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With the strategic acquisition of Fluent Inc. and blending of their leading-edge CFD technologies with its existing core software offerings, ANSYS, Inc. has further strengthened its position in having one of the broadest, most comprehensive, independent engineering simulation software offerings in the industry. The combined user base is vast, comprising one of the world’s largest simulation communities with commercial seats at more than 10,000 companies, including 94 of the top FORTUNE 100 industrial companies. One of the best ways to serve this growing simulation community is with a single publication providing a forum for the exchange of ideas, a conduit for technology transfer between disciplines and a common framework for integrating so many diverse areas of interest. With this in mind, the former Fluent News and ANSYS Solutions publications have been merged into the new quarterly ANSYS Advantage magazine covering the entire range of ANSYS technologies and applications. One of the greatest benefits of a single magazine is the opportunity for readers to become familiar with software and applications beyond their usual fields of interest. Mechanical engineers accustomed to using ANSYS primarily for structural analysis may see how the use of CFD could be used in their development efforts, for example. Likewise, CFD analysts can better understand the tools used to gain insight into the mechanical behavior of products. Our editorial team is proud to present this premier issue. The feature articles highlight applications in which multiple simulation technologies are used. For example, our cover story discusses how Hawkes Ocean Technologies used ANSYS CFX software to minimize drag in the design of an innovative two-man oceanographic craft and ANSYS Mechanical tools to ensure that composite parts withstand underwater pressure without being overdesigned with excess material. At the center of the magazine, a 16-page supplement shines a spotlight on applications in the sports and leisure industry that range from the design of alpine skis to fitness equipment. We invite you to consider ANSYS Advantage your magazine, not only providing information about software products and technology applications but also giving you a way to share your work with colleagues in the simulation community. We welcome your feedback and ideas for articles you might want to contribute. Most importantly, we hope you find the publication to be a valuable asset in implementing simulation-based product development in your own workplace. I

Liz Marshall and John Krouse, Editors

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Editor Liz Marshall Consulting Editor John Krouse Assistant Editor/ Art Director Susan Wheeler Contributing Editors Erik Ferguson Keith Hanna Fran Hensler Marty Mundy Chris Reeves Ad Sales Manager Beth Mazurak Editorial Advisor Kelly Wall Circulation Manager Elaine Travers Designers Miller Creative Group

About the Cover: Contours of pressure on the surface of an underwater craft developed by Hawkes Ocean Technologies

About the sports supplement: The flow field in the vicinity of a golf ball immediately after being struck by a club

Email: ANSYS Advantage is published for ANSYS, Inc. customers, partners and others interested in the field of design and analysis applications.
Neither ANSYS, Inc. nor the editorial director nor Miller Creative Group guarantees or warrants accuracy or completeness of the material contained in this publication. ANSYS, ANSYS Workbench, CFX, AUTODYN, FLUENT, DesignModeler, ANSYS Mechanical, DesignSpace, ANSYS Structural, TGrid, GAMBIT and any and all ANSYS, Inc. brand, product, service, and feature names, logos and slogans are registered trademarks or trademarks of ANSYS, Inc. or its subisdiaries located in the United States or other countries. ICEM CFD is a trademark licensed by ANSYS, Inc. All other brand, product, service and feature names or trademarks are the property of their respective owners. © 2007 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.


3 Multi-Tool Analysis 3 Taking Next-Generation Submersibles to New Depths
ANSYS simulation tools help minimize drag and reduce weight by half in two-man oceanographic craft. 6

Fluid Structure Interaction Makes for Cool Gas Turbine Blades
An integrated simulation process improves performance without sacrificing longevity.


Race Cars Flex Their Muscle
An Indy car rear wing is designed for aeroelastic response using multidisciplinary optimization.


Modern Medicine Takes Simulation to Heart
A fluid structure interaction simulation is performed to capture patient-specific modeling of hypertensive hemodynamics.


CAE Takes a Front Seat 9
Engineers use ANSYS software to meet complex and potentially conflicting requirements to design a chair for a wide range of body types and postures. 16 PHARMACEUTICALS

Transport of Fragile Granules 12
Pneumatic conveying systems in the pharmaceutical industry can lead to unwanted particle breakup. 18 CHEMICAL PROCESSING


Solid Suspensions Get a Lift
A high-efficiency hydrofoil is designed using CFD and multi-objective optimization software. 20 GLASS

The Many Colors of Glass
Numerical simulation helps guide the color change process in the glass industry. 22 POWER GENERATION


Developing Power Systems that Can Take the Heat
Integrating ANSYS technology with other software enabled researchers to efficiently assess component reliability for ceramic microturbine rotors. 25 AUTOMOTIVE

20 22

No Shivers While Developing the Shiver
Tools within the ANSYS Workbench Environment have allowed engineers to get a handle on crankshaft behavior before a motorcycle is built.

Putting the Spin on Air Pre-Cleaners
Dust and dirt particles are removed from the air intakes of off-highway vehicles using a novel air pre-cleaner. (Continued on next page)

ANSYS Advantage • Volume I, Issue 1, 2007


2007 www. the Velocity Product Development (VPD™) initiative at Honeywell Aerospace uses engineering simulation to eliminate delays while lowering cost and maintaining high quality standards for innovative . 30 Fire Tests for Molten Metal Converters Numerical simulation helps engineers peer into a metallurgical converter in which high temperatures and adverse conditions make realistic measurements impossible to perform. Higher and Stronger Performances with Engineering Simulation Computer-aided engineering plays a major role in the world of sports.ansys. 42 ANALYSIS TOOLS Introducing the PCG Lanczos Eigensolver A new eigensolver in ANSYS 11. 38 ACADEMIC NEWS s6 Giving Ski Racers an Edge ANSYS Mechanical software is used to analyze the dynamic properties of skis. s13 44 TIPS & TRICKS Taking a Bite out of Sports Injuries Finite element analysis illustrates that both cushioning and support are needed to adequately protect teeth and surrounding tissue from impact injuries. s14 Designing Fitness Equipment to Withstand the Workout Keeping bushing wear rates under control allows Life Fitness to maintain some of the highest equipment reliability standards in the fitness industry. 2 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. Stent Analysis Expand Students’ Exposure to Biomedical Engineering Engineering students gain insight into the physics of medical devices and add to the body of knowledge on stenting procedures. CAE Cross Training Engineers today need to be proficient in not one. often in shorter total elapsed times than other tools on the market. Sporting Swifter. s10 Designing a Course for Future Designers Students use Volvo concept car to learn about simulation tools. 40 s9 Tour de Force! Aerodynamic gains can be realized by studying the interaction between a bicycle and rider. 34 MATERIALS Spotlight on Engineering Simulation in the Sports and Leisure Industry s2 Making Sure Wood Gets Heat Treated with Respect The ANSYS Parametric Design Language helps establish the thermal conductivity of wood and composites to enable more effective heat treatment processes. 32 EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURING Neutrino Detection in Antarctica Simulation helps speed up drilling through ice so that optic monitors can be installed. s8 Ice Axe Impacts Finite element analysis is used to study crack initiation on a serrated blade. Issue 1. s11 Scoring an HVAC Goal for Hockey Spectators CFD is used to design ventilation systems for sports arenas. Departments 36 THOUGHT LEADERS s4 Catching the Simulation Wave Surfers are using engineering simulation to improve their gear. but many analysis tools. s16 Catching a Better Oar Design Engineers use CFD and a spreadsheet model to assess prospective oar blade designs. 46 View-Factoring Radiation into ANSYS Workbench Simulation The ANSYS Radiosity Solution Method accounts for heat exchange between surfaces using Named Selections and a Command object. Speeding Up Development Time for Racing Cycles Trek Bicycle Corporation cuts product launch delays with simulation-based design using ANSYS Mechanical software.TABLE OF CONTENTS 29 METALLURGY Blast Furnace Air Pre-Heater Gets a Thermal Boost Engineers use CFD to improve heat exchanger performance.0 determines natural frequencies and mode shapes using less computational power. 48 PARTNERSHIPS Going to the Source MatWeb material property data is seamlessly available to ANSYS Workbench users. Accelerated Product Development in a Global Enterprise With the goal of compressing cycle times by up to 50 percent.

pressure and stresses as well as optimize design. Issue 1. wings and thrusters similar to jet aircraft. Furthermore.ansys. Hawkes Ocean Technologies has come up with a solution to move beyond these constraints: a new class of small.MULTI-TOOL ANALYSIS Winged-submersibles designed by Hawkes Ocean Technologies “fly” through water to depths of 1. integrated platform — ANSYS Workbench — helped streamline the development process. Taking Next-Generation Submersibles to New Depths ANSYS simulation tools help minimize drag and reduce weight by half in two-man oceanographic craft. pumps and piping. the loud operational noise and bright lights associated with these crafts scare away many sea organisms. highly maneuverable craft that can be piloted through the water to a desired depth using controls. 2007 3 . To identify critical forces such as drag.A. compressors. As a result. Scuba limits divers to the topmost slice of the oceans.500 feet using controls.S. U. Access to simulation applications and Hawkes’ chosen CAD through a ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. The world beneath the ocean surface is teeming with most of earth’s animal and plant species. weight. ANSYS CFX computational fluid dynamics software helped develop the overall streamlined shape of the external fairing to minimize underwater drag. they have limited maneuverability and need a dedicated mother ship to transport and maintain them. on the other hand. less than 5 percent has been explored. mainly because of shortcomings in today’s research equipment. www. are designed to drop like bricks into the ocean depths using variable buoyancy to control dive depth with bulky air tanks. wings and thrusters for undersea flight similar to that of a jet aircraft. Conventional submersibles. the engineering team used ANSYS simulation software including ANSYS CFX and ANSYS Mechanical. While threequarters of our planet lies under water. By Adam Wright Hawkes Ocean Technologies California.

which have different strengths in each direction depending on the orientation of the carbon fiber. the company’s winged-submersible concept combines the vision and low-intrusiveness of scuba diving with the depth capability of a conventional submersible. To minimize drag. The model currently being designed and built is a next-generation twoman craft with lightweight carbon-reinforced composite material replacing the aluminium parts of the previous model. Hawkes Ocean Technologies is an award-winning design and engineering firm with a small staff of dedicated professionals who use ANSYS software to help them develop their innovative craft. this was a critical consideration. 2007 The Solution To address these design issues.A. designers had to optimize tradeoffs between power and weight. Hawkes’ winged submersibles. Transparent acrylic domes provide 360-degree visibility and minimize distortion due to water boundary refraction. In particular. which are based on the concept of underwater flight. In addition to ensuring adequate strength of the craft. One problem to be addressed was that of minimizing the underwater drag of the external fairing to achieve maximum speed with minimal power consumption. U. the compartment hull protecting pilots from this crushing pressure is a cocoon-like contoured structure designed to maximize space in order to maintain comfort: a significant design factor because an occupant tends to become cramped and possibly claustrophobic after an hour or two beneath the great mass of water above. Challenges of Withstanding Pressure One of the most difficult aspects of designing the new craft involved the determination of stresses in the complex geometries of the composite parts that must withstand 4 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. Another complicating factor in determining component stress distribution was the anisotropic nature of the composite material properties. company founder Graham Hawkes holds the world record for deepest solo dive of . is featured in James Cameron’s 3-D IMAX film “Aliens of the Deep. The analysis defined the flow around the fairing and enabled researchers to readily pinpoint any areas of excessive turbulence. the next-generation submersibles already have been tested down to 20. www. are rated for a depth of 3. A pressurized pilot compartment hull and electronic equipment housings are made of a filament-wound composite.MULTI-TOOL ANALYSIS ANSYS Mechanical software was used extensively for stress analysis in ensuring that the pressurized pilot compartment hull could safely withstand 700 psi at quarter-mile depths without overdesigning components with excess material.000 feet. Since the winged craft must keep moving at about two knots to remain submerged. The results helped them configure the shape for minimum hydrodynamic resistance and maximum lift and effectiveness of the airfoil surfaces for allowing the craft to dive and maneuver underwater.000 feet.” and the Mantis craft appeared in the James Bond film “For Your Eyes Only.” Based near San Francisco Bay. Issue 1. The Wet Flight is a high performance one-person sub designed for underwater filming.S..ansys. The right balance allows the craft to sustain the speed needed by the airfoils to overcome positive buoyancy while extending the range. An internationally renowned ocean engineer and explorer.000 feet and has been responsible for the design of hundreds of remotely operated underwater vehicles and manned underwater craft built for research and industry worldwide. In this way. ANSYS CFX computational fluid dynamics software was used to develop the overall streamlined shape of the external fairing. while the streamlined exterior skin of the craft is made of layered fabric composite. Hawkes engineers turned to simulation tools within the ANSYS Workbench environment. pressures of nearly 700 psi. for example. California. The Deep Rover submersible.

discovering new aquatic species. and providing a means to monitor and prevent further pollution at sea. particularly the pressurized pilot hull. This significant weight reduction is expected to increase maximum underwater speed and save battery life to increase the time the craft can spend underwater. Issue 1. perhaps most importantly. the researchers were able to quickly arrive at a not-intuitivelyobvious optimal design for a craft that could withstand prescribed pressure limits with minimal weight and fit within the tight space constraints of the two-man submersible. Moreover. The Wet Flight submersible rises to the surface. The approach saved considerable time and effort. Furthermore. In generating these assembly models. This greatly expands the underwater exploration possibilities of the craft. allowed numerous alternative configurations to be studied. guided engineers toward the uniquely contoured compartment hull shape. there is no room for error. Easy access to computer-aided design (CAD) software and simulation applications through the integrated ANSYS Workbench platform allowed Hawkes engineers to become productive on the first day. Direct associativity with the CAD system enabled engineers to readily change the design based on TM an analysis and quickly perform another simulation on the new part geometry without having to re-apply loads. Because the lightweight submersible does not need a dedicated mother ANSYS Advantage • Volume I.MULTI-TOOL ANALYSIS The Deep Flight II can house one or two persons in a prone position and can travel for up to eight hours. more than 40 design iterations were tested. In this way. these next-generation submersibles hold the potential of unlocking new biotechnology from the ocean depths that may help cure disease. one assembly included the metal locking ring that clamps the fittings and seal of the acrylic dome to the composite hull. studying weather. The stress levels of assemblies of individual parts made of different materials also were analyzed. The capability helped engineers determine the proper carbon fiber orientation and wall thickness needed to strengthen high-stress areas of composite parts. finding new mineral and food reserves. When diving to 1. I www. allowed for different material properties and adjusted mesh densities instead of requiring users to perform these tasks manually. minimized mistakes. supports and boundary conditions. Significant Weight Reduction By using ANSYS software in the design of components to be made with composites instead of aluminium.ansys. For some cases.500 feet and deeper depths. and. The program readily accounted for the anisotropic material properties of the composite parts and clearly showed directional stresses graphically as well as numerically with precise von Misses values. convenient element-sizing functions enabled engineers to readily increase mesh density in localized regions in which they wanted to study stresses in greater detail. Simulation models were created based on part geometry from the Autodesk® Inventor design system. so Hawkes used ANSYS Mechanical software for stress analysis to ensure that composite parts could withstand underwater pressure without being overdesigned with excess material. 2007 5 . operational costs are reduced by 70 percent and the craft can operate freely worldwide off of a variety of launch platforms. along with the dome and hull. engineers were able to reduce the overall weight of the craft by 50 percent. the ANSYS surface-to-surface contact element feature automatically detected the contact points. For example.

In order to reach desired levels of efficiency and power output. By Michel Arnal. Issue 1. While effective cooling of the blades can increase their lifespan. As a result. Switzerland Tobias Danninger and John Stokes. hot gas from the combustion system flows past the rotating turbine blades. repair and overhaul services for industrial gas turbines and related high-speed rotating equipment used in the global power generation and oil and gas markets. it can also reduce the thermal efficiency of the engine. including re-engineered replacement parts and maintenance. ANSYS Mechanical software for the www.ansys. 2007 . Wood Group Heavy Industrial Turbines provides a comprehensive range of support solutions. The numerical simulation process coupled ANSYS CFX software for the fluid flow. Inc. Numerical simulations that accurately capture the interaction between the fluid and thermal effects can play an important role in the design process.MULTI-TOOL ANALYSIS Fluid Structure Interaction Makes for Cool Gas Turbine Blades An integrated simulation process improves performance without sacrificing longevity. The goal of the project was to optimize the blade design and improve its longevity. Christian Precht and Thomas Sprunk. It is therefore important to develop designs that extend component life while having a minimal effect on engine thermal efficiency. One method of cooling the turbine blades involves extracting air from a compressor and forcing it through a plenum and into channels inside the blade. One example of the work done by Wood Group is a recent project involving the re-engineering of the blade from the first stage of a gas turbine. the components subjected to these high temperatures often require cooling. In gas turbines. ANSYS. The blade geometry The internal features of the blade geometry include the plenum (blue) and the cooling channels (gold).com 6 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. advanced gas turbines operate at very high temperatures. Wood Group Heavy Industrial Turbines AG. expanding in the process.

and the result of this 1-D simulation was connected to ANSYS CFX using the standard CFX Expression Language (CEL). Generalized grid interfaces (GGIs) were used to connect the non-matching mesh topologies of the individual domains. the coolant air flow in the plenum. This set of simulation tools provided an efficient virtual prototype that was used to assess the performance of the turbine blade under actual operating conditions. Issue 1. which is intended for manufacturing. and the 1-D thermal and fluid flow simulation package Flowmaster2. calculated in www. the hot gas around the blade and the heat conduction through the solid blade can be solved for in a single ANSYS CFX simulation. The green lines indicate generalized grid interface connections. The extensions served to better represent the true operating conditions of the rotor. the CFD simulation can use the unique ANSYS CFX model for laminar to turbulent transition.ansys. A schematic of the two fluid (blue and red) and one solid (gray) domain used to perform the analysis. The inflow to the hot gas domain from the cooling channels is described by CFX Expression Language callbacks to 1) the flow out of the plenum domain and 2) the heat transfer from the solid domain to the cooling channels. Hot Gas CFD Model The original 3-D CAD geometry. the 3-D temperature field in the solid blade. which requires no user programming. This extended CAD model then served as the basis for the CFD 1-D Channel (Flowmaster) Blade 3-D CFD (ANSYS CFX) Plenum 3-D FEA (ANSYS Mechanical) Overview of the interaction between the simulation tools used to provide a virtual prototype of the gas turbine blade. a key feature that properly captures heat transfer rates from the hot gas to the blade surface as the boundary layer develops. The cooling channels were modeled using Flowmaster2. The temperature field in the solid blade as computed by ANSYS CFX software was then directly written out in a format appropriate for the subsequent ANSYS Mechanical calculation. Taking advantage of CEL callback functions. The two fluid domains (the hot gas flow around the blade and the coolant airflow in the plenum) and one solid domain (the blade itself) were meshed independently using ANSYS ICEM CFD meshing software. ANSYS ICEM CFD mesh of the hot gas fluid domain at the tip of the gas turbine blade ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. For example.MULTI-TOOL ANALYSIS structural response of the blade. At the same time. 2007 7 . gaps not present under normal operating conditions were closed. Boundary conditions are defined at locations indicated with arrows. FE Model For the simulation using ANSYS Mechanical software. was extended for the purpose of the simulation using ANSYS DesignModeler.

Streamlines show flow from the inlet into the plenum and from the cooling channel outlets into the hot gas. Christian. the resulting thermal and mechanical stress distributions in the blade were used to determine component life. are key to making simulations such as this feasible. this virtual prototype has provided a more complete understanding of the performance of each blade design in a given set of operating conditions.MULTI-TOOL ANALYSIS the ANSYS CFX conjugate heat transfer analysis. Thomas. July 2006. John: Analysis of a Virtual Prototype First-Stage Rotor Blade Using Integrated Computer-Based Design Tools. Proceedings of ESDA2006 8th Biennial ASME Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis. especially the powerful CFX Expression Language and its callback functions. This allows modifications to be made early in the design process. Sprunk. determined the stress distribution. Tobias. The heat transfer is from the hot gas to the blade surface in most areas. Applying these loads. This. Michel. Together. life-limiting elements of the blade design could be determined and new design alternatives evaluated. and Stokes. Precht. areas of lower temperature are shown in blue. I Suggested Reading Arnal. Issue 1. along with the rotational load on the blade at operating conditions. was used as input for the thermal load. Torino.ansys. but in the tip region the heat transfer is positive corresponding to where the cooling air from the cooling holes comes into contact with the blade surface. Temperature contours in the flow field and through the blade at a radial location near the blade platform (left) and outer casing (right) 8 ANSYS Advantage • Volume . and therefore is essential in the efforts to help improve efficiency and increase longevity. 2007 www. The finite element mesh a) b) c) Stress distribution in the directionally solidified blade due to a) temperature variations (but not including rotational effects). b) centripetal forces (assuming a constant temperature) and c) the combination of temperature variations and centripetal forces ANSYS CFX temperature simulation of the blade surface. Danninger. CFD simulation of heat flux distribution. Where the internal cooling channels are close to the blade surface on the suction side of the blade near the trailing edge. The ability to combine the entire fluid and thermal analysis through the use of standard functionality. By combining both CFD and structural analysis with a 1-D thermal simulation. Italy.

ansys. Giuseppe Quaranta and Luca Cavagna. The goal is to maximize downforce. To improve car performance at the different operating conditions. this currently is the only way to optimize the car for different regions www. Aerodynamics play a crucial role in the performance of race cars. in order to increase cornering speeds. and to reduce drag to be faster on the straights. teams have spent a great deal of time and money on wind-tunnel testing. the flexibility of aerodynamic devices (aeroelastic effects) can be exploited. Issue 1. the highest aerodynamic efficiency is sought that represents the optimal trade-off between high downforce at low speeds (for cornering) and low drag at high speeds (for driving on the straights) [1]. the changes in the shape of such devices due to deformation may cause a modification of the flow field around the car. Thus. Despite being severely restricted by technical regulations. 2007 9 . Nowadays. By David Massegur.MULTI-TOOL ANALYSIS Race Cars Flex Their Muscle An Indy car rear wing is designed for aeroelastic response using multidisciplinary optimization. Italy Pathlines illustrate the presence of the flow recirculation behind the gurney flap. thanks to increases in computational power. and for years. CFD has become a valuable tool for fine-tuning both the external and internal shape of these cars. Department of Aerospace Engineering Politecnico di ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. such as Indy and Formula 1. In fact.

MULTI-TOOL ANALYSIS 1. an algorithm based on the weighed moving least squares (WMLS) method has been developed [3]. The model has been applied to the DALLARA Indy car rear wing. where the pressure loads cause larger deformations. The spring-based method in FLUENT software is used for remeshing. possible geometric and structural configurations of race car rear wings in order to tailor aeroelastic phenomena to maximize car performance. such as the flap influence on the main wing and the twinvortex recirculation around the gurney flap [1] . Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models with relatively modest computational resources. CFD is the perfect tool for predicting the complex flow phenomena around the wings. However. such as the pillar junctions. Issue 1. by means of numerical optimization. but it requires the implementation of an interface scheme to transfer the necessary information between the two calculations [2]. The aeroelastic solution is managed in FLUENT software through a number of user-defined functions (UDFs) that execute the different tasks required by the iterative solver. the most expensive one. aeroelastic phenomena can be exploited more easily at high speed. with stiffness inversely proportional to the distance between the respective adjacent nodes. Since aerodynamic loads increase quadratically with speed. A multidisciplinary computational model has been developed at the Politecnico di Milano to evaluate. It is based on the analogy between the computational grid and a network of linear elastic springs. Main wing 2. The focus of the study has been on the influence of the structural deformation of the carbon-fiber flap on the aerodynamic loads of the whole rear wing assembly. Supports The main elements that form the rear wing (top) and their respective discretization (bottom) Compute aerodynamic loads of the rigid body Compute aerodynamic loads of the deformed body Yes No Check FLUENT convergence Transfer aerodynamic loads to structural nodes Compute structural nodes displacement with the FEM solver Check structural convergence Compute aerodynamic gridwall vertices displacement No Yes STOP Let FLUENT iterate Move aerodynamic grid The iterative method used to solve the static aeroelastic problem of the track because any servo-aided device aimed at moving an element of the car is strictly forbidden. The software NASTRAN® is used for the structural calculation. To transfer the structural displacements from the FEM model to the surfaces of the CFD grid and the aerodynamic loads to the structural nodes. used to adapt to the new wing shape after each iteration. because it is able to run steady-state. FLUENT has been used for the CFD calculation. The multidisciplinary optimization requires the development of a static aeroelastic algorithm to compute the correct loads. requiring almost half of the solution time. 2007 www. Future applications will investigate the effects of other deformable parts. and the sequence is run until convergence is reached. Gurney flap 4. giving rise to the 10 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. Flap wing 3. End-plates 5. The adoption of two different solvers for the fluid and structure provides the freedom to choose the optimal discretization method for each. In this case. is the deformation of the CFD grid. the deformation required by each time step typically is greater than the dimensions of the cells close to the walls. Of all the tasks. The aeroelastic problem is solved by applying an iterative procedure based on a sequence of load calculations by means of CFD for a given shape followed by an FEM calculation to compute the deformation based on the CFD loads.

MULTI-TOOL ANALYSIS Pressure coefficient distribution comparison between the rigid (left) and deformed (right) wings appearance of negative cell sizes. New York. The net result of the approach has been a multiobjective optimization of both the wing geometry and structural characteristics to increase downforce at low speeds and decrease drag at high speeds. (2001). Merlo. wing drag can be reduced by 3 percent. introduced as a variable of the multi-objective optimization. Significant improvements are expected by applying the proposed method to other aerodynamic surfaces. Keeping the same level of downforce delivered while cornering. www. C. such as the composite material properties. Dennis: Normal-Boundary Intersection: An Alternate Method for Generating {Pareto} Optimal Points in Multicriteria Optimization Problems}. Spring 2006. [3] G. Martegani: Flexible Flyers in the Transonic Regime. International Conference for Coupled Problems in Science and Engineering. The results from the calculations show that variations of 25 percent on both downforce and drag can be obtained. Fluent News. [4] D. Quaranta. [5] I.A.SIAM Journal on Optimization. Greece (2005). Mantegazza: A Conservative Mesh-Free Approach for Fluid-Structure Interface Problems. number and orientation of the plies in different zones of the wing. E. P. Das. As a result. has been used to run the cases. (2006). I Acknowledgment The authors wish to acknowledge the help of Ing. 2007 11 .S. Cavagna. the wing angle of attack. To improve the robustness of the method. Wiley International Edition. U. The optimization [5] is subject to design constraints relative to the fulfillment of flexibility tests required by regulations and material strength. ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. [2] L. are a back-swept (left) and a front-swept (right) wing. U. Toso of DALLARA for supporting this research. Katz: Aerodynamics of Race Cars. This approach limits the total number of required analysis yet allows up to 20 design variables. D. 8 (1998). P. Marchetti. Two examples of a swept wing. such as the front wing and the diffusers. Issue 1. depending on the aerodynamic configuration. an algorithm has been implemented to adaptively subdivide the required deformation into substeps with achievable deformations.A. which represents a gain of half a tenth of a second per lap in tracks such as Barcelona. P. University of California. the car top speed can be improved by 1 km/hr. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics. G. Masarati. J. References [1] J. Mantegazza. Quaranta. driven by the Design of Experiments (DOE) technique [4]. Montgomery: Design and Analysis of Experiments. the wing sweep and spanwise twist. This initial application has shown the high gains that can be potentially achieved by multidisciplinary optimization for race cars.S. The response surface method (RSM).

the vasculature can thicken in response to the increased pressure. Diagnosis and evaluation of PAH typically is accomplished with a combination of cardiac catheterization (in which a plastic tube is passed through the iliac vein in the leg and weaved up the body. 2007 www. in patients with PAH. the average pressure is usually greater than 25 mm Hg. While these methods are effective in the diagnosis of vascular pathologies. perhaps more importantly. distal hemodynamics. Issue 1. For a healthy individual. At UCHSC. researchers are investigating the impact of proximal artery stiffness by using ANSYS software to simulate the transient fluid structure interaction of the blood flow and vascular walls of the pulmonary artery. By Kendall S.A. In considering only mean conditions. the CFD domain is bounded by the blue cells and the shell mesh.ansys. and out into the main pulmonary artery) and imaging techniques such as angiography Mesh generated using ANSYS ICEM CFD Hexa. clinicians have mainly characterized PAH by evaluating pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Colorado. University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. To date. Department of Pediatrics. Eventually. Over time. used for the structural calculation. By using numerical simulation. is shown in lavender. The pulmonary arteries are the blood vessels that carry oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the small arteries in the lungs. they cannot currently provide enough detail or be performed with sufficient frequency to elucidate the causes of disease progression and are hard pressed to predict the outcome of clinical interventions. Hunter. Could simulation technology more commonly associated with rocket science and race cars someday provide insight into the inner workings of the vascular system that would help doctors provide improved diagnosis treatment in clinical situations? Researchers at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center (UCHSC) have taken the first steps toward that end. researchers can gain a better fundamental understanding of the physics involved in PAH and insight into the effects of vascular stiffness on proximal. it may be part of a feedback loop by which PAH . the effects of vascular stiffness are ignored. the normal average pressure in the pulmonary artery is about 14 mm Hg.S. This increases the load on the right side of the heart and can lead to eventual heart failure and death. Section of Cardiology. For individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). through the right side of the heart. and. Such proximal thickening and stiffening is believed to change distal flow and further increase pressures. thus.MULTI-TOOL ANALYSIS Modern Medicine Takes Simulation to Heart A fluid structure interaction simulation is performed to capture patient-specific modeling of hypertensive hemodynamics. U. defined as the mean pressure drop divided by the mean flow rate. and the ANSYS fluid structure interaction (FSI) solution is proving to be a key enabling technology. the regular clinical use of patient-specific 12 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. these effects can amount to 40 percent of the total right heart afterload. however. and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Physiol... could provide better insight into the progression of PAH and improve predictions of the outcome of surgical intervention. C. This mesh is used for the CFD component of the FSI simulation. Meth. Figueroa.E. patient-specific simulation may provide better understanding of the progression of PAH and improved predictions of the potential outcomes of available treatments. Exit boundary conditions were modeled using CEL and a resistive relationship in which the outlet pressure for each branch was determined by multiplying the local instantaneous flow rate by a resistance factor. (CMAME) 2006. Engr. J. (AJP) 276(1): H257-H268. [1. since it allows investigations in which the vessel wall thickness is varied without the need for geometry modifications or re-meshing. the clinical use of non-invasive.: Outflow Boundary Conditions for Three-Dimensional Finite Element Modeling of Blood Flow and Pressure in Arteries. Residual stress is not considered here due to the difficulty of incorporating such effects in clinical models in which direct measurements within the artery cannot be obtained. Eventually.A. Using the CFX Expression Language (CEL).ansys. A CAD system is used to turn this skeletal data into a smooth representation of the vessel geometry. The model parameters were suggested by biomechanical studies of the stress–strain properties of normotensive and hypertensive pulmonary arteries from a rat model and solid-only simulations of human pulmonary arteries.S. Blood is modeled as an incompressible Newtonian fluid with constant dynamic viscosity and the flow is assumed to be laminar. Comp. in which the vascular geometry is extracted from medical imaging. For these studies the Arruda– Boyce hyperelastic material model is used.A. Issue 1.. App.: Structured Tree Outflow Conditions for Blood Flow in Larger Systemic Arteries. geometry acquisition begins with bi-plane angiography of the proximal pulmonary tree performed during cardiac catheterization of an 18 month-old male patient. For the ANSYS FSI simulations reported here. 2007 13 . The remaining nodes were allowed to deform in response to applied forces. www.2] The early results of this pilot study have confirmed the anticipated behavior of the system. The resulting mesh uses an O-grid inflation layer from all walls so that the mesh is nearly orthogonal with excellent control over near-wall spacing. M. I. ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. [2] Olufsen. A script is used to apply variable shell thickness on a node-by-node basis to the vessel mesh. Upcoming studies with improved clinical and imaging data will allow validation and refinement of the simulation methodology. This type of representation is a significant advan- tage. K. 1999. it was straightforward to implement a time- varying mass flow boundary condition at the fluid inlet with a half-sinusoid profile. solved using ANSYS CFX software. The solid model was constrained on the inflow/outflow boundaries. I References [1] Vignon-Clementel. in press. Taylor.E. This provides data describing the vessel centerline and diameter. Am. The quad surface elements from that same mesh are imported into ANSYS as a shell element representation of the vessel. The geometry is imported into ANSYS ICEM CFD software and the Hexa meshing module is used to construct a high-quality hexahedral volume mesh. Mech. Jansen.MULTI-TOOL ANALYSIS Contours of pressure on the vessel walls at peak systole Contours of vessel wall displacement at peak systole simulation.

In 1994. office seating offering ergonomic comfort for a wide range of body types and postures and easy adjustability for fit and feel. U.CONSUMER PRODUCTS CAE Takes a Front Seat Engineers use ANSYS software to meet complex and potentially conflicting requirements to design a chair for a wide range of body types and postures. the Whitney Museum. As one of the leaders in highperformance office furniture. Isamu Noguchi and Alexander Girard. beginning in the early 1930s through collaborations with iconic figures like Gilbert Rohde. The goal was to develop the Mirra chair as an entirely new reference point for mid-priced TM The TriFlex back that automatically adjusts to each user was developed as a single composite plastic structure using analysis to determine the coupled response of the back and its supporting spine. timeconsuming. Issue 1. Engineers needed a way to optimize Herman Miller’s new award-winning Mirra office chair was developed through virtual prototyping using ANSYS software. followed by the Equa® chair in 1984. Later the company transformed the modern office with the world’s first open-plan office systems in the 1960s and the concept of ergonomic office seating in 1976 with the introduction of the Ergon® chair. The cost also needed to be kept as low as possible through reduced part counts and effective use of structural materials.. transformed the residential furniture industry as America’s first proponent of modern design.ansys. including the New York Museum of Modern Art. the company launched the groundbreaking Aeron® chair. the company is one of the oldest and most respected names in American design.” Dozens of its designs are in the permanent collections at major museums worldwide. Herman Miller set its sights in 2000 on the longneglected and potentially lucrative mid-priced segment of the market. George Nelson. Charles and Ray Eames. Michigan.S. Given these many complex and potentially conflicting requirements. Herman Miller Inc. and limits the number of design alternatives to be evaluated. representing half of all office chairs sold worldwide.A. It has been recognized as a design leader. receiving the Smithsonian’s “National Design Award. 2007 www. developing the chair through cycles of trial-and-error physical testing was considered impractical because the approach is . 14 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. the Henry Ford and the Smithsonian Institution. developed completely under Design for the Environment (DFE) protocols. Founded in 1923. By Larry Larder and Jeff Wiersma Herman Miller Inc.

Engineers used ANSYS Structural software to determine the coupled response of the back and its supporting spine based on the material characteristics of each part together with the size and geometric pattern of the perforated back. and pedestal. Introduced in 2003. In terms of market ANSYS Advantage • Volume I.CONSUMER PRODUCTS the design early in the development by investigating a wide range of possibilities at that stage. Issue 1. the pliable TriFlex back design provides the proper deflection according to the user’s posture and movements. thus reducing load concentrations and fatigue. One of the key virtual prototyping technologies selected was ANSYS structural analysis software. Prototype testing time was minimized. Engineers routinely used ANSYS DesignSpace to develop major components such as the base. It was named by FORTUNE magazine as one of the “Best Products of the Year” and received the Chicago Athenaeum Museum of Architecture and Design’s Good Design Award. Herman Miller developed an optimal chair design that delivered the required functionality while maintaining the company’s high quality standards of wear and reliability. giving engineers insight into each design so that they could select and refine the configuration that worked best. Torque curves were generated to represent the force required to support various body types in three seat positions: upright. product margins for the Mirra have met target objectives. Due to these and other cost efficiencies. With the aid of simulation. ANSYS Structural played an important role in the development of one of the chair’s key assemblies: a cantilever leaf spring and moving fulcrum tilt mechanism that provide resistive force so that a person can lean back comfortably.ansys. used as the primary tool for determining stress and deflection on every part of the chair. The result was an optimal mechanism that provided the range of torque required with only a few simple adjustments. Another major feature of the chair is a “passively adjustable” polypropylene back. These challenges were met through the use of virtual prototyping. the text script file will be used as a basis ANSYS Structural software played a key role in the development of the cantilever leaf spring and moving fulcrum tilt mechanism. for developing similar mechanisms in other chair models. reduced the parts count for the assembly and conformed to the DFE environmental criteria. In contrast to conventional rigid-back chairs. Simulation also enabled TM engineers to consolidate parts into integral modules. simulation was used to guide the design. The goal of the Mirra chair was to set a new reference point for the mid-price seating market in terms of ergonomics and adjustability. the design met the company’s objectives of comfort and adjustability. Rather than merely fix problems toward the end of the development cycle. fully tilted and midway. with a physical mock-up used to verify the functional performance established through analysis. 2007 15 . As a result. ANSYS DesignSpace models were used by an analyst as the basis for detailed simulation with ANSYS Structural software. the chair has consistently exceeded the company’s targets for orders and shipments. Output from ANSYS software included spring deflection and stress distributions. the Mirra is probably one of Herman Miller’s most successful and highly engineered products. The analyst wrote a text script file to simulate a range of spring and fulcrum combinations to operate within this torque-curve design envelope. Simulation with ANSYS software certainly allowed Herman Miller to meet these objectives with advanced technology that could be integrated easily into its product development process. thus minimizing part counts and lowering manufacturing costs significantly. Guided by the simulation. This concept evenly distributes seating forces. the Mirra chair received the Gold Award in the Best of NeoCon industry competition. arms. I www. Analysis was used extensively to engineer a single composite plastic structure that delivered the required coupled deflection response. Moreover. For more complex analysis. in which “whatif” scenarios can be readily studied in the computer and hardware testing is more of a verification of the design at the end of the cycle.

com . The current study demonstrates the use of a more fundamental and scientific approach to study particle attrition [6]. and Sauter mean diameter (right) in the vicinity of the bend for an inlet jet pressure of 1. Even for a dilute mixture. Experiments are carried out on the Malvern Mastersizer DPF. The numerical model makes use of a semi-empirical expression for computing the breakage of solid particles. The results show the solids collecting near the outer wall of the bend and lowering the Sauter mean diameter because of increased attrition. To vacuum Laser diffraction measurement chamber Inlet for dry powder from vibrating feeder plate Flexible tube Regulated air pressure inlet The Malvern Mastersizer particle size analyzer and its dry powder feeder (DPF) Contours of the solid phase volume fraction with solid phase velocity vectors (left). For the experiments. Below the suspending jet but upstream of the laser diffraction measurement chamber is a pipe bend. a key part of this lab-scale pneumatic conveying system. in which the particles suffer wear as a result of collisions and friction. Inc. Pneumatic conveying systems are used at pharmaceutical manufacturing sites to transport granular materials. Merck & Company. Granule attrition. Kumar Dhanasekharan.PHARMACEUTICALS Transport of Fragile By Pavol Rajniak and Rey Chern. Increasing the air jet pressure produces a finer PSD as a consequence of more extensive attrition. U. It generally is recognized that during pneumatic conveying. It incorporates an experimental program with CFD modeling of the gas–solid system. Issue 1. The powder under test is fed using a vibrating feeder and then suspended by a jet of compressed air whose pressure can be varied. providing stress conditions closely related to industrial processes [2]. One experimental approach has been carried out at various bends. granule samples were analyzed at different inlet air jet pressures ranging from 0.S. where pills are formed. average inlet granule diameter of 57.8 µm and granular material density of 1200 kg/m3. 2007 Another mimics well-defined stress conditions in simple setups to identify basic attrition mechanisms [3–5]. Experimental and theoretical studies to understand the mechanical impact of conveying on granules are needed so that formulations.3 software to simulate the motion of the solid and gas phases and attrition within the device. inlet gas velocity of 30 m/s. 16 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. The Eulerian granular multiphase model is used with the new population balance (PB) module in FLUENT 6. The particle size distribution (PSD) is an important characteristic of a powder system because it plays a role in the final product quality. a laboratory-scale dry powder feeder and particle size analyzer from Malvern Instruments. attrition can reduce characteristic particle sizes by as much as 50 percent [1] leading to a deterioration in the granule properties and potentially compromising the quality attributes of the pharmaceutical product. ANSYS. Pharmaceutical Commercialization Technology.A. For this reason. the processing parameters and the pneumatic conveying systems can be optimized to avoid problems at the large scale.ansys.. U. different experimental and theoretical approaches have been followed. It is routinely measured by laser diffraction using bench-top equipment such as the Malvern Mastersizer. Inc.. Merck Sharp and Dohme.K. can occur during the transport of materials. U.. Csaba Sinka and Neil MacPhail. the initial CFD calculations were of the bend where the particle size distribution could be computed using the population balance module. the particles experience extensive impact loads at the bends because the flow direction is changing [2]. This expression involves the impact velocity of solid phase particles as they strike the wall and a small set of parameters that are obtained by fitting the model to experimental data.K. To address attrition phenomena. Granules Pneumatic conveying systems in the pharmaceutical industry can lead to unwanted particle breakup.5 barg.5 to 2 barg www. These materials — the active ingredient and various inactive ingredients — are combined to produce granules and then are transported to tablet presses.

982 8.S.25 1.0e-5 4.14 Curve length of the lower wall Calculated Sauter diameter of solid particles along the lower wall of the powder feeder at different inlet jet pressures.30 2. The moments are compared in Table 1 for the range of jet pressures tested.010 11. Cross.442 12. Experimental Work.. P. Modeling and Measurement of Granule Friability. These plots also indicate breakage around the bend of the transport pipe.762 5.0e+9 CFD-PB: v0 = 1.884 5. U. N.. 2004. Spahr. In particular.10 0.. N. I References [1] Chapelle. Verba. Parametric studies also were performed to investigate the impact of different model parameters on the extent of breakage and resulting shape of the PSDs. m1. J.910 57.0e-5 5.PHARMACEUTICALS (bars gauge). It is assumed that analogous physically based models combining properties of the gas–solid flow with the PB www. show a significant decrease of the particle diameter at the bend. Currently. Orlando.5e-5 5. A comparison of the Sauter mean diameter.5e-5 Pin = 0. illustrating the increased attrition at higher pressures models can be employed after fitting to experimental data for predicting attrition and breakage in large-scale pneumatic conveying systems and to assess the suitability of a given batch of granular material for larger scale processing. X-Y plots of the solid velocity magnitude and of d32 along the lower wall provide further insight into the flow and breakage phenomena in the 0. This could be due to breakage that results from an erosion mechanism similar to that reported in the literature for a stirred ball milling application [7].10 40 Experimental data CFD-PB: v0 = 0.. m0 and m1.1e+9 30 20 0. d32 = m3 /m2.950 1. 2004. [2] Kalman.0e-5 2. Pin (barg) m0 . kv = 2. Merck and ANSYS are continuing studies that incorporate multiple breakage in 3-D geometries to further evaluate both lab-scale and plant-scale powder handling equipment. 2002. 2005. N.00 0.50 0. were under-predicted.75 1. D.468 17. V.81 1.: Interpretation of Size Reduction Data via Moment Models. Dhanasekharan.: Numerical Predictions of Particle Degradation in Industrial-scale Pneumatic Conveyors.5.. This moment is a relative measure of the preserved volume of granules. Issue 1.25 0. m2.10-4 [m2/m3] m3 [m3/m3] d32 . Abou-Chakra. Sci. M. H. All of the moments increase with increasing inlet jet pressure as a consequence of attrition. Powder Technology 126: 109–115. [5] Gentzler. Moments m0. M. Michaels.0.744 6. C.. Sinka..01 1. Chem. The methodology illustrated here allows engineers to correlate the observed changes in particle size with the shear forces or impact velocities within the system.120 1. [6] Rajniak. they show that the velocity gradients are highest in the bend.304 1. 57: 3671–3686.02 0. FL.. K.910 40.50 barg Pin = 1.910 37. Eng. J.75 2.198 4. M. D. [4] Zhang. kv = 3.5 7. A.: Impact Attrition of Particulate Solids: Part 2.0 9.0e-5 3.978 1. the increased attrition at higher jet pressures is in evidence as the Sauter mean diameter steadily drops. Fifth World Congress on Particle Technology (Conference Proceedings CD Vol. but the lower moments. U. M.12 0.00 barg Pin = 1. Magan R. J.910 48.00 0.10-15 [ #/m3] m1 . R. Tuzun.: Particle Fragmentation in Dilute Phase Pneumatic Conveying. 2000.00 barg Table 1: First moments of the particle size distribution for a range of experimental inlet pressures CFD results from a 2-D model of the bend were used to provide insight on the behavior of the solids as they travel through this region of the dry powder feeder. Sci.88 1.04 0. also is presented in the table. B.301 3. M. [7] Diemer. Patel.164 3. suggesting increased attrition in this region. Hounslow. I. Powder Technology 156: 83–94. 2002.0 20. and m3 of the original PSDs were evaluated using the relationship: 60 50 in which ni is the volumetric number of particles in class i having characteristic size (diameter) Li. J. 2007 17 .. N.: Attrition of Powders at Various Bends During Pneumatic Conveying. April 2006. MacPhail. suggesting that improvements to the transport system are needed.10-9 [m/m3] m2 . ANSYS Advantage • Volume I.5 14. Baxter. Chern. Powder Technology 143-144: 321–330.. P. Z. Contours of the Sauter mean diameter and volume fraction of solids.. Christakis.06 0.. A...910 32..0e+9 CFD-PB: v0 = 1.2): 23-27.00 1.50 1..08 0. 59: 5949–5958. As expected.3 13. also computed using the CFD model.50 barg Pin = 2. Chem. Bridle. with the exception of m3. widely used to characterize a PSD. Fitzpatrick.106 [m] 0. The particle breakup model satisfactorily predicted the experimental Sauter mean diameter.: Impact Attrition of Brittle Structured Particles at Low Velocities: Rigorous Use of a Laboratory Vibrational Impact Tester.00 Inlet jet pressure Pin [barg] Comparison of the Sauter mean diameter computed from experimental data with that predicted by the CFD model using three different sets of fitting parameters 6.A.. Ghadiri.ansys.5e-5 4. E. Powder Technology 112: 244 – 250. kv = 2. R.5e-5 3. S. H..672 1.0.. K. as characterized by the PSD moments.. so should be independent of the inlet pressure.. Olson. Eng. [3] Salman.

For biochemical applications. local shear and strain rates. the wide variety of mixing applications has led to a wide variety of impellers and vessels. power draw. the cloud height is greater when the optimized impeller is used because the solids that collect under the PBT impeller are more uniformly distributed. so it is more economical to use. the solid concentration and density. and the liquid density and viscosity. Mixing must be efficient. Department of Chemical Engineering. and the impeller speed. Brazil Mixing vessels are widely used in the chemical. there is a need to carefully suspend microorganisms in bioreactors so the cells are not exposed to high shear rates. pharmaceutical. for example. By Nicolas Spogis. In the chemical industry. On the economic side. biotechnology and food processing industries to optimize mixing and/or heat transfer. Issue 1. The optimized impeller blade (right) produces no such flow pattern. Abrasion and impeller wear also are important factors to consider. The engineers at UNICAMP used ANSYS CFX software for the project along with modeFRONTIERTM.CHEMICAL PROCESSING Solid Suspensions Get a Lift A high efficiency hydrofoil is designed using CFD and multi-objective optimization software. Over the years. fast mixing of reactive substances is desired to achieve an efficient reaction. a multiobjective design optimization tool from 18 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. as is the cost and expected lifetime of the impeller and vessel materials. on the other hand. similar to a PBT blade only with a wing profile cross-section) shows tip vortices.ansys. When choosing the right equipment for solid–liquid mixing. Quantities of interest may include mixing times. it is important to understand how the flow pattern generated by the impeller affects the solids distribution within the vessel. The suspension of solid particles in a stirred tank was used to illustrate the methodology. which increase drag and lead to increased power consumption. Solids distribution in a stirred tank driven by a standard PBT (left) is compared to that in the same tank driven by the optimized impeller (right). International Trade Center. The optimum impeller should produce a highly turbulent flow to reduce segregation and minimize the mass and energy transport limitation for The flow generated by one of the initial impeller blades (left. making the choice of the right mixing equipment a challenge for the process engineer. the chemical reaction. In a project recently completed at the University of Campinas (UNICAMP) in Brazil. which can lead to their destruction. petrochemical. the solid and liquid properties. University of Campinas (UNICAMP).com . Brazil and José Roberto Nunhez. precise and reproducible to ensure optimum product quality. Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software (ESSS). and solids distribution. The parameters that affect solid suspensions are the shape and size distribution of the solid particles. 2007 www. Solid–liquid mixtures appear in applications ranging from the mining industry to the pharmaceutical industry. All of these aspects of mixing depend on the geometry of the equipment. an optimization procedure was applied to the design of an impeller to illustrate how this approach can lead to more efficient mixing processes in general. minimization of the power required to achieve a desired distribution is important.

in which well-behaved response surfaces were used to extrapolate the initial results. ensuring a proper relationship between the turbulent stress and turbulent kinetic energy.unicamp. The optimized impeller. The optimization process was divided into two main steps: 1. Rather. resulting in both a higher pumping effectiveness and a more uniform solid suspension. constrained shape approach allowed for seven design variables with two nonlinear constraints. an experimental validation was carried out to validate the numerical the Italian company ESTECO.000 cells was created. determined by the process described above. even directly below the shaft. The variance of the concentration is low as well. the solid concentration variance was reduced by 48. Issue 1. The use of CFD for impeller optimization makes the technology even more powerful for delivering benefits ranging from costsavings to improved product quality. Traditional optimization algorithms transform multi-objective problems into monoobjective ones using weighted sums of objective functions. the optimization algorithm allowed for the entire Pareto frontier. The PBT45 has a low discharge angle and.4 percent while pumping effectiveness was increased by 410. The performance of the final optimized design was compared to that of a standard four (flat)-bladed.CHEMICAL PROCESSING A close-up view of the optimized impeller and the flow it produces shows the wing profile and a variable pitch angle from the root to the tip. In addition. CFD has long been used in the process industries for mixing analysis because it is more cost-effective than experimental work and provides a reliable alternative to the guess-work associated with process scale-up. a low pumping effectiveness and poor solid suspension. I www. A real optimization step. The initial group of impeller shapes had well-known profiles. This multi-objective. 2. hence. it guarantees an actual multiobjective optimization and allows for www. Specifically. A prototype of the optimized impeller the definition of the Pareto frontier. indicating a more homogenous ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. such as the NACA0012. and very good agreement was obtained. that is. to be determined. the complete set of acceptable solutions. the ratio of the pumping capacity to power consumed.2 percent. The multiple frames of reference option was used for the steady-state model of the rotating impeller. These modeling choices were made so that the impeller blade flow separation could be captured in an accurate manner. on the other hand. A robust. The SST k-ω model combines the advantages of both the k-ε and standard k-ω approaches. The designs were compared in their ability to meet two objectives: to increase the impeller effectiveness. for the optimized impeller. stochastic algorithm in modeFRONTIER called MOGAII was used for the automated optimization process. This research did not select the best impeller shape in these terms.ansys. Turbulence was taken into account through the shear–stress transport (SST) k-ω model coupled with the streamline curvature option. normalized to be dimensionless). the optimized impeller has a reduced solid accumulation at the bottom of the vessel. First.feq. and to improve the homogeneity of the liquid–solid mixture (by increasing the cloud height). saving computational time. with a frozen rotor reference frame change applied at the interface. at the end of the procedure. so that all designs that were not dominated by others could be analyzed. was found to have a high discharge angle (parallel to the shaft). 45˚ pitched blade turbine (PBT45). A virtual optimization step. For the system of interest. defined as the ratio of pumping number to power number (in other words. MOGAII’s search method has two desirable aspects.5 percent and power consumption was reduced by 84. When compared to the PBT45. a 120° sector tank model was created and a hybrid mesh of approximately 700. it allows global solutions to be found and second. a set of equally optimal designs. in which the objective functions and constraints were evaluated by the CFD approach. 2007 19 .

In addition to the CFD work. Issue 1. Measurements made use of a laboratory setup based on image processing of a time-lapsed Two views showing the pathlines of molten glass flow in the vicinity of the stirrers in the forehearth 20 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. A CFD project has been under way at the Research Center of SISECAM to develop a numerical model for the coloration of glass melt in an F/H for the production of table- ware products. Coloration is essentially an unsteady mixing process of two or more fluids resulting from natural (diffusion) and forced (advection) mechanisms. showing the exit spout in the lower right corner Colored glass products have many commercial applications.” in molten glass can be obtained by solving Fick’s second law for diffusion when the source and other boundary conditions are defined. By adding colorant to one of the forehearth channels. Turkey The forehearth channel of a furnace. which is molten glass in the case of the forehearth. One way to change the color of molten glass is to add a colorant material to one particular channel of the glass furnace called the forehearth (F/H). the original color of glass can remain unchanged in the melting tank. Because the colorant is carried in all directions by the flow in the F/H. a 3-D time-dependent species transport equation must be solved to track its distribution throughout the glass melt. Molecular diffusion can be from a point source in a static field or from a point source in a velocity field in which relative motion exists between the source and the field. the spread of a . Therefore. SISECAM Research Center.GLASS The Many Colors of Glass Numerical simulation helps guide the color change process in the glass industry.ansys. referred to as “frit. a set of experimental studies also has been performed at SISECAM to obtain the diffusion coefficient of the frit in the molten glass. The advection process is driven by the movement of the fluid. 2007 www. By Mustafa Oran. The model simulates the coloration phenomenon of the glass melt by calculating the distribution of the colorant agent in the glass melt as it flows through the channel. The forehearth is where molten glass is conditioned while being transported to the downstream forming machines.

The up-pumping action of the stirrers is necessary because the frit used in the process is denser than the glass melt. These results show that strong vortices occur between adjacent banks of stirrers. which was carried out using FLUENT software. where 12 stirrers are located in four banks. This value is used in the numerical model in the form of a polynomial function. Two different configurations of screw stirrers that rotate in the clockwise and counter-clockwise directions are used in the numerical model. the glass melt is pumped upward along the axis of the stirrers and downward in the mixing vortices between the stirrers. For the first phase of the simulation.GLASS 30 minutes 60 minutes video record. a strong stirring action is required to create uniform mixing in a short ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. This flow pattern enhances the mixing between the molten glass and frit so that a homogenous blend can be generated. The multiple reference frames (MRF) model was used to simulate the rotational motion of the stirrers. the initial velocity distribution of the glass melt was obtained using a steady-state approach. Because the frit is added near the end of the entire glass process. Another goal is to achieve on-time delivery of the end product with a target color value. A typical forehearth was chosen for the numerical solution. The F/H has a mixing zone. The results reveal that the two different configurations of stirrers create the same circulation effect in the glass melt in the vertical direction. the transient tracking of the frit concentration was performed. The sliding mesh model was used to capture the motion of the stirrers. Issue 1. and the rotation of the tube in the spout region also was taken into account. In the second part of the numerical study. The raw image data representing the rate of change of area occupied by the frit on the molten glass surface for different temperature values are digitized and transformed to a curve representing the diffusion coefficient of the frit as a function of temperature. The results show 120 minutes 180 minutes 300 minutes 600 minutes Concentration distributions of the frit along the forehearth at different times www. The frit is fed to the glass surface from the top of the F/H through a hole. In general. 2007 21 .ansys. A rotating tube is located in the spout section at the downstream end of the F/H to generate a gob for the production of the glass item at the forming station. One of the main aspects of color control is the requirement of homogeneity of the frit in the glass melt to obtain color uniformity in the end product.

A. thus avoiding the high cost and vulnerability to power outage of public utility lines. Issue 1. expressed as component reliability as a function of time. As the coloration process continues. which tends to sink toward the bottom of glass immediately after feeding. These modular distributed power systems are intended to operate on-site at manufacturing plants and other facilities as a source of economical and reliable electrical power. Two algorithms work in conjunction with one another to provide the probabilistic design approaches required to determine ceramic reliability predictions. However. following the flow pattern of the glass melt. particularly with inherent flaws resulting from various surface treatments. The ceramic analysis and reliability evaluation (CARES) algorithm originally was developed at NASA Glenn Research Center to determine component reliability based on temperature and stress fields. the numerical simulations can be safely accepted for practical use. The color of the final glass gob does not change during the first 90 minutes. the frit and molten glass are progressively mixed and a uniform distribution is gradually achieved. which is administered by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. which translates into significant fuel savings and emissions . engineering consulting firm Connecticut www. After that point the glass gradually changes color. As part of the program. Accounting for these complex statistical strength distributions will lead to more accurate predictions of expected component life. Axial slices of frit concentration show that the initial direction of the frit motion is toward the bottom of the channel while only a small amount of frit travels near the glass surface. These algorithms were upgraded under the U. The simulations show that the target value of frit concentration at the end of the forehearth is obtained after nine to 10 hours.GLASS 30 minutes 180 minutes Developing Power 300 minutes 600 minutes Integrating ANSYS technology with other software enabled researchers to efficiently assess component reliability for ceramic microturbine rotors. There.sisecam. This result occurs because of the high density of the frit. but the production glass is not discarded because the early color changes are not visible and the product can still be accepted commercially. Ohio. The vertical spread of the frit below the glass surface at different times that a considerable amount of frit reaches the stirring zone 30 minutes after 22 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. the target concentration of frit is obtained homogenously in the stirring zone before three hours have passed. The CRT WeibPar algorithm was developed at Connecticut Reserved Technologies Inc. a crosssectional view of each stirrer bank shows a more or less homogenous frit distribution. most of the frit is pumped upward as it passes through the stirring zone. to determine the probability of failure for ceramic components. Advanced structural ceramics such as silicon nitride enable microturbines to operate at higher temperatures than conventional metal alloys.S. I www.ansys. By Stephen Duffy. Connecticut Reserve Technologies Inc.5 percent of the pull rate) is uniformly distributed along the F/H well before 10 hours. Since the variation in frit concentration during the final hour is very small. 2007 Microturbines a few inches in diameter are critical components in compact co-generation units that produce electrical power. Department of Energy (DOE) Distributed Energy Program to specifically utilize features of ANSYS Structural analysis software. whereas the real process in the plant starts to accept the new color value after eight to nine hours. U. The simulation shows that the target value of frit (0. after one hour. ceramics exhibit large variations in fracture strength.S. Mixing between the glass melt and frit is accelerated in the stirring zone and. As the time proceeds.

this was typically a series process in which system engineering would follow improvements in ceramic materials. 2007 23 . CARES and WeibPar programs to operate together in a smooth and efficient manner. The information can influence the goals of a ceramic materials development program and better guide engineers toward an optimal design. the CARES algorithm computes component reliability. Issue ANSYS Advantage • Volume I.” I First principle stress (psi) from a cold start on Ingersoll-Rand’s ceramic microturbine vane www. All others are as-fired. Through the use of ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). All surfaces on the bottom and three surfaces on the top are ground. service stress states from the various treated surfaces of a The mesh used for the rotor vane analysis rotor blade must be combined with a stipulated component reliability to develop material performance curves. “Ultimately. These curves must be scaled to standard ceramic bend bar test specimens. surfaces of a rotor component with specified finishes are identified. Using information generated by ANSYS (geometry and stress state). senior staff scientist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Failure data is analyzed using WeibPar. One of the challenges in the project has been defining and implementing a method that establishes Weibull distribution metrics for silicon nitride suppliers based on the particular component. the ever-increasing versatility and capabilities of ANSYS are allowing structural designers to increase their confidence in.POWER GENERATION Systems that Can Take the Heat Surface Type 2 As-fired surfaces Surface Type 2 Ground surfaces Photos of the Ingersoll-Rand microturbine rotor shown from the bottom (left) and top (right).ansys. In the past. Andrew Wereszczak. making component requirements more readily understood by material suppliers. “ANSYS continues to be critical iterative software for design optimization and probabilistic lifing of structural ceramic components under consideration for advanced turbine engines.” notes Dr. Reserve Technologies used the software in a project to determine the material requirements for a blade that was being developed for a microturbine manufactured by Ingersoll-Rand Company. and rate component designs. Now material characterization maps can be quickly generated for a given component under specified operating conditions. In establishing these metrics. the ANSYS results file is queried and stresses are mapped to the relevant element surfaces. The openness of ANSYS technology and the ease of integration with other software enabled the ANSYS. The resulting design approach has allowed changes and improvements in system requirements to take place readily in parallel with enhancements in material properties.


Higher and Stronger Performances with Engineering Simulation Catching the Simulation Wave Giving Ski Racers an Edge Ice Axe Impacts Tour de Force! s10 Speeding Up Development Time for Racing Cycles s11 Scoring an HVAC Goal for Hockey Spectators s13 Taking a Bite out of Sports Injuries s14 Designing Fitness Equipment to Withstand the Workout s16 Catching a Better Oar Design s4 s6 s8 s9 .ADVANTAGE Spotlight on Engineering Simulation in the Sports and Leisure Industry s2 Sporting Swifter.

SPORTS: OVERVIEW Sporting Swifter. driven by consumers having more disposable income to spend and multi-channel 24-hour TV. ANSYS. is not that far behind. teams and sports equipment manufacturers now are realizing that they can derive competitive aerodynamic and structural advantages from advanced fluid flow and structural modeling technologies. s2 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. 2007 www. New engineering tools and disciplines like computer-aided engineering (CAE) are now major transforming agents for this industry. the amount of money pouring into elite sport has hit staggering heights. Many elite athletes. and the American golfer. The push to involve science and engineering in sports has been led by motor racing in a quest for that elusive fraction of a percentage point improvement in performance that can lead to victory. Modern CAE software tools provide a cost-effective way of assessing new products and product innovations in what were previously lengthy product design turnaround times. Higher and Stronger Performances with Engineering Simulation Computer-aided engineering plays a major role in the world of sports. By Keith Hanna. especially in the areas of new product design. Close up of airflow vectors and surface pressure predictions on a golf ball and #3 iron just after being struck. Issue 1. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in particular is an integral part of the CAE process in many sports today. and the worldwide sports and leisure industry is estimated to be worth about $500 billion per year while growing at 3 percent per annum. Indeed. In the last decade alone. computed using ANSYS CFX software Close up of a golf ball deforming after being struck in a fluid structure interaction simulation. innovation and development. Inc. Major sporting events are now linked with major business opportunities.ansys. has been estimated to have earned $1 billion throughout his 15-year career. The seven-time German Formula 1 Motor Racing World Champion. where the technology leads to performance gains that easily justify the financial outlays for hardware and software. CAE allows for virtual design and testing techniques to be applied to all aspects of sport and leisure equipment development. there has been an explosion of professional sporting and leisure activities. hungry for content and information. computed using ANSYS AUTODYN software The sports and leisure Industry has seen some profound changes during the last 25 years. Michael . Tiger Woods.

U.. appendages and sails to millimeter tolerances. CFD was used to study four cyclists in a line (left) and in a small peloton (right). have been winners of the last three America’s Cups: Team New Zealand (twice) and the Swiss team Alinghi.K. In the four-man peloton. ice axes to racing oars. were used to compute the drag. In the world of Formula 1 racing.ansys. In each case. suggesting difficulty for other cyclists to overtake the leader. With the Summer Olympics in Beijing fast approaching in 2008 and the soccer World Cup in South Africa in 2010. the coast of Valencia. Both solid mechanics and fluid dynamics phenomena are represented in applications that range from bicycles to alpine skis. comfort and efficiency. and surfboards to mouthguards. In the world of America’s Cup Yachting. Sheffield. 2007 s3 . the leading teams are pushing toward once unimaginable 1 billion cell CFD calculations. In 2007. a variety of CAE applications are illustrated that emphasize the widespread use and importance of this exciting technology. I Suggested Reading Hanna. the application has benefited in some way from ANSYS engineering simulation software. soon will see some of the richest multinational teams vying to win one of the oldest and most prestigious sports trophies in the world. the last cyclist experiences 46 percent less drag than the lead rider. Issue 1. Pressure contours on the individual cyclists. 1st International Conference on Engineering in Sport. for example. one of the largest industrial computing installations in the world. The results showed that in the line configuration. In this sports and leisure industry supplement. where it is used to improve safety. Albert2. easier to use CAE software coupled with the ready availability of increasingly more powerful computers have led to an expansion in numerical simulation for numerous sporting applications.056 processor supercomputer. An increasing drive toward cheaper.SPORTS: OVERVIEW It is generally known that cyclists riding in a pack expend significantly less energy when drafting behind another ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. www. Spain. These teams have used ANSYS software to design their ship hulls. aimed solely at doing CFD calculations.: Going Faster.K. the two side riders experience more drag than the first rider. Ventilation schemes for sports arenas are reviewed. computer simulation will be strongly impacting this industry in the years to come. Whether it is multinational equipment giants or niche elite sport teams. many will recognize the benefits that Simulation Driven Product Development can bring to their business or sporting goals. the team chose the supercomputer route rather than building a second wind tunnel as their preferred way forward for aerodynamic race car design and improvement. The BMW Sauber F1 Team recently announced the launch of its 1. R. Indeed. It is indispensable in the design of better equipment. CAE now is being used routinely to help explain physical phenomena in both competition and training scenarios. In a recent study by Dale Apgar at Dartmouth College. Higher and Longer in Sport with CFD. 1996. ANSYS has had the privilege of supplying two teams in the last decade who. shown above. as are important design considerations for fitness equipment. nearly all of the Americas Cup competitors will have used ANSYS software in one form or another prior to the start of the competition. between them. The result may not be true for larger pelotons.

S. 2007 www. U. However. the search for a perfect board has been a fervent quest among surfing .ansys. Rail type: Soft rail Bottom surface: Flat Rail type: Hard rail Bottom surface: Double concave A diagram of a typical surfboard. While the hydrostatic characteristics of a surfboard are important for stability as the surfer starts and gets under way.SPORTS: SURFING Catching the Simulation Wave Surfers are using engineering simulation to improve their gear. Hence. Those passionate about a sport are always trying to enhance the experience for themselves and for others. Issue 1. the object of the SURFace Masters thesis project. the dynamic characteristics dominate as the surfer accelerates and maneuvers on the face of a wave at speed. The image on the right shows water volume fraction contours on the bottom of the board surface with the free-surface around the board. Board-shaped blanks are produced and then fashioned by a designer or shaper. New Jersey. Determining the best geometric details of the board and fins involves accounting for the surfer’s weight in addition to the size and nature of the waves. was to custom fit a surfer to a specific surfboard based on a set of location-specific conditions and by using hydrodynamic analysis to quantify the board performance. this project laid the groundwork for more advanced board design by adding a level of engineering science to the existing practice. s4 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. Davidson Laboratory Stevens Institute of Technology.A. At Stevens Institute of Technology. conducted by Brian Sweeney (Product Architecture and Engineering Department (PAE) Masters ’06) and Dror Kodman (PAE Masters ’06). A surfboard’s performance is based on the board shape as well as the shape and size of the fins. surfers in the engineering field on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean are now using their skills in an attempt to quantify and improve surfing performance through engineering simulation. Board design traditionally has been a trial-and-error process built on the knowledge and art of the shaper. Optimized board Ricker type: Medium Modern surfboards normally are constructed of polyurethane foam with a wooden stringer in the center for stability. showing parameters such as the side rails and bottom surface types The image on the left shows water volume fraction contours on the top of the board surface with the free-surface around the board. For years. Designing a Better Surfboard By Professor Len Imas.

Surfboard fins are complex threedimensional hydrofoils. the contribution of buoyancy becomes small in comparison to the dynamic lift generated. illustrated here as displacement magnitude. This allows the researchers to compute the dynamic deformations caused by the surface pressures on the fins and the subsequent effect of the deformations on the surface pressures and related hydrodynamics. The underlying philosophy is that higher lift-to-drag ratios may result in greater velocities in the water when surfing and hence better performance. I Developing More Adaptive Fins By Dave Carswell.SPORTS: SURFING As the board speed increases to the point where the board planes across the wave surface.htm) has been developed specifically to reduce fin design time to a matter of minutes. Of particular interest at higher flow rates are the effects of fin deformation on the fin hydrodynamics.ansys. these parameters affect the board’s orientation in the water and hence the resulting dynamic pressure on the bottom surface.K. www. the major component being the displacement in the zdirection (into the page). which are essentially scaled down versions of aircraft wings. colored by velocity magnitude. This new evolution of fin design would greatly enhance fin Nick Lavery and Steve Brown. custom software called Fin DesignerTM (www. The roll angles were chosen to correspond to three standard surfing scenarios — speed generation. From the data gathered it was possible to quantify the performance of each board configuration in the form of maneuverability. basic maneuvering and extreme redirection. From the results table. Research on the hydrodynamics of surfboard fins has been under way at the University of Wales. A matrix of these features was created and configurations were simulated using ANSYS CFX software. Issue 1. Creating solid models of fins. while allowing the designer to retain parametric information on components that are important in design analysis. As a remedy. all of which are relevant to the performance characteristics of the board. The study went even further. can take a long time using commercial CAD programs. The objective of this phase of the project is to help design a new generation of fins which will have intelligently adaptive sub-structures that retain hydrodynamic lift even when deforming. Department of Materials Engineering University of In addition to speed. The primary aim has been to gain a better understanding of how the moving water interacts with different shapes and sizes of fins and how the hydrofoil shape of the fin affects the drag and lift forces that are generated. The CFD simulations generated data in the form of lift force. U. hybrids between the local ranges of drive and sensitivity were used to construct an optimized board for a range surfing ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. the rocker dimensions (which define the curvature at the front end) and the bottom surface configuration (which defines the overall contour of the underside of the board). the research team A finite element analysis is used to compute the deformation on the fin. stability and drive. However. illustrate the strong recirculation that occurs on the downstream side of the fin. Some of the key features evaluated in this study that directly affect performance are the side rails (which define the outer shape). This in turn drives the dynamic loads generated by the surfboard that allow it to plane and perform maneuvers. The transient CFD model included turbulence. for a number of years.datdesigner. and FLUENT software is successfully predicting these forces at experimentally limited Reynolds number flows. such as the NACA foil shapes at various cross-sections. I Contours of dynamic pressure on a plane slicing through the fin Pathlines. Fixed values for the trim angle and yaw angle were used. Through user-defined functions (UDFs) in FLUENT software. once the CFD models have been fully validated. will use FLUENT tools to examine higher flow rates (up to 12 to 15 m/s) that are not achievable in the laboratory using the current equipment. free surface prediction (between the air and water) and buoyancy. An experimental apparatus has been built to measure lift and drag forces on objects in an existing square-section flume. 2007 s5 . Swansea. while the roll angle was varied from a low value to the most extreme value observed. a customized finite element stress analysis code has been coupled to the transient flow analysis. The relevance of each of these is dependent upon wave type and user surfing abilities. drag force. substantially lower than those found in reality. The results for each calculation then were graded and from these results it was possible to determine an optimal board based on surfer skills and wave type. Surfboard design is a complex association of many variables. and moment coefficients.

Image courtesy Stöckli Swiss Sports AG. Hansueli Rhyner2 and Jan-Anders E. plays an important role in damping. Plummer1. Vèronique Michaud1. Switzerland 2 WSL. making it crucial to discriminate between those frequencies that should be damped to increase performance and those that are important for the skier’s “feel. Switzerland GFRP Wood core Aluminum sheet Top sheet (PA. Etienne Combaz1. Dènes Szabo2. 2007 As in most sports. By observing downhill racers on icy slopes in slow-motion. Finally. A principal aim of ski manufacturers in recent years has been to control vibration in various ways. which constitute the upper and lower . Images generated by FEA for (top) the second flexural mode of the front part of a ski and (bottom) the first torsional mode s6 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. Pierre-Etienne Bourban1. Skis completely devoid of vibration nevertheless do not provide adequate sensitivity for the athlete. The top sheet. Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research (SLF). decreasing control and speed. hardened steel edges are positioned on both sides of the ski to provide good control during a turn. Christopher J. The running base is commonly made of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) to give optimum sliding behavior. is mainly a protective layer.SPORTS: SKIING Giving Ski Racers an Edge ANSYS Mechanical software is used to analyze the dynamic properties of skis. one concludes that low-frequency high-amplitude deformation has a detrimental effect on the ski-snow contact.ansys. In the present work. the influence of the topsheet on the ski’s dynamic properties has been investigated using a combination of numerical simulations and www. Mathieu Fauve2. which has a non-uniform thickness that provides a smooth bending profile. successful performance in top-level skiing requires a combination of highly developed motor and perceptual skills from the athletes in addition to outstanding equipment. little attention has been paid to the influence of the constituent materials on the dynamic response of skis. Manson1 1 Laboratoire de Technologie des Composites et Polymères (LTC) Ecole Polytechnique Fèdèrale de Lausanne (EPFL). Christian Fischer1. Each constituent material of the ski has a particular purpose. whereas aluminum and glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRPs). The wood core. Issue 1.2].2.ABS) Top sandwich face Steel edge UHMWPE Bottom sandwich face Cross-section schematic of a ski’s sandwich structure. usually polyamide (PA) or acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). provide stiffness in bending and torsion.G.” Though numerical simulations have shown promise for the investigation of ski properties [1. Image courtesy Stöckli Swiss Sports AG.

again consistent with the results of the vibrational response testing on the skis. the influence of the skis’ mechanical properties on the “feel” and the perceived performance of the skier [5]. 2004. the skis were clamped at their center locations lengthwise.15 0.: Modal-analysis of a Ski by the Finite-Element Method. Journal of Sound and Vibration 73: 597-600. For higher modes. Issue 1. tan δ[-] moduli G’. at a temperature that increased as the frequency increased.25 10. 1E9 G’ G" tan δ 0. time–temperature superposition is often used [4]. With knowledge of the dynamic response of skis to their constituent materials in hand. Trompette.6 9.20 . equivalent to a maximum in damping capacity. improving ski performance for specific race conditions. C. In future work.8 - 25˚ C O˚ C . The strong influence of the topsheet on the overall dynamic properties of the ski not only shows that thin layers of viscoelastic materials can have an important influence on the damping behavior of the structure.0 9. et al. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole. it will be necessary to introduce more complex models that take into account the viscoelastic nature of the polymeric components.SPORTS: SKIING experimental measurements on skis with (referred to as ski+) and without (referred to as ski-) a topsheet. i.20˚ C frequency f[Hz] 9.01 0. [2] Devaux. composite laminates and wood).(right) at different temperatures. This was attributed to the increased damping of the ski in the presence of the polyamide topsheet. placed in a cold room and their vibrational response characterized at temperatures between -20 and 25°C.. however.ansys. [4] Ferry.8 ski + ski - Comparison of the first resonant frequency of ski+ (left) and ski. P. 1989. The skis were represented by multi-layer meshes that incorporated elastic material parameters that were inferred from DMA measurements taken at room temperature and a frequency of 1. which has not yet been included in the calculations but becomes increasingly important as the frequency increases. [5] Fischer. P. a damping peak was observed at approximately 0° ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. P. R.2 9. Each damping curve displayed a clear maximum value. 1980. 1980.2 10.4 9. At a frequency of 10-15 Hz. Gaertner. G" [Pa] 0.: Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers.2 1E8 0.1 The evolution of the main damping peak of the polyamide topsheet as a function of applied frequency (left) and the time-temperature superposition for a reference temperature of 0°C (right) www.10 (a) -15 -10 -5 0 5 temperature T[˚C] 10 15 1E7 0. but also implies that certain specific resonance frequencies can be selectively damped by using polymers with damping peaks in the vicinity of the target frequency. special attention increasingly is being paid to the athlete–equipment interaction. was found to occur at 0°C for ski+. designers will have the opportunity to move one step closer to selectively 0. [3] Balachandran. Elasticity-based FEA was used to model the room temperature response of the skis in a configuration identical to that used in the vibration response testing. B.1Rad/s 1 Rad/s 10 Rad/s 100 Rad/s loss factor. which generally tends to reduce the resonant frequency [3]. tan δ[-] 0. D. A minimum in resonant frequency. Magrab. The added weight of the accelerometers reduced the resonance frequencies somewhat but had no effect on the relative influence of the topsheet. To gain an idea of the dynamic properties of viscoelastic materials at frequencies beyond those that are directly accessible to DMA.. Ski+ exhibited lower first resonant frequencies than ski. This was attributed to the viscoelastic nature of the polymer-based materials in the sandwich structure (glues. B. a clear damping peak was seen to occur for the topsheet material at approximately 13 Hz. Using the time–temperature superposition methodology and a reference temperature of 0°C.e. In addition to purely mechanical aspects. In initial tests. The agreement between the calculated and observed resonant frequencies for the first two vibration modes was good. 2007 s7 loss factor.1 1 10 100 frequency ω[rad/s] 1000 (b) 0.0 8. These measurements were carried out using accelerometers placed on the ski. clamped at their center locations lengthwise. Trompette. the agreement was poorer.e. Accepted for publication in Journal of Sports Sciences. which was consistent with the results of the vibrational response testing. J. C. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was used to measure the damping capacity (loss factor) of the topsheet as a function of temperature at various frequencies..: Vibrations.: Computer Aided Design of Skis. New York: Wiley. In the time–temperature superposition methodology. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 5: 1-14. I References [1] Clerc. These curves may then be superposed for any chosen reference temperature by shifting them along the frequency axis to give a single “master curve” that covers an extended range of frequencies. or peak.over the entire range of temperatures.5 Hz. whereas the resonant frequency of ski-increased monotonically with temperature.. E. the damping capacity is plotted as a function of the logarithm of the frequency at different temperatures.: What Static and Dynamic Properties Should Slalom Skis Possess? Judgments by Advanced and Expert Skiers. i.

N. To improve the pick’s grip in the ice... ideal conditions for crack initiation and growth. results in a residual tensile stress at the root of some of the teeth. fatigue cracks grow from the serrated edge. are not normally initiated in areas of compressive stress. A worst-case scenario was considered in which the pick strikes against rock. Ice climbers scaling a frozen waterfall use two ice axes. Patterson W. and crampons on their feet. particularly from the root of a tooth. www.: The Engineering Stability of Metallic Climbing Equipment. In operation the ice axe is subjected to various load conditions but primarily to the impact of the pick with the ice.6ms after the initial impact in a transient FEA analysis.6ms after impact in a transient FEA analysis and depict the most compressive stresses at the root of the axe teeth. Messenger. The results examined the effect of cyclic impact loading at the root of the ice axe [2] Hellen. Issue 1. but more often are initiated if a tensile stress is present. however. I References [1] http://www. The head consists of an adze (or hammer) on one side and a pick on the other side. Ice Axe Impacts Finite element analysis is used to study crack initiation on a serrated blade. the stress shown is above the yield stress of the material. The first principal stress 4. subsequent impact cycles would repetitively expose the tooth area to alternating compressive and residual tensile stresses. Typically. 2007 . the bottom edge is serrated with a row of teeth. The majority of fatigue literature reports on cracks that are initiated at the site of impact loading. Wales ANSYS software revealed that a steady-state load applied normal to the end of the pick results in a compressive stress along the serrated edge of the pick with the teeth acting as stress raisers. If a residual tensile stress is present at the root of the ice axe teeth. The results indicate that the conditions required for a crack to be initiated and fatigue failure to occur on subsequent load cycles are present. Fatigue cracks. resulting in a residual tensile so any tensile stress present at a later time is a residual stress. though some also focuses on the phenomena of cracks that are initiated at stress concentrations remote from the impact site. An initial finite element study using s8 By Rae Gordon and Kathryn Franklin Faculty of Advanced Technology University of Glamorgan. The ice axe consists of a shaft with a spike at the bottom and a head at the top. T.SPORTS: ICE CLIMBING The above two figures show the third principal stress 1. most of which involve fracture brought on by fatigue [1. This analysis revealed that the compressive stress resulting from the impact load exceeds the yield stress and. The adze is used for removing loose ice and the pick is used to help the climber advance up the face of the icefall. in The Science of Climbing and Mountaineering: Chapter 15.ansys. A transient finite element study using ANSYS Mechanical software subsequently was performed to study how fatigue cracks not normally initiated in areas of compressive stress develop at the root of the teeth. Further work is required to determine if fatigue would actually occur.: Editors. the weight of the climber pulling up on the pick and “torquing” where the pick is placed in a fissure and twisted to achieve purchase. Brooks D.thebmc. Human Kinetics. one in each hand.2]. There have been a number of recorded failures of ice ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. 1997. the highest tensile stress is apparent at the root of the teeth. hence. This can occur if the compressive yield stress for a material is exceeded.

Indeed. where many complex flow interactions occur. Phil White and Gérard Vroomen.A. to employ their extensive aerodynamic experience to fashion a virtual design process using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FLUENT. Looking forward. It can pick up many effects associated with riders interacting with bike frames and can capture rotating wheels and moving ground effects. weight and stiffness characteristics. when an Italian pro cyclist’s team approached him to evaluate bikes then available on the open market. By Keith Hanna. perhaps 30 to 60 seconds can be taken off times through aerodynamic improvements to a given bike. overall aerodynamics and cyclist packages. Cervélo believes that CFD will provide a better understanding of critical side wind effects with yaw angles in crossflows. and many other riding equipment enhancements. they continue to push the bike design envelope in every way possible while keeping a focus on technology and innovation. decided to take their fast time trial bikes to market. With eight full-time engineers in their small company.ansys. Phil White notes that in a typical one-hour time trial. Today many professional athletes use Cervélo bicycles. Hence. and within two years their bicycles had won numerous triathlons and time trials. Their P3 bike is the most successful triathlon model in Ironman history with more than 20 victories. Cervélo has acquired a wealth of wind tunnel data over the last decade and is now using it for benchmarking the numerical predictions. Today the rate of development has to be fast in order to stay competitive. This customized Cervélo bike attracted attention and started to sell itself at triathlon and road racing events. Lisa Bentley — one of the most successful Ironman triathlon athletes — riding a Cervélo bicycle Cervélo Cycles was formed in 1995 when two engineers. Vroomen realized that professional cyclists did not have the interest or expertise to develop leading-edge designs with a focus on time trialing and aerodynamics. he set a design goal for a new bike design: to be unbeatable in terms of its aerodynamics. Inc. The duo set up their own company.S. the biggest aerodynamic gain is usually in the design of the lower half of the bike. The company has a simple mission statement: “To help our customers win races. The CFD studies demonstrated the benefits to be gained by this approach. Inc. which is www. U. Team CSC. He also realized that he could not look at the many novel designs put before him and know if they were better or just different. office in Michigan.SPORTS: CYCLING Tour de Force! Aerodynamic gains can be realized by studying the interaction between a bicycle and rider. The one-off design for this particular rider turned out to be a radical bike that pushed the boundaries of existing bikes and tested well. ANSYS Advantage • Volume I.. I Flow ribbons illustrate the flow through the lower half of a Cervélo bicycle and athlete’s legs. currently ranked first in the world. racing tactics. ANSYS. 2007 s9 . CFD is proving to be less expensive than wind tunnel measurements for the amount of data generated and is free of probe interference errors. Involved in bicycle and humanpowered vehicle design since 1986. Issue 1.” This mission has come true for their cycling team. Cervélo approached the ANSYS. Other Cervélo bicycles are used by racers in the Tour de France and amateurs touring along city streets and country roads.

Leading cyclists such as Lance Armstrong — six-time winner of the Tour de France — rely on Trek bicycles in the world’s premier racing events. Trek enjoys a rich tradition of victory in the world’s premier cycling events.. Headquartered in Wisconsin. In analyzing the fork assembly. ANSYS Mechanical software was used to accurately predict stress levels in the composite and metal fork assembly. Trek’s passion for innovation. Trek continually strives to design and build innovative products that meet the company’s stringent strength and stiffness requirements. Success in this highly competitive industry depends on releasing the right products at the right time.A.S. A major challenge in one recent project was to increase the speed to market of a cycle with an assembly comprising an aluminum steer tube bonded with epoxy adhesive into a composite fork that is bolted to the wheel axle. six straight 24-hour World Solo Championships and a wide range of numerous other professional wins. The solution was installed by ANSYS channel partner Belcan Engineering Group. With seven consecutive Tour de France titles. with a broad range of bicycles and cycling products under the Trek. To stay at the forefront.SPORTS: CYCLING Speeding Up Development Time for Racing Cycles Trek Bicycle Corporation cuts product launch delays with simulation-based design using ANSYS Mechanical software. U. . which provided training and applications support for composite materials analysis. Gary Fisher. manufacturing and distribution.S.ansys. 2007 www. From the first hand-built steel touring frames to the revolutionary OCLV carbon fiber molded parts first introduced in 1992. Image courtesy Trek Bicycle Corporation. Bontrager and Klein brand names. Issue 1. quality and performance has led the field with forward thinking and next-generation technology. By Brian Schumann Trek Bicycle Corporation. Trek Bicycle is a global leader in bicycle design. Wisconsin. U.A. component geometries from SolidWorks® CAD models were imported s10 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I.

to be played on April 27 to May 13. into ANSYS software. Finland Component geometry from a SolidWorks CAD model (top) was imported into ANSYS Mechanical software (bottom) to determined the stresses in the fork assembly made of aluminum and composite parts.SPORTS: ARENAS Scoring an HVAC Goal for Hockey Spectators CFD is used to design ventilation systems for sports arenas. thus avoiding the difficult task of manually adjusting mesh densities and selecting element types. CFD was used for designing the indoor air conditions. The shell lay-up capabilities of ANSYS software were of particular value in representing the complex material properties of composites in regions containing different numbers of layers aligned in various orientations. This 62. I In today’s world. The laboratory test setup was accurately simulated and a composite fork assembly ultimately was created that met all of the design parameters and safety standards. Bonded contact elements automatically configured the mesh to account for epoxied parts. By Sami Lestinen. stadiums and sports arenas is not complete without one or more simulations of the interior air flow. Finland’s leading building services consulting firm. the value of analysis becomes even greater as a way of refining innovative designs before building hardware. Tuomas Laine and Tom L Sundman Olof Granlund Oy. Several year-round indoor ice hockey arenas were recently designed in Russia. fully occupied ANSYS Advantage • Volume I.000 squaremeter arena has a capacity for 12. CFD simulations of the HVAC systems were carried out by Olof Granlund Oy. The simulation reduced the number of lengthy hardware prototype iterations and enabled the company to meet critical product launch deadlines. Analyses of this type are used to determine the best heating and air conditioning systems. As the company moves increasingly toward more globalization in its supply chain. which is well-suited to large. 2007. analyze smoke removal in the event of a fire and ensure that the occupants are exposed to a predefined thermal comfort range most or all of the time. This saved considerable time in developing these components and is allowing critical product launch deadlines to be met. The analysis allowed engineers to simulate changes in the lay-up of the composite parts as well as wall thickness of the aluminum parts much faster. Hodynka Arena in Moscow is the main venue for the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) World Championships. Trek recognizes the value of Simulation Driven Product Development and is successfully implementing the approach with ANSYS Mechanical software. Trek engineers are leveraging this knowledge and experience so that the process can be applied to the design of future products. in which the Virtual Topology feature was used to construct a unified mesh representing the entire assembly of composite and metal parts. The Hodynka Arena in Moscow.ansys. the design of auditoriums. 2007 s11 . The indoor air conditions in the arena are based on a displacement ventilation system.000 spectators during the championship finals. Issue 1. www.

Velocity profile in the Tsherepovets Arena during an ice hockey game with mixing air flow from the roof zone. which saves simulation time. Their typical focus is to compare a number of HVAC systems. such as mixing. so the simulations needed to be performed with care. s12 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. Because both arenas also will be used for other events. The device models and simulation results are saved to an object library for future projects. The goal of these simulations was to determine how well the planned ventilation systems work to meet the desired indoor conditions. and heat sources and sinks cause very complicated 3-D flow fields. The goals of the arena simulations were to incorporate the parameters that most affect the flow field and ensure that target thermal conditions prevail in zones that are heavily occupied by people at any given time. the level of convergence and restrictions on the allowable simulation time. the arrows point to the areas where supply air jets flow to the occupied zones of the stands. The benefits of the simulations are that they provide the possibility to try out different air flow device types or supply air . I Temperature contours in the Hodynka Arena. Supply air jets. displacement or a combination of both. air flow outlets. This step is important if the air flow behavior is to be estimated realistically in models of the building as a whole. The first round of simulations that is typically performed for large scale building projects such as these involves individual air supply devices to test and compare operating conditions. Given these needs. on the other hand. The results allow the design team to choose the appropriate devices for each specific location. In the end. forced and natural convection. ANSYS ICEM CFD software was used to build the model. during an ice hockey game in summer conditions with displacement ventilation Temperature stratification during a concert event in summer conditions with displacement ventilation. the approximations used. This technique requires fewer calculation nodes in the large model. all of which affect the indoor air quality of the finished structure. however. CFD was used to better understand the interior conditions and flow behavior for a range of usage scenarios.SPORTS: ARENAS The Tsherepovets Arena. The device simulation results are compared to air jet theory and to the manufacturer’s profile data and measurements.000 spectators and the indoor air conditions are controlled by a mixing ventilation system. humidity and temperature levels during different types of events in winter and summer conditions were considered. the challenge was to design the supply air distribution so that fresh air flows to fully occupied zones and improves the thermal conditions in the arena as a whole. 2007 www. Draft. and ANSYS CFX tools were used to simulate and visualize the flow. such as concerts. in which the simulated supply air jet profiles can be used as boundary conditions. was designed for 6. Issue 1. a correctly performed CFD simulation is the only calculation method that can capture the indoor air flow field with the accuracy necessary for design purposes. Granlund uses CFD to research indoor air conditions in spaces where design requirements are high and detailed flow field information is important. For the ice hockey arena simulations.ansys. construction methods and other sources. First assumptions usually have to be corrected one or more times before the target is reached. This need was constrained by the accuracy of the initial data. the arrow points to the area where cool supply air flows to the occupied zone on the field. showing stratification on several planar slices.

Despite the variation of available mouthguards.20 1. The support depends on the rigidity of the guard and its ability to resist local Mouthguards provide protection by cushioning and supporting the teeth. and in particular there are no rigorous criteria by which their performance can be assessed or compared. The precise mechanisms by which the device provides such protection are still not well understood.00 1. The results were scaled appropriately to study the supporting effect of the mouthguard.20 -0.K. finite element analysis was used to evaluate the complex biomaterial requirements of the devices in relation to impact parameters such as peak force. Issue 1. which is in conflict with the requirements for good cushioning behavior.20 -1.20 0. Department of Materials Engineering. U. 0.40 0.40 -0.40 0. For support. This design allows a concentrated load applied to the front surface to be shared by neighboring teeth. the mouthguard typically is shaped to fit closely around the teeth.20 0. By Niall Paterson. Lowering maximum stresses in this way reduces injuries. s13 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I.SPORTS: PROTECTIVE GEAR Taking a Bite out of Sports Injuries Finite element analysis illustrates that both cushioning and support are needed to adequately protect teeth and surrounding tissue from impact injuries. The Open University.00 0. material properties and impact velocity. Their ability to protect the lips and gums from laceration by covering the incisive edges of teeth definitely warrants their use in contact sports. thus reducing contact stresses by spreading loads over a larger area and for a longer period of time. especially those characterized by brittle fracture and localized damage to soft tissue.ansys.80 1. Simulation was used to rigorously study the cushioning and support provided by sports mouthguards in protecting teeth and surrounding tissue from damage.60 0. Mouthguards have been used for dental protection in sports since the early 20th century. material properties and impact velocity. they are without question an effective and necessary piece of protective equipment in many sports.40 The cushioning effect of the soft layer of the mouthguard was analyzed with an explicit finite element code to predict impact force given the geometry. Using a 2-D axisymmetric model. and contact area. however. 2007 . To gain greater insight on the capacity of the mouthguard to absorb and spread the energy of impact.00 -0. www. Cushioning imposes a soft layer between the teeth and a hard colliding body.80 -1. the degree to which they protect teeth and surrounding structure has not been thoroughly established due to a lack of meaningful data on key variables that affect their performance. the cushioning effect of the soft layer of a mouthguard was analyzed with an explicit finite element code to predict the impact force given the geometry. The supporting effect of the mouthguard and biomaterials was studied with ANSYS Structural.00 -1. This force was used in a 3-D simulation with ANSYS Structural software to determine tooth displacement. and a good mouthguard will significantly reduce soft and hard tissue damage. Contact elements represented the low friction contact between the mouthguard and teeth.60 -0. loading time. Indeed.

When the variation of impact load is taken into account. In cardiovascular and strength equipment. In the future it also may help to represent biomaterial behavior. Life Fitness consumer cardio and strength equipment is aimed at home exercise Contact elements were especially valuable in representing the mouthguard. the number of variables such as geometry and impact force. agility. simulation improves the understanding of how mouthguards protect teeth and surrounding tissue so that better criteria for design. the cushioning effect of a soft coating outweighs the benefits of increased support provided by a stiffer layer. The ANSYS model consisted of rectangular cantilevered beams representing the teeth plus a layer in front of the teeth representing the mouthguard with a static pressure distribution. U. http://phoenix. however. testing and standards may be developed. reliability.ansys. Neither of these methods accounts for axial misalignment between the shaft www. Life Fitness is one of the world leaders in developing and manufacturing advanced fitness equipment for the home market.SPORTS: PROTECTIVE GEAR Designing Fitness to Withstand the Cantilever beam models were used to determine stresses in teeth. ensure safety and maintain some of the highest standards of quality in the fitness industry. Life Fitness. given the conflicting requirements of cushioning and support. Finite element analysis was indispensable in providing the level of data to rigorously study the protective performance of sports mouthguards. patents and performance features that have led the way in the fitness industry. the best overall support for the teeth is provided by highly stiff mouthguards. and cardio stations. engineers at Life Fitness use ANSYS Mechanical software to analyze parts and simulate the performance of fully assembled equipment to optimize designs. ANSYS software was particularly well-suited to handling these complexities. To meet reliability goals for the equipment. safety. Meshes were constructed with 3-D solid. The fitness boom is evident at gyms around the world. speed. The study thus provides significant insight into a modulus of elasticity and thickness for mouthguard materials that achieve optimal cushioning while not being so compliant that support is overly compromised. The simulation provided insight into an important area of sports safety that heretofore was not as well understood or exhaustively assessed. socket and gum tissue resulting from impact. Issue 1.S. Life Fitness products are intended to facilitate the muscular effort and exercise required to develop strength. as people of all ages take to the mats. In developing these products. I Reference 1. Life Fitness Strength and Hammer Strength equipment on which professional and college athletes Keeping bushing wear rates under control allows Life Fitness to maintain some of the highest equipment reliability standards in the fitness industry. fitness facilities and training centers. teeth and. 2007 . quality and s14 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. [1] The analyses demonstrated that with a fixed load. ANSYS allowed the substructures modeled to be combined into a single composite model as a flexible first approximation of the entire problem.A. Contact elements represented the low friction contact between the mouthguard and teeth. The extensive list of products from the company includes more than 50 U. The equipment consists of electromechanical assemblies coupled with software control systems engineered for although surrounding soft tissue behavior is too complex to model accurately at this stage. contact pressures between the bushing and shaft must be accurately determined to ensure that bushing wear rates are within acceptable limits.S. By Patrick Tibbits. range of motion and endurance in athletes and non-athletes everywhere. Bushing catalogs often report wear rates as a function of average surface pressure. whereas Hertzian formulas generally are used to predict maximum pressure along a line of contact between the bushing and shaft. tetrahedral and general hexahedral elements. weight machines. cylindrical bushings and plain bearings are used extensively to transmit high radial loads from a rotating shaft to a support structure. In this way. Their commercial product lines include Life Fitness Cardio. Illinois.

and the mechanism allows for higher speed movements for sport-specific training. In this way. ANSYS technology is a microscope to examine pressure variations in the bushing/shaft contact. Since bushing wear rate is proportional to contact pressure. In contrast. but with many conventional codes the task is somewhat time-consuming because users must manually define which surfaces are touching and line up nodes of contacting part meshes. In this way.700 psi by 35 percent and was nearly 10 times greater than the average pressure of 250 psi computed by traditional formulas. Extensive facilities for setting real constants and KEYOPTS for the contact elements greatly improve the detection of initial contact. TARGE170 and CONTA174 elements were used to simulate three-dimensional contact between the shaft and bushing. Furthermore. however. The model of the bushing/shaft/housing assembly required no artificial constraints to prevent rigid-body motion. I www. which get modeled with second-order solid elements with mid-side nodes.ansys. The maximum pressure predicted by ANSYS software exceeded the Hertzian line-contact pressure of 1. the predictive capabilities of advanced solutions such as ANSYS software play a critical role in enabling Life Fitness to develop some of the most innovative and reliable equipment in the industry. ANSYS contact element technology readily handles solutions of such numerically difficult contact problems. In this respect. Non-uniform contact pressure distribution between the shaft and bushing enables engineers to accurately calculate bushing wear rates and thus guide decisions on the selection of component materials and surface finishes to maintain overall reliability of the fitness equipment. Twenty adjustments per column on the equipment’s dual adjustable pulley system create a variety of exercises. Issue 1. integrating these ANSYS values for non-uniform pressure distribution in the shaft/bearing contact provides a more accurate calculation of wear rate. ANSYS analysis helped guide design decisions in the selection of bushing and shaft materials and surface finishes for a new model of fitness equipment. Surface-to-surface contact element technology enabled Life Fitness engineers to accurately determine the contact pressure due to axial misalignment between the shaft and bushing. providing valuable insight into potential bushing wear patterns and material behavior. Determining such contact pressure can be done with finite element analysis. Moreover. By clearly showing the effect of misalignment loading on the wear rate of the bushing. higherorder elements are used that do not require nodes of contacting parts to line up. simulation showed how the distribution of non-uniform pressure varied from one point to another over the entire surface. 2007 s15 .com Bushings get a real workout in equipment such as this Life Fitness Cable Motion series of strength training machines. ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. ANSYS surface-to-surface contact element technology automatically detects regions where parts touch. which develops extremely high nonuniform pressure distributions that are difficult to determine from traditional methods.SPORTS: FITNESS EQUIPMENT Equipment Workout and bushing.

go to www. The CAD geometry of the blade (right) is used for the CFD . By Jim Shaikh.866. All rights reserved. and finally.9724. Inc. brand.ansys. To subscribe to ANSYS Advantage. Inc. The primary objective was to overcome the cost and time constraints normally associated with the typical build-and-test development approach. TGrid.ansys. ROWING Catching a Better Oar Design Engineers use CFD and a spreadsheet model to assess prospective oar blade designs. led to a deeper understanding of the complex oar system. ICEM CFD is a trademark licensed by ANSYS. ANSYS Workbench. 2007 © 2007 ANSYS. changes to the shape of oars have not. and any and all ANSYS. or its subisdiaries located in the United States or other countries. the oar blade was assumed to be fully submersed in water. CFD analysis was used to examine the performance of the oar in detail. Issue 1. While changes to the shape of hulls may elude the casual observer. This tool was calibrated with race data and was used to link the ultimate performance of the eight to the characteristics of the oar. product. tulip-shaped oar blades of the past have been replaced with a hatchet design that offers a straight edge as the oar enters the water. along with reports for lift and drag. Pathlines in the wake of the oar show recirculating flow emanating from the inside edge and smoothly varying flow issuing from the outer edge. sales information. where the radius of rotation is maximum. oars and riggers.ansys. The results of the CFD simulations were used to construct and calibrate an additional spreadsheet model of oar performance. Inc. The combined modeling approach greatly enhanced the client’s appreciation of the mechanism of oar propulsion and offered a tool that could be used to quantify the benefits of alternative oar design concepts. the middle of the drive. Using a rotating frame of reference. www. a unique consulting service that specializes in fluids-based engineering design. just before the oar is removed from the water. Rowing is a highly competitive international sport that is experiencing rapid growth in all parts of the world. as composite materials have replaced wood and stainless steel for hulls. service and feature names. or visit www. ANSYS. ANSYS CFX tools to obtain the flow solution. Inc. The open-water boundaries were placed far from the blade to avoid edge effects. service and feature names or trademarks are the property of their respective owners. A manufacturer of high performance rowing oars wished to develop a design tool to aid the development and evaluation of sophisticated geometries being considered for future oar designs. it has seen a number of changes in equipment during the past three decades. CFX. logos and slogans are registered trademarks or trademarks of ANSYS. The increased surface area allows for a more effective transfer of power from the rower to the water. Inc. Inc. As with most other sports. A photo (left) showing the geometry of an oar blade manufactured from composites. The client approached engineers at Intelligent Fluid the pivot point was adjusted for each of the three positions to most accurately simulate the compound lever behavior of an oar as it propels a boat through the water. This. the finish. ANSYS Mechanical. Using the k-ε turbulence model. The approach used ANSYS ICEM CFD software to develop the computational model and As expected. The design effort used a mixture of spreadsheet modeling and CFD analysis. s16 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. the pressure distribution on the front face of the oar shows the largest value at the outer edge. product. Neither ANSYS. nor the editorial director nor Miller Creative Group guarantees or warrants accuracy or completeness of the material contained in this publication. Inc. The results also permitted visualization of the flows that develop around the oar in each position. Intelligent Fluid Solutions. customers. DesignSpace. ANSYS Structural. Initially a spreadsheet model of the performance of a typical racing eight was developed. I About the Supplement Cover image: The flow field in the vicinity of a golf ball immediately after being struck by a club For ANSYS. GAMBIT. FLUENT.267.K. partners and others interested in the field of design and analysis applications. U. All other brand. DesignModeler. ANSYS Advantage is published for ANSYS. call 1. The symmetric. and its motion was simulated at three locations: the catch. when the oar first enters the water.

The whole powertrain motion was simulated when subject to the real pressure cycles inside the cylinders’ combustion chambers. More often than not. Generation of the MNF was automated by means of an ANSYS Workbench Command Object. One of the most recent applications was part of the development of the 750 cc twin engine for the new Aprilia Shiver motorcycle.ansys. one of the biggest two-wheeler manufacturers in the world. The ANSYS Workbench environment was used to assess the fatigue resistance of the engine’s crankshaft. The MBS provided the time histories of the forces and moments acting on the crankshaft and of the crankshaft’s acceleration. Dynamic effects due to the crankshaft’s torsional flexibility were taken into account when importing the MNF into Adams. the manual operations throughout the calculation process were drastically reduced so that different geometric configurations could be investigated with little effort. Other slender components’ flexibility was modeled when generating the MNFs inside the ANSYS Workbench platform. The MNF contains data that describe the dynamic flexibility of a component. Once the MNF file was generated. evaluated the relative stress gradient by means of path operations. which was compared to the minimum allowable value according to Aprilia standards. Italy Motorcycle enthusiasts around the world are drawn to vehicles that deliver high style and top performance. The most severe dynamic equilibrium conditions were chosen and exported as environments to another ANSYS Workbench model. ANSYS products are widely used at Piaggio Group for the development of most critical vehicle components and subsystems. By Riccardo The cycle of motorcycle design The CAD model of the full engine The ANSYS model generated by ANSYS Workbench to obtain the Modal Neutral File The multibody model The stress field computed by ANSYS Workbench www. The Fatigue Module of ANSYS Workbench was used to evaluate the safety factor based on infinite life. with products ranging from mopeds to sport motorbikes and famous brands such as Vespa. The relative stress gradient effect was taken into account. The MNF was subsequently included in a multibody system (MBS). built the normal to the surface and. which is being brought to market in 2007. Piaggio & C. The component’s geometry initially was imported from the CAD environment into ANSYS Workbench to generate a Modal Neutral File (MNF). Aprilia and Moto Guzzi.piaggio. Issue 1. by means of an ANSYS Workbench Command Object. This allowed engineers to single out the best design while reducing the need for physical ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. which was analyzed using Adams® motion simulation software. The APDL inside the Command Object singled out the most stressed point. finally. I www. Using these methods. which was used to evaluate the stress state inside the crankshaft. an Aprilia standard engine endurance bench test was simulated by assembling and solving the multibody model of the full powertrain. they are drawn to Piaggio Group. 2007 25 . used to evaluate the stress gradient at the most stressed point along the normal of the crankshaft’s external surface.AUTOMOTIVE The Aprilia Shiver No Shivers While Developing the Shiver Tools within the ANSYS Workbench environment have allowed engineers to get a handle on crankshaft behavior before a motorcycle is built. SpA. including all the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) commands needed to generate the interface elements and run the Adams macro itself.

Donaldson engineers added a small number of paddles that sweep around the outer wall of the chamber. In other words. an air pre-cleaner product line has been developed and optimized with the help of CFD. Once a design was found. The only way to determine what dimensions were needed to optimize a design was to perform a long and expensive series of build and test cycles. The cost and time involved in building prototypes limited the number of prototypes that could be built and often forced engineers to settle for www. the design of air pre-cleaners was much more of an art than a science. This causes each paddle to generate a positive pressure wave as it sweeps the outer wall of the pre-cleaner chamber.A. By Gary Rocklitz Donaldson Company. Accelerated air increases the particle separation efficiency and a larger chamber outlet decreases the system pressure drop. This velocity TM The Donaldson TopSpin air pre-cleaner generates centrifugal force that separates particle contaminants to the outside of the chamber. the TopSpin air pre-cleaner has been shown to extend air filter life and improve fuel economy for this special class of vehicles. Issue 1. After the vanes. Until very recently. sand and other large particles and debris from the air before it passes through the filter and into the engine. Minnesota. U. 2007 . To remove the spinning particles. which accelerates the flow. This type of work environment poses a challenge for the engine and components. dirty air is pushed out while the cleaned air moves inward and exits through the center of the pre-cleaner chamber. As the paddle assembly rotates.ansys.AUTOMOTIVE Putting the Spin on Air Pre-Cleaners Dust and dirt particles are removed from the air intakes of off-highway vehicles using a novel air pre-cleaner. the particles are ejected by the positive pressure wave into the lower pressure atmosphere. particularly the air pre-cleaner that separates 26 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. further testing was needed to see how the design scaled across a product line. As a result of this effort.S. Air enters the TopSpin pre-cleaner chamber through stationary vanes that impart a tornado-like (free vortex) rotational velocity. most of the particles from the incoming flow are spinning along the outer wall. The inner vanes are designed so that the outer wall paddles rotate faster than the outer wall air flow. the air moving into the chamber passes through a conical section. Off-highway vehicles spend much of their lives in dirty surroundings. By the time the rotating air reaches the center of the pre-cleaner chamber. At Donaldson. Inc.

The very first simulation provided far more information about the flow regime inside the pre-cleaner than could have been gained from a dozen physical tests. The paths of many differently sized particles were tracked and analyzed. The TopSpin line is available in 13 models with outlets ranging from two to seven inches and air flow ranges from 100 to providing valuable information that engineers used to improve separation efficiency on future designs. ranging from crawlers and farm tractors to skid steer loaders. I ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. and from the individual particle size efficiencies. The particle tracks also were used to graphically illustrate the path of each particle entering the pre-cleaner. they re-ran the simulation in order to measure the impact on the pre-cleaner performance and the flow regime. Donaldson engineers first optimized the pre-cleaner design without including the rotating elements. 2007 27 . For this project. Issue 1. as predicted by the simulation. Unnecessary mechanical details were removed to save on computational time and focus on accurately depicting the passageways where fluids flow through the pre-cleaner. It showed the transition of the flow inside the pre-cleaner chamber from irrotational near the outside walls to rotational in the center. Separation efficiencies were calculated for each particle size. which in turn provided loads for ANSYS finite element analysis software that was used to validate the mechanical design of the paddles. size and shape of the paddles while also performing further fine tuning of the vane and conic section angles. colored by residence time good enough rather than optimized designs.600 cubic feet per minute. Donaldson engineers made adjustments to the chamber geometry to provide the highest spin velocity for the lowest pressure drop. After completing their investigation of 70 configurations.AUTOMOTIVE Velocity vectors on the mid-plane of the air pre-cleaner Particle trajectories in the air pre-cleaner. The resulting TopSpin pre-cleaner is designed for use with many different types of equipment. Some other key design parameters that were adjusted at this stage were the dimensions of the pre-cleaner chamber. Donaldson engineers were confident that they had optimized the design and had good knowledge of design trade-offs. A rotating reference frame was used to model the rotating vanes and paddles. These performance benefits can largely be attributed to the use of CFD to optimize the design.” information that was subsequently used to place the rotating vanes and paddles. This created a pressure wave high enough to remove the particles. ISO 5011/SAE J726 tests showed that.ansys. The limitations in the physical measurements that could be obtained from an operating pre-cleaner meant that engineers gained minimal information from each build and test cycle. simplified pre-cleaner designs were built using GAMBIT software. the angle of the conic section used to accelerate the air as it enters the pre-cleaner and the dimensions of the vanes used to swirl the flow. an overall mass efficiency was calculated. the pre-cleaner separates 99 percent of contaminants 20 microns and larger. The goal at this stage was simply to move as many particles as possible to the walls of the pre-cleaner chamber while minimizing the pressure drop. www. FLUENT software predicted the size of the “eye of the hurricane. Donaldson engineers have avoided these problems for the past several years by using CFD to evaluate new designs and optimize their performance prior to the prototype phase. After each design change. so many iterations usually were required to optimize the design. This greatly extends air filter service life. CFD has allowed the engineers to quickly evaluate alternate configurations and get a much better understanding of why each one performs the way it does. Engineers also used the CFD results to calculate the forces acting on the paddles. They accomplished this by adjusting the number. The model dimensions of the rotating assembly and paddle angles were adjusted so that the paddles rotate faster than the swirling air inside the chamber. Each of the 70 models was solved using four processors of a 32-processor Hewlett Packard Superdome computer.


Issue 1. the largest manufacturer of seamless steel tubes in Brazil. In the steady-state CFD simulation. To improve the combustion-side flow. adjacent to where the hot metal flows Blast Furnace Air Pre-Heater Gets a Thermal Boost Engineers use CFD to improve heat exchanger performance. In particular. The air inside the tubes was modeled as well. the results reproduced experimental observations that the tube-side air was not being heated properly. Inside the brick-lined furnace. Following the CFD simulation. the heated air is subsequently used for combustion in the blast furnace. and Cesareo de La Rosa Siqueira. resulting in limited surface area for heat transfer. modifications were suggested. Instead. the tubes were modeled as zero-thickness walls and the shell conduction boundary condition was employed to account for the thermal mass of the tube material. V&M do Brazil. show the improved flow of combustion gases through the heat exchanger tube array and the resultant transfer of heat to the tube array. so only half of the original geometry was analyzed using a tetrahedral mesh of about 6 million cells. The modifications have been approved by V & M Tubes and will become effective in the blast furnace design revamp in 2007. By Charles Assunção. Vallourec & Mannesmann (V & M) Tubes.5 million cells. improving the heat transfer. each of which is a linear series of U-bends. The results showed that the new configuration increased the exit air temperature significantly because the baffles successfully modified the flow of the combustion gases through the coils. used FLUENT software to analyze the air flow inside a heat exchanger used in one of V&M’s blast furnaces. The tubes are heated by the combustion gases in the furnace. Since the combustion of fuel can be made more efficient using pre-heated air in any combustion process. the standard k-ε model was used for the turbulent flow and the discrete ordinates (DO) model was used to account for radiation heat transfer. a combustion process takes place producing a raw form of iron (pig iron) that subsequently can be refined to more useful forms through other processes. such as the inclusion of baffles to promote cross-flow of the combustion gases through the coils. Martin Poulsen Kessler and Tales Adriano Ferreira. but the existing geometry is symmetric. The analysis of the heat exchanger showed good agreement with experimental data. The main objective of the analysis was to verify the flow configuration in the current geometry and suggest possible improvements that would increase the exit temperature from the air pre-heater. heat exchangers often are positioned before the blast furnace. 2007 29 . a leading ANSYS software distributor in South America. the combustion gases were approximated by air of comparable temperature. Federal University of Minas Gerais. Combustion was not modeled.ansys. I Temperature inside the heat exchanger tubes as the air flows toward the front left. technology for extracting iron from iron ore. but still most widely used. ESSS. The heat exchanger consists of an array of tubes. To reduce the cell count. The heat exchanger is large (15 x 4 x 2 m3). ANSYS Advantage • Volume I.METALLURGY Man standing beside the pig iron channel. One reason for the problem was the tendency of the combustion gases to flow over the U-bends of the coils. Brazil The blast furnace is perhaps the oldest. Pathlines. Professor Geraldo Augusto Campolina Franca. colored by temperature. together with engineers at Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) and ESSS. the surface temperature predictions were used as input to ABAQUSTM to obtain the deformations and thermal stresses on the tube array that would arise from such a severe thermal load. Brazil. A new simulation was performed on the entire (nonsymmetric) geometry of the newly proposed design using about 12.

ansys. Issue 1. Efficient mixing of the melts is helped by additionally introducing inert gases. from the floor of the vessel. SMS Demag AG. ANSYS Fluent Germany A basic oxygen furnace converter in operation In a steel mill. The converter is a refractory-lined steel vessel with a holding capacity of up to 400 tons of molten metal at temperatures above 1600 °C (2900 °F). but operating trials and parameter studies on water models cannot be carried out realistically using experimental methods. SMS Demag AG. to produce liquid steel. Düsseldorf. 30 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. which has interests in metallurgy. and the subsequent oxidation process helps remove undesired secondary elements such as carbon. engineering services. Germany and Mark Pelzer. By Hans-Jürgen Odenthal and Norbert Vogl. At SMS . Using CFD. 2007 www. where they bubble to the surface. manganese. thus considerably facilitating the understanding of the process. Steel producers as well as steel equipment manufacturers therefore are switching to numerical simulations of the process to optimize the quality of the final product while minimizing the time and cost of steel production. several jets of oxygen are blown onto the melt surface. silicon. and plastics engineering. also known as a converter. studying the mutual relationships of individual process parameters with FLUENT software and using them in industrial applications. phosphorus and sulphur.METALLURGY Fire Tests for Molten Metal Converters Numerical simulation helps engineers peer into a metallurgical converter in which high temperatures and adverse conditions make realistic measurements impossible to perform. forging. In the converter. Besides making individual components. a group of experts has been successfully working in the 100-employee Central Development area. Optimization of the converting process depends on a number of variables. The Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) at RWTH Aachen University in Germany is used for particularly important projects. The bandwidth stretches from long-term development projects to project-related orders and fault analysis on operating plants. It is a part of the SMS Group GmbH. partially processed iron from the blast furnace is transported to a basic oxygen furnace. the flow and thermal mechanisms taking place in the melt can be analyzed in detail and displayed. is a leading installation builder for the steel and non-ferrous metal industries. Three-dimensional projections have been used to augment spatial visualization. such as the demonstration of complete virtual plants. such as nitrogen or argon. casting and rolling technology. SMS Demag plans and builds complete production lines and turnkey plants.

ansys. The process being simulated is a the effectiveness of the agitation scheme hot. etration of the oxygen jets into the melt.5. and 3. In addition decisions about the basic sequences in refractory lining and oxygen top lance. 1. The model generation walls.METALLURGY Instantaneous images of the molten metal (yellow) and slag (red) free surface after 0. which employed to couple the models together leads to increased wear. and the discrete phase subsequent phenomena induced by this process. the numerical measures. The high computation times are due. the results to the creation of a 500.5 seconds of operation. each converter can be released from several locations on the converter floor. Despite the comparatively short begins with ANSYS ICEM CFD Hexa for span of the simulation. multiphase models in FLUENT software: the customer. showing the mesh with aligned cell layers. Issue 1. highly turbulent. which bubbles used for mixing. 2.5.000-cell hexahedral date have been sufficient to make clear The geometry of a converter. During the conversion process. simulation couples together two adapted to the individual requirements of a slag layer forms on the melt surface. User-defined functions (UDFs) were such as metal back-splashing. showing the penetrating oxygen jets and resulting flow field One of the primary objectives of the CFD work has the volume of fluid (VOF) model for tracking the evolution of centered on the blowing of oxygen into the converter and the the free surface of the melt and slag. plugging so that sufficient gas can The results provided information continually be introduced to the melt to about the design of the nozzles. The top lance is models rather than the size of the mesh.5. I www. the penachieve the desired agitation. The model (DPM) for tracking the trajectories of the inert gas oxygen is delivered into the converter by a top lance. terminated with an array of six Laval nozzles. A Linux® cluster of up to 10 terminates in a fitting that contains several Laval nozzles. The inert gas and incorporate effects such as a conduit on the floor is designed to avoid varying drag coefficient for the bubbles. to making use of models for turbulence the melt and to introduce optimization The steel melt is agitated by argon bubbles and heat transfer. 2007 31 . computers was deployed for two weeks to perform a 20 Each nozzle produces a jet at approximately twice the speed second-long simulation of the 20 minute-long blowing of sound. to the complexity of the physical reaction surfaces. designed to avoid undesirable effects. The jets penetrate deeply into the melt and create process. for the most oscillation blowing cavities with large part. Thus. ever-changing and heat transfer into the refractory multiphase ANSYS Advantage • Volume I.

designed by the University of Wisconsin and funded by the National Science Foundation in the United States. The holes are created with a hot water drill consisting of a nozzle and 2. The neutrino observatory will consist of a matrix of digital optic monitors (DOMs) buried in the ice. evidence of collisions between the particles and ice can provide important information about the particles and their history. Neutrinos are produced in nuclear reactions in the sun or in dying stars. and upward to the IceCube detectors. ANSYS. Rather than capture neutrinos directly. by studying them. transparent and free of radiation. The observatory.400 meters deep. has emerged as an ideal medium for detecting elementary particles like neutrinos. To create this matrix. HYTEC Inc. New Mexico. the IceCube Neutrino Observatory is currently under construction at the South Pole. they travel cosmological distances at nearly the speed of light..S. To take advantage of the special properties of Antarctic ice. scientists can learn about extra-galactic events such as supernova explosions.800 DOMS are being suspended on vertical strings in 80 holes that have to be individually drilled into the ice. gamma-ray bursts and black holes. passing through most material without making a mark. The earth itself will be used as a filter to exclude atmospheric neutrinos. A diagram of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory A hose going down into an IceCube hole drilled with the hot-water nozzle Images courtesy NSF (IceCube). 2007 www. U. will gather information from cosmic neutrinos that originated in outer space above the earth’s northern hemisphere. and Naseem Ansari and Chokri Guetari.400 meters of 32 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. which is exceptionally pure. Inc.A. and high-energy cosmic neutrinos will pass through the earth’s layers. The IceCube Laboratory at sunrise Image courtesy Katherine Rawlins/NSF (IceCube).ansys. Neutrinos are elusive particles.EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURING Neutrino Detection in Antarctica Simulation helps speed up drilling through ice so that optic monitors can be installed. on to the ice cap of the South Pole. Polar ice. Each hole is 2. By Dick Martin and Tim Thompson. 4. Issue . Nearly massless.

Richard A. The drilling phase of the process occurs as the drill melts through the ice. Thus. By warming the ice surrounding the hole. flowing upward. Multiphase sensitivity studies determined that the heat transfer coefficients on either side of the water-ice interface were the most influential parameters in obtaining results that compare well with site data. 2006. water flow rate and water temperature on hole shape in order to increase the drilling speed. The water cools to about 1 to 2°C as the ice melts to create the hole and this water is pumped out the top of the hole. I Suggested Reading Martin. HYTEC’s engineering teams conceive. a smaller diameter nozzle was used based on the ANSYS CFX analysis. For the IceCube project. Issue 1. ANSYS CFX software was applied to this problem because it has the ability to solve turbulent multiphase flow with conjugate heat transfer in an axisymmetric domain. The drilling speed almost doubled to 6. During the ream phase. enlarging the hole and providing more time for the heat to conduct into the ice. Guetari. The runs were modeled at 1. and being partially re-entrained into the jet. The descending hose melts through the ice as 90°C water is pumped through the nozzle at a given spray angle. spray angle.S. it takes longer for the hole to close. July 17-20. www. Naseem. Hosing transports hot water to the drill tower. Tim.ansys. Ansari. even a 10 percent increase in drilling speed could save the project large amounts of time and money. they focused on the water–ice melting process at the bottom of the drill hole in hopes of better understanding the influence of nozzle size.9 ft/min. to allow comparison with site data. After the string of 60 DOMs is lowered in the hole. The ANSYS CFX results showed that using a spray angle of 25° made little difference in hole depth or diameter. which will save the project over 1 million dollars. the drill is raised with the hot water continuing to flow. Proceedings of 2006 ASME Joint U.EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURING hose connected to a water heating plant on the surface. Thompson. as there must be adequate time after producing the hole to insert and lower the optical module string before the hole gets too small. took on the challenge of performing a CFD study to examine the complex drilling process.75 inches at the same flow rate. 2007 33 . Chokri: IceCube CFD Drilling Model. By reducing the nozzle diameter from 1 in to 0. an IceCube drill model was developed to evaluate the performance of nozzle designs and to specify drill speed versus depth. During the 2004-2005 South Pole drilling season. the water freezes around them. During the 2005-2006 season. design.-European Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting: FEDSM2006-98042. Miami.. HYTEC Inc. cost and quality expectations in a wide range of high technology projects. creating a permanent ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. Increasing the drill speed at a fixed nozzle diameter caused the drill hole depth and hole diameter to decrease. the hole depth was increased by 16 to 20 percent. Because Velocity vectors showing the hot water jet and the flow of melted water surrounded by ice Pathlines illustrate the flow of water emanating from the nozzle. stagnating at the bottom of the hole. two drill speeds and one spray angle. They meet customers’ technical. This is critical. build and test ingenious solutions to unique challenges. A series of steady-state computations were performed for two nozzle diameters. FL.292 meters.5 and 4.0 ft/min. the drilling season is limited (from December through February) and the cost to fuel a water-heating plant at the South Pole is extremely high. drilling speed was between 3.

By John Krouse. ANSYS Advantage Established in 1910 by the U. Radial Fluxpath Radial Direction Tangential Fluxpath Line Line Tangential Direction Radial Direction Radial Fluxpath Tangential Fluxpath Line Line Tangential Direction Micro-level analysis models represent different wood cell orientations.S. Porosity can range from 70 to 90 percent in earlywood and from 10 to 30 percent in latewood growth. with softwood cells aligning in straight rows (top) and hardwoods having cells offset by perhaps 50 percent (bottom). The lab is the public side of the public-private partnership needed to create technology for the long-term sustainability of forests. Issue 1.ansys. because of the inherent inaccuracies of this approach. the Forest Products Laboratory serves the public as the nation’s leading wood research institute and is internationally recognized as an unbiased technical authority on wood science and utilization. including ring density. the ring density (and 34 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. these characteristics usually are not uniform across all sections of the same tree. the age of the tree. in softwood.MATERIALS Making Sure Wood Gets Heat Treated with Respect The ANSYS Parametric Design Language helps establish the thermal conductivity of wood and composites to enable more effective heat treatment processes. 2007 www. time-consuming process that often results in high scrap rates. Conventional models developed more than 50 years ago serve as a rough guideline for calculating an average thermal conductivity for certain types of wood. One particular area of research at the lab is focused on more precisely establishing the thermal conductivity of wood. According to a recent study. The heat transfer coefficients of wood depend on many variables. Moreover. Department of Agriculture Forests Service. This property is of critical importance in the drying process since too little heat treatment results in retained moisture and long drying times while too much treatment may damage the structure of the wood. the cells tend to align in straight rows in the radial direction and are offset in the tangential direction. initial moisture content and orientation of the cells. lumber mills and wood processing companies must perform trial-anderror tests to determine proper temperatures and drying times — a costly. Also. Compounding the . since wood structure can be affected by seasonal weather differences. tax dollar investment in forest products research generates as much as a 300 percent return to society. However.

According to John Hunt from the USDA Forest Products Laboratory. and quarter-sawn boards have higher heat transfer rates than flat-sawn boards due to the shorter pathway through latewood cells. cell density. The FEA simulations showed the significant effects of cell alignment. providing a broad range of data needed to determine the heat transfer coefficients. models programmed using ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) were developed to simulate the structural variation of cell porosity and alignment in determining the effective heat transfer coefficients. For the macro level. which can be fitted to equations or stored in a look-up table for further use in macro wood models. Issue 1. Such an approach in studying heat transfer issues in wood has many practical applications that include optimizing drying schedules for different board ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. determining heat treatment times to kill insects and determining heat curing times for solid wood as well as composites.MATERIALS Contour plots indicate the temperature distribution at two locations with different ring structures at the same point in time in the same wood board. “The finite element models allowed engineers to examine the fundamental thermal conductivity differences for radial and tangential heat transfer at the micro level. thus heat transfer) in small versus largediameter trees varies widely depending on the growth rates for different conditions. A parametric method enabled numerous simulations to be run efficiently. The study concluded that the porosity of wood as well as the growth rate of the tree play major roles in determining the effective thermal conductivities. Heat flux vectors (left) are enlarged to show the detail near the rings (right).ansys. The results also showed that heat transfer in a piece of wood is affected significantly by ring density and orientation. which are governed by the surrounding vegetation and climate fluctuations. This insight will enable more effective wood heat treating processes and help better utilize this critical natural resource. Dozens of simulations were required to determine the heat transfer rates for a wide range of wood geometries and structural conditions. 2007 35 .” I Vector plots of heat flux showed high and low thermal transfer in earlywood and latewood due to different cell densities in these regions. On the micro (cellular) level. boards cut from seven different locations in a typical log were modeled to examine the effects of wood structure on the transient heat transfer process using the thermal conductivity values obtained from the micro-level analyses. FEA software is a valuable tool to explore and review the fundamental laws of science. ring width and ring orientation on the thermal conductivity of wood. and also to estimate the transient heat transfer effects at the macro level in a board of wood. www. APDL performed repetitive analyses in which new values of various parameters could be entered and analyzed without manually rebuilding multiple simulation models. In this respect.


Accelerating Product Development in a Global Enterprise
With the goal of compressing cycle times by up to 50 percent, the Velocity Product Development (VPD™) initiative at Honeywell Aerospace uses engineering simulation to eliminate delays while lowering cost and maintaining high quality standards for innovative designs.
By Lee Williams, Vice President (ret.) Defense and Space Business Honeywell Aerospace, Arizona, U.S.A.

Lee Williams

Honeywell Aerospace is a leading global provider of integrated avionics, engines, systems and service solutions for aircraft manufacturers, airlines, business and general aviation, military, space and airport operations. A strategic business unit of parent firm Honeywell International, the company employs 40,000 people in 97 manufacturing plants, design centers and service sites around the world. Despite initiatives such as Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), typical problems experienced by a global organization of this type in developing complex products include lengthy design cycles, the inability to predict product performance early in design, missing product release schedules, cost overruns, slowness to adapt to market change and inefficiencies in utilizing design centers around the world. Competitive pressures demand that end-to-end cycle times be compressed while lowering costs and maintaining high quality standards for innovative product designs. In July 2005, Honeywell Aerospace reorganized to address these challenges. At the foundation of this change

was Velocity Product Development (VPD™), a process for making dramatic improvements in cycle times and success rates for new products. With a lean focus on engineering and development, VPD is based on DFSS and works synergistically with the company’s advanced manufacturing and marketing groups to ensure a streamlined and quality-focused product development process. Engineering simulation plays a critical role in enabling Honeywell Aerospace to reach the ambitious goal of VPD to reduce cycle times up to 50 percent. Through the use of analysis tools from ANSYS, engineers address several areas that often cause delays and other problems in the product introduction cycle. Simulation allows product performance and risk to be assessed and mitigated early in development so that troubleshooting and correcting problems with hardware prototypes can be avoided. Problems are fixed up front rather than later in the design cycle, so re-work is reduced. Simulation-driven development guides the design and enables engineers to create and assess innovative ideas


ANSYS Advantage • Volume I, Issue 1, 2007


ANSYS software is used by Honeywell Aerospace in its Velocity Product Development processes for analysis of hardware such as this jet-engine impeller, in which the blade design was optimized for minimal stress and vibration within a range of operating frequencies.

that might not otherwise have emerged by studying various alternatives and optimizing the best ones. At the inception of VPD, the Toyota Product Development System was studied to help formulate the processes to be used in Honeywell’s approach. While the Toyota system is not a dropin solution for aerospace product design, there are applicable methods and disciplines. In particular, their SetBased Concurrent Engineering (SBCE) method and culture of disciplined Knowledge Management (KM) were identified for adoption by Honeywell. For example, a chief engineer or systems design lead submits a target specification to subsystem design teams. The specification is highly aligned to the “Critical to Quality” customer requirements of the design offering. Initially, each subsystem team defines a design space of alternative approaches to achieve a robust system design offering. The subsystem teams then meet to present their design alternatives and collectively perform successive system-level experiments designed to find the optimal solution. These specifications are then successively cascaded down to the design of individual components. Simulation is essential in executing this process efficiently. Analysis at the system level is necessary to determine loads on subsystems and assemblies and com-

ponent parts — with all designs studied carefully with computer models. Within Honeywell’s VPD initiative, ANSYS technology is particularly valuable for stress, vibration and heattransfer analyses of rotating hardware such as fans and compressors, as well as static equipment such as engine frames and cases. Linear and nonlinear analysis is done, often taking into account creep, plasticity and contact forces. Optimization and design of experiment (DOE) studies are done to evaluate and refine designs. The models carry a fair amount of detail and make use of fine meshes to accurately represent the complex contours of aerospace components. In one study to predict vibration in mistuned jet-engine turbines, a parametric finite element model of an impeller blade was created with a specified range of variables defining its shape. ANSYS Probabilistic Design System (PDS) then automatically went through numerous iterations in which modal deformation and stress were determined for various blade geometries. A transfer function based on the PDS database of the results helped define the regions of the airfoil in which geometric variations have the greatest impact on vibration. This information then was used to optimize the design of the blade for minimal stress and vibration within a range of operating

frequencies. In this way, the best design of the blade for a particular application could be determined. The use of simulation to achieve this goal saved months of time and tens of thousands of dollars in hardware testing. As Honeywell Aerospace moves forward with VPD, the focus will be on the following: • Establishing one set of development processes to deploy globally • Using common design and simulation tools • Assuring technology readiness before starting detailed design • Improving the development estimating processes and disciplines • Becoming obsessive about “Design to Unit Cost” • Significantly increasing “Design Re-use” At Honeywell, VPD is a key part of the “Lean Enterprise” in which value from the customer’s perspective drives the process, waste is eliminated, and the workforce is involved in an atmosphere of continuous improvement. Engineering simulation is a key element enabling the company to meet these objectives and strengthen its competitive position in the aerospace market. I

ANSYS Advantage • Volume I, Issue 1, 2007



Students at the University of Pittsburgh used the ANSYS Workbench platform in modeling the complex weave geometry of an intravascular stent (left) as well as the deployment procedure (right) in which a balloon expands the device against the artery wall.

Stent Analyses

Expand Students’ Exposure
to Biomedical Engineering
Engineering students gain insight into the physics of medical devices and add to the body of knowledge on stenting procedures.
By Dr. Michael Lovell, Associate Dean for Research and Director, Swanson Institute for Technical Excellence University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

Professor Michael Lovell directed the student research on intravascular stents

With medical costs skyrocketing and health care systems overburdened by an aging population, experts acknowledge that the way diseases are treated must be changed radically. Undoubtedly, heavy investments must be made into addressing largely preventable diseases such as diabetes, heart disease and lung cancer. Furthermore, approaches must be established to detect diseases earlier in their course and regenerate functions as much as possible in patients rather than solely ameliorate symptoms. One significant barrier for the medical community in this critical cycle of effective prevention, early diagnosis and functional regeneration has been a lack of sufficient analysis capability and computer processing power for real-time simulations of these procedures, which typically include complex mechanical structures and biomaterials. Recently, however, advanced analysis technologies and powerful computational resources have converged, enabling engineers and scientists to simulate device performance and regenerative medical procedures in ways previously thought unimaginable.


ANSYS Advantage • Volume I, Issue 1, 2007

Moreover. Based on solid models of the device at various stages of the deployment. The ability to use commercial analysis packages such as ANSYS software has allowed the scientific community to treat diseases in radical new ways using a broad range of multidisciplinary approaches. the narrowing and eventual closing of the artery. Such insight is significant in minimizing the risk of neointimal hyperplasia. students utilized the ANSYS Workbench suite of design and structural analysis software to simulate the deployment of intravascular stents: devices inserted into blocked arteries and radially expanded with a small balloon to open the artery and enhance blood flow. the design of the device was optimized to maintain proper blood flow while preventing elastic recoil of the artery. Projects such as this add significantly to the body of information in the medical community on stenting procedures while having a tremendous education value for engineering students. At the University of Pittsburgh in the United States. while performing this work. with the quality of the mesh produced by the ANSYS Workbench platform having a dramatic impact on the solution time and accuracy of the simulations. Through these simulations. In one class research project. better understanding of the behavior of artery walls so potential problems can be spotted quickly and alternative designs readily evaluated. a hyperelastic model for the balloon and an isotropic model for the stent.ansys. I ANSYS simulation provided detailed stress distributions in the artery wall when the balloon expanded the intravascular stent. ANSYS Workbench also provided a better understanding of the stresses developed between the stent and artery so that mechanical injury to the artery can be reduced. which will ultimately eliminate the occurrence of restonosis.ACADEMIC NEWS The detailed ANSYS model includes elastin and collagen fibers for the artery. student researchers were able to obtain detailed stress distributions in the artery wall when the balloon was expanded into the stent. a hyperelastic model for the balloon and an isotropic model for the stent. Such information is critical to optimizing the design of the stent and the stenting procedure. nonlinear materials and fluid structure interaction. www. Simulation provides insight into the physics of stents. 2007 39 .com ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. these critical issues are being integrated into engineering curricula. the bioengineering community has been able to bring products and technology from the bench to the bedside in a fraction of time that it did a few years ago. students learn firsthand how to use advanced analysis tools such as ANSYS software that are widely used throughout industry. Issue 1. By having the capability of simulating complex medical treatments that include phenomena such as dynamic contact. an inflammation and subsequent build-up of excess cells that eventually result in restonosis. finite element models of the stent — as well as the deployment balloon and arterial wall — were effectively developed. Utilizing an advanced material model that includes elastin and collagen fibers for the artery.

Professor Lennart Löfdahl is at far right. the Volvo Car Corporation submitted a model of an old concept car — known as the Volvo Research into Automotive Knowledge (VRAK) — and also made engineering staff available for support during the project.8 8 1. flow solution tools used in the automotive industry and then learn to compare their results with experimental data. Using tools such as ANSATM.ACADEMIC NEWS Designing a Course for Future Designers Students use Volvo concept car to learn about simulation tools. with examining the external air flow around the VRAK vehicle in a simulated 50 meter wind tunnel.1 0.4 0 8 5 3 0 8 6 2. 2007 www.2 Cd Cl -0.3 0. solving. and postprocessing. the group considered two versions of the VRAK vehicle — one with a rear spoiler and one without. they needed to become familiar with the mesh generation and By Professor Lennart Löfdahl Chalmers University.3 3.0 0 -0.1 6 3 1 8 6 0.2 0. Refinements were made in several locations.2 1. the domain was separated into the car zone and the fluid zone. The team of students at Chalmers University who worked on the Volvo concept car. At the start of the course. The final surface mesh contained about 275.6 3.ansys.2 2. The students were advised not to focus on achieving perfect results but to gain an understanding of the working methods used by car designers.000 triangular elements. and thus a finished mesh of the spoiler case was provided by the Volvo staff. and was imported into TGrid software to create the volume mesh.5 1.4 2. ANSYS.8 4. Given the short duration of the course however. Using TGrid 4.8 3. developed during the Spring 2006 term.5 3.7 1. there was time only to fully mesh the case without the rear spoiler. Cd & Cl 40 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. Inc. making use of existing tutorials on all of the software tools to be used.0 5 3 1. opportunities for learning to use simulation tools are rapidly expanding.6 3 1 2. By extension. The fluid zone was further divided into an inner box around the car and outer box for the far field. Sweden and Robert Nyiredy.1 -0.0 0.3 Car Length Predictions of the accumulated lift and drag coefficients for the vehicle model with a spoiler. TGrid and FLUENT software. the students were tasked Drag and Lift with wing 0.3 0. Issue 1.9 8 3. During the 11week course. After reading the CAD geometry from Volvo into the ANSA 12 preprocessor and exploiting a plane of symmetry. The students then created a coarse surface mesh to ensure that the volume was . including around the wheels and in the area in which the wake was expected to form.1 0 0 8 5 0. the students grew Acc. Sweden and a unique course in advanced road vehicle aerodynamics.5 3 0 0.1 2. The course included sections on CAD cleanup. Among the success stories beginning to emerge involves a group of students from Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg. In training the next generation of design engineers. the increasing use of commercial CFD software in industry is spilling over into undergraduate programs at universities around the world.7 1.4 0. surface and volume meshing. calculations of CL and CD performed on a car without a spoiler were found to be higher.9 2. Indeed.

prisms from the surfaces of the vehicle to get good resolution of the boundary layer zones and then generated a tetrahedral mesh for the fluid region containing about 3. www. Although the students are on different career tracks. A constant velocity inlet boundary condition of 140 km/h (87 mph) was used. I Oil film visualization was used to illustrate the different flow separation patterns. Physically this meant that the drag force was reduced at that location. With little or no experience with commercial CFD tools prior to the course. both coefficient values increased at the back end of the vehicle relative to the front. The drag increase was due to the same rear wake region. the flow separation occurred farther behind the vehicle. The increase in lift was due to the higher velocities on the top side of the vehicle. Velocity pathlines served to further illustrate the point of ANSYS Advantage • Volume I.4 million cells. With the addition of the rear spoiler. Also of interest to the group were oil flow visualizations. Volvo and ANSYS. With or without a spoiler however. These visualizations helped the group find where the flow separation occurred. the project results were presented to an audience that included representatives from the Chalmers faculty. which had the consequence that the pressure on top was smaller than on the underside.ACADEMIC NEWS Pathlines colored by velocity magnitude were used to visualize the flow features in the wake of the car. both the road and the wheels were stationary in the simulation. the general impression was that the group had done good work. it is likely that all of them will continue to work with CFD in the future and use the software that helped them succeed in this memorable exercise. which they felt was appropriate given the heavily bent streamlines that were expected. To follow Volvo’s wind tunnel experiments as closely as possible. respectively.3 and simulated the viscous effects by using the realizable k-ε model. with which the students could investigate the flow patterns over the rear body in the region of the wake. Results of the simulations showed that the addition of a rear spoiler caused the values for the drag and lift coefficients to decrease in the wake region behind the vehicle by 4 percent and 7 percent. which agreed with the calculated values of the coefficients. 2007 41 .ansys. With the analysis completed. Issue 1. They chose this model because it limits the prediction of normal stresses. The group next loaded the finished mesh into FLUENT 6. including a pair of trailing vortices (left) and flow separation (right). and boundary layer suction was not considered due to time considerations.

By Jeff Beisheim. Setting higher Lev_Diff values (e.and distributedmemory parallel performance can benefit from this eigensolver. Note that in version 11. ANSYS. However.g. This powerful combination allows users to solve for the natural frequencies and mode shapes of their model using fewer computational resources.0 determines natural frequencies and mode shapes using less computational power. often in shorter total elapsed times than other tools on the market. In most cases. in some cases you may find that manually adjusting the Lev_Diff value further reduces the total solution time. choosing the default value of AUTO for Lev_Diff is sufficient to obtain an efficient solution time. Eigensolvers determine natural frequencies and mode shapes of structures. ANSYS 11. Issue 1. 42 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I.ansys. Starting Up PCG Lanczos The PCG Lanczos eigensolver can be selected using the LANPCG label with the MODOPT command (or in the Analysis Options dialog box). Both shared. 2007 www.0 and warrants further explanation. Inc. Senior Development Engineer. The first of these options is the Level of Difficulty value (Lev_Diff). This typically occurs when elements are poorly shaped or are very elongated.ANALYSIS TOOLS An automotive suspension model with more than 8 million nodes demonstrated the power of the PCG Lanczos eigensolver and its performance in Distributed ANSYS software.0 software improves upon its extensive selection of these tools with a new eigensolver that combines the speed and memory savings of the ANSYS PCG iterative solver with the robustness of the Lanczos algorithm. A new Lev_Diff value of 5 is available in version 11. and the PCG Lanczos eigensolver is the only eigensolver available that runs in a distributed fashion in this . The PCG Lanczos eigensolver works with the PCG options command (PCGOPT) as well as with the memory Controlling the Parameters The PCG Lanczos eigensolver can be controlled using several options on the PCGOPT command.. ANSYS Workbench users can choose this eigensolver simply by selecting the Iterative option in the Analysis Settings details pane. 3 or 4) can help for problems that cause the PCG solver to have some difficulty in convergence.0. Introducing the PCG Lanczos Eigensolver A new eigensolver in ANSYS 11. typically some of the most computationally demanding tasks in structural analysis. often in shorter total elapsed times than other eigensolvers available on the CAE market. saving feature (MSAVE). Distributed ANSYS software supports modal analyses.

com ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. although its efficiency is highly dependent on several factors such as the number of modes requested and I/O performance. the PCG Lanczos eigensolver was faster when computing less than 40 modes. Using one processor. the PCG Lanczos eigensolver would not be expected to converge quickly either and would therefore be less efficient. For example. • The beginning frequency input on the MODOPT command is zero (or near zero). Other factors such as the size of the problem and the hardware being used can affect the decision of which eigensolver to use. While the PCG Lanczos eigensolver has many innovative algorithms to guarantee that no modes are missed. 2007 43 . as problem size increased the PCG Lanczos eigensolver was faster than the Block Lanczos eigensolver at a higher number of requested modes. the PCG Lanczos eigensolver was faster when computing less than 20 modes. Using 10 processors dropped the elapsed time to six hours. demonstrating how the combination of the powerful PCG Lanczos algorithm along with the parallel performance of Distributed ANSYS makes the PCG Lanczos eigensolver one of the fastest eigensolvers available in the CAE market today. Due to the amount of computer resources needed by the direct solver. Guidelines on Using the Tool Typically. Like all iterative solvers. Comparing Eigensolvers The accompanying chart shows a sample comparison of solution times between the Block Lanczos and PCG Lanczos eigensolvers for a 1-million DOF model. For example. 80000 70000 Block Lanczos 60000 PCG Lanczos 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 10 50 100 Number of Requested Modes A comparison of the Block Lanczos and PCG Lanczos solvers for a problem with 1 million degrees of freedom. If a model would not converge quickly in a similar static or full transient analysis. the PCG Lanczos eigensolver is faster. the PCG Lanczos eigensolver may be the better choice.ansys. Issue 1. when solving this model with 500. When requesting 10 modes for this model.000 DOF.ANALYSIS TOOLS A Lev_Diff value of 5 causes a fundamental change to the equation solver being used by the PCG Lanczos eigensolver. It replaces the PCG iterative solver with a direct solver similar to the Sparse direct solver making the PCG Lanczos eigensolver behave more like the Block Lanczos eigensolver. this option is generally only recommended for problems that have less than 1 million degrees of freedom (DOF). The simulations were run on a Dell® 670 workstation running Windows® x64 with a 3. however. At 1 million DOF. Requesting 10 modes with a model of this size would likely take several days using the Block Lanczos eigensolver. It is important that users keep in mind that a Sturm sequence check works by using a direct solver to perform a numeric factorization after the Lanczos algorithm finishes. the Block Lanczos eigensolver becomes the faster option. for example. It should also be noted that if using a Lev_Diff value of 1 through 4. the PCG Lanczos eigensolver is most efficient when the solution converges quickly. the following conditions must be met for the PCG Lanczos eigensolver to be most efficient: • The model would be a good candidate for using the PCG solver in a similar static or full transient analysis. the PCG Lanczos eigensolver was able to find the requested modes in 37 hours. At higher numbers of modes. another new option on the PCGOPT command allows users to force a Sturm sequence check that helps guarantee that this is the case. Thus. executing a Sturm sequence check will eliminate the savings in computer resources obtained by using the PCG Lanczos eigensolver compared to using the Block Lanczos eigensolver. In other runs. choosing a Lev_Diff value of 5 essentially eliminates the reduction in computer resources obtained by using the PCG Lanczos eigensolver compared to using the Block Lanczos eigensolver. I www. Parallel Performance in Distributed ANSYS A suspension model with more than 8 million nodes was used to demonstrate the power of the PCG Lanczos technology along with the performance of this eigensolver in Distributed ANSYS. on machines with slow I/O performance or limited hard drive space. This factorization involves a large number of computations. • The number of requested modes is less than 100. A larger number of modes may increase the size of problem for which a value of 5 should be used while slower I/O performance may decrease the size of problem for which a value of 5 should be used. This model was solved on an SGI® Altix® Linux server with Itanium®-II processors.6 GHz single-core Xeon® EM64T chip and 4 GB RAM.

load vectors in the form of heat fluxes or nodal temperature constraints are used and an overall energy balance throughout the domain is sought. As a result. 2007 www. The FEA calculation uses the finite element method to calculate the stress and strain responses of a structure to initial or external conditions. it is a fairly straightforward matter to understand the others. The calculation is performed either through a direct or iterative process. they know that more is usually better. failure limits. Inc. and the prediction of resonant frequencies. while initially 44 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. in which the problem is solved to answer one or more questions • Post-processing: the procedures and tools used to visualize and analyze the results of the calculation Because the same basic steps are used in most types of CAE. These displacements are used. boundary conditions and initial conditions • Performing the calculation: the meat of the analysis. in turn. ANSYS. Historically. designers are in a position in which they can consider performing more complex multidisciplinary analyses than ever before. referred to as the structure load vector. FEA simulations. structural simulation tools based on finite element analysis (FEA) initially were developed to study vibration.TIPS & TRICKS CAE Cross Training Engineers today need to be proficient in not one. all CAE tools are designed to reduce the costs of alternative efforts. For starters.ansys. material response. are used to calculate a stiffness matrix for each element. there have been occasions when the right combination of people and events has spawned technological advances that have effected great change in history. During the past 10 years. the analyst of today is in need of CAE cross training. such as defining the geometry. like prototype testing. vibration responses. thermal and other factors to take into account in the development of a new product or the analysis of an existing one. thermal applications and more. During the solution. more factors and a larger system model generally will produce more valuable information and allow for the development of a better final product. displacements. FEA applications have broadened to include the study of loading. The initial mesh is shown on the left while the contour plot on the right depicts displacement. the initial loads. however. Unfortunately. To be successful in this new environment. CAE software and computational capabilities have developed to a point where such types of analyses have become routine. Structural Analysis In the 1940s. At that time. they need to understand the variety of tools available. structural. As design engineers consider how many . what those tools can accomplish and how they can work together. Since then. if one understands the process followed for one type of analysis. the scope of simulation tools available. The finite element method. computing capabilities and interest in using computer-aided engineering (CAE) to solve problems has grown. such as the spring plate shown here. Issue 1. The stiffness matrix consists of proportionality constants that relate applied forces to resultant displacements. At a core level. take into account factors such as contact between components and loading in order to predict displacement. For numerical simulation. this potential gain has had to be balanced by the reality that more comprehensive analyses take more time to perform and ultimately cost more money. For a thermal analysis. most CAE methodologies follow the same basic steps: • Pre-processing: the procedures used to set up a simulation. That is. These responses are analyzed as stress concentrations. the mid-20th century was one such period. and to provide more detailed information than can be gathered by experimental means. numerical simulation began to move to the forefront of engineering design and development. Further developments for applications in the automobile and aerospace industries soon followed. to determine the behavior of the entire structure under analysis. Over the years. In short. By Marty Mundy. analyzed as a series of smaller sub-structures or elements. but many analysis tools.

the effect of detonation on a structure. primarily due to the Fluid Structure Interaction Coupled CAE simulations combine two or more different types of simulation and allow the engineer to better understand certain scenarios. The shadow of the inner trachea wall is also ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. Turbulence models have played an important role in the development of CFD. finite element or spectral element. fluid structure interaction (FSI) tools have enjoyed a rapid gain in popularity for applications ranging from sail design to artificial heart valve analysis. For example. computational demands of the underlying physics and chemistry. Its presence in the industrial community has lagged behind that of FEA. also is used in fluid mechanics and for other numerical analyses. diffusion and source or sink terms. for example. but rather factors of them. Additional applications of FSI include the study of airplane wing fatigue. It was not until the 1980s that CFD entered the mainstream industrial market. and providing insight into otherwise less understood phenomena. developed for structural analyses. CFD is used to study the reaction of a puddle as a car travels through it. with velocity vectors shown at the bronchi exits. The differential equations are used to describe the conservation of mass and momentum. The robust k-ε model was introduced by the Fluid Dynamics Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States in the 1960s and is still widely used today. in order to solve a series of coupled. FSI is a coupled fluid–structural analysis that allows a structure to have a physical response to fluid behavior. Issue 1. guidance and optimization of applications that are used in the manufacturing. Often. environmental and nuclear industries. and the effect of wind on urban structures. the problems faced by engineers are not independent of the environmental conditions. giving a competitive edge to those who pursue this route.) www. The ability to combine tools together can enable design optimization to its fullest extent. Computational Fluid Dynamics The development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) began in the 1950s and was introduced into the aerospace industry in the 1960s. University Hospital of Zurich. the mechanical load that a fluid imparts on a solid body is used to predict the deformation. the equations include terms that represent the change of a quantity though mechanisms like convection. The deformation of the solid simultaneously changes the boundary conditions that affect the fluid behavior and are thus taken into account in a subsequent iteration of the fluid analysis. reducing product time to market. motion or vibrational response of that body. (CT data courtesy Dr. The CAE spectrum of tools is used every day in the design. With the goals of reducing prototype costs. I An FSI simulation was done using FIDAP to predict the deformation of the outer trachea wall. to name a few. In general. Thomas Frauenfelder. non-linear differential equations. In the FSI methodology. 2007 45 . CFD simulations can be performed for equilibrium (steady-state) or transient (timemarching) conditions. CAE developments are ever advancing and broadening the scope of capabilities of the engineer. airbag or parachute deployment.ansys. CFD solvers implement one or more of three primary numerical techniques: finite volume. As the name suggests.TIPS & TRICKS In this example. or the transport of quantities such as heat and turbulence. which can be difficult to solve simultaneously. Switzerland.

each set of surfaces can have different values of emissivity. To utilize the ANSYS surface-to-surface radiation capabilities. To use the Radiosity Solution Method. Depending on the degree of radiation heat flow in the model. A simplified form of the equation describing radiation from one surface to another is: in which A is the surface area.rdsf. however. 2.TIPS & TRICKS View-Factoring Radiation into ANSYS Workbench Simulation The ANSYS Radiosity Solution Method accounts for heat exchange between surfaces using Named Selections and a Command object. the following two steps are performed: 1. a “Radiation” load is available that allows users to account for losses to the surroundings.0. The only point the user needs to keep in mind is that all surfaces in a given Named Selection will be assumed to have the same emissivity values. To create Named Selections. surfaces (or edges in 2-D) are selected and the “Create Selection Group” icon on the Named Selection toolbar is chosen. a Command object also needs to be inserted under the “Environment” branch in ANSYS Workbench Simulation. It is worthwhile to note that conduction and radiation calculations are performed in a segregated fashion. With multiple Named Selections. ANSYS. ε is the emissivity of the surface.20 46 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I. respectively.8. Surfaces that radiate between each other in an enclosure can be defined in one or several Named Selections. however. In ANSYS Workbench Simulation.1 sf. the solution may require more iterations than regular ANSYS conduction-based solutions. and the radiated heat flux is computed between each element face as well as to space. Performing Radiosity Solutions The Radiosity Solution Method differentiates each independent region of radiation as an enclosure. and Ti and Tj are the two surface temperatures in absolute temperature units. 2007 www. Designate surfaces that will radiate to each other via Named Selections.10 tunif. σ is the Stefan–Boltzmann constant. Temperature values are specified in °C or °F.273. As an example.0. although this does not include radiation exchange between surfaces. and ANSYS Workbench Simulation automatically converts these values to Kelvin or Rankine. When using the Radiation load in ANSYS Workbench Simulation.REGION_A.5. Within each enclosure.1 stef. Inc. This method is suitable when radiation only occurs to space and no surfaces are assumed to radiate between one another. In this situation. consider one hollow block positioned inside another. In cases in which radiation occurs between surfaces of the model. In addition to specifying the surfaces of the blocks that can radiate between each other. Only a few APDL commands are required to specify the parameters needed for the Radiosity Solution Method: sf. F is the view factor between surfaces.ansys.0. How Heat Radiates Radiation is a highly nonlinear mode of heat transfer. the emissivity values of the REGION_A surfaces can be specified independent of those of the REGION_B surfaces. Insert necessary ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) commands using a Command object. if the enclosure is open.9. Radiation can play an important role in heat transfer analyses. By making use of two Named Selections. Issue 1. By Sheldon Imaoka.REGION_B. and surface-to-surface radiation utilizing the ANSYS Radiosity Solution Method is needed instead. an easy method is available to include these effects within ANSYS Workbench Simulation via Named Selections and a Command object. the user enters the emissivity and ambient temperature. Two Named Selections (REGION_A and REGION_B — one for each block) are needed to represent all surfaces that can radiate between each . while the form factor Fij is assumed to be 1. Ti reflects the absolute temperature of a node on the surface while Tj represents the ambient temperature. this built-in ANSYS Workbench Simulation Radiation load is not sufficient.rdsf.67e-8 toffst.15 hemiopt. view factors are determined.

com ANSYS Advantage • Volume I.) “Solution” branch since radiation problems can be highly nonlinear. in turn. I www.9” and “0. specifies the initial temperature in ºC or ºF. specify the Stefan– Boltzmann constant and the temperature offset to absolute zero. minimum and maximum substeps under the • Temperature-dependent emissivity specification is also possible All of the APDL commands are documented in the ANSYS Commands Reference. Users also are advised to turn on “Auto Time Stepping” and to specify the number of initial. These are unit-dependent. Issue 1. The meaning of these commands is explained below: • The first two commands (SF) group Named Selections (in this case “REGION_A” and “REGION_B”) to a given enclosure (1) with emissivity values of “0. The temperature distribution of three blocks radiating between each other is shown in the figure above. is 10. The default value Handling Multiple Enclosures If multiple enclosures (i.7 of the ANSYS Thermal Analysis Guide.e. and additional details of Radiosity Solution Method options can be found in Sections 4. • The next two commands. so users should make sure that the active unit system is set accordingly from the “Units” menu. but it may be increased for more accurate viewfactor calculations at the expense of additional CPU time. (For 2-D analyses. SF commands may be repeated for the other Named Selections but referencing a different enclosure ID. the SPCTEMP command also should be used to designate the space (ambient) temperature. yet the Radiosity Solution Method can be incorporated easily inside ANSYS Workbench Simulation to solve these types of problems. In this case. • The last command.TIPS & TRICKS Two Named Selections (REGION_A and REGION_B) represent surfaces that can radiate heat between each other. Radiation is the only mode of heat transfer between the three blocks. This block. If the enclosure is open.8. For a nonlinear steady-state thermal analysis.ansys. STEF and TOFFST. A number of advanced Radiosity Solution Method options also are available: • RADOPT to specify solver controls • VFOPT to write or read the viewfactor file • RSYMM and RSURF to take advantage of planar or cyclic symmetry • RDEC and RSURF to coarsen the element faces for radiation calculations only • The HEMIOPT command is optional.. independent radiating regions) are present. the analogous command is V2DOPT instead of HEMIOPT.” respectively. the center small block (transparent) has a fixed temperature and is radiating to the middle block (displayed). 2007 47 . This model illustrates the use of three radiation enclosures — two are closed while one is open.6 and 4. specifying a reasonable initial temperature will help convergence. but it is used to set the resolution of the viewfactor calculations Fij. TUNIF. and the third block radiates to space. radiates to another block (transparent) that encloses it.

“I want to plug and play. RTV (room temperature vulcanization) materials. On each data sheet.PARTNERSHIPS This MatWeb application shows a transformer composed of steel core. plastic and ceramic materials — plus online tools including a unit converter. MatWeb lists the source of the materials data. with material property values in appropriate units automatically added to the XML file. epoxies.” I 48 ANSYS Advantage • Volume I.” says Mike Wheeler. military/aerospace. telecommunications. Going to the Source MatWeb material property data is seamlessly available to ANSYS Workbench users. Sebastian Messina. TDI engineers can export 20 material libraries at a time in ANSYS library format (XML). who heads up day-to-day operations at MatWeb.” Sebastian Messina at TDI agrees: “If there was no integration between ANSYS and MatWeb. “It is an extremely useful extension of the flexible framework of ANSYS Workbench. The idea for MatWeb came from engineers frustrated by having to interrupt the work on their software application and take valuable time telephoning manufacturers for material property data or hunting through handbooks. Issue 1. Inc. copper and Teflon. plastics. weight and inertia calculator and hardness converter. they can import the information right into their ANSYS software application. The assembly is potted into an aluminum case with a thermally conductive epoxy. which develops power systems for computer/networking. One of the companies benefiting from this MatWeb library within ANSYS is TDI Power. vice president at ANSYS. principle mechanical engineer at TDI. aluminum.” says Dale . 2007 www.000 metal. which has an on-line library of data sheets on more than 62. explains that in building uninterrupted power supplies. “Now engineers have convenient access to property data for the exact material they need. About 90 percent of the data originates from testing by material suppliers.” “The collaboration with MatWeb reflects the ANSYS strategy to team with expert partners to provide integrated solutions in areas outside our core competencies.ansys. Other data is collected from similar materials. That’s hours per analysis. copper windings and insulation layers all spiraled into an assembly. it made perfect sense for us to plug our knowledge into it. This assembly is then mounted to a cold plate. TDI uses a variety of materials including steel. “When the Internet exploded. With just a few clicks. professional societies. and the ANSYS MatWeb tools allow me to do so. medical and industrial markets. Because of the ANSYS partnership with MatWeb® announced in May 2006.” says Messina. ANSYS Workbench users can easily import material property data directly from MatWeb (www. glass. handbooks and compilations as well as the MatWeb staff. for example. “I don’t have the time to work in code and become a software guru. I would be spending extra time creating material property tables.matweb.” He adds that the tools are