Methods and Applications in Reservoir Geophysics

Investigations in Geophysics Series No. 15
Edited by

David H. Johnston

Coeditors

William L. Abriel Farrukh I. Ahmad Alistair R. Brown Ian G. Jack Kyle T. Lewallen Colin D. MacBeth Sankar K. Muhuri

Michael A. Payne James S. Schuelke Robert E. Sheriff Kenneth M. Tubman John R. Waggoner Michael J. Wilt

Michael R. Cooper, managing editor

SOCIETY OF EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICISTS
The international society of applied geophysics

Tulsa, Oklahoma, U.S.A.

Box 702740 Tulsa. I.ISBN 978-0-931830-46-4 (series : alk. -.338--dc22 2010038594 . Cooper. 2.A. Michael R. Oil reservoir engineering. p. Cooper. electronic or mechanical. cm. Seismic prospecting. OK U. Petroleum--Geology. stored in a retrieval system. including photocopying and recording. Johnston. 1947TN271. without prior written permission of the publisher.ISBN 978-0-931830-46-4 (Series) ISBN 978-1-56080-216-7 (Volume) Copyright 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists P. 15) Includes bibliographical references and index. Michael R. no..S.(Investigations in geophysics series . David H. 4. Published 2010 Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Methods and applications in reservoir geophysics / edited by David H. ISBN 978-1-56080-216-7 (volume : alk. Petroleum--Prospecting. II. or transcribed in any form or by any means. 74170-2740 All rights reserved. paper) -. No part of this book may be reproduced. O.P4M465 2010 622’. paper) 1. 3. managing editor. Johnston.

398–412. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Robert E. . 57–62. . . . . . 13 Paul F. . . . 49 G. . . . . Fundamentals of Reservoir Geophysics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 David H. . . . . . . . . . 24. . . Murer. . . 2005. . . . . 83 Zhijing (Zee) Wang. . . Geophysics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pennington Value of Geophysical Information for Reservoir Management . . . . . no. . . . . 61 Ghulam Iqbal and Abdus Satter Fundamentals of Seismic Rock Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheriff. . . Technical Skills and Competencies for the Petroleum Geoscientist . . . . . 59 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001. . . . . . . . . . . Malcolm Lansley iii . . . . . . . . . . . . Johnston The Role of Integrated Project Teams Applying Innovative Technologies To Improve Production and Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Journal of Petroleum Technology. . . . O. . . . . 56. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . ix Preface . . . . . . . Alistair R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPE 68795. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2 The Supporting Technologies . . . Worthington. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and B. . . . . . . . . . 29 Richard T. . . . . . . . . Riddle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myers. . . . . . . The Leading Edge. . . . . . . . 1 David H. . . . . . 2001. . . . . . . . . . . Houck Competency Ingredients for the Successful Petroleum Professional in the New Millennium 37 B. . . . . . . . . 21 Wayne D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no. . . . A. . xi Chapter 1 Reservoir Management and Field Life Cycle . . . . and R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fattahi and S. . . . . 1. . . . . . A Brief History and Overview of Reservoir Geophysics . 66. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Johnston Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering . . 1 Introduction .Contents About the Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . Fattahi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Society of Petroleum Engineers. . . . . . Brown. . . . . . . 5 Ganesh Thakur Maximizing the Effectiveness of Integrated Reservoir Studies: Practical Approaches to Improving the Process and Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386–392. . . . . . .

. . John Greve. . . . . 167 Scott Michell. . . . . . . . . . . . 2004. and Dean Chergotis. . . John Patrick Castagna. and S. . . . . . The Leading Edge. . . . . . . Rosenquist. Rick Cody. 123 Introduction . 155 John O’Brien. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Leading Edge. . . 11. . 2003. . . . . . . . . 12. . 2. . 470–478. . . 24. 336–340. Mariano Téllez Avilés. . . . . Kok Yip-Cheong. . . . . . . . . 147 L. . . no. . Dual-azimuth versus Wide-azimuth Technology as Applied in Subsalt Imaging of Mad Dog Field — A Case Study . . . no. . . . . . . . . K. . . Geophysics. 203 Robert B. . Leonel Figón García. . . . . . . . Fracture Gradient. and Raúl Vila Villaseñor. Society of Petroleum Engineers. . and Pore Fluids) Effectively Used as a Well Planning Tool by a Multi-discipline Deepwater Operations Team . . . . José Trinidad Martínez Vázquez. . . . . . . . . 2002. . 23. . 187 Zhangxian He. . Estimation of Formation Fluid Pressure Using High-resolution Velocity from Inversion of Seismic Data and a Rock Physics Model Based on Compaction and Burial Diagenesis of Shales . . . Detecting Hydrocarbon Reservoirs from CSEM Data in Complex Settings: Application to Deepwater Sabah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . A. . Malaysia . . . . 123 Farrukh I. . . . . . . . . . . . Genaro Ziga Rodríguez. . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . K. . . . 12. . . . . . . . 26. . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . Truman and James A. no. . . . . WA97–WA103. . . . . The Leading Edge. . . . . . . SPE 74487. . . 193 L. . . . . Seismic Amplitudes from Low Gas Saturation Sands . . 380–387. Matthew C. . . . . 2006. . . . . Davidson. . . . 26. . . 1529–1539. . 3. . . . . . . . . . Ahmad and Kenneth M. . . . 72. . Voon.iv Methods and Applications in Reservoir Geophysics Chapter 3 Exploration Appraisal . 2007. . . . . C. . . . . . . . SEC Defined Reserves Booking: What the Petrophysicist Needs to Know . Application of Spectral Decomposition to Gas Basins in Mexico . . . . no. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003. 2002. 1099–1108. . . . . . . . . . . Eldon Sims. . . . . . . . . Cordova. . . . 2005. . . René-Edouard Plessix. . . . . Estimation of Net-to-gross from P and S Impedance in Deepwater Turbidites . . Joint Processing and Integrated Interpretation of EM and Seismic Data — An Effective Method for Detecting Complicated Reservoir Targets . Martinez. . . J. JP Blangy. . . Society of Petroleum Engineers. . . . . 25. . . . The Leading Edge. . . . . . The Leading Edge. . . . . . John Sharp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no. . . . . . . . . . . Bahret. . . . . . . . . . 2007. 163 Michael Dean Burnett. . . . . . . . . 1130–1134. . . . . Giroldi. 21. . . The Leading Edge. . . and E. . . . . . 135 Nader C. . . Weibing Dong. Efraín Méndez-Hernández. Lithology. . . . The Leading Edge. . Seismically Driven Appraisal and Development: A Case Study from Bolivia’s Chaco Basin . . . . . . Fisher. . . . . . no. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lopez Angrimon. . . Dutta and Jalal Khazanehdari. . . . and Roger Young. . . . . . . Choo. . . . Mark L. . . . . SPE 84388. . . . 1236–1243. . . no. . and John W. 127 Rodney Littleton. . . . . . . . . . . . . Vernik. 22. Tubman Pre-drill Seismic Predictions Platform (Pore Pressure. . . 4. . 177 Mathieu Darnet. 2007. . . . . . . no. . . John Landreth. and Yuhong Lei.

R. 259 Liz Ross. . . . Hajo van Hasselt. 293 P. . . . and Martijn Blaauw. . . . . . . 11. . . SPE 56977. 2004. SPE 65144. . . . . 2000. . . Andrew James. . . Sarah Bell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Leading Edge. . Eric Brentjens. . . Wim Swinkels. . . 21. . . . . R. . . . . . . . . . . . . B151–B158. . . . . . Bell. . . . . . . . . . . Ruth Bourne. Tony Addis. 2006. David Stevens. 225 Introduction . . Chapter 4 Development Geophysics . . Chris Parsons. Russian Federation . . . . and John McGarrity. and Decision Making . R. E. Veggeland. . Kommedal. . F. and H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . 1125–1131. . . Alexei Trofimov. . . . . . 315 M. . . . . T. Production and Emissions Forecasting. . . . . . . The Leading Edge. A. The Leading Edge. . Mavko. . K. Edwin Lamers. Offshore Nigeria . 283 Jose Luis Masaferro. Peter Swinburn. no. Mukerji. . . . Patrick Jackson. Seismic Reservoir Mapping from 3-D AVO in a North Sea Turbidite System . . . . 2003. 8. Uncertainty Evaluation. . . Society of Petroleum Engineers. . . The Alba Field Ocean Bottom Cable Seismic Survey: Impact on Development . . 2006. Lynn. Phillips. 23. Greg Stone. . . . . . 22. Jørstad. . . . . . . . 2002. . Abriel and William Haworth Integrated Seismic and Subsurface Characterization of Bonga Field. . . A. . . Spencer. D. . . . . . . U . Lunskoye Field. . . . . 267 Rusty (John) Gilbert. 2001. . M. Bates. . . First Break. . . . . . . 225 Colin MacBeth and Sankar Muhuri The Value of Geophysics in Production of the Bay Marchand Field . . Society of Petroleum Engineers. . . . . . . Chris Varley. . . Jacob Wilkie. . . . . . Sola Adesanya. . . . . . . . . . . C. and S. . . Wyoming . . and Rachel Preece. . .A . . . Offshore Sakhalin. SPE 102650. . 215 R. . Society of Petroleum Engineers. . . . 23. 325 Jan H. . . Petroleum Geoscience. . . Dieter Skaloud. . . . . Grimm. . . . Charlotte Sullivan. .S . and Kurt J. . . 51–54. . . . . 784–788. . . . Hanson. . . . . . . . . Jonkman. . . . . . . . . Seismically Based Integrated Reservoir Modelling. 1. T. . . . no. . . . D. . . . . . . Wim Twigt. . . . . . . . The Seismic Evaluation of a Naturally Fractured Tight-gas Sand Reservoir in the Wind River Basin. Avseth. 249 Mark Chapin. . . . . . no. . and Jean-Claude Jauffred. . 18–25. . West Texas. . . . . . . . . . . . Marfurt. Yuhong Liu. . . . . . . Bos. . . . . Robert Meij. Reservoir Modeling: Integrating Various Data at Appropriate Scales . . . 3D Visualization of Carbonate Reservoirs . . J. 71. . . . . . . . . . . no. K. . . 1157–1176. . . 66. Rock-property and Seismic-attribute Analysis of a Chert Reservoir in the Devonian Thirty-one Formation. 273 Dongjun (Taller) Fu. . . . . .Contents v Best Practices and Methods in Hydrocarbon Resource Estimation. . . 7. . and T. 331 C. . . . . . Gerard Bodewitz. . . . . . . . . G. . Geophysics. . R. and Syrie Crouch. . . . . . Geophysics. . . . Raphic van der Weiden. . Valery Cholovsky. Kevin King. Morgan. . . . . . 5. . Søndena. . . . 1999. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Susan Fowler. . R. . 2005. and E. . . . . . . MacLeod. 229 William L. . . . M. William Abriel. A. Improved P-wave Imaging with 3D OBS Data from the Clair Field . . . 35–44. . . . . . 2001. . . . McHugo.

. . . Lars Aamodt. Stammeijer. 25. . 2006. . . . . Sharp. . . and Paul Harness. . John Washbourne. . . . Geophysics. . . . Payne. . . . . . . . . . . Amal Ray. . . . . . . . 2004. . . . . Patrick Smith. . . . . 9. . . . . . . . 383 William L. Kendall Crosswell Electromagnetic and Seismic Imaging: An Examination of Coincident Surveys at a Steam-flood Project . . . W. 43–47. and Jorge S. . . . . . . . . . . . and Gary Szurek. . . . . . 423 Teresa Szydlik. . . Gomes 4D Time Strain and the Seismic Signature of Geomechanical Compaction at Genesis Field . . Geophysics. . . . . . . . . . . . Soroka. . . . . . . . . . . . . 375 Angel Gonzalez-Carballo. Jianhua Yu. . . 77–84. . no. . Larry C. . . . . . . . . . Hafez H. 451 G. David H. . . Tommie Rape. . . First Break. . . . . K . Tom Burch. . . Chajecki. . . . Erik Kleiss. . Arne Solberg. 2003. . . . 23. William L. . . . . . . . . . J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hartung. . . . . . . . . Abi Modavi. . 2004. North Sea 401 Jonathan Stewart. no. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Leading Edge. 25. Mahfoud Al-Jenaibi. van Waarde. . . Hafez. . 1187–1194. . . Petroleum Geoscience. . . . . . . . . . Kyle Lewallen. . 429 Brian E. Experiences with Full-azimuth Acquisition in Ocean Bottom Seismic . . . . . . and Sverre Brandsberg-Dahl Passive Seismic Monitoring of Reservoirs: A Case Study from Oman . . and Neil Hodgson A Comparison of Streamer and OBC Seismic Data at Beryl Alpha Field. R. Yan Quist. Joongmoo Byun. J. 72. . . . . . . . . . . . . UKCS . 343 B. R. Michael Hoversten. .vi Methods and Applications in Reservoir Geophysics Assessing the Feasibility of a 4D Seismic Reservoir Monitoring Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . J. . . . Thomas Hudson. . . . . . . 351 Michael A. . Andrew Shatilo. . 406–414. 11. . Kloosterman. . . . . . . . . 4D Monitoring in Angola and its Impact on Reservoir Understanding and Economics . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gouveia. . Børge Arntsen. . . . . . . . . Koster. . . and Renaud Deboiasne. . . Antoine Veillerette. . . . . 3D PP/PS Prestack Depth Migration on the Volve Field . . Knauer. . . . . . J. . . . . . . . . . . Simon Way. . . . . . . Bernard Regel. . . 25. . . . . . . and Michael Wilt Jotun 4D: Characterization of Fluid Contact Movement from Time-lapse Seismic and Production-logging-tool Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . B69–B80. M. . . . . . . . . 25–34. and Christina Friedrich. . . . Successful Application of Time-lapse Seismic Data in Shell Expro’s Gannet Fields. . . . . . 9. . . . K. . . . Abu Baker Al-Jeelani. . VSP: Beyond Time-to-depth Conversion . . Blonk. . . . . . . . . . John A. Society of Petroleum Engineers. . . . . . . van der Zee. . . 2007. Successful 4D Monitoring of Saturation Changes in a Giant Middle Eastern Carbonate Reservoir: ADCO Phase 1 4D Pilot Results . . . . . 441 A. . 2007. . . . Central North Sea. . . and Lasse Amundsen. and Morten Lauritzen. Chapter 5 Production Geophysics . . . . . . . . . Richard Duren. Pierre-Yves Guyonnet. . . . . . . . . . Benoit Levallois. . . Al-Anboori and J-M. 69. . Luca Duranti. . . . . . U . . . . . . . . The Leading Edge. . . . . . First Break. . . . no. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 Mark Thompson. . 2007. . and G. Charlie Jing. . . . . . . Peter Melville. . Johnston. . . 365 H. . Mark Roberts. . . Kelly. . . Calvert. . . . . 3. SPE 50666. 355 Wences P. . . S. . . 1998. Paul Milligan. . . Hornby. . 1150–1159. . . . . Abriel. . . . and C. 351 Introduction . . . . 395 James Rickett. .

. . 2006. . . . . . Sinha Herhold. . Jorgensen. . Estimating the Amount of Gas Hydrate and Free Gas from Marine Seismic Data . Peter Cook. . 2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J. F. . Improved Reservoir Modelling with Time-lapse Seismic Data in a Gulf of Mexico Gas Condensate Reservoir . I. J. . . . Three Case Studies of Progress in Quantitative Seismic-engineering Integration . I33–I43. . . . . . . . . 561 Rob Arts. . . . . . . . . . . . . Roar Kjelstadli. . . . Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide. . 531 A. . . . . . . . . . Seibert. . Seismic Monitoring at the Sleipner Underground CO 2 Storage Site (North Sea) . . L. . Bert Van Der Meer. Hare. Ferguson. . . . and D. Geological Society [London] Special Publication 233. . . . . . . Stenstrup Hansen. . . Results of the World’s First 4D Microgravity Surveillance of a Waterflood — Prudhoe Bay. Robert Trythall. . . . . . and A. 1161–1166. . Chapter 6 The Road Ahead . H. . . 513 Bob A. . . . F. Alaska . . . J. . . . eds. 571 A. . 9. 2004. . K. Haibin Xu. Ted Manning. . . . . . . . . . . . Ronnie Parr. . . . . . 2004. . . Stradiotti. . . Daniel Johnson. 23. Cominelli. . . H. . . . . no. . C. . and Scott Lane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487 Jim Keggin. . . R.. and J. 72. . no. . T. . . . . and Chris Page. . P. . Chen. . . . . 475 J. J. . . Petroleum Geoscience. . . . . . Seibert. . . . . . 9. . . . . Aiken. . 6. and Nader Dutta. . . . . . . . 2003. . Peter Zweigel. . . Waggoner. . . . . 25. 565–573. . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hardage Optimizing 4D Fluid Imaging . . .Contents vii The 4D Microgravity Method for Waterflood Surveillance — Gravity Measurements for the Prudhoe Bay Reservoir. . . Baines and R. . . Nur. . . Detection and Estimation of Gas Hydrates Using Rock Physics and Seismic Inversion: Examples from the Northern Deepwater Gulf of Mexico . . . . Kunka. . . The Leading Edge. . . . . . . . . . 2006. no. Chen. Elastic-wavefield Seismic Stratigraphy and Reservoir Characterization . . J. . . . 2007. . 65. . . Brady. . . Petroleum Geoscience. . . Jack Dvorkin. 47–53. . . Ola Eiken. . . . . . . Mehta. Virtual Source Applications to Imaging and Reservoir Monitoring . V. . . . . Mark Benson. Peter Allan. 61–72. . . . Ferrandis. . . . . . A. . Society of Petroleum Engineers. and T. . . First Break. . L. Waggoner and Ian Jack Multi-azimuth 3D Provides Robust Improvements in Nile Delta Seismic Imaging . J. . . . R. no. . . . 2000. . . . . . . . Brady. . . . J. Marcus Marsh. . 60–66. . . . Barclay. . Seymour. . . . Fred Snyder. Lopez. A. . 25. . . . . . . Klopping. 181–191. McInally. . Olav Barkved. 2007. . 91–101. . . . Bakulin. Niebauer. . . . . Ferguson. . 2. 495 Jianchun Dai. . . Geophysics. . . 26. . 732–740. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brooks. in S. . F. 1. . . D. F. T. . . . . . 543 J. . . . . . Davies. . . . . J. . . . 483 John R. and Gary Kirby. . . . . 555 Greg Walker. . . . L. . . . Andy Chadwick. . 503 Christine Ecker. . and Amos M. . . . 483 Introduction . Worden. . Walter Rietveld. . Mateeva. SPE 101762. J. . . . 461 J. T. Alaska . . . . . . . . . . . The Leading Edge. . The Leading Edge. 2007. . . E. . Garnham. . . Geophysics. T. . . . . . . . . L. . . Redondo-López. 9. . . . . and J. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Olav Inge Barkved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .viii Methods and Applications in Reservoir Geophysics The Life-of-field Seismic System at Valhall. Sheriff Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627 Robert E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 649 . and Jan H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581 Ian Jack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kommedal Glossary . . . Norwegian North Sea .

Johnston received honorary membership in the Geophysical Society of Houston in recognition of distinguished contributions to the geophysical profession. degree in earth sciences in 1973 and a Ph. both from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. published in 1981. He was the first recipient of ExxonMobil’s Peter Vail Award for distinguished technical achievement. He was coeditor of Seismic Wave Attenuation (SEG Geophysics Reprints Series No. Johnston is global geophysics coordinator for ExxonMobil Production Company in Houston.D. Johnston has had 25 journal articles published and has given more than 40 presentations at professional society meetings. 7). in 1979.About the Editor David H . Johnston received the award for best presentation from SEG in 1993 and for best paper in The Leading Edge in 2005. 2). He is active in SEG. and an AAPG Distinguished Lecturer in 2008. he was awarded life membership in SEG. in geophysics in 1978. In 2004. published in 1992. In 2003. Texas. He was secretary/treasurer of SEG in 1990 and has chaired the Development and Production Committee and the Interpretation Committee. with assignments in rock-physics research. the SEG Distinguished Lecturer in 1999. seismic reservoir characterization. and seismic reservoir monitoring. in 2007. and AAPG. ix . He joined Exxon Production Research Co. SPE. He was a 1992–1993 SPE Distinguished Lecturer.S. Johnston received a B. The focus of his career has been reservoir geophysics. and Reservoir Geophysics (SEG Investigations in Geophysics No.

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from simply imaging structure to characterizing the reservoir. geophysicists. with the publication of this book. which had suffered a significant downturn in the mid-1980s. and costs have risen steadily. and reservoir engineers. In geophysics. is now mainstream. This was a time of transition in the geophysical profession and in the petroleum industry. Improved recovery in existing fields became an industry imperative. more remote locations. shales. The primary objective of Reservoir Geophysics was to raise awareness of geophysical contributions to reservoir studies. oil prices were low compared with the boom of the late 1970s. the book was published at a time when the industry and the petroleum upstream technical disciplines were beginning to appreciate the value of integration. the predecessor of this book. The organization of Reservoir Geophysics was task oriented. Reservoir Geophysics was a product of the SEG Development and Production Committee. and engineers who were at the prime of their careers in 1992 are at or near retirement. the case studies chosen for the book were designed to show off the results of reservoirgeophysics applications and not necessarily to detail geophysical methods. The remaining exploration targets are increasingly more difficult to image (below salt or basalt) or the targets have reservoirs that are more difficult to characterize — tight sands. with chapters on ●  ●  ●  reservoir delineation — characterizing the trap reservoir description — defining reservoir properties reservoir surveillance — monitoring production Eighteen years later. Although many talented people left geophysics for other careers in the mid-1980s. the petroleum industry and the technical professional disciplines face challenges no less daunting than those faced in 1992. an emerging application in 1992. In addition. deeper targets. Other elements of that strategy included special sessions of invited papers on reservoir geophysics at annual meetings of SEG. Oil prices have been extremely volatile. The book was part of a strategy to demonstrate through case studies that xi each discipline had much to contribute to the others. The challenges facing the industry in the early 1990s required that fields be brought on stream more quickly and that recovery be maximized. petroleum geologists. in 1992. Exploration. In addition.Preface The Society of Exploration Geophysicists published Reservoir Geophysics. The focus of many geophysicists shifted. and the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) and at joint SEG/SPE workshops and forums. The concepts of reservoir management focused on reducing development and operating costs in addition to maximizing reserves and optimizing recovery. Reservoir Geophysics arrived on the scene when geophysical technology. Reservoir geophysics. Exploration was moving toward more challenging and costly areas — deeper water. computer workstations increased the productivity of the remaining seismic interpreters and provided powerful new tools to understand the subsurface. was becoming part of that reservoir-management equation — finding reserves that otherwise might not have been developed and lowering costs by minimizing dry holes and poor producers. geologists. which historically had been limited to exploration. The SEG Development and Production Committee once had to solicit papers on res- . subtly at first. With the exception of the months just before and after the first Gulf War. maturing 3D seismic technology helped the industry to reduce the finding cost of oil from about $15 per barrel in 1979 to about $6 per barrel in 1992. and carbonates. the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). charged with improving communication among geophysicists. Its audience was intended to be reservoir engineers (although I suspect most copies were purchased by geophysicists). which had moved to deep water in the late 1990s. Thus. Methods and Applications in Reservoir Geophysics. Because of restricted industry hiring in the late 1990s. there is a gap in experience that results in technical professionals having more responsibility thrust on them earlier in their careers. is moving to even more hostile environments such as the Arctic and ultradeep water.

xii Methods and Applications in Reservoir Geophysics ervoir geophysics for the SEG annual meeting. John Waggoner. not just the results.” addresses geophysical reservoir characterization at the different scales required to justify commercial development of a field. Sankar Muhuri. I express my sincere appreciation to the members of the Methods and Applications in Reservoir Geophysics editorial committee. Farrukh Ahmad. Bill Abriel. Chapter 6. Johnston Committee chairman and editor Houston. but at the 2007 annual meeting in San Antonio. Ken Tubman. “The Supporting Technologies. Bob Sheriff (editor of Reservoir Geophysics). methods. the SEG Development and Production Committee. and the SEG Interpretation Committee for their support. Kyle Lewallen. September 2010 . and techniques used in reservoir geophysics. In addition. As a result.” describes how the application of geophysical methods can help to maximize recovery by identifying reservoir heterogeneities that control flow or by monitoring the changes in fluid saturation and pressure that occur during field production. Chapter 5. Chapter 4. The second paper discusses seismic rock physics. Chapter 3. field life cycle. The chapter also deals with the application of geophysics to plan for reservoir monitoring. and Mike Wilt. the case studies chosen for this volume focus on the processes. “Exploration Appraisal. Many of the papers chosen for this book have been published previously. which is the critical link between the engineering and geophysical descriptions of the reservoir. pore fluid type. more than 30% of the technical sessions focused on reservoir applications. integrated reservoir studies. and new areas of application.” introduces key concepts and terminology in reservoir engineering and reservoir geophysics. At the end of the book. but 20% are new contributions solicited by the book editors to cover key applications or technologies. In addition. Chapter 2 concludes with a tutorial on reservoir geophysics in which both the engineer and the geophysicist will find explanations of the tools and data discussed in the papers throughout this book. “Reservoir Management and Field Life Cycle. and reservoir geophysics. the objective of Methods and Applications in Reservoir Geophysics is not simply to demonstrate the value of geophysics in reservoir management but also to provide guidance on how to apply geophysical technologies in reservoir studies more effectively. “The Road Ahead. Texas. pore pressure.” examines emerging technologies that define the future of reservoir geophysics — novel acquisition methods.” sets the stage for this book. It examines the business case for investing in geophysical data and the skills required by geophysicists to apply their technologies more effectively in an integrated team environment. Chapter 2. the audience is meant to be geophysicists. Alistair Brown (who also served with me on the Reservoir Geophysics editorial committee in 1992). this volume is the product of a committee effort spanning many years. Colin MacBeth. Ian Jack. more quantitative analyses. Thus. Geophysicists will find the reservoir-engineering paper to be a rich source of information on issues and data critically important to the engineer. “Development Geophysics. Mike Payne. “Production Geophysics. — David H. Although we hope reservoir engineers will find this book useful. I also thank the SEG Publications Committee and managing editor Mike Cooper in particular. and reserves.” focuses on the methods used in seismic and nonseismic geophysics to help evaluate the critical elements of reservoir delineation and appraisal during field exploration — lithology. It defines the fundamental concepts of the reservoir-management process. the organization of this book explicitly recognizes that geophysics is not simply an exploration tool but that the tasks of reservoir delineation and characterization are applied throughout the life cycle of a field: ●  ●  ●  discovery and appraisal development planning production optimization Chapter 1. the glossary provides definitions for many of the terms used in the papers included in the text. Jim Schuelke. As with Reservoir Geophysics in 1992. The editors thank the authors who contributed this material.