should be seen as a great opportunity and all stakeholders should come forward and join hands to convert this into a reality. The villages which are beyond the reach of power grids can meet their electricity needs through distributed generation of solar power plants. The JNNSM with its target of off-grid solar applications can address this issue. However, the role of corporate houses, non-government organizations, private entrepreneurs, and ESCOs (Energy Service Companies) is crucial for setting up such power plants in remote villages that follow a sustainable business model. Our endeavour is to keep you abreast with every step of the JNNSM, and in this issue, a detailed insight about the JNNSM has been presented. In this context, this issue of the magazine is dedicated to solar energy. I hope you will find it interesting, useful, and informative. Please do send your reaction, suggestion, and contribution to make Akshay Urja a meaningful and useful magazine for one and all. With best wishes

ARUN K TRIPATHI <aktripathi@nic.in>
Published, printed, and edited for and on behalf of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India, from B-14, CGO Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi, by Dr Arun Kumar Tripathi. Printed at M/s Brijbasi Art Press Ltd, E46/11, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase II, New Delhi – 110 020, India

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Since the last three years, my child has been giving me his environmental studies book to read out to him. I realized then that India, as a developing nation, has to balance our eco system. So now I am trying to open a small business of solar products, which would somewhat, if not fully, reduce the load on electricity generated by polluted means. I would be marketing as well as spreading awareness about solar energy and other energy saving products. Last week, I chanced upon Akshay Urja, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy’s bimonthly magazine, and I am thoroughly impressed and humbled by the enormous amount of useful information in it, which can be used as a guiding tool for people like us.
Krishna M Pamidi

TREDA (Tripura Renewable Energy Development Agency) for more than three years. And I am deeply impressed by the publications of MNRE’s (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) newsletter Akshay Urja, under the leadership of Dr A K Tripathi, Director, MNRE. The editorial written by Dr Tripathi in the last issue has given me deep thoughts which are valuable. I have developed a keen interest in the different programmes of the MNRE on NCES (non-conventional energy sources) and up-to-date achievements, future programmes, and so on. In fact, I want to be associated with the development of renewable energy sources in India and abroad, even when I shall not be working in TREDA in the future.
Subhash Chowdhury Director and CEO, TREDA

engineering student community. The faculty and students enhance their knowledge by reading Akshay Urja.
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You have been kind enough to send a complimentary copy of Akshay Urja Volume 3 Issue 1 August 2009 issue for the use of our studious students, brilliant faculty, tireless researchers, and dedicated professionals in the pursuit of their curriculum and research activities. Since your bi-monthly newsletter is very useful and relevant to our clientele, kindly continue its supply to us by including our name in your mailing list. In case some issues of volume 2 are still available, please mail them to us.
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uohu vkSj uohdj.kh; ÅtkZ ea=ky;] ubZ fnYyh ds vksj ls fudyus okys v{k; ÅtkZ f}ekfld vad ls eSa izHkkfor gwaA eSa egkjk’Vª jkT; ds dksYgkiqj ftys ds ukag.kh xkao esa jgrk gwaA eSa ,d fdlku gwa vkSj esjs xkao esa bl if=dk ds vkus ls lkSj ÅtkZ] iou ÅtkZ] tSfod ÅtkZ ds {ks= esa ea=ky; }kjk ubZ&ubZ ;kstuk,a] mlls feyus okys ykHk vkSj ÅtkZ ds ckjs esa u, u, “kks/k] mik; vkSj feyus okys LFkku vkSj ÅtkZ ds ckjs esa gksus okys fu;eksa] “krkZsa vkfn ds ckjs esa iwjh tkudkjh feysxh vkSj mldk ykHk ysus okys lHkh yksxksa dks gksxkA vki gesa bl if=dk dk f}ekfld vad fganh Hkk’kk esa eq>s uhps fn, gq, irs ij Hkstus dh Ñik djsaA ;fn blds igys nks cjlksa ls fudys gq, lHkh vad vkids ikl miyC/k gks ldas rks mUgsa Hkh Hkstus dh Ñik djasA egkohj vkQklkss ikVhy eq- iks ukag.kh] rkyqdk f”kjksd ftyk dksYgkiqj] egkjk’Vª
I am a professor of Mechanical Engineering in AVIT (Aarupadai Veedu Institute of Technology). I have gone through your newsletter, Akshay Urja, and found it interesting and informative. The reading of this news bulletin is very much necessary for the

Indian Railways Institute of Electrical Engineering is a centralized training institute under the Ministry of Railways, Government of India, which imparts training to the electrical department officers of the Indian Railways. Your esteemed publication titled Akshay Urja is being received regularly. The readers/members of this institute have got immense benefit out of the articles published in the magazine. It is very useful for project work, research study, and provides latest technical know-how and information on current affairs related to various aspects. It is preserved carefully in our library for future use as reference to be used by the trainee officers of the Indian Railways and others.
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Dear Reader, Thank you very much for your encouragement. The editorial team of Akshay Urja will make every effort to make this newsletter highly informative and useful to all our readers. We welcome your suggestions and valuable comments to make further improvement in terms of content and presentation. Editor Akshay Urja

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2

VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4

FEBRUARY 2010

contents
RE NEWS National
India and Japan to jointly develop Solar City ... 4 NTPC to foray into solar power projects ... 4 CLP Power to invest $800 million in renewable energy by December 2010 ... 4 Minister urges researchers to come up with cheaper means to store solar energy ... 5 RE TECH UPDATE Glitter-sized solar PV may revolutionize the way solar energy is collected and used ... 14

Volume 3 • Issue 4 P February 2010

International
IBM’s kesterite solar cell beats efficiency record . . . 9 US renewable energy industries say long-term growth reliant on government action . . . 9 US geothermal energy capacity increased 6% in 2009 . . . 9 More needed to promote renewable energy in Jordan ... 10 Offshore wind farm sites set out in Scotland . . . 11

14

FEATURE ARTICLE Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission: towards building solar India

GREEN INITIATIVES Installation of biomass gasifier in Village Sondra, Siltara, Raipur, by Arpee Ispat Pvt. Ltd ... 37 Raj Bhavan Kolkata goes green ... 38

15
... 15

37

Solar Energy Conclave

...23 RE EVENTS India–Iceland Workshop on Renewable Energy Third World Future Energy Summit at Abu Dhabi The first national conference on GRIHA Tenth DSDS Workshop on energy-efficient solar/green buildings Indo-Australian Solar Energy Workshop at Amity University Campus, Noida CHILDREN’S CORNER BOOK REVIEW BOOK / WEB ALERT FORTHCOMING EVENTS RE STATISTICS

... 39 ... 39 ... 40 ... 41 ... 41

Delhi International Renewable Energy Conference 2010 ... 28

23 28

Energy forever: IREDA’s solar financing schemes

... 30

... 42 ... 44 ... 45 ... 46 ... 47 ... 48

33
Quantum structured photovoltaic cell: design and advancements ... 33

Minister for Internal Affairs and Communications. which aims at changing centralized society to communitybased society so as to enhance self-sufficiency within a region through maximizing natural resources (forest. C 4 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010 . Japan wants to promote ‘Midori no Bunken’. The meeting discussed the various aspects of cooperation between the two countries in the field of renewable energy. recently met Dr Farooq Abdullah. Union Minister for New and Renewable Energy. while 104 MW is operational. CLP Power India Vice-President Renewables. The company has also identified locations for building the remaining capacity. would be the biggest ever solar project in the country. food) and energy. wind. given in-principle approval to 34 cities in the country to be developed as Solar Cities. is preparing a feasibility report for one of the four projects for the NTPC. will invest $800 million to augment its power generation capacity from renewable resources to 650 MW by the end of this year. MNRE A NTPC to foray into solar power projects T The developers have opposed the mandatory clause for providing 5% equity in the projects to farmers who will lose their land to projects. CLP Power to invest $800 million in renewable energy by December 2010 LP Power India Pvt Ltd. The total capacity of all the four proposed projects is 320 MW (megawatt). The two sides decided to jointly develop one city in India as ‘solar city’. It focuses on renewable energy like solar.RE News India and Japan to jointly develop Solar City Japanese delegation led by Kazuhiro Haraguchi. The delegation will include representatives from the central government. and nodal agencies. sea. THE HINDU he NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation) is set to enter the solar power generation field in a big way with a plan to develop four grid-connected solar thermal power projects. a Hong Kong-based CLP Group company. though farmers’ leaders and social science experts have welcomed the equity provision as a move that would provide some kind of regular income to farmers. ‘We hope to take this capacity to 650 MW by the end of this year. 346 MW is under construction. and biomass energy. Meanwhile. The Indian government has. India. adding that the company would pump in $800 million for the same. The two sides also agreed to strengthen cooperation in Research and Development for promoting renewable energy. state governments. a non-profit organization. Out of the total target. so far. Japan. The one in Uttar Pradesh. the state government is likely to hold a meeting with renewable energy project developers in the wake of the dissatisfaction expressed by the developers over some of the clauses in the recently brought out renewable energy policy. The Solar City project aims to reduce a minimum of 10% of its projected demand of conventional energy at the end of five years through energy efficiency measures and generation from renewable energy installations. with emphasis on not relying on electricity generated by others. Two of the projects were coming up in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. a 10-member delegation from India will participate in the Japan-India New and Renewable Energy Seminar in Tokyo later this month. As part of the exchange programme. The developers are also opposed to the provision which stipulates the hand over of the project to the government after a period of 30 years and the ‘high fee’ being charged for granting the various clearances. WISE (World Institute of Sustainable Energy). with a capacity of 25 MW. micro-hydel.’ said Mahesh Makhija.

Under these circumstances. and therefore. The projects would be funded through a debt and equity ratio of 70:30. Referring to the proposal of the Government of India to install microhydel projects in the villages. Today. powered by hydrogen fuel. The company is in talks with various banks and financial institutions for loans and with various international companies for sourcing equipment for the power projects. ‘The products must be good and cheap. will run at the speed of 50–70 km per hour and can ply in sub-zero temperature up to –30 oC. Union Minister of New and Renewable Energy. Out of the 650 MW. BUSINESS STANDARD No-pollution three wheelers unveiled in New Delhi ith the recent unveiling of ecofriendly three wheelers powered by non-polluting hydrogen. He would hold a meeting with architects in Chennai to discuss with them the ways of constructing energyefficient buildings. These three wheelers. They have to use the available water in the canals and streams. Dr Abdullah said that till date. ‘We are talking with two German companies for buying equipment for 200 MW capacity. using distilled water. A vehicle that runs on fossil fuel can be changed into a hydrogen one by simply installing hydrogen conversion kits. of which 1100 MW would be grid-connected and 200 MW would be utilized for providing electricity to villages which have not seen any electricity so far. India will soon have ‘no pollution’ vehicles running on its roads. and Tamil Nadu for setting up these renewable energy projects. Dr Abdullah said that under the JNNSM. drove a hydrogen-run trialbased auto. Unless you produce cheaper products. we store energy in batteries. He has told the windmill manufacturers to produce windmills which could be easily transported to hilly areas.’ he said. Inaugurating the CO2 (carbon dioxide) Research and Green D FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 5 . ushering in an era where vehicles running on the road with the renewable and non-polluting fuel will be a common sight. But there are a number of villages in Jammu and Kashmir which are at a height of 8000–9000 feet above the sea level where they do not have distilled water. W Minister urges researchers to come up with cheaper means to store solar energy r Farooq Abdullah. they cannot be used by ordinary people. we have to reduce the prices of such batteries. Batteries that do not use water are expensive. Karnataka.’ he said. Union Minister for New and Renewable Energy. it is also developing a two 660 MW thermal power project at Jhajjar in Haryana at an investment of Rs 60000 million. the minister stressed the need for using cheaper technology. The first unit of this project would be commissioned by the end of 2011. equipment for 350 MW have been sourced from Germany-based Enercon. ‘Here comes the problem of storage of energy.national news Technologies Centre and the Rajeswari Towers (Staff Quarters-II) at the VIT (Vellore Institute of Technology) University recently. The MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) would provide all the help to the institute in undertaking such research. institutions such as VIT University should undertake research to find out ways of storing energy at the right voltage. Dr Farooq Abdullah. THE HINDU CLP Power has identified locations in Gujarat. The vehicles were showcased on the sidelines of the first day of the three-day World Hydrogen Technologies Convention. the Government of India hopes to add 1300 MW of solar energy. He also called for research on the production of power from the abundant kitchen wastes in the country. as a result of which the batteries would stop functioning. there was no answer to the question of finding an inexpensive means of storing energy. especially those which did not have electricity. has called for research targetted at reducing the cost of storing solar energy in the context of the JNNSM (Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission). Apart from the company’s renewable energy portfolio. Maharashtra. which aims to generate an installed capacity of 20 000 MW of solar energy by 2022.’ he said. in the next three years. and another 100 MW from the Danish company Vestas.

COM Nasheed: India can provide the lead in using renewable energy ndia has the intellectual capacity. Director. WWW. and said that India could provide the lead in using renewable energy to combat climate change. said Maldives President Mohamed Nasheed at the recent edition of the Partnership Summit. BHEL expects to revise upwards its Rs 45 000-crore turnover target for 2011/12. transmission equipment. company officials said. He called for partnership among Asian countries to take on global challenges. he added. backed by an increasing thrust on its other business areas. Despite the increasing competition in its mainstay power equipment business. research is going on how to reduce the cost of production of hydrogen.national news BHEL to focus on transmission equipment. will ply on the road by 2020. solar cells. yet reduce the carbon footprint of production of hydrogen. THE HINDU ith competition intensifying in the power generation equipment business. we are working at experimental and research levels as the prices are high. BHEL (Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd) is planning to step up focus on other areas of operations. environment protection. India hopes that one million hydrogen-fuelled vehicles. including the transportation sector. strength.THAINDIAN. renewable energy W About 20 scientists and engineers worked for seven years to develop these vehicles.’ he quipped. and renewable energy. The facility will be set up in a joint venture with Bharat Electronics Ltd. and ability to fuel the next industrial revolution. the government should subsidize it. It is also in 6 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010 . Indian Oil Corporation. Toshiba-JSW. The world could not assume that there was still a future with fossil fuels. ‘Today. He added that to make hydrogen fuel easily available and affordable for commercial purposes. Research and Development. in cooperation with the Banaras Hindu University. A bevy of competitors has begun to enter into the high-end power equipment business. Italian firm Ansaldo. Bharat Forge-Alstom. organized by the CII I (Confederation of Indian Industry). I am very sure that the cost will become comparable in the next 5 to 10 years. and provision of social security nets. The state-owned firm is planning to form SPVs (special purpose vehicles) for increasing the focus on some of these businesses. mostly two and three wheelers. and a host of Chinese firms. BHEL is already working on plans to invest close to Rs 2000 crore to set up a 250 MW solar PV (photovoltaic) production facility for processing silicon wafers. World over. The three wheelers have been developed by automobile makers Sonalika Group. ‘We did not advance out of the Stone Age because we ran out of stones. ‘We believe in business over bureaucracy. including the L&T-Mitsubishi Heavy Electric combine. and PV modules.’ said Anand Kumar.’ The government’s rightful place in the globalized world was in regulation.

SILICONINDIA.COM Airvoice plans 13GW renewable energy project in India M Indian PV market to reach 2575MW by 2015 nalysis from Frost and Sullivan’s India Solar Photovoltaic Market finds that the aggregate module production capacity in the Indian market was 972MW in 2008 and estimates this to reach 2575MW in 2015. Chief Executive Officer of Siemens. Chairman and Managing Director of Airvoice Group. Siemens plans to invest $346 million in India’s renewable sector over the next three years. WWW.COM I expected to be commissioned in the next 36 months.national news the process of tying up technology for high-end wind turbine sets. The Indian solar PV (photovoltaic) market has come of age in the last two to three years. About a third of the new investment would be directed towards the development of wind turbine technology with an expected product launch by 2012. ‘Several private firms are expected to make large investments to avail financial incentives and leverage the cost advantages of solar PV production in India. setting India up as a possible major manufacturing hub for the global solar PV market. Some of the money will go towards solar development as well. These are in addition to our high-end technology global portfolio. since it could significantly augment the chances of the development of solar farms. ‘Successive reforms in the power sector and a plethora of policies initiated at the central and state levels to control greenhouse gas emissions and promote renewable energy has restored investor interest in the solar power industry.5MW wind turbines is to begin shortly and the company is already in talks with Eurowinds and Suzlon. The companies plan to invest $50 billion over a period of 10 years. WWW.THEHINDUBUSINESSLINE. ‘We are taking advantage of the Indian growth opportunity and adding specifically tailored products. The market can look forward to large-scale private investments across obile phone and commodity export firm Airvoice Group has joined hands with Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam to build 13GW (gigawatt) of solar and wind capacity in India. PV modules and cells. as well as balance of system components. and the remainder through wind farms.’ notes Nayak.’ ‘The Indian solar PV market is likely to grow in terms of PV modules and cell exports to various developed nations in the world.COM Siemens to invest $346 million in India’s renewable sector n order to expand its presence in the country. The first phase – 100MW of solar and 200MW of wind capacity – is A the PV value chain.’ said Peter Loscher. ‘In fact. told the Hindustan Times that his company had identified 12 potential sites for the solar installations and four districts in Karnataka. WWW. Participants can be hopeful FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 7 .’ says Frost and Sullivan industry analyst Hemanth Nayak. Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam has 48% equity in the new company. Tendering for the 1.’ Investors in solar power stand to gain greatly from the implementation of a renewable energy credit trading system. The majority of the capacity planned – 10GW – will be generated through photovoltaic installations. with the market growing from a ten-member sector to a well-organized market with more than 30 world-class PV module and cell suppliers. The aggregate module production capacity rose from less than 60MW in 2005 to more than 1000MW in 2009. silicon wafers. Sanjay Kapoor. claiming it to be the largest single renewable energy project in the world. especially in the production of polysilicon feedstock.SILICONINDIA. up to 75% of the total module production in India is anticipated to find its way to different solar markets in the European Union in the next two to three years. which are currently dependent on government subsidies.

expected Toubro. the plant have been designed by the coatings and materials. Centre and are being installed by Solar components. has partnered with the National Solar Mission that envisages Solar Energy Centre to demonstrate setting up Centres of Excellence in the technical and commercial viability of country for solar energy research. Clique. testing under actual field conditions. as the solar PV market has already achieved global standards. about the future. Megawatt Solutions. the technology that can harness solar MNRE energy through the thermal route for various applications like industrial process heating. KIE Solatherm. Ministry based on an indigenously developed of New and Renewable Energy. This will for the widespread utilization of solar also include a test setup PV technology. enabling them to gain an edge in the world market. offers domestic PV suppliers opportunities to manufacture economical. Technology. The consortiums in both these pilot projects for development of solar thermal energy represent a new model for academia. through Solar Energy Centre. and power generation. Union Minister of New and Renewable Energy. of different technology PV modules to Tata Consulting Engineers.IN Three new facilities initiated at Solar Energy Centre nder a new initiative of academia– industry–government partnership. yet high quality modules and cells. The initiated facilities include the Solar Thermal Testing. The facility works The consortium members of this on long-term performance evaluation unique facility include Tata Power. solar concentrator technology that stated that the efforts of the Solar promises delivering low cost thermal Energy Centre are well in line with the energy. airconditioning. The configurations of concentrator options. Research. Speaking on the occasion. WWW. Dr Abdullah emphasized the need for such intense indigenous research and development in the area to establish India as a global leader in solar energy. with its advantages of lower labour costs. The PV module consortium is also developing a solar reliability R&D facility of the Centre has power plant simulator to simulate recently been expanded and enhanced the performance of the actual solar through a cooperative research thermal plant through component project with the National Institute and system models based on of Advanced Industrial Science and appropriate mathematical equations. a Chennaiobjectives of the Jawaharlal Nehru based company. The second facility is a pilot project Shri Deepak Gupta. and Simulation facility being developed by a consortium led by the IIT (Indian Institute of Technology) Bombay. and government partnership for technoDr Farooq Abdullah. In addition. Reliable and facilities at the Solar Energy Centre. U 8 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010 . Larsen and determine module life times. and the degradation or failure rates. the IIT Bombay-led Power Synergy India. industry. recently laid the foundation stone for three more technical facilities in the R&D (Research and Development) campus of the Solar Energy Centre. Secretary. Dr Farooq Abdullah. to enable companies Dr Abdullah also laid the foundation and research institutions stone of a 20 kW solar PV power to test the performance plant for validation of various design of different solar configurations.CO.EETINDIA.national news The facility would have cost-effective PV (photovoltaic) a grid-connected solar modules and robust engineering of thermal power plant of a PV system are extremely important 1 MW capacity. Union minister of New and Renewable Energy. ‘India. In terms of quality. and systems Semiconductor Private Ltd with powerfor a solar thermal power conditioning units supplied by Optimal plant. the PV modules and cells manufactured in India are considered at par with those manufactured in the developed nations.’ observes Nayak. Japan. logy development and during the foundation stone laying ceremony for new technical research.

with one apiece in California. US (United States) geothermal and solar industries achieved record growth FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 9 . The team will also experiment with alternative to spin coating. ranging from the faster processing of project applications to the passing of a renewable energy standard and a clean energy bill. the total online capacity in the US reached 3152. WWW. D US renewable energy industries say long-term growth reliant on government action T hanks to the stimulus package. adding 176. abundant elements and is produced using an inexpensive nanoparticle.international news IBM’s kesterite solar cell beats efficiency record BM Research demonstrated kesterite solar cell with 9. IBM plans to optimize the architecture further. and the former is already in short supply because it is used to make transparent transistors. IBM aims to lower the BOM cost for solar cells and enable mass production of kesterite PV devices. Geothermal also added 750 full-time jobs and 2827 constructionrelated jobs. This brings kesterite closer to the efficiency of established solar cell formulations.COM US geothermal energy capacity increased 6% in 2009 espite the recession.68 MW (megawatt) of capacity. To move from indium to tin and zinc.’ Today. Indium and tellurium are rare elements. IBM Research has proposed solutions to both stumbling blocks by demonstrating a kesterite PV (photovoltaic) cell that uses common. then spin-coated and heat-treated in the presence of sulphur or selenium vapour. IBM had to invent a new deposition technique since zinc does not mix well into solutions. such as CIGS (copper-indium-gallium-selenium) and CdTe (cadmium telluride). IBM researcher and manager of PV science and technology.72 MW.CO. However. abundant elements such as zinc and tin. the US geothermal energy capacity expanded by a robust 6% in 2009.and spin-coat-based ‘printing’ technique. Nevertheless. tin. due to six new geothermal plants which came online. thanks to the $800 million investment in the technology. which are based on copper.6% efficiency.EETINDIA. in hopes of raising its efficiency above 11% in order to beat both CIGS and CdTe formulations.8% for similar structures.ENERGYBOOM. sulphur. Money from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act will continue to flow into alternative energy sectors in 2010. a Japanese research group at Nagaoka National College of Technology used a kesterite-based formulation to achieve thin-film cell that exhibited 6. both industries say long-term growth relies on more clean energy public policy being passed. Three projects came into service in Nevada. thin-film solar cells are based on chalcogenides. but solar cells currently contribute less than a tenth of a per cent to our electricity supply. WWW. The new method reduces the zinc to nanoparticles that can be dispersed in a solution with the copper and tin. mostly because of their high cost and the short supply of key elements. however.IN I Thin-film solar cells hold the promise of low-cost. But so far. According to the GEA (Geothermal Energy Association). By substituting more- in 2009. the cells’ reliance on rare elements and expensive vacuum deposition manufacturing has impeded their progress. Last year. ‘Enough sunlight falls on the Earth in one hour to power the whole planet for a year. beating the previous efficiency record of 6. and Utah. ‘We want to lower the manufacturing cost and increase the supply of the elements needed for thin-film PV devices. renewable energy source that could make fossil fuels obsolete. Oregon. IBM says it was able to improve that by 40%.8% efficiency. spray coating and slit casting. and selenium. zinc. such as dip coating.’ said David Mitzi. trade associations such as the Geothermal Energy Association and the Solar Energy Industries Association say that there are particular actions that the government needs to take in order to continue to develop a green economy. as of August 2009.

The DOE (Department of Energy) officially recognizes a near-term potential of at least 20 GW. each raised their renewable standards—California to 33% by 2020 and Nevada to 25% by 2025. or 5% of US power needs. geothermal power will satisfy the needs of over 10 million people and still have tremendous growth potential. more needs to be done to encourage green energy projects at the local level in Jordan. with longer-term possibilities well over 100 GW. New technology advances will continue to expand the recognized power potential of geothermal resources.COM ‘More needed to promote renewable energy in Jordan’ espite progress with the recently endorsed Renewable Energy Law.international news technology through investment in EGS (Enhanced Geothermal Systems). The two largest geothermal producers. Experts also called for a programme to certify Jordanian companies that have D Currently. President of the JRES (Jordan Renewable Energy Society) HRH Prince Asem Ben Nayef stressed that the private sector should not wait for large projects to begin investing in the sector. participants called for incentives in the temporary legislation to be expanded to include small businesses. the allocation of $338 million in Recovery Act funding for the exploration and development of new geothermal fields and research into advanced geothermal technologies. The stunning progress of the geothermal industry this year has been propelled by state and federal policies. WWW.ENERGYBOOM. raising the prospects of 10 GW of geothermal power in the coming years. 144 new geothermal plants are under development. They issued various recommendations to ensure that Jordan achieves the national energy strategy’s goal of 10% of its energy mix coming from renewable sources within the next decade. and individuals. the sale of land by the Bureau of Land Management which resulted in the sale of 255 355 acres of land and total revenue of approximately $9 million. The US also took major steps towards advanced geothermal 10 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010 . experts announced recently. Utilities in those states are looking at geothermal energy to fill these needs. As part of the recommendations. California and Nevada. In the final recommendations of the National Dialogue on Renewable Energy. In addition. public facilities. and so on contributed to the growth of geothermal. At that level. The accelerating growth of geothermal projects could bring the nation 7000 MW of new baseload geothermal power in the next few years. And the number of states with geothermal power will reach double digits in 2010. the DOE’s loan programme for innovative technologies to geothermal technology and the loan guarantee programme for renewable projects using commercial technology.

the USTDA (United States Trade and Development Agency) has decided to sponsor ‘MENA Power–2010’ in Egypt during 24–26 May 2010. They also recommended the development of the capacities of companies working in the sector. very importantly. and the US power industry. The Scottish government has set targets to meet 50% of electricity demand from renewables by 2020. Morocco. ‘We very much look forward to working with the companies on the development of these sites and the realization of the enormous potential that these sites have to offer. and a world-class scientific capacity and skills base. allowing citizens with solar power or wind turbines to sell electricity back to their electricity provider. Iraq. and establishing a ‘green bank’ in Jordan. they also create jobs and spur growth and development. North Africa. Jordan. said. and tidal energy potential. It is slated to match policymakers and project sponsors from Algeria. He said. He added. P Scottish Power and E. the Scottish economy. This will allow developers to begin surveying the sites. the National Electric Power Company will be obligated to purchase any and all electricity produced by renewable energy power plants and cover the cost of connecting renewable energy projects to the national grid. Libya. helping to deliver reliable and affordable supplies of electricity to consumers and. chief executive of Scottish Renewables. which include the Solway Firth and Wigtown Bay.ON are among the nine firms to be awarded ‘exclusivity agreements’ for locations. The combined capacity of these projects will make a massive contribution to Scotland’s efforts in tacking climate change. USTDA’s Acting Director. As part of the qualification process. BBC USTDA to promote renewable energy in MENA n a bid to improve the energy scenario in MENA (Middle East and North African) region. ‘Scotland has a fantastic competitive advantage in developing offshore renewables—with up to 25% of Europe’s offshore wind. the West Bank. and Yemen with US-based technology and financing options to help meet the region’s growing energy needs. Tunisia. issuing a green building code in order to improve thermal insulation. wave. Rob Hastings. experts called for authorities to launch an awareness campaign to promote the law’s incentives for investors in the sector. Lebanon. The law also sets guidelines for net metering.’ Jason Ormiston. and produce a special programme to organize various companies working in the industry.ZAWYA. It will promote long-term strategic and commercial relationships between the Middle East. Turkey. ‘We look forward to bringing together key power sector stakeholders and technology providers from the region and the US to facilitate ongoing collaboration. WWW. Director of the Marine Estate at the Crown Estate.COM Salmond said that the windfarms would boost the government’s green energy ambitions. ‘While these opportunities are good for the environment.’First Minister Alex FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 11 . encouraging the adoption of energy-saving and renewable energy technology. incentives granted in the law would be restricted to companies that have a minimum of five years experience in the renewable energy field and have produced facilities with at least 10 megawatts capacity.international news experience in the sector to ensure that international companies are aware of the available local subcontractors and encourage the use of local firms and materials. develop specialized university courses on renewable energy based on the British model. The wind farms have the potential to generate 6GW (gigawatt) of power if approved. said that the deals were good news for Scotland.’ said Leocadia I Zak. ‘Today heralds an exciting phase in the progress of the renewable energy industry in Scotland. Egypt. The forum will take place with a view to highlight the US president’s commitment of supporting growth in the MENA by deploying new and innovative renewable energy technologies. I Offshore wind farm sites set out in Scotland lans to build 10 wind farms off the coast of Scotland moved a step forward after the Crown Estate gave companies the green light to explore the sites. while a government environmental assessment is conducted. Under the Renewable Energy Law.’ said Zak. Among the recommendations.

For the first time. At a meeting with a bipartisan group of governors from around the country. Second. Beyond Zero Emissions. some renewable fuels must achieve greenhouse gas emission reductions – compared to the gasoline and diesel fuels they displace – in order to be counted towards compliance with volume standards. The President’s Biofuels Interagency Working Group released its first report. According to the administration. transmission and distribution upgrades. the President laid out three measures that will work in concert to boost biofuel production and reduce our dangerous dependence on foreign oil. and financing options. wind. rural electrification. the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) has finalized a rule to implement the long-term renewable fuels standard of 36 billion gallons by 2022 established by Congress. solar thermal systems now operate 24 hours a day. with detailed blueprint for a transition to 100% renewable energy in 10 years using proven. WWW. The project is a costed. and its promise of new industries and millions of jobs. the US Department of Agriculture has proposed a rule on the BCAP (Biomass Crop Assistance Program) that would provide financing to increase the conversion of biomass to bioenergy. recently released details of its ZCA2020 (Zero Carbon Australia 2020 Project). with 21 billion gallons to come from advanced biofuels. While solar electricity was previously limited to when the sun was shining. Rooftop solar power systems could also produce electricity during sunny periods. policy issues. integrated desalination/ power. Australia has the best solar resource of any developed country and considerable wind energy resources. increasing the use of renewable fuels will reduce the dependence on oil by more than 328 million barrels a year and reduce greenhouse gas emissions more than 138 million metric tonnes a year when fully phased in by 2022. The ZCA2020 Stationary Energy Sector Report states that AU$35–40 billion per year investment would be required over a 10 year period in order for Australia to turn to a 100% renewable stationary energy sector. solar.COMMODITYONLINE. as well as project opportunities in areas such as gas-fired combined cycle. smart grid. The investment required for ZCA2020 implementation over the 10 years would be 3%–3. The group says that 60% of the electricity supplied by a 100% renewable stationary energy sector could be provided by concentrating solar thermal with molten salt heat storage and 40% by wind power.1 billion gallons to 36 billion gallons in 2022.COM 100% renewable energy for Australia by 2020? ustralia currently has a target of 20% of the electricity supply to come from renewable energy sources by 2020.AU Obama’s biofuels boost E PA finalizes rule to implement renewable fuels standard of 36 billion gallons by 2022 Recently. WWW.ENERGYMATTERS. A Baseload solar power is now a reality. The Renewable Fuels Standard requires biofuel production to grow from last year’s 11.COM. Growing America’s 12 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010 . a climate change solutions research group.international news The two-and-a-half-day conference agenda will focus on sector development. cogeneration. US (United States) President Barack Obama announced a series of steps that his administration is taking as part of its comprehensive strategy to enhance American energy independence. and regional interconnections. while building a foundation for a new clean energy economy. and hydroelectricity and crop residual biomass would provide back-up energy when needed. thanks to cheap energy storage methods utilizing molten salt. biomass. hydro.5% of the GDP (gross domestic product). commercialized technology. First.

To overcome the obstacles. Lodhi Road. Welsh Secretary. The advertisement tariffs are as follows. said that the less number of replenishing stations has been one of the major obstacles in the development of renewable fuel.CSPNET.in FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 13 . Akshay Urja invites advertisements (in colour) from interested organizations. the highway is expected to have complete infrastructure for running environment-friendly cars. THAINDIAN Inviting advertisements for Akshay Urja Akshay Urja is widely circulated to various stakeholders of renewable energy.14. Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack. etc. According to the reports. Block . The President calls for five to 10 commercial demonstration projects to be up and running by 2016. It has also been reported that the authorities are considering an extension till Midlands. and EPA Administrator Lisa P Jackson.international news Fuel. Peter Hain. As per the reports. By 2015.and hydrogen-powered vehicles. institutions. their future aim would be to establish a link between replenishing points with London and Swindon. Third. The authorities have planned to locate refuelling stations in different points of the highway so that people do not have to face any inconvenience for filling their cars with the alternative fuel. WWW. +91 11 2436 3035 or 2436 0707 • Fax +91 11 2436 3035 or 2436 1298 • E-mail aktripathi@nic. CGO Complex. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu. authored by group co-chairs.COM ‘Hydrogen Highway’ in South Wales to promote renewable fuel onservation of non-renewable source of energy and saving the environment has become one of the greatest concerns for all countries. New Delhi – 110 003 Tel. M4 route of South Wales will start to operate as ‘hydrogen highway’ for encouraging the news of alternating fuel. recently said that they have planned to introduce hydrogen route in South Wales. Akshay Urja Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. It has been reported that the aim behind this effort is to increase the use of electric. The report lays out a strategy to advance the development and commercialization of a sustainable biofuels industry to meet or exceed the nation’s biofuels targets. the government of United Kingdom has made a C significant effort to boost the use of alternative fuel. manufacturers. after announcing the decision to open ‘hydrogen highway’. President Obama announced a Presidential Memorandum creating an Interagency Task Force on Carbon Capture and Storage to develop a comprehensive and coordinated federal strategy to speed the development and deployment of clean coal technologies. Advertisement area Inside Front Cover Inside Back Cover Full Page Tariff (rupees)* 40 000 40 000 25 000 * Avail 25% discount on booking for six issues and 20% discount on booking for three issues The interested organizations may write to: Editor. Peter Hain.

will keep sending out electricity where even storage built in at the chip level.’ Moreover. rooftops of homes and warehouses could Laboratory Directed Research and ‘because portions of our units not in shade have intelligent controls. the rest still can be circuits imprinted that would help perform Energy Technologies Group. They are expected to be 000 pieces of glitter per hour at electrical simplify the cumbersome design. for the United States DOE’s Each cell is formed on silicon (Department of Energy) National wafers. The cells can turn a person into Electricity can presently be a walking solar battery charger harvested from the cells with if they are fastened to flexible 14.’ Because is a multi-programme flexible substrates can be easily laboratory operated by fabricated. such as clothing. (Image by unusual shapes. he said. Devices. ‘Eventually. Sandia field engineer. may have a variety of and-place machine. such Photovoltaics and Grid Integration any size. ‘PV modules The work is supported by DOE’s Solar to overhead obstructions is better than made from these microsized cells for the Energy Technology Program and Sandia’s conventional PV panels. while if a brick-sized unit goes other functions customarily left to largeNational Renewable Energy Lab’s bad. scale construction. including new cheaper and more efficient short focal perform at about the same efficiency. the entire wafer may be unusable. and in manufacture. and grid integration process that efficiencies than current PV collectors that substrate. can place up to 130 Such an integrated module could greatly applications. the placement takes place our solar technical assistance teams see in are pieced together with 6-inch square at cooler temperatures.9% efficiency. and the harvested. This would make it possible for include satellites and remote sensing. with electrical contacts tiny PV (photovoltaic) cells that prefabricated on each piece. According to Vipin Concentrating Photovoltaics Group. reduced. potential for reduced costs. per Sandia researcher Murat Okandan. Martin. Also. Off-the-shelf substrates moulded around Representative thin crystalline-silicon PV cells that are commercial modules are 13%– 14–20 micrometres thick and 0. 6-inch-by-6-inch brick-sized cells. Murat Okandan) 20% efficient. called a pickcrystalline silicon. reducing they are much smaller and have fewer unusual shapes for building-integrated the costs associated with wiring.RE tech update GLITTER-SIZED SOLAR PV MAY REVOLUTIONIZE THE WAY SOLAR ENERGY IS COLLECTED AND USED andia National Laboratories may turn off entirely. In addition. which cuts down the field all the time. A widely used The solar particles. optically efficient little material to form well-controlled and to today’s electronic foundries. units could be from the modules because of the large the same amount of electricity…Since mass-produced and wrapped around number of cells in the array. as microcells require relatively mechanical systems) techniques common prefabricated. As applications. and installation costs would also be MEMS (microelectronic and microelectroSolar concentrators – low-cost. and higher High-voltage output is possible directly ‘they use 100 times less silicon to generate efficiencies. Sandia lead investigator Greg Nielson over each cell to increase the number From 14 to 20 micrometers thick. they said that the research team has identified of photons arriving to be converted are 10 times thinner than conventional more than 20 benefits-of-scale for its into electrons. may revolutionize the way solar by borrowing techniques from energy is collected and used. and Development programme. length microlens arrays can be fabricated. integrated circuits and MEMS. yet microphotovoltaic cells. fabricated from commercial wafers of electronic devices. Due to the small cell size. etched and then released Nuclear Security Administration.’ said Nielson. the Materials. bid. inexpensively in hexagonal And its scientists have developed shapes. The cells are fabricated using the cost of production. microlens arrays – can be placed directly highly efficient devices. a wholly ubiquitous solar power becomes owned subsidiary of Lockheed more feasible. ‘The shade tolerance of our units Gupta. eventually less expensive and have greater contact points pre-established on the permit. they may also be more reliable over the hunters.’ possible applications for the technology environment than the conventional cells. said Okandan. high-efficiency PV for Sandia Corporation. hikers. inverters.’ The manufacturing solar wafers. fabricated of commercial tool. And if one cell proves defective microengineered panels could have Group. and military personnel The project combines the expertise long term. the cells can be in the field to recharge batteries for from Sandia’s Microsystems Center. a partially shaded conventional panel S SOURCE: SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES 14 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010 . improved performance.25–1 millimetre across. Other mechanical deformations for a given solar tents and maybe even clothing.

to develop solar energy as a source of abundant energy to power our economy and to transform the lives of our people. Our success in this endeavour will change the face of India. Hon’ble Prime Minister of India. with sufficient financial resources. ‘India is a tropical country. during the launch of India’s NAPCC (National Action Plan on Climate Change) on 30 June 2008 he NAPCC points out. The JNNSM (Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission) is a major initiative of the Government of India and state governments to promote ecologically sustainable growth. Based on this vision. the Sun occupies the centre stage. The FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 15 .feature article JAWAHARLAL TOWARDS BUILDING SOLAR INDIA NEHRU NATIONAL SOLAR MISSION ‘Our vision is to make India’s economic development energy-efficient. has great potential as future energy source. It will also constitute a major contribution by India to the global effort to meet the challenges of climate change. OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS The objective of the JNNSM is to establish India as a global leader in solar energy by creating the policy conditions for its diffusion across the country as quickly as possible. Over a period of time. It would also enable India to help change the destinies of people around the world. we must pioneer a graduated shift from economic activity based on fossil fuels to one based on non-fossil fuels and from reliance on non-renewable and depleting sources of energy to renewable sources of energy. while addressing India’s energy security challenge. We will pool our scientific. therefore. thereby empowering people at the T grassroots level’. being literally the original source of all energy. where sunshine is available for longer hours per day and in great intensity. a national solar mission is being launched under the brand name ‘Solar India’.’ —Dr Manmohan Singh. Solar energy. It also has the advantage of permitting the decentralized distribution of energy. technical. and managerial talents. In this strategy. as it should.

power utilities. P for a domestic solar industry. 16 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010 . while the tariff fixed for solar power purchase will decline over time. The first phase will focus on capturing the low-hanging options in solar thermal. an additional 3000 MW by 2017 through the mandatory use of the RPO (renewable purchase obligation) by utilities backed with a preferential tariff. This will drive utility-scale power generation. P To deploy 20 million solar lighting systems for rural areas by 2022. capacity will be aggressively ramped up to create conditions for upscaled and competitive solar energy penetration in the country. both domestic and global. P To achieve 15 million sq m solar thermal collector area by 2017 and 20 million by 2022. for indigenous production and market leadership. and modest capacity addition in grid-based systems. The Solar Purchase Obligation will be gradually increased. The Mission will work closely with state governments. reaching 1000 MW by 2017 and 2000 MW by 2022. P To promote programmes for offgrid applications. P Phase 1: the remaining period of the Eleventh Five-year Plan and the first year of the Twelfth Five-year Plan (2012/13) P Phase 2: the remaining period of the Twelfth Five-year Plan (2013–17) P Phase 3: the Thirteenth Five-year Plan (2017–22) At the end of each plan and mid-term during the Twelfth and Thirteenth Plans. with a specific solar component. whether solar PV (photovoltaic) or solar thermal. MISSION STRATEGY (PHASE I AND II) The first phase will announce a broad policy framework to achieve the objectives of the JNNSM by 2022. In the second phase. both at centralized and decentralized levels. there will be an evaluation of progress – review of capacity and targets for subsequent phases – based on the emerging cost and technology trends. This capacity can be more than doubled – reaching 10 000MW installed power by 2017 or more – based on the enhanced and enabled international finance and technology transfer. This will create the necessary environment to attract industry and project developers to invest in research and domestic manufacturing and development of solar power generation. P To ramp up capacity of gridconnected solar power generation to 1000 MW by 2013. creating the critical mass A. regulators. particularly solar thermal. and local self-government bodies to ensure that the activities and policy framework being laid out can be implemented effectively. on promoting off-grid systems to serve populations without access to commercial energy. The Mission targets: P To create an enabling policy framework for the deployment of 20 000 MW of solar power by 2022. To create favourable conditions for solar manufacturing capability. Since some state governments have already announced initiatives on solar. the Mission will draw up a suitable transition framework to enable an early and aggressive start up. Utility connected applications: constructing the solar grid The key driver for promoting solar power would be through a RPO mandated for power utilities.feature article Mission will adopt a 3-phase approach. The immediate aim of the Mission is to focus on setting up an enabling environment for solar technology penetration in the country.

with the condition that it is on-lend to the consumer at rates of interest not more than 5%. B. provide refinance to NBFCs (nonbanking financial companies) and banks. The Mission would consider up to 30% capital subsidy (which would progressively decline over time) for promoting such innovative applications of solar energy and would structure a non-distorting framework to support entrepreneurship. The key strategy of the Mission will be to make necessary policy changes to meet this objective: P Make solar heaters mandatory. The Mission plans to: P Provide solar lighting systems under the ongoing remote village electrification programme of the MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) to cover about 10 000 villages and hamlets. the funds shall stand transferred to IREDA as capital and revenue grants for on-lending to future renewable energy projects. and since most of these settlements are remote tribal settlements. domestic. up-scaling. Manufacturing capabilities: innovate. expand. high quality solar manufacturing. and innovation. C. at the end of which. in turn. which are already using proven technology and are commercially viable. Andaman and Nicobar Islands. IREDA would. would be necessary. 90% subsidy is provided. below 80 °C are solarised. including hybrid systems to meet power. including balance of system components. Border areas would also be included. to promote PV manufacturing plants. and Ladakh. P Encourage the promotion of other off-grid solar applications. For other villages which are connected to grid. D. solar lights would be promoted through market mode by enabling banks to offer low cost credit. The Mission is setting an ambitious target for ensuring that applications. and industrial. The below 80 0C challenge— solar collectors In its first two phases. which would be used to refinance operations for a period of 10 years. and disseminate Transforming India into a solar energy hub would include a leadership role in low-cost. The off-grid opportunity— lighting homes of the powerdeprived poor A key opportunity for solar power lies in decentralized and off-grid applications. The use of solar lights for lighting purposes would be promoted in settlements without access to grid electricity. Proactive implementation of SIP (Special Incentive Package) policy. the Mission will promote solar heating systems. including domestic manufacture of silicon material.feature article P Support the upgrading of technologies and manufacturing capacities through soft loans to achieve higher efficiencies and further cost reduction The government will provide budgetary support for a soft refinance facility. through building byelaws and incorporation in the National Building Code P Ensure the introduction of effective mechanisms for certification and rating of manufacturers of solar thermal applications P Facilitate measurement and promotion of these individual devices through local agencies and power utilities FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 17 . heating. P Set up standalone rural solar power plants in special category states and remote and difficult areas such as Lakshadweep. The Mission would provide an annual tranche for the purpose. and cooling energy requirements. which would be provided through IREDA (Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency).

In Phase I. and resources and possibilities of international collaboration. A Solar Research Council will be set up to oversee the strategy. Pilot demonstration projects would be closely aligned with the Mission’s R&D priorities and designed to promote technology development and cost reduction. and use of better and improved materials. A 100-MW-capacity parabolic trough technology-based solar thermal plant. These could be installed on selected government buildings and installations. and targetting space-intensity through the use of better concentrators. PROPOSED ROADMAP The aspiration is to ensure largescale deployment of solar-generated power for grid-connected as well as distributed and decentralized off-grid provision of commercial energy services. 50–100 MW solar thermal plant with 4–6 hours’ storage (which can meet both morning and evening peak loads and double plant load factor up to 40%). The Mission will be technology neutral. taking into account the ongoing projects. and large-scale solar energy programme.feature article An incentive package. devices. envisages the setting up of the following demonstration projects in Phase I. IREDA would provide this support through refinance operations. 4. Grid-connected rooftop PV systems on selected government buildings and installations. A 100–150 MW solar hybrid plant with coal. 20–50 MW solar plants with/ without storage. similar to SIPS. in addition to those already initiated by MNRE and those. could be considered for setting up manufacturing plants for solar thermal systems/devices and components. availability of research capabilities. which may be set up by corporate investors: 1. 2. technology upgradation. gas. would be supported through soft loans for expansion of facilities. 3. allowing technological innovation and market conditions to determine technology winners. therefore. based on central receiver technology with molten salt/steam as the working fluid and other emerging technologies. establishing new applications by addressing issues related to integration and optimization P developing cost-effective storage technologies to address both variability and storage constraints. 6. and applications and reducing costs of balance of systems. and working capital. Solar-based space-cooling and refrigeration systems to meet daytime and summer season peak load. with net metering. both for applied and R&D sectors. The Mission. The deployment across the application segments is envisaged as follows: E. which forms the backbone for manufacture of various components and systems for solar systems. 5. The SME (small and medium enterprise) sector. at least 1000 young scientists and engineers would be incentivized to get trained on different solar energy technologies as a part of the Mission’s long-term R&D and HRD (human resource development) plans. 18 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010 . or biomass to address variability and space constraints. An ambitious human resource development programme will be established to support an expanding POLICY AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK The objective of the Mission is to create a policy and regulatory environment which provides a predictable incentive structure that enables rapid and large-scale capital investment in solar energy applications and encourages technical innovation and lowering of costs. R&D for Solar India: creating conditions for research and application A major R&D (research and development) initiative would be taken up to focus on: P improving efficiencies in existing materials. application of nanotechnology.

NVVN will undertake the sale of the bundled power to state utilities at the rates determined as per the CERC regulations. and the tariff and tax regime for key components and segments would be suitably fine tuned. The Mission will encourage rooftop solar PV and other small solar power plants. a scheme is being introduced in cooperation with the Ministry of Power. Such function can be done only by trading companies/Discoms. the state utilities will be entitled to use the solar part of the bundled power to meet their RPOs under the Electricity Act 2003. The NTPC has a wholly owned subsidiary company engaged in the business of trading of power— NVVN (NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Ltd). P The National Tariff Policy 2006 would be modified to mandate that the state electricity regulators fix a percentage for purchase of solar power. in accordance with the tariff and PPA duration as fixed by the CERC. in case it is decided to extend it into Phase II. connected to LT/11 KV grid. given the magnitude and importance of the activities under the JNNSM.25% in phase I and go up to 3% by 2022. it would be necessary to embed the activities of the Mission within the existing framework of the Electricity Act 2003. The obligation may start with 0. the NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd). NVVN will be designated as the nodal agency by the MoP (Ministry of Power) for entering into a PPA (Power Purchase Agreement) with solar power developers to purchase solar power fed to 33 KV and above grid. in the shorter time frame. and the Central Electricity Authority. at the rate notified by the CERC for bundling together with solar power.feature article Table 1 JNNSM TARGETS Application segment Solar collectors Off-grid solar applications Utility grid power. Solar power will be bundled with power out of the cheaper unallocated quota of central stations and sold to state distribution utilities at the CERCregulated price. The requirement of phased indigenization would be specified while seeking the development of solar power projects under this scheme. The MoP shall allocate to NVVN the equivalent megawatt capacity from the Central unallocated quota from the NTPC power stations. well-performing utilities with proven financial credentials and demonstrated willingness to absorb solar power shall be included in the scheme. In order to enable the early launch of Solar India and encourage rapid scale up. P Specific amendments would be made to the Electricity Act 2003. The guidelines for fixing feed-intariff for purchasing solar power issued by the CERC (Central Electricity Regulatory Commission) will be revised on an annual basis. as per the existing statutory provisions. It is envisaged that distribution utility will pay the tariff determined by the State FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 19 . The size of each project would be determined. including rooftop Target for Phase 1 (2010–13) 7 million sq m 200 MW 1000–2000 MW Target for Phase 2 (2013–17) 15 million sq m 1000 MW 4000–10 000 MW Target for Phase 3 (2017–22) 20 million sq m 2000 MW 20 000 MW Although in the long run. At the end of Phase I. the Mission would seek to establish a sectorspecific legal and regulatory framework for the development of solar power. When NVVN supplies the bundled power to state utilities at the rates determined as per the CERC regulations. which would simplify the off-take of solar power and minimize the financial burden on the government. The CERC may issue appropriate guidelines in this regard. This will bring down the gap between the average cost and the sale price of power. This could be complemented with a solar specific REC (Renewable Energy Certificate) P mechanism to allow utilities and solar power generation companies to buy and sell certificates to meet their solar power purchase obligations. For the purpose of bundling. The above arrangement will be limited to utilityscale solar power generated from a maximum anticipated capacity of 1000 MW in the first phase. The above arrangement would be subject to review by the government in case of significant price movement in the market. power has to be purchased by an entity and re-sold to the state power distribution utilities.

new facilities will be required to manufacture concentrator collectors. Under the SIP scheme of the Department of Information Technology. including the setting up of dedicated manufacturing capacities for poly silicon material to annually make about 2 GW capacity of solar cells. critical materials. State governments would also be encouraged to promote and establish solar generation parks with dedicated infrastructure for setting up utility-scale plants to ensure ease of capacity creation. components. As there is no indigenous (special economic zones) like incentives to be provided to the manufacturing parks which may include: • Zero import duty on capital equipment and raw materials. The metering and billing arrangements between the utility and the rooftop PV operator will be as per the guidelines/regulations of the appropriate commission. supported with right level of incentives for solar generation coupled with large government pilot/demonstration programmes. and excise duty exemption • Low interest rate loans. It is also recommended that solar components be covered under the Bureau of Energy Efficiency’s star rating programme to ensure high standards. A normative Generation Based Incentive will be payable to the utility. • 20 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010 . which would be derived as the difference between the solar tariff determined by the CERC for the concerned solar generation technology less an assumed base price of Rs 5. priority sector lending GW solar power by 2022. capacity/capability for solar thermal power projects currently. SOLAR MANUFACTURING IN INDIA One of the Mission objectives is to take a global leadership role in solar manufacturing (across the value chain) of leading-edge solar technologies and target a 4–5 GW equivalent of installed capacity by 2020. The distribution utilities will be entitled to account such electricity generated and consumed within their license areas for the fulfillment of RPOs. Funds will be disbursed through IREDA. To achieve the installed capacity target. which includes cell manufacturing (both crystalline and thin film) and poly-silicon manufacturing among others. and other components to meet the demand for solar thermal power plants.50/kWh with 3% annual escalation. receivers. and project imports.feature article Electricity Regulatory Commission for the metered electricity generated from such applications (whether consumed by the grid-connected owner of the rooftop/ground-mounted installation or fed into the grid). P Financing and incentives: SEZ • Incentives under SIP policy to set up integrated manufacturing plants (i) from poly silicon material to solar modules and (ii) thin film-based module manufacturing plants. will make the Indian market attractive for solar manufacturers. which would be sufficient for meeting the Mission targets even after accounting for exports. The combined capacity projected by these 15 companies could result in the production of 8–10 Fiscal incentives It is also recommended that custom duties and excise duties concessions/ exemptions be made available on specific capital equipment. there are 15 applications in the domain of solar PV. the JNNSM recommends the following: P Local demand creation: The 20 GW plan.

and incorporate them. and the civil society to guide the technology development strategy. predictable. including hybrids with conventional power systems for obtaining feedback on the P P The Mission could tie up with institutions like CIIE (Centre for Innovation. operability. P The research council. and other concerned agencies for the detailed mapping of ground insulation. It will encourage joint projects between international partners and Indian centres of excellence. The council may invite eminent international experts in the field to support its work. P A NCE (National Centre of Excellence) shall be established to implement the technology development plan formulated by the research council and serve as its secretariat. and applications. inventorize existing institutional capabilities for solar R&D and encourage the setting up of a network of Centres of Excellence. It will coordinate the work of various R&D centres. and serve as an apex centre for testing and certification and for developing standards and specifications for the solar industry. Funding will need to be adequate. the Ministry of Earth Sciences. testing hybrid co-generation. as also encourage the setting up of R&D bases in India by advanced high-tech companies from abroad. The R&D strategy would deal with five categories—i) basic research with longterm perspective for the development of innovative and new materials. performance. durability. industry. and other agencies and institutions. offices. The NCE will be the main interface with international research institutions. the Department of Science and Technology. reducing costs of Balance of Systems. A committee may be set up to formulate a policy for promoting solar thermal manufacture in the country. the research council will review ongoing and proposed R&D initiatives of the MNRE.feature article Similar incentives will be required for manufacturing CSP (concentrated solar power) systems and their components. These will have 24×7 power and water supplies and will need to be located near large urban centres. as appropriate. and costs. P Infrastructure and ecosystem enablers: Create 2–3 large solar manufacturing tech parks consisting of manufacturing units (across the solar value chain). high-tech startup companies. particularly in high potential solar regions of the country. ii) applied research aimed at improvement of the existing processes. iii) technology validation and demonstration projects aimed at field evaluation of different configurations. research groups from foreign countries. create a single window clearance mechanism for all related permissions. government. In drawing up the Solar Technology Development Plan. which will focus on improving efficiency in existing applications. Incubation. validate research outcomes. with sharing of IPR (intellectual property right). housing. P RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT This Mission will launch a major R&D programme in solar energy. and research institutes. including foreign R&D institutions and high-tech companies. and multilateral programmes (such as those which may emerge from current negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). and representatives from academic and research institutions. and lack of convenient and cost-effective storage. materials. and should typically cover a time frame extending from 5–10 years. spaceintensity. P The NCE will serve as the funding agency to support performancelinked solar R&D programmes. It is envisaged that the Solar Energy Centre of the MNRE will become part of the NCE. the Mission may include the following: P Setting up a high-level research council to review and update the technology roadmap to achieve more rapid technological innovation and cost reduction. The NCE will coordinate with the IMD (Indian Meteorological Department). P Ease of doing business: In consultation with states. and Entrepreneurship) based in IIM (Indian Institute of Management) Ahmedabad to incubate solar energy start-ups FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 21 . This will include funding. or co-funding. in its plan. and v) support for incubation and start ups. P The NCE will provide a national platform for networking among centers of excellence and research institutions. and addressing constraints of variability. in coordination with the NCE. iv) development of R&D infrastructure in PPP (public-private partnership) model. and the technology for enhanced performance. To support the R&D strategy. processes. each focusing on an R&D area of its proven competence and capability. technical experts. of pilot demonstration projects in areas relevant to Mission objectives. It would comprise of eminent scientists. and cost-competitiveness of the systems/devices. ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization). with good linkages to ports and airports to ensure rapid access to imported raw materials and high quality engineering talent.

and financial support. P INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION Strategic international collaborations and partnerships aimed at meeting the priorities set out under the Mission would be developed. The authority/mission secretariat will be responsible for monitoring technology developments. embedded within the existing structure of the MNRE. networking. and SMEs in India through mentoring. IITs (Indian Institute of Technology) and premier engineering colleges will be involved to design and develop specialized courses in solar energy.feature article and/or an autonomous and enabled Solar Mission. which would enable upscaling of Mission targets The MNRE has already issued draft guidelines for rooftop PV and other small solar power plants connected to distribution network (below 33 kV) under the JNNSM. with financial assistance from the government. P International funds under the UNFCCC. We hope that the JNNSM is a great success and helps to provide power even to the remotest part of our nation. drawing upon its Department of Energy Science and Engineering and its Centre for Excellence in Nano-electronics. The returns generated on the government support to the fund shall be ploughed back for further promoting incubation activities in this space. amounting to. at least 10% of that of the government. review and adjust incentives. and for migration of existing under-development gridconnected solar projects from existing arrangements to the JNNSM. It is envisaged that at the end of Mission period. FINANCING THE MISSION ACTIVITIES The fund requirements for the Mission would be met from the following sources or combinations: P Budgetary support for the activities under the JNNSM established under the MNRE. The initiative shall be structured ideally in a PPP model to be able to provide risky capital to the aspiring entrepreneurs. for selection of new grid-connected solar projects under Phase 1 of the JNNSM. a countrywide training programme and specialized courses for technicians will be taken up to meet the requirement of skilled manpower for field installations and after sales service network. A fund could be established to aim at supporting at least 50 start-ups developing and deploying solar-related technologies across India over the next five years and would be managed by a professional entity. P A government fellowship programme to train 100 selected engineers/ technologies and scientists in solar energy in world-class institutions abroad will be taken up. In addition. and execute pilot projects. the solar industry will employ at least 100 000 trained and specialized personnel across the skill spectrum. For more.mnre. This may need to be sustained at progressively declining levels for 10 years.gov. along with effective technology transfer mechanisms and strong IPR protection. The following steps may be required for HRD: INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR IMPLEMENTING THE MISSION This Mission will be implemented by an autonomous solar energy authority 22 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010 . The Directorate General of Education and Training under the Ministry of Labour has agreed to introduce training modules for course materials for the technicians. manage funding requirements. It would also attract contributions from private stakeholders.in). The Mission would also explore the possibility of collaborating with the CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) to launch an Open Source Solar Development initiative on similar lines as the Open Source Drug Discovery platform of the CSIR. The Mission will report to the Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change on the status of its programme. visit the MNRE website (www. P A National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education at IIT. Mumbai. will be set up. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT The rapid and large-scale diffusion of solar energy will require a concomitant increase in technically qualified manpower of international standard.

The words of Dr Manmohan Singh. Prime Minister of India ‘I am very happy to be here today to launch the highly innovative JNNSM under the brand name ‘Solar India’. the MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy). experts from academia and research institutions. Union Minister of New and Renewable Energy. key industry representatives. not just in terms of solar power generation but also in solar manufacturing and generation of this technology. in its decentralized and distributed applications. including that of the NRIs (non-resident Indians). Its success has the potential of transforming India’s energy prospects and contributing to national as well as global efforts to combat climate change. The conclave provided a common platform to share the experiences of various stakeholders. Dr Farooq Abdullah. India is set to harness its huge solar potential. Hon’ble Prime Minister of India. Union Minister of Environment and Forests. and other solar power-based rural FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 23 . and other dignitaries during the Solar Energy Conclave. The importance of this Mission is not just limited to providing large-scale gridconnected power. Dr Manmohan Singh. and other related organizations. Jairam Ramesh. organized the ‘Solar Energy Conclave 2010’ at Vigyan Bhawan. With the launch of JNNSM. particularly Shri Shyam Saran. The event showcased the opportunities and the potential of solar energy development in the country. I sincerely hope that this solar mission will also establish India as a global leader in solar energy. solar water pumps. It provided a common ground for NRIs and Indian stakeholders to join hands to make the JNNSM a success and facilitate further expansion. It has the potential to provide significant multipliers in our efforts for transformation of India’s rural economy. This Mission is one of the major priorities of the second term of our government and I congratulate Dr Abdullah and my other colleagues. Already. along with FICCI (Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry). for the work they have done in bringing this to fruition. NRIs.O energy conclave Solar feature article n 11 January 2010. The one-day conclave was attended by speakers and icons from central and state governments. Increased use of solar energy is a central component of our strategy to bring about a strategic shift from our current reliance on fossil fuels to a pattern of sustainable growth based on renewable and clean sources of energy. in promoting solar energy in India and making the JNNSM (Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission) targets a reality. solar energy is beginning to light the lives of tens of millions of India’s energypoor citizens. This national solar mission has the pride of place in India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change. New Delhi. The rapid spread of solar lighting systems.

The target of 20 000 MW (megawatt) of solar-generating capacity by the end of the Thirteenth Five-year Plan is no doubt an ambitious target. industrial. I am convinced that solar energy can also be the next scientific and technological frontier in India after atomic energy. a momentum which has not been seen before. thereby leading to a steady lowering of costs. The carefully crafted regulatory and incentive framework that has been unveiled today has several innovative features. Clearly. or even coal-based power. The Solar Mission should evolve as a single national platform for coordination among our scientific. we may need to explore National Solar Mission’s success has the potential of transforming India’s energy prospects and contributing to national as well as global efforts to combat climate change. Cost-effective and convenient storage of solar energy beyond daylight hours will be critical to its emergence as a mainstream source of power. In the meantime. It is these strengths in science and technology that eventually have created the IT (information technology) revolution in India and made it a global power. It was the vision of Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru that enabled India to create world-class scientific and technological capacities in the field of atomic energy and space sector. There exists in our country immense talent and research capabilities already engaged in the solar energy field. biomass. technological innovation will be a key factor in ensuring the success of this Mission. We intend to significantly expand such applications through this Mission. FEBRUARY 2010 . the movement for decentralized and disbursed industrialization will acquire an added momentum. But I do sincerely believe that the target is doable and that we should work singlemindedly to achieve it as a priority national endeavour. space. As a result.feature article applications can change the face of India’s rural economy. 24 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 hybrid solutions. and regulatory establishments in a synergetic manner. combining solar power generation with gas. there will be no technological or economic constraint to the rapid and large-scale expansion of solar power thereafter. both in the private and public sectors. We expect that it will lead to a rapid scale up of capacity. including through the use of nanotechnology. Once parity with conventional power tariff is achieved. and IT. It is clear that a large number of ministries and authorities will have to work in tandem if we are to make a success of this important Mission. We will need to find ways of reducing the space intensity of current solar applications. This will encourage technological innovation and generate economies of scale.

I am confident. FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 25 . the initial cost of solar is very high. leading to an installed capacity of 20 000 MW by the end of the Thirteenth Five-year Plan in 2022. These valleys will become hubs for solar science. if the ambitious rollout of the Mission is to become a living reality. The Solar Mission is very much in line with his vision. I urge the Indian industry to see the National Solar Mission as the huge business opportunity that it is going to be. which has been enriched by stakeholder discussions and inputs. It is envisaged that as a result of rapid scale up as well as technological developments. your presence on this occasion demonstrates the commitment of the Government of India to develop and adopt clean energy technologies for the development of modern India. With these words. The role of industry in this Mission’s success will be critical. enabling accelerated and large-scale expansion thereafter. as also Mr Shyam Saran.’ The Solar Mission will be implemented in three stages. the price of solar power will continue to decline and attain parity with grid power at the end of the Mission. As we all know. the rapid development and deployment of solar energy applications provides an effective and sustainable solution. Sir. that under the leadership of our Hon’ble Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh. India’s development needed to be anchored in its mastery over cutting-edge technologies. in order to set the stage for achieving this ambitious target. It has the twin objectives of contributing to India’s long-term energy security and ensuring its growth in an ecologically sustainable manner. We have planned three major initiatives under the National Solar Mission to achieve I am happy that the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry has been associated with this event. a leading nuclear and space power. In this context and in view of the high solar radiation over the country. Eventually. The bounty of the Sun is truly inexhaustible. gas. The long-term policy vision of the Solar Mission has been put together as a document. especially for grid power generation. what we do in the next three to four years will be critical. we shall make India a global solar power as well. We aim to bring down the cost as quickly as possible. and solar research. and manufacturing. we cannot be oblivious to climatic and environmental dangers inherent in the large-scale use of fossil fuels. Also. It is to this source of energy that humankind must turn to meet the twin challenge of energy security and climate change. The Sun has long been recognized as a primal source of all energy on earth. This mission on solar energy is one of the eight National Missions which comprise India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change. Quite obviously. We are living in a world of rapidly depleting fossil fuel resources where access to conventional energy resources such as oil. Our policies and programmes in the first phase of the Mission will be critical to guide and decide the future course of action. which has made India today. For the security of our energy needs. For him. In an ancient civilization like India. today. MNRE ‘This Mission is named after India’s first and visionary Prime Minister. renewable. leading to an installed capacity of 20 000 MW by the end of the Thirteenth Five-year Plan in 2022. the deployment of renewable energy sources in our energy mix is imperative. solar engineering. and coal is becoming increasingly constrained. This will allow us to provide power to our villages and rural homes. fabrication. I would like to thank all my ministerial colleagues for their valuable inputs and support. the Sun has been worshipped as the God who bestows life and sustains it.feature article The words of Dr Farooq Abdullah. Special Envoy of the Prime Minister. Jawaharlal Nehru. we will have to create many ‘Solar Valleys’ on the lines of the Silicon Valleys that are spurring our IT industry across the four corners of our country. The Solar Mission will be implemented in three stages. He would have been equally keen and proud to see India attaining the same level of advancement in solar energy. I wish the JNNSM every success. and free. Union Minister.

I am happy to inform you. Sir. The NVVN will purchase solar power at rates fixed by the Central Regulatory Electricity Commission and for a period specified by the latter. Punjab. fall in this category. When the state utilities purchase solar power from the NVVN. (ii) announce a long-term policy to purchase power. and considerably reduce the burden on our grid. Shri Shinde ji. I am confident that with the investorfriendly arrangement put in place for grid-connected solar power. The focal point. and sufficiently extended tariff for the purchase of solar power. We are working together with financial institutions. 26 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 The implementation of the Mission will proceed on the basis of the technology advancements and cost reduction. and enable concerned states to meet their renewable power purchase obligation. FEBRUARY 2010 . who as the Minister of Power has made this arrangement possible. we aim to install 20 million sq m solar thermal collectors in the country and save about 7500 MW power generation capacity. and at Amritsar. as well as user groups to put together the correct set of incentives that will enable the achievement of these targets. that we have already taken the first steps in this regard and that 2MW each of solar power plants have recently been commissioned at Asansol. and (ii) support R&D (research and development) to reduce material consumption and improve efficiency and develop new materials and storage methods. industry. The Mission has decided to establish an investor-friendly mechanism which reduces risk and at the same time. we should be able to achieve the ambitious targets set out by the Solar Mission. will be the NVVN (NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam). We are conscious that the achievement of this target requires regulatory and incentive measures as well as an extensive awareness campaign. where rapid scale up is possible. such as water heaters. predictable. I wish to record my deep appreciation and grateful thanks to my senior Cabinet colleague. which is now mandatory. Solar lighting systems for rural and remote areas are also being purchased this (i) create volumes which will allow large-scale domestic manufacture. which is the power trading arm of the NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd). I would like to take this opportunity to request all state governments to aid this process by taking appropriate regulatory measures such as making the use of solar water heaters mandatory for certain types of consumers.feature article and this will also enable concerned states to meet their renewable power purchase obligation. There are several off-grid solar applications which are already commercially viable or near viability. which will be necessary for rapid scale-up and to achieve the target of 20 000 MW. The bundling of more expensive solar power with cheaper thermal power will enable a much cheaper tariff for the consumer. We can go for a rapid scale up in a short time. By 2022. provides an attractive. Solar thermal heating applications. they will get an equivalent amount of thermal power from it. West Bengal. The bundling of more expensive solar power with cheaper thermal power will enable a much cheaper tariff for the consumer. for the next three years. estimated at about Rs 5 or less per unit.

FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 27 . we are considering proposals for providing up to 30% grant-in-aid. and the need to take proactive measures for capacity building in advanced technologies and mass production of solar power. indigenization. The event also stressed upon the changing solar technology for both solar photovoltaic and solar thermal applications. we are trying to address the current drawbacks in using solar energy. Sir. in parallel. in launching the National Action Plan on Climate Change. Under the Solar Mission. especially rural banks. the evolving of a cost-effective and convenient storage for solar power is high on priority in our R&D efforts. In pursuance of this goal. we are working in close coordination with all other stakeholders. The sessions covered the JNNSM. to translate your vision into a practical. and cutting-edge research shall together lead to the cost reductions that are necessary for the rapid scale up and deployment of solar technologies. I have already mentioned about R&D being one of the key endeavours of the Solar Mission to bring down costs and promote deployment of solar technologies. It provided exposure to stateof-the-art technologies and acted as a platform for sharing of experience. As the first step. We shall also work. My ministry will help the banks do this through refinancing or interest rate subsidy.feature article commercially in several parts of the country. and offered business and networking opportunities among the members of the solar community. and knowledge sharing. We want 20 million solar lights to be installed by 2022. for instance. on accelerating the process of development of the domestic solar industry. to offer soft loans to consumers for this purpose. we propose to provide up to 90% support for setting up solar power plants. Large-scale use of solar lights can save substantial quantities of kerosene and also subsidy. it fuelled technology and R&D collaborations. Sir. which would result in a saving of about 1 billion litres of kerosene every year. I am proud to inform you sir. In addition. We would involve various stakeholders in human resource development and other capacitybuilding efforts. In such areas. solar thermal technology and applications. In many other solar applications. near Delhi. measured. We are adopting a technology-neutral approach. we aim to address this issue as well. We are working with banks. we laid the foundation stone of three major research projects. We are aware that there are areas in the country such as the island states and border areas which are still dependent upon diesel for power generation. that only yesterday. R&D (research and development). Indian policies. you had given a pride of place to the Solar Energy Mission. especially the states. On our part. where the initial cost is still very high. solar photovoltaic technology and applications. The event helped to gain a better understanding of the mutual needs and strengths. We believe that economies of scale. You have a vision of India emerging as a world leader in this sector. Instead of backing a particular technology. and cost-effective plan of action. Research and deployment needs skilled and trained manpower. we in the ministry. we have decided to offer fellowships to research students to work at our premier research centres and train them in solar energy technologies. have embarked on a focused R&D programme which seeks to address the India-specific challenges in promoting solar energy. investment and financing opportunities in solar energy. including one in PPP (Public-Private Partnership) mode in our Solar Energy Centre at Gurgaon. I would like to assure you once again that we are fully committed to translate your vision to make solar energy affordable and to make India a global solar power. To sum up The event highlighted the impact of the policy framework announced by the government and provided a platform for exchange of ideas. human resource development.

policy-makers. especially for combating poverty T and for environmental and climate protection. following the successful editions at Washington in 2008 (WIREC). The cabinetlevel government functionaries from a number of countries will join the civil society partners and private sector leaders to discuss the opportunities and challenges of rapid deployment of renewables globally. DIREC 2010 will bring together the industry. Following this. scientists. Beijing in 2005. financers. buyers. decision-makers. The DIREC 2010 comprises of multiple events—a global ministeriallevel meeting. and non-governmental leaders – is the 4th global ministeriallevel conference on renewable energy. a business conference. The Delhi Conference – an international platform for government. and Bonn in 2004. a trade show.feature article Delhi international renewable energy ConferenCe 2010 practical applications that are most relevant globally at this juncture. and sellers in a bid to develop and drive new initiatives. DIREC 2010 is part of the initiative taken at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. The international forum will endeavour to address the goal of advancing renewable energy for sustainable development. This would elicit 28 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010 . provide insights. showcase sustainable product development and green business opportunities. and facilitate interaction between entities from all over the world. and official side events. necessary steps have been initiated by the government and the MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) to host the conference from 27 to 29 October 2010 at New Delhi/NCR (National Capital Region). private sector. DIREC 2010 will also provide policymakers from all levels of government a robust menu of policy options and practical measures he Indian delegation participating in the Ministerial Session of WIREC (Washington International Renewable Energy Conference) 2008 announced that the Government of India will host the 4th DIREC (Delhi International Renewable Energy Conference) in 2010. acknowledging the significance of renewable energies for sustainable development.

29. and innovations. and (iii) to provide an unparalleled opportunity to connect with the best-in-industry and benchmark products and services in order to enhance global competitiveness. on each of the key technologies (wind. Arrangements for such meetings shall be made on request from the concerned parties. Knowledge Park–II. The participants will address and showcase key drivers of renewable energy production and applications. Sustainable renewable energy business models for grid-integrated/ decentralized applications. technology transfers. the DIREC 2010 will build on the success of the previous conferences with support of national and international sponsors. P Policy initiatives that can facilitate rapid scale-up of adoption of renewables DIREC 2010 aims to provide a platform for technology displays. new VENUE AND ACCESS Inaugural Plenary Session Vigyan Bhawan Auditorium Maulana Azad Road New Delhi–110 001 Conference and Exhibition India Exposition Mart Ltd Plot No. the event is expected to be the premier renewables gathering ever held in India. visit http://direc2010. sectoral sessions. Addressing trade and investment barriers for upscaling renewables. 25. setting of joint ventures. 27. 28. With more than 9000 delegates/participants. P Innovative financing and funding for mainstreaming renewables. and cross-cutting sessions on markets. Beside participation in the conference. with concrete proposals in support of activities at the country level.gov. to demonstrate the sectoral strength of the global renewable energy industry. and 600 exhibitors from 40 countries. the event will provide opportunity for oneto-one meetings for on-the-spot discussions/interactions within the conference premises to entrepreneurs seeking collaborations. Packed with a full-scale trade show with press conferences and product launches.in. ocean. and policy. FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 29 . DIREC 2010 will be hosted by the MNRE in association with partner organizations and managed by M/S Exhibitions India Group. New Delhi. including the following. finance. to display global R&D with respect to climate change and green environment.feature article that have been proven successful in accelerating the diffusion of renewable energy technologies. and biomass/biofuels/waste energy). The conference will ultimately lead to renewed commitment. and to facilitate: (i) buyers and sellers matching (ii) one-to-one meetings for setting up of joint ventures in the renewable energy sector. side events. hydro. For more information. solar. P Upscaling global effort for joint R&D (research and development) and technology transfer models. side/parallel events/presentations/interactive sessions. and trade show. Greater Noida Uttar Pradesh – 201 308 applications. geothermal. an exciting multi-track business conference. held over three days. over 250 industry leading speakers. and investments. REN21 – the Renewable Energy Network – will be a key partner in the conference.

In this background. there is urgent need for the country to develop a sustainable path of energy development. aims to promote. bank. Every sector of the national economy – agriculture. Minimum loan amount is Rs 5 lakh. and domestic – needs inputs of energy. NGO (non-governmental organization). and conserving energy through energy efficiency. and Solar Water Pumping Programme. Minimum loan amount is Rs 10 lakh. and resources. processes. IREDA provides financial assistance to several sectors. consumption of energy in all forms has been steadily rising all over the country. Intermediary: Any financial institution. a leading organization that provides efficient and effective financing in renewable energy and energy efficiency/conservation sectors. It has three main schemes— Solar Photovoltaic Market Development Programme. IREDA. established in 1987 under the administrative control of the MNRE. develop. 30 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010 . Solar Thermal Programme.feature article ENERGY FOREVER IREDA’S SOLAR FINANCING SCHEMES nergy is a basic requirement for economic development. Direct users: Directly approach IREDA to get loan for SPV (solar photovoltaic) system. industry. 80% on the SOLAR THERMAL PROGRAMME Schemes applicable IREDA is providing soft loan under two different categories—direct user scheme and intermediary scheme. and the like can become an intermediary of IREDA for on-lending soft loan to different end users. Incentives available Accreted depreciation: first year. and extend financial assistance for renewable energy and energy efficiency/conservation projects. Promotion of energy conservation and increased use of renewable energy sources are the two best options for the same. The motto is ‘energy forever’. It aims to improve the efficiency of services provided to customers through continual improvement of systems. The MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) has been implementing comprehensive programmes for the development and utilization of various renewable energy sources in the country. commercial. manufacturer. transport. Thus. And helping the ministry in this endeavour is IREDA (Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Ltd). The agency gives financial support to specific projects and schemes for generating electricity and/or energy through new and renewable sources. E SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC MARKET DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME Schemes applicable IREDA provides soft loans under the following categories. including solar energy.

central and state power generation companies. bank. The developer can set up projects up to a maximum of 5 MWp in the country. after taking into account the power purchase rate (per kWh) provided by the State Electricity Regulatory Commission or the utility for that project. A maximum cumulative capacity of 10 MWp of grid interactive SPV power generation projects can be set up in a state. The PPA (power purchase agreement) would draw reference to the State Electricity Regulatory Commission’s order in this regard and enclose copies of the same. IREDA will assist the P P P FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 31 . corporate bodies. Eligible organizations All existing registered companies. monitoring. Any project developer who fulfils the procedural requirements and the guidelines specified by the MNRE. Minimum loan amount is Rs 10 lakh. P Any project that is commissioned after 31 December 2009 would be eligible for a maximum incentive with a 5% reduction and ceiling of Rs 11.Direct user scheme: Directly approach IREDA to get loan for SPV (solar photovoltaic) system. NGOs. societies. corporate body. The projects will be undertaken on ‘Build Own and Operate’ basis. Setting up of captive grid interactive SPV power plant or captive utilization of SPV power is not covered. P The MNRE may provide. In all cases. 2. Eligible projects and eligibility criteria P Grid interactive SPV power generation plants of a minimum installed capacity of 1 MWp (megawatt-peak) per plant at a single location will be eligible for generation based incentive. the maximum amount of generationbased incentive shall not exceed Rs 12 per kWh. cooperative societies. reputed NGO can become intermediary of IREDA for on-lending soft loan to different end users for different kinds of application. solar thermal manufacturer.40 per kWh. which is being offered by the utilities for purchasing power in their respective states on medium term. or the highest tariff being provided for purchase of power from any other energy source for which orders/ guidelines are already issued for that state. the utilities will offer the highest tariff for purchasing power to the PV power project developers. The MNRE will consider support for a maximum capacity up to 50 MW during the Eleventh Five-year Plan period. either through a single project or multiple projects of a minimum capacity of 1 MWp each. Individuals. NGOs. Depreciation: 80% on the first year. financial institutions. from a notional amount of Rs 15 per kWh. MNRE in fund handling. autonomous institutions. Minimum loan amount is Rs 5 lakh. Generation based incentives Wherever the state electricity regulatory commissions have fixed a separate tariff for solar power or has fixed tariff during the period for which the MNRE is providing incentive. NBFC (non-banking financial company). Modular units can also be set up for achieving the same. 80% on the P GUIDELINES FOR GENERATION BASED INCENTIVE Grid interactive solar power generation projects With a view to develop and demonstrate technical performance of grid interactive solar power generation and achieve reduction in the cost of grid connected solar systems and solar power generation in the country. In the absence of such tariff orders. Intermediary scheme: Any financial institution. 3. research organizations. P Incentives available Accreted depreciation: first year. and public/private sector PV power project developers. banks. SOLAR WATER PUMPING PROGRAMME Schemes applicable The programme is open to all categories of users. subject to the condition that the beneficiaries give an undertaking to the implementing agency that they do not own a SPV water pumping system and the present system would be utilized for water lifting applications. the MNRE will support grid interactive solar power generation projects as demonstration projects in the country. including individuals. 1. and other associated activities in this regard. farmers. and state/central government agencies. a generation-based incentive of a maximum of Rs 12 per kWh (kilowatt hour) to the eligible projects which are commissioned by 31 December 2009. Incentives available Interest subsidy is available to the end users for both domestic and commercial application. The Ministry will not consider proposals that do not follow these guidelines on PPA. through IREDA. and other unorganized investors are not eligible to participate directly. state nodal agency. the utilities will offer a minimum of that tariff to the SPV grid interactive power projects in their respective states. Project developer desirous of availing the accelerated depreciation benefit for the project under section 32 of the Income Tax Act 1961 would not be eligible. will be eligible for consideration of generation based incentive. who have set up or propose to set up a registered company in India. P The maximum amount of generation based incentive applicable for a project will be determined after deducting the power purchase rate for which the PPA has been signed by the utility with a project developer.

in) or the MNRE website (www. Progress report The project developers of all approved projects will be required to submit annual progress report about the project and the annual report of the company. P The generation based incentive for solar thermal power generation project will be limited to a maximum of Rs 10 per kWh. Today RE is an established sector with a variety of systems and devices available for meeting the energy demand of urban inhabitants. The proposed annual escalations agreed with the utility. The publication material in two copies. case studies. Order no. m n r e . RE can play an important role in resolving the energy crisis in urban areas to a great extent. as and when the utility signs a PPA at a higher rate. IREDA will assist the MNRE in fund handling. CGO Complex.32/61/ 2007-08/PVSE for grid interactive solar power generation projects and 8/1/2007-08/ST for grid interactive solar thermal power generation.in w w w . generation projects as demonstration projects in the country.in). 4. g o v . renewable resources are at the forefront. monitoring. success stories. 20 000 copies are being disseminated in India and abroad. visit the IREDA website (www. It may be available for a maximum period of 10 years from the date of approval and regular power generation from that project. Lodhi Road. application format. provided the utility continues to purchase power from that grid interactive PV power plant. Akshay Urja publishes news. but there is a need to create mass awareness about their adoption. along with a soft copy on CD/floppy/e-mail may be sent to Editor. P P The generation-based incentive will continue to decrease.mnre. articles. and write-ups on RE. Akshay Urja will pay suitable honorarium for each published article of about 1500 words and above to the authors. and other associated activities in this regard. Akshay Urja Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. Inviting articles for Akshay Urja The need to have a sustainable supply necessitates the exploitation of available energy sources. +91 11 2436 3035 • Fax +91 11 2436 3035 • E-mail aktripathi@nic. Akshay Urja is an attempt to fulfil this need. which has set up and own the grid interactive PV power plant. The photographs should be provided on hard copy or as high resolution (minimum 300 DPI) files on a CD. New Delhi – 110 003 Tel.ireda. the MNRE will support grid interactive solar power For further information. should be reflected in the PPA. Readers are invited to send material with original photographs and statistical data. and among these. Block – 14. Grid interactive solar thermal power generation With a view to develop and demonstrate technical performance of grid interactive solar power generation and achieve reduction in the cost of the grid connected solar systems and the cost of solar power generation in the country. P The MNRE will consider support for a maximum capacity of 50 MW (including SPV as well as solar thermal power generation) during the Eleventh Fiveyear Plan period.feature article P The incentive will be released by IREDA to the eligible PV power project developer on quarterly basis. i n 32 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010 . as in force. The same method to determine the eligible incentive will be adopted in this case. details of incentives. It is now an established fact that RE (renewable energy) can be an integral part of sustainable development because of its inexhaustible nature and environment-friendly features.gov. and other related guidelines. P The broad guidelines specified for grid interactive solar power generation projects will also be applicable for grid connected solar thermal power generation projects. research papers. P The technical performance optimization parameters will change as necessary.

Sikandra. In solar cells. Efficiency up to 70% can be reached using these concepts. The main approach to reduce this loss in efficiency has been to use a stack of cascaded multiple p-n junctions with bandgaps better matched to the solar spectrum. using semiconductor QDs (quantum dots). multiband and impurityband solar cells. slow hot carrier cooling T can be achieved. There are two fundamental ways to use the hot carriers for enhancing the efficiency of photon conversion. several schemes for exceeding the theoretical limit have been proposed by various research groups and are under active investigation.feature article PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL DESIGN AND ADVANCEMENTS Samarth Jain Silhouette Rainbows. and TPV (thermophotovoltaic)/thermo-photonic cells. the ultimate conversion efficiency at one-sun intensity can increase to about 66%. Kailash Turn. Another approach is to use the hot carriers before they relax to the band edge via phonon emission. In the limit of an infinite stack of bandgap perfectly matched to the solar spectrum. thus producing either enhanced photocurrents through II or enhanced photo voltages through hot electron transport and collection. which are based on the use of quantum properties of materials that arises when material is reduced to nano domain. hot-carrier solar cells. Agra—282 005 detailed balance and a single threshold absorber was calculated by Shockley and Queissar in 1961 to be about 31%. as the hot photo generated carriers relax to their respective band edges. Here we will discuss only hot carrier and II solar cells and the effects of size quantization on the carrier dynamics that control the probability of these processes. These include tandem cells. The advantage of incorporating QW (quantum wells) in PV cells is the flexibility offered by bandgap engineering. A major factor limiting the conversion efficiency in single-bandgap cells to 31% is that the absorbed photon energy above the semiconductor bandgap is lost as heat through electron-phonon scattering and subsequent phonon emission. As conversion efficiency is one of the most important parameters that need to be optimized for implementing PV and photochemical cells on a truly large scale. Working principle The maximum thermodynamic efficiency for the conversion of unconcentrated solar irradiance into electrical free energy in the radiative limit assuming FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 33 . One way produces an enhanced photovoltage and the other QUANTUM STRUCTURED his review article looks at the novel approach to high efficiency PV (photovoltaic) cells. solar cells producing multiple electronhole pairs per photon through II (impact ionization).

superlattices. However. the absorbed light intensity). cool more slowly.5 eV (electronvolt).feature article produces an enhanced photocurrent. slowed hot-electron cooling in QWs and superlattices that is produced by a hot phonon bottleneck requires very high light intensities to create the required photogenerated carrier density of greater than about 1×1018cm-3. Another important factor is that hot-carrier cooling rates are dependent upon the density of the photogenerated-hot carriers (viz. and interfacial transfer across the contacts to the semiconductor must all be fast compared to the rate of carrier cooling. in QDs. In the Shockley–Queissar analysis. In recent years. In bulk semi-conductors. Relaxation Dynamics of Hot Exciton’s in QDs As discussed. However. When the carriers in the semiconductor are confined by potential barriers to regions of space that are smaller than or comparable to their deBroglie wavelength or to the Bohr radius of excitons in the semiconductor bulk. However. this translates into a photoinduced electron density of about 1014cm-3 at steady state. quantum wires. Such carriers are called ‘hot electrons and hot holes’ and their initial temperature upon photon absorption can be as high as 3000 oK (degree Kelvin). it is not possible to obtain slowed hot carrier cooling in semiconductor QWs and superlattices with solar irradiation via a hot phonon bottleneck effect. the solar spectrum contains photons with energies ranging from 0. the rates of photogenerated carrier separation. it has been proposed and experimentally verified in some cases that the relaxation dynamics of photogenerated carriers may be largely affected by quantization effects in the semiconductor (that is in semiconductor QWs. Hence. The latter requires that the rate of II (that is inverse Auger effect) be greater than the rate of carrier cooling and other relaxation processes for hot carriers. and the rate of II could become competitive with the rate of carrier cooling. the situation with threedimensional confinement in QDs is potentially more favourable. thus reducing the overall heat loss due to carrier relaxation via phonon emission. for most inorganic semiconductors electrons have effective masses that are significantly lighter than holes and consequently. In Figure 1 Carrier relaxation dynamics in semiconductor 34 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010 . resulting in severe practical problems. solar concentration ratios greater than 104 would be required. In this way higherenergy photons are absorbed in the higher-bandgap semiconductors and lower-energy photons in the lower-bandgap semiconductors. with the carrier that has the lower effective mass receiving more of the excess energy. This required intensity. Hot electrons and hot holes generally cool at different rates because they generally have different effective masses. Photons with energies below the semiconductor bandgap are not absorbed. QDs. The main approach to reduce this loss and increase efficiency above the 32% limit has been to use a stack of cascaded multiple p–n junctions in the absorber with bandgaps better matched to the solar spectrum (Fig 1). as the carriers relax to their respective band edges (bottom of conduction band for electrons and top of valence band for holes) and equilibrate with the phonons. with the lattice temperature of 300 oK. assuming a carrier lifetime of 1 ns and an absorption coefficient of 1×105cm-1. possible with laser excitation. while those with energies above the bandgap create electrons and holes (charge carriers) with a total excess kinetic energy equal to the difference between the photon energy and the bandgap. the division of this kinetic energy between electrons and holes is determined by their effective masses. a major factor limiting the conversion efficiency to 32% is that the absorbed photon energy above the semiconductor bandgap is lost as heat through electron-phonon scattering and subsequent phonon emission. transport. the hot-carrier cooling rates may be dramatically reduced. To achieve the former. This excess kinetic energy creates an effective temperature for an ensemble of photogenerated carriers that can be much higher than the lattice temperature. is many orders of magnitude greater than that provided by solar radiation at the Earth’s surface maximum solar photon flux is about 1018cm-2s-1. the distribution of excess energy is determined by the quantized energy level structure in the QDs and the associated selection rules for the optical transitions between the hole and electron levels. and nanostructures).5 to 3.

The former is wellbottleneck’.8 Eg. Additionally. meaning that multiple excitons are essentially created instantly upon absorption of high-energy photons. Indeed. and InSb (Silicon. Since phonon scattering rates only when the this Auger process can occur in QDs. where Eg is the absorption energy gap of the Nanocrystal (HOMO-LUMO [highest occupied molecular orbital– lowest unoccupied molecular orbital] transition energy). II has not contributed Auger effect) an important process in meaningfully to improved quantum QDs. A new possible mechanism for MEG was introduced that invokes a coherent superposition of multiple-excitonic states. Most recently. Furthermore. crystal momentum need not be conserved because momentum is not a good quantum number for three-dimensionally-confined carriers.9 nm diameter PbSe QDs at a photon energy of 4 Eg. The following interactions can be significantly discussion will present a discussion of reduced because of the discrete the hot carrier cooling dynamics. Ge. ionizing it alone because. kinetic energy of the electron is many the inverse Auger process. MEG has been reported in CdSe (cadmium selenide) QDs and PbTe (lead telluride) QDs. but has been equilibrium distribution of phonons). Germanium. PL (photoluminescence) blinking yield in working solar cells. is greatly enhanced due to carrier confinement and increased electron–hole Coulomb interaction. QYs above 200% indicate the formation of more than two excitons per absorbed photon. very efficient multiple electron– hole pair (multi-exciton) creation by one photon was reported recently in PbSe (Lead Selenide) nanocrystals by Schaller and Klimov. slowed hot-electron can be created either by applying an cooling is theoretically possible even electric field or by absorbing a photon at arbitrarily low light intensity.feature article Multiple Exciton Generation in QDs The formation of multiple electron–hole pairs per absorbed photon in photoexcited bulk semiconductors is a process typically explained by II. the one pair recombines and transfers its threshold photon energy for II exceeds recombination energy to one of the that required for energy conservation remaining charge carriers. character of the electron–hole spectra. This creates a must be conserved. it is also anticipated that of Si. in QDs. whereby times the Eg (bandgap energy). after some time. rate of exciton multiplication (inverse However. primarily in QDs (intermittent PL as a function of because the II efficiency does not reach time) has been explained by an Auger significant values until photon energies process whereby if two electron–holes reach the ultraviolet region of the pairs are photogenerated in a QD. the slowed cooling could make the and Indium antimonide). in addition to over the potential barrier at the surface conserving energy. the charged QD that quenches radiative rate of II must compete with the rate of emission after subsequent photon energy relaxation by electron–phonon absorption. The FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 35 . one high-energy electron–hole pair However. the rate of electron can generate two electron–hole pairs. They reported an excitation energy threshold for the formation of two excitons per photon at 3 Eg. Evidence was also provided to show the threshold for MEG (multiple exciton generation) by optical excitation is 2 Eg (not 3 Eg as reported previously for PbSe QDs). and seven excitons per photon were reported in PbSe QDs at 7 times the bandgap. this with energy above the semiconductor effect is simply called a ‘phonon bandgap energy. It has been shown that the electron can return to the QD core rate of II becomes competitive with and the PL is turned on again. In bulk semiconductors. The rate of Auger processes. without the qualification studied and understood. The kinetic energy the case of QD. The latter of requiring hot phonons (a nonprocess is less studied. Schaller and Klimov reported a QY (Quantum Yield) value of 218% (118% II efficiency) at 3. observed in photoexcited p–n junctions Furthermore. relaxation through electron–phonon can also occur in QDs. Other researchers have recently reported a QY value of 300% for 3. In this process. the ionized scattering. including the inverse Auger process of exciton multiplication. indicating the formation of three excitons per photon for every photoexcited QD in the sample. an electron or hole with kinetic energy greater than the semiconductor bandgap Figure 2 Multiple quantum dots with varying bandgaps produces one or more arranged for full spectrum conversation additional electron–hole pairs. crystal momentum into the surface region. and it was also shown that comparably efficient MEG occurs also in PbSe nanocrystals. spectrum.

In order to produce the slowed hot electron cooling via the phonon bottleneck. this allows engineering of the bandgap for a better match with the incident spectrum. exciting these electrons with an infrared pulse. Several studies indicate that QWCs have a better temperature dependence of efficiency than bulk cells. Specifically. AlGaAs is closely lattice matched to GaAs and the bandgap can be easily varied by changing the Al fraction up to about 0. This is important for relatively low temperature sources combined with appropriate selective emitters. QWCs have practical advantages due to both quantized energy levels Conclusion The relaxation dynamics of photoexcited electrons in semiconductor QDs can be greatly modified as compared to the bulk form of the semiconductor. DBRs (distributed Bragg reflectors) are particularly suited for QWCs in multi-junction devices. In particular.9nm diameter PbSe QDs when the energy of the photon absorbed is four times that of the bandgap. QWCs allow current matching and optimizing the bandgaps for higher efficiencies. the same concept of strain compensation can be applied to extend the absorption to longer wavelengths. For TPV applications. allowing optimization of the bandgap. Slowed cooling in QDs could lead to their use in solar cell configurations. Light-trapping schemes are an important technique to boost the quantum efficiency in the QWs. or by injecting electrons into the LUMO level (conduction band) of the QD from an external electron donating chemical species and then. thus producing enhanced photocurrents or photovoltages and corresponding enhanced conversion efficiencies with thermodynamics limits of 66% (one sun). the first p–i–n QWCs were in the material system AlGaAs (aluminum gallium arsenide)/GaAs (barrier/well) on GaAs. The Auger cooling is blocked by rapidly removing the photogenerated hole before it undergoes Auger scattering with the photogenerated electron. Historically. Slowed electron cooling in QDs offers the potential of using QDs in solar cells to enhance their conversion efficiency. The number of QWs is limited by the maximum thickness of the i-region maintaining an electric field across it. it is observed that the voltage is enhanced as compared with a bulk cell made of the QW material. longer wavelengths for absorption can be achieved than what is possible with lattice-matched bulk material. QWCs have been investigated quite extensively on GaAs (gallium arsenide) and InP (Indium phosphide) substrates. and allow fast electron cooling. allowing light transmission to the lower bandgap junctions underneath. wherein II (the formation of two or more electron–hole pairs per absorbed photon) or hot electron separation. The primary advantage of incorporating QWs in PV cells is the flexibility offered by bandgap engineering by varying QW width and composition. The use of strain compensation further increases this flexibility by extending the range of materials and compositions that can be employed to achieve absorption thresholds at lattice constants that do not exist in bulk material. QDs made of PbS (lead sulphide) also showed the same phenomenon. The absorption threshold can be varied by changing the width of the QW and/or by changing its material composition. This slowed cooling is caused by a so called ‘phonon bottleneck’ when the energy spacing between quantized levels in the quantum dot is greater than the LO-phonon (longitudinal optical– phonon) energy. a schematic bandgap diagram is shown in Figure 2. Early device designs placed the QWs in the doped regions of a p–n device.7. The photocurrent is enhanced in a QWC (Quantum Well Cell) as compared to a cell made without QWs (also known as barrier control). thus inhibiting hot electron relaxation (cooling) by electron–phonon interactions. where the bandgap becomes indirect. and the greater flexibility in choice of materials. transport. QW and Superlattices QWs are thin layers of lower bandgap material in a host material with a higher bandgap. QWCs can enhance the efficiency if the photocurrent enhancement is greater than the loss in voltage. the cooling dynamics of highly energetic (hot) electrons created by absorption of supra-bandgap photons can be slowed by at least one order of magnitude (4–7 ps [physical slot] versus 400– 700 fs [sampling frequency]). for example based on holmia or thulia. This way. Hence. In a tandem or multi-junction configuration. But superior carrier collection is achieved when an electric field is present across the QWs. The carriers escape from the QWs thermally and by tunnelling. This flexibility can be further increased by employing straincompensation techniques.feature article researchers report a QY of 300% for 2. and experimentally. it is necessary to block an Auger process that could bypass the phonon bottleneck 36 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010 . But multiple excitons start to form when the photon energy reaches twice the bandgap. More recent QWC designs have employed a p–i–n structure with the QWs located in the intrinsic region. and transfer can become significant.

more than 2000 tonnes per year. the company installed another SR Gasifier of 300kW (thermal) capacity in May 2009. It has not FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 37 . Siltara (Phase II). Ltd is situated at Village Sondra. is a manufacturer of cast iron castings. However. The company now saves more than 6 tonnes of coal every day. This has considerably enhanced the efficiency of the process of mold heating. the company also saves more than 3 tonnes of coal use every day. it decided to adopt the clean energy process and install a biomass gasifier. LTD only reduced fossil fuel consumption. Encouraged by the success of this project. BY ARPEE ISPAT PVT. The gasifier has been manufactured by S R Biofuels. It used to burn huge amounts of coal to dry the casting molds.green initiative INSTALLATION OF biomass gasifier IN VILLAGE SONDRA. Raipur. SILTARA. On the advice of CREDA (Chhattisgarh State Renewable Energy Development Agency). Ltd and CREDA is also avoiding the emission of more than 4000 tonnes of carbon dioxide and 900 kg of sulphur dioxide every year. this not only wasted a lot of energy. Courtesy: CREDA A rpee Ispat Pvt. but has also prevented pollution. The producer gas is then burnt in the present mold heater. that is. Wood chips are fed into the gasifier. In October 2008. A reduction of 4–5 hours has been observed in the mold-drying process. This effort of R P Ispat Pvt. This is their major contribution towards the environment and energy conservation. In addition. the company installed a biomass gasifier of 300 kW thermal power capacity. RAIPUR. but also caused a lot of pollution.

introduction of herbal garden. and so on. recycling of papers. The initial phase to illuminate the front pillars of the Bhavan has been completed. conservation of biodiversity through plantation of saplings of tree species that once existed. Accordingly. In 2008. Shri Pratibha Devisingh Patil. In this regard.green initiative RAJ BHAVAN KOLKATA goes green t is now widely accepted that renewable sources of energy help achieve socioeconomic development. During the inauguration ceremony. in recent years. reduction in maintenance expenditure. the Raj Bahvan can save on an average Rs 5 lakh annually on electricity bills. taken several initiatives to make it a ‘green’ and energy-efficient building. has paved the way for such initiatives in the country. The Raj Bhavans of India are also part of this scheme. The grid-interactive solar power plant would export power to the focal power grid and remain live in the absence of grid power. Hon’ble President of India. 38 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010 . ‘Once the project is complete. On 8 December 2009. It will cater to 30% of the energy needs of the Raj Bhavan. Union Minister of New and Renewable Energy. Use of LED lights is also part of the project. several changes have been made. and energy-efficient devices at places of national and international importance for India. launched the project by switching on 12 solar I energy-operated LED (Light Emitting Diodes) fixtures in the Bhavan. And the Raj Bhavan in Kolkata has become the country’s first Raj Bhavan to launch a solar power project for supplying energy to the building. The proposed renewable energy activities in Raj Bhavan are expected to be completed by March 2010 and work in this respect has already been started. but will also lead to significant reduction in carbon dioxide emission due to the reduced consumption of coal. coal consumption will be reduced by 600 kg a day. Dr Farooq Abdullah. Also. while ensuring environmental protection. Green initiatives The Raj Bhavan in Kolkata has. And the Raj Bhavan. He said that there are plans to include heritage sites like the Victoria Memorial and the old temples located in various parts of the country in a bid to popularize renewable energy. The expected annual energy output of the power station would be 60 000 kWh (kilowatt hour). solar thermal system. He thanked Governor Gopal Krishna Gandhi for pioneering the Raj Bhavan scheme. Managing Director. an audit of its energy consumption was carried out to initiate corrective steps and necessary developmental measures. The solar project The latest step in this regard is the Rs 1 crore project that envisages building a 50 KW grid-interactive solar photovotaic power station in the Raj Bhavan. said that his ministry has set aside Rs 1 crore for each of the Raj Bhavans in the country to implement similar solar projects. Kolkata.’ said S P Gon Chaudhuri. This includes reduction in electricity and fuel consumptions. The entire project has been approved and funded by the MNRE and the scheme is being executed by the West Bengal Green Energy Development Corporation Ltd. The main aims are to publicize renewable energy technologies and systems and to disseminate information about them. West Bengal Green Energy Development Corporation. This initiative will not only reduce the electricity consumption. the MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) has recently launched a scheme to utilize different renewable energy devices like solar photovoltaic power system. setting up of rainwater harvesting projects. along with a 2000 litre solar water heating system.

TERI.RE event India–Iceland Workshop on Renewable Energy he MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) recently organized the India–Iceland Workshop on Renewable Energy. Union Minister for New and Renewable Energy. ‘Iceland being well-recognized by the UNESCO (United Nations Educational. It also deliberated on cooperation in the area of small hydro power sector. Third World Future Energy Summit at Abu Dhabi Dr Farooq Abdullah. In his remarks. India. President of Iceland. and setting up of geothermal demonstration power plants. environmentfriendly mix of primary resources for energy generation. and Dr R K Pachauri. He listed out areas likely for cooperation between the two countries including technology transfer on deep drilling. Dr Olafur Ragnar Grimsson. and the achievement of an optimum. addressing the Indo-Iceland Workshop on Renewable Energy in New Delhi on 15 January 2010. participated in the discussions at the Energy Minister’s Round Table during the plenary session of the Third World Future Energy Summit at Abu Dhabi. The chief guest at the inaugural session of the workshop was Dr Olafur Ragnar Grimsson. reservoir assessment. said Dr Abdullah. DirectorGeneral of TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute) and Chairman of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). President of Iceland. with focus on development and utilization of geothermal energy and small hydro power. Dr Farooq Abdullah said that bilateral cooperation with Iceland is essential to make progress in the area of geothermal energy development. Director-General. Minister of State of External Affairs. and Cultural Organization) to provide training in geothermal energy development should consider training a group of Indian engineers and scientists on all the aspects of geothermal energy utilization’. Union Minister of New and Renewable Energy. Dr Farooq Abdullah. are also seen. About 100 delegates from India and Iceland participated in the workshop. The workshop discussed issues related to cooperation between India and Iceland for the development of geothermal sector in India by assessing the geothermal resources and its utilization for power generation and thermal applications. also participated in the workshop. T Dr Farooq Abdullah. FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 39 . and Dr R K Pachauri. Preneet Kaur. Preneet Kaur. Minister of State for External Affairs. Scientific. he highlighted India’s energy strategy aiming at efficiency and security. UAE (United Arab Emirates). Union Minister of New and Renewable Energy.

solar lighting systems. Emphasizing the need to consider regional conditions while planning. TERI. Union Minister of New and Renewable Energy. subject to site conditions. Inaugurating the event in New Delhi. developers. Deepak Gupta said. so that all new urban complexes or cities adhere to these principles. We now have to go beyond buildings and develop green habitats. are preparing a comprehensive capacity building programme. and so on. MNRE. To bring about a major change. GRIHA Secretariat. Recognizing the importance of green buildings. architectural techniques. aesthetically beautiful. We extend our hands of cooperation to all of you. He said. Dr Farooq Abdullah. The one-day conference on GRIHA and Green Buildings included an exhibition of Green Building Materials and Technologies. biomass gasifiers. a platform to facilitate a pan-India. solar cookers. Millions of decentralized energy systems. the minister said that it is time to work towards a world free of fossil fuels. biogas plants. Dr R K Pachauri said. with an installed base of over 15 gigawatt. GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment) Secretariat. Union Minister of New and Renewable Energy was the chief guest for the event.’ The first national conference on GRIHA ‘The ministry has incentivized GRIHA to promote large-scale design and construction of green buildings that include re-imbursement of registration fee. and improved cook stoves are now being used in the country. and contributes over 3% in the electricity mix…India is open to any research collaboration to achieve this objective with any of you. Our talented pool of manpower. with the help of TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute) and the MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) organized the first GRIHA National Conference. addressing the GRIHA National Conference in New Delhi on 04 January 2010. Secretary. our tradition of pursuit of wisdom and our firm commitment to achieve a sustainable energy future would make any collaboration fruitful.’ Explaining the importance of green buildings. TERI has been at the forefront of this and is fortunate to get MNRE’s support and encouragement in this process. our diversity of climate.re event ‘We are working for the development of renewable energy sources using the latest technological developments for around three decades now to meet our energy requirements from these energy sources as much as possible.’ While giving his special remarks. ratings based on solid scientific principles. and Siva Kishan. ‘Either we wake up now or sleep forever.’ ADaRSH. irrigation pumps. Chief Executive Officer. GRIHA is suited to Indian conditions than any other overseas ratings. aero-generators. and methods that stood the test of times are essential. 40 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010 . as well as energy efficient. Dr R K Pachauri. Director-General. Other dignitaries present on the occasion were Deepak Gupta. Dr Abdullah said that the new buildings should be functional. cash awards. The ministry. ‘There is a building boom in India that is only going accelerate and we need to build in a way that does not get locked in inefficiency. ongoing interaction and networking between building professionals. which is around 10% of India’s total power generation capacity. and Dr Farooq Abdullah. The Government of India now proposes that all its new buildings must be GRIHA 4 Star compliant. Compared to many other countries our progress is good. India today stands among the top five countries in terms of renewable energy capacity. along with TERI and other stakeholder institutions.

Dr Farooq Abdullah. and other dignitaries at the inauguration of the DSDS 2010 FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 41 . government officials from Central Public Works Department. the nations need to come together as a part of the global community to combat the effects of climate change. non-governmental organizations. National Building Construction Corporation. as GRIHA currently provides guidelines only for new buildings.re event government officials was formally launched. Inaugurating the exhibition. Tenth DSDS he message of the three-day 10th DSDS (Delhi Sustainable Development Summit) . TERI organized the third International Climate Change Exhibition on the sidelines of DSDS 2010. developers. computer games for school children on green buildings were inaugurated during the conference. The conference sought inputs of leading design professionals and industry people in developing GRIHA guidelines for the entire range of development activities and to frame guidelines for existing buildings and large agglomerations like special economic zones and townships. engineers. the DSDS 2010 saw the participation T of more than 300 delegates—key stakeholders from various parts of the world comprising the Heads of State. and the likes – attended the conference. National Thermal Power Corporation. representatives from multilateral and bilateral development organizations. corporate sector. Themed ‘Beyond Copenhagen: new pathways to sustainable development’. governments. Providing a platform for 34 leading exhibitors to showcase their cuttingedge climate change technologies and projects to a global market. to make green building a household name. and research institutions. Dr Manmohan Singh. The conference will now be annual affair to provide a platform for exchange of ideas and thoughts for various stakeholders in this industry. and for the public to become aware of such technologies that can contribute towards effective adaptation to climate risks. ministers. academia. In addition. Hon’ble Prime Minister of India. hailed it as an excellent platform for companies to showcase their new environment-friendly technologies that facilitate low carbon growth. Union Minister of New and Renewable Energy. sent out a clear message to the global community— while the impacts may vary. More than 300 participants – architects. held under the aegis of TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute).

banks. Ajay Aggarwal of Mailhem Enterprises. The Australian government has set its own renewable energy targets of 20% by 2020. While various manufacturers gave presentations on solar water heating systems. shared their views on energy-efficient green buildings. Australia. The workshop concluded with an interaction with participants. The workshop was inaugurated by Dr Lachan Strahan. along with senior architects. Ltd. Representatives from TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute) and user organizations. India has its own solar energy mission. and so on. TERI. the workshop witnessed speakers and delegates from the IITs (Indian Institute of Technology) of Chennai. ‘The challenge before us. the MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) and UPNEDA (Uttar Pradesh New and Renewable Energy Development Authority) jointly organized a one-day Workshop on Energy-efficient Solar/Green Buildings with various stakeholders at Hotel Radisson.. Director. Dr Ashok K Chauhan. It has been two months that the Copenhagen conference took place where the world community grappled with the challenge of climate change. K C Chari of Birla Institute of Management and Technology. Noida. there was a presentation on solar hybrid technology for green buildings. Delhi and Roorkee. Siva Kishan. Founder President of Amity Universe. Supported by Department of Science and Technology. Dr Chauhan A formally announced the launch of the Amity Indo-Australian Commerce Science and Technology Foundation. senior architect and Director of 3C Company. government. Delhi. Amit Kumar of TATA BP Solar. Indo-Australian Solar Energy Workshop at Amity University Campus. The workshop helped to enable stakeholders to utilize these concepts in the existing and proposed buildings. We all acknowledge that it was a difficult conference and agreement to so many issues was not reached. The foundation will work in the areas of commerce. we must find ways of developing cleaner sources of energy. technology providers spoke about kitchen waste treatment plants. science. Growdiesel. Solar energy must be a part of that solution. it has sets its ambitious targets for solar power generation. The participants deliberated on the development of energy-efficient solar/green buildings in different types of residential and non-residential dwellings. is to find a living which is in harmony with the planet. The two governments – Indian and Australian – have recognized the fundamental importance of solar energy. as a planet and as a race. promised that the projects developed out of the discussions and deliberations during the two-day workshop would be commercially utilized.’ Talking about the solution to the problem. Noida mity Institute of Renewable and Alternative Energy. Vidhur Bhardwaj. CEO. Guwahati. Dr Strahan said. Dr Strahan added. Acting High Commissioner.re event Workshop on energy-efficient solar/green buildings O n 25 February 2010. In addition. Prof. Yashwant Thakur. In his inaugural address. The workshop was attended by policy-makers and heads/ senior officials of various interested sectors like architects. Suryakiran Technologies Inc. Anurag Bajpai of Green Tree Building Energy Pvt. CEO (Chief Executive Officer). Amity University. and technology and thereby. attempt to bring credit to both the countries. The event was attended by Dr A K Tripathi. ‘We also know that technology must be a part of the solution to climate change. I agree that IT has opened up wonderful new ways of communication but there is no substitute for coming together and meeting each other face to face. MNRE. and Atul Saxena. GRIHA Secretariat.’ Most of the speakers pointed out one common and important fact that India and Australia are blessed with abundant solar 42 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010 . Technical Director. organized a twoday Indo-Australian Solar Energy Workshop beginning 9 February 2010 at the university’s campus in Noida. builders. This conference will strengthen the expanding relationship between India and Australia. Kanpur.

Mutual cooperation is very important between nations. For example. and ‘Phase Change Thermal Storage for Solar Application’. said. ‘Dye Sensitized Solar Cells’. Amity University should promote the use of solar energy in its hostels and all its institutions. While addressing the distinguished gathering during the valediction of the workshop. Union Minister of New and Renewable Energy. torpedoes. organized by Amity University. Amity Institute of Renewable and Alternative Energy. DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organization). energy. India. Chief Controller. so that the students there can access the best of education. low-weight solar batteries made of plastic or polymer. said. The workshop had a very good representation from educational institutions. industries. which should be utilized to the fullest extent. engineers…human resources in this area and Amity will provide us the same. I will request Dr Chauhan to send your students from the Renewable Energy Institute to the R-Park in Gurgaon which is run by the Ministry [Ministry of New and Renewable Energy]. I am disappointed from the Copenhagen Summit. Normally. we do develop unmanned air vehicles but now we are talking about solar-powered unmanned air vehicles which can keep roaring for days and days. ‘High Efficiency Flexible Solar Cells’. Noida. research laboratories/ institutions. and in the next 10 years. Union Minister for New and Renewable Energy. The DRDO is encouraging institutes and students to carry on research in this area. you will see there what research has been done by the Government of India itself. we have started looking at solar energy for various reasons. aircrafts. ‘Solar Thermal Systems’. We should talk less and have easy access to scientists and ideas of other countries. But off late. But the cost of solar energy needs to be reduced to make it a viable source of energy’.’ Dr V K Jain. and so on. The topics discussed during the workshop included ‘Silicon Solar Cells/ New Technologies’. The need of the hour is low-cost. which means over 5000 trillion kilowatts of solar energy in a year. ‘India is blessed with 300 sunny days in a year. Director.re event Dr Farooq Abdullah. and Chairman of the workshop. We need easy technology transfer between countries. FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 43 .’ Dr Chauhan promised the Dr Abdullah to establish an Amity campus in Jammu and Kashmir. Government of India. We need people. the DRDO deals with missiles. Dr C K Prahlada. a lot of opportunities exist for this in the solar energy sector. said. it did not come up to my expectations. speaking at the Indo-Australian Solar Energy Workshop. ‘We will give some grants to the institutes to undertake fundamental research in this area. Dr Farooq Abdullah. ‘Both the countries have abundant sun to play with. and ministries.

Akshay Urja Room No. CGO Complex Lodhi Road. one letter to each square. The Editor.res. Paryavaran Bhavan. 10th Floor.in or suparna. The first three correct entries will be published in the next issue of Akshay Urja.children’s corner Green scramble Unscramble the 12 word puzzles. to make words that will help you to find the answer. New Delhi – 110 003 E-mail aktripathi@nic.in FEBRUARY 2010 .mukherji@teri. India recently launched…………… UNS OHRDY ACENL HATELRM WEELNRAEB EMNEATH IINAD AEFS SREEU DNWI AONCBR YNEEGR: _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Answer here: a National Send in your answers to the following address. 1009A.

India. This book will inspire and benefit architects. The projects highlight design responses to varied climatic conditions. Its focal points include sustainable site planning. 1 and 2) are two novel publications related to green/sustainable buildings in India. and constructing buildings. Volume two – titled Sustainable Building Design Practices – targets practitioners and focuses on an integrated approach to sustainable building design processes. and benefits of energy-efficient buildings. The two publications. policy-makers. gaps. this book provides thorough insights into the context. ISBN: 81-7993-052-1 ● Price: Rs 501 3 2 3 2 2 4 6 12 Energy-efficient buildings in India °C °C Do Down 14 6 5 Up 13 3 5 3 6 7 2 1 Editor Mili Majumdar Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources and lifecycle analysis. and concerned citizens to build for a better tomorrow. Sustainable Energy Action/Renewable Energy in the Urban Environment. planners. ISBN: 81-7993-053-X ● Price: Rs 501 FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 45 . Published by TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute). and TERI. embodied energy SUSTAINABLE BUILDING: DESIGN MANUAL (Vol. therefore. Covering 41 projects from India’s various climatic zones. Let us first review Energy-Efficient Buildings in India. Spain. water and waste management. issues. and effective utilization of renewable energy to reduce pressure on grid power. students. United Kingdom. The book serves as a handy reference document and a guide to correct our building concepts and practices. and barriers to policy implementation. Haryana State Energy Development Agency. building materials and technologies. INSTITUT CERDÀ. energy services. 2) New Delhi: TERI ● 301 pp. Reviewed by Suparna Mukherji. GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment). designers. Sustainable Building: Design Manual is part of a project involving Institut Català d’Energia. appropriate materials and construction methods. more efficient. and all key stakeholders involved in the process of designing. It provides a set of international real-time case studies. The books aim to demonstrate the available knowledge and technologies to contribute to the design of better. and more sustainable buildings. efficient energy systems. with good practices and regulatory controls that can be easily implemented in Gurgaon. cater to the needs of architects. and sustainably managed alternatives. planning. urban planners. with experiences of local authorities. and so on. techniques. It serves as the technical base for assessing building performance and meeting sustainability goals through appropriate strategies. Spain. engineers. builders.book review ENERGY-EFFICIENT BUILDINGS IN INDIA and SUSTAINABLE BUILDING: DESIGN MANUAL E nergy-Efficient Buildings in India and Sustainable Building: Design Manual (Vol. Associate Director-SBS. London Borough of Merton. and sustainable design checklist. pricing policy packages. 1) New Delhi: TERI ● 145 pp. United Kingdom. Its first volume – titled Policy and Regulatory Mechanisms – proposes an approach based on policy strands. the book is the result of a comprehensive survey of ENERGY-EFFICIENT BUILDINGS IN INDIA Edited by Mili Majumdar 2002 New Delhi: TERI and MNRE ● 252 pp. selfreinforcing policy tools. and recommendations for amendments in the by-laws of Gurgaon. ISBN: 81-85419-82-5 ● Price: Rs 860 several energy-efficient buildings. TERI Press SUSTAINABLE BUILDING: DESIGN MANUAL (Vol. Sustainable Building: Design Manual is available in two volumes. municipal authorities. While Energy-Efficient Buildings in India has been developed under the aegis of TERI and the MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy). market mechanisms to drive sustainable development. Edited by Mili Majumdar. to be applied in tandem. implementation of energy-efficient systems. these publications bring to fore the various aspects of sustainable building in India. solar passive building design.

.book / web alert The solar electricity handbook 2009: a simple. we visit an offshore oil rig. solar energy information for students. ISBN: 978-0-061-88514-3 • Price: $25. and entrepreneurship in renewables in India. With next-generation candor and optimism. and increase investment. computers. Little explores the most promising clean-energy solutions on the horizon. It is loaded with the lists of manufacturers. solar energy for military and industrial applications. the Talladega Superspeedway. business. and inputs. and so on. and appliances. we learn how the same American ingenuity that got us into this mess can get us out of it. boats. choose. solar power for villages. Accompanying this book is a solar resource website containing lots of useful information. and cabins. It covers solar photovoltaics. ISBN: 978-1-907-21501-8 • Price: $13. Whether you are looking for a solar power system for you home. www. Little illustrates how abundant oil and coal built the American superpower.2009 UK: Code Green Publishing Solar electricity is a wonderful concept—take free power from the Sun and use it to power electrical equipment. solar water heating. practical guide to using electric solar panels and designing and installing photovoltaic solar pv systems Michael Boxwell. It aims to encourage and motivate. but also provides information on the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy and the nodal agencies of India. find everything there is to know about solar right here on this website. It not only gives a general overview of the renewable sources of energy in India. or boat. At her side. Learn the secrets that some solar dealers would rather you did not know. Assuming no previous knowledge of solar panels. Indiasolar. fast-paced prose. it features a survey on solar water heater users in India and the test centres. 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No ongoing electricity bills. lighting. the cornfields of Kansas. and so on. and example projects are given to demonstrate the true capabilities of these systems. even as they posed political and environmental dangers to the nation and the world. suppliers. and on-line solar energy calculators that will simplify the cost analysis and design processes. More importantly. or anything to do with solar energy. no reliance on an electrical socket— ‘free’ energy that does not harm the planet.49 Internet resources SOLAR WEBSITES Solarwebsites. com contains a veritable gold mine of information on the subject of solar energy and is packed with every kind of solar www. Simply put.com provides all the information on the solar power sector in India. Learn which technologies are ready for prime time and which technologies are just lab curiosities. diagrams. 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Bulgaria Tel: 359 32 9 45459 Fax: 359 32 9 60012 E Mail: office@viaexpo. California.com/ enersol 6th International Congress & Exhibition on Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources 14–16 April 2010 Sofia.smith@pirainternational. National Capital Region of Delhi URL: www.photovoltaicssummit.com URL: www.com URL: www.photon-expo.com SNEC PV Power Expo 2010 5–7 May 2010 Shanghai.de URL: www.com URL: www.forthcoming events Power Gen India and Central Asia 21–23 April 2010 Bombay Exhibition Centre Goregaon.org PV America 24–26 May 2010 Tampa.kr URL: www.pl/en Semicon Singapore 2010 19–21 May 2010 Singapore Tel: 1 408 94379-87 Fax: 1 408 94379-15 E Mail: dtracy@semi. Tunisia Tel: 216 71 79 0830 Fax: 216 71 79 4200 E Mail: enersol@exposervicestunisie. Poland Tel: 48 618692-552 Fax: 48 618692-952 E Mail: poleko@mtp.org Thin-Film Industry Forum 22–23 April 2010 Berlin. Germany Tel: 49 241 4003-102 E Mail: office@viaexpo. United States Tel: 1 303 443 3130 Fax: 1 303 443 3212 E Mail: ases@ases.viaexpo.greenpowerconferences.semiconsingapore. USA Tel: 1 408 844 7122 Fax: 1 408 844 9470 E Mail: frodet@solartech. Germany Tel: 49 30 726 2963 00 Fax: 49 30 726 2963 09 E Mail: info@solarpraxis.merisis-asia.renexpo-budapest.org 2010 International Renewable Energy Fair 18–20 May 2010 Poznan.direc2010.calsolarsummit.com Solar Maghreb 11–12 May 2010 Algiers.cpv-conference. Mumbai URL: www.de URL: www. California.co. Algeria Tel: 44 207 099 0600 Fax: 44 207 900 1853 E Mail: info@greenpowerconferences.com URL: www.de Photovoltaics Summit 2010 3–5 May 2010 San Diego.cn Solarexpo and Greenbuilding 2010 5–7 May 2010 Verona.ases.com/pv2010 SolarTech’ Leadership Summit 21–22 April 2010 San Ramon.com Solar 2010 17–22 May 2010 Phoenix.org URL: www.com URL: www.de URL: www.gov.otti.pl URL: greenpower.com 4th Renexpo Central Europe 2009 27–29 May 2010 Budapest.kr International Conference on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems 7–9 April 2010 Freiburg.Expo XXI.exposervicestunisie.org URL: https://events. South Korea Tel: 82 53 6015 082 Fax: 82 53 6015 372 E Mail: green@energyexpo.com 5th European PV-Hybrid & Mini-Grid Conference 29–30 April 2010 Barcelona.com Empower India 2010 25–27 June 2010 Chennai Trade Centre URL: www. China Tel: 86 159 21921158 E Mail: cathychu2007@163.solarpraxis. Spain E Mail: kolleg@otti.snec.solarexpo.power-genindia. United States Tel: 1 202 628 7745 Fax: 1 202 628 7779 E Mail: info@seia.de PHOTON’s 8th Solar Silicon Conference 27 April 2010 Stuttgart. Italy Tel: 39 0439 849855 Fax: 39 0439 849854 E Mail: press@solarexpo.org.com FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 47 .com URL: www. Hungary Tel: 49/7121/3016-0 Fax: 49/7121/3016-200 E Mail: international@energie-server. Germany Tel: 49 0761 4791448 Fax: 49 0761 4791444 E Mail: info@cpv-conference.jspargo.com URL: www.energyexpo.com 2nd PV Summit Asia 15–16 April 2010 Beijing.org URL: www. China Tel: 86 21 624788 98 Fax: 86 21 624788 38 E Mail: info@merisis-asia. USA Tel: 1 207 781 9635 E Mail: christopher.org URL: www.com URL: www.empower-india.org URL: www.mtp. Florida.in International Green Energy Expo Korea 2010 7–9 April 2010 Daegu.co.com Delhi International Renewable Energy Conference 27–29 October 2010 Expo Centre .org ENERSOL Expo 2010 7–10 April 2010 Tunis.

MWp – megawatt peak.85 lakh 120 MWp 88 297 nos 550 743 nos 792 285 nos 2.72 0.25 million m2 collector area 6. Solar cookers Wind pumps Awareness programmes Energy parks Aditya Solar Shops Renewable energy clubs District Advisory Committees — — — — 511 nos 302 nos 521 nos 560 nos 120 lakh 50 MW/km2 — — — — 41.72 lakh 1347 nos — — — — — — (MW) 45 195 16 881 5 000 15 000 2 700 — 84 776 (MW) 11807.00 10.00 861.renewable energy statistics Renewable energy at a glance in India S. km2 – kilometre square 48 VOLUME 3 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2010 . Solar lantern iv.30 2735.No. m2 – square metre. Solar water heating systems ii.14 46. I A 1 2 3 4 5 6 Source/system Power from renewables Grid-interactive renewable power Wind power Bio power (agro residues and plantations) Bagasse cogeneration Small hydro power (up to 25 MW) Energy recovery from waste (MW) Solar photovoltaic power Sub total (A) Captive/combined heat and power/distributed renewable power Biomass/cogeneration (non-bagasse) Biomass gasifier Energy recovery from waste Aero generator/hybrid systems Sub total (B) Total (A+B) Remote village electrification Decentralized energy systems Family-type biogas plants Solar photovoltaic systems i.02 17219.28 16817.00 (MW) 232.17 122. kW – kilowatt.00 1338. Solar street lighting system ii.02 5554 villages/hamlets Estimated potential Achievement as on 31 March 2010 B 7 8 9 10 II III 11 12 13 140 million m2 collector area 14 IV 15 16 17 18 MW – megawatt.42 65.39 MWp 7247 nos 3. Solar power plants v.99 402. Home lighting system iii. Solar photovoltaic pumps Solar thermal systems i.

for indigenous production and market leadership. an additional 3000 MW by 2017 through the mandatory use of the RPO (renewable purchase obligation) by utilities backed with a preferential tariff.JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL SOLAR MISSION Towards building solar India The JNNSM (Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission) is a major initiative of the Government of India and the state governments to promote ecologically sustainable growth. reaching 1000 MW by 2017 and 2000 MW by 2022.in . while addressing India’s energy security challenge. Application segment Solar collectors Off-grid solar applications Utility grid power. visit the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy website www. particularly solar thermal. including rooftop Target for Phase I (2010–13) 7 million sq m 200 MW 1000–2000 MW Target for Phase II (2013–17) 15 million sq m 1000 MW 4000–10 000 MW Target for Phase III (2017–22) 20 million sq m 2000 MW 20 000 MW For further information and updates.mnre. It will also constitute a major contribution by India to the global effort to meet the challenges of climate change. • To create favourable conditions for solar manufacturing capability. • To achieve 15 million sq m solar thermal collector area by 2017 and 20 million by 2022. • To promote programmes for off-grid applications.gov. • To deploy 20 million solar lighting systems for rural areas by 2022. The Mission phases • Phase 1: the remaining period of the Eleventh Five-year Plan and the first year of the Twelfth Five-year Plan (2012/13) • Phase 2: the remaining period of the Twelfth Five-year Plan (2013–17) • Phase 3: the Thirteenth Five-year Plan (2017–22) The Mission targets • To create an enabling policy framework for the deployment of 20 000 MW of solar power by 2022. This capacity can be more than doubled – reaching 10 000 MW installed power by 2017 or more – based on the enhanced and enabled international finance and technology transfer. • To ramp up capacity of grid-connected solar power generation to 1000 MW by 2013.

The Conference in Delhi is a part of initiative taken atthe 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg acknowledging the significance of renewable energies for sustainable development – especially for combating poverty and for environmental and climate protection. new applications and innovations. with concrete proposals in support of activities at the country level. REN21 — the Renewable Energy Network — will be a key partner in the DIREC. 2010) during October 27–29. rapid deployment of renewable energy. which will make it the largest event of its kind. 2010. new products and staff capabilities with their audiences.gov. www. India) Upscaling and Mainstreaming Renewable Energy for Energy Security. Climate Change and Economic Development India is hosting the next International Renewable Energy Conference (DIREC. The Conference will ultimately lead to renewed commitment. Government leaders. and to facilitate: (i) buyers and sellers matching (ii) one to one meetings for setting up of joint ventures in the Renewable Energy Sector and (iii) to provide an opportunity to Indian Renewables Manufacturers to benchmark their products against the best in the world and enhance their competitiveness. The DIREC 2010 will build on the success of the previous conferences with the support of National and International Sponsors. over 250 industry leading speakers. with an attendance of over 9. to display global research & development with respect to climate change and green environment. experts. DELENG/2007/22701 Delhi International Renewable Energy Conference 2010 27–29 October 2010 • Expo Centre and Mart. visit Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Government of India Exhibitions India Group . financial institutions and around 500 exhibitors from all over the world. The Delhi Conference is the fourth in the series. strategies. to demonstrate the sectoral strength of the global renewable energy industry.000 delegates. highlevel decision makers and policy level thinkers from a number of participating countries.direc2010. academicians. The conference will bring together ministers. Cabinet-level government functionaries from a number of countries will join civil society partners and private sector leaders to discuss the opportunities and challenges of a global. Greater Noida (National Capital Region of Delhi. to provide a platform for technology displays. 2010 offers industry leaders the ability to share their insights. DIREC 2010 aims to showcase India as an investment destination for renewable energy. technologies.in Organized by Supported by Managed by For further details. 2010 at New Delhi. following events at Washington in 2008. Beijing in 2005 and Bonn in 2004 and is expected to be the premier all-Renewables gathering in India ever. DIREC.RNI No.