First example – Humphrey Davey – 1824 – British naval ships The standard corrosion reaction: M→Mn+ + neIn cathodic protection: - supplying extra electrons to the system - suppresses metal dissolution 2 ways external power supply or appropriate galvanic coupling ___________________________ 2H+ + 2e- → H2

Impressed current technique Insulated external power supply – connected to circuit -ve terminal connected to object +ve terminal connected to inert graphite electrode Supplies electrons to the tank and suppresses corrosion Very common in underground storage vessels and pipelines

g.hard to replace – so make them big enough! Magnitude of protective current – several standard values: the more aggressive the environment – the higher the required current .e. Magnesium in a hot water tank Mg anode corrodes preferentially when galvanically coupled Eventually – it needs replacing CAUTION! all that Mg in solution…… a problem? Also – used to protect pipelines . ‘sacrificial anode’ e.Galvanic coupling technique i.placed at regular intervals .

g. tanks and pipelines in close proximity! Big problem in high density areas One novel initiative: Cathodic protection of metal bridges using solar panels to generate current (USA. measure the potential using a reference electrode common reference: copper sulphate (see earlier notes) reasonably cheap set-up and quite accurate can also be used to determine how many sacrificial anodes are required choice of anode material is important Mg is not very efficient – but generates a high potential Also – for underground systems – type of ‘ground’ important i.If an appropriate value is not known.e. Japan) . stray current aspects e.

AUX.ANODIC PROTECTION Fairly new concept .g. Ti etc… Careful application of currents → passivation occurs must use a potentiostat! (previous notes) e. Ni. anodic protection of steel tank containing sulphuric acid 3 terminals – tank.g. Fe. REF Potentiostat – maintains constant potential between tank and REF Anodic protection is very effective if done right . Cr.based on advanced electrochemistry technologies Basics – formation of protective film through externally applied currents in theory – anodic currents should increase corrosion rate However – reverse is true for active-passive metals e.