Food Factors

In the Dutch East Indies in 1897 men on the plantations were falling sick with a strange nerve disease. They were unable to eat or hold their food. Their arms and legs became paralyzed and shrunken. So many were sick, that the hospitals had no more room for the victims of this disease, known as beriberi (the origin of the word is from a Sinhalese phrase meaning ³I cannot, I cannot´, the word being doubled for emphasis). The Dutch physician Dr. Christian Eijkman was sent from Holland to try to find out how to prevent and cure this disease. Eijkman was immersed in germ theory. He was sure that beriberi was a bacterial disease. He brought chickens with him and hoped to cultivate the germ in them. But in this he failed. However during the course of 1896 these chickens came down spontaneously with a disease very much like beriberi. Before Eijkman could do much about it, the disease vanished. Searching for causes, he found out that a certain period of time the chicken had been fed on polished rice from the hospital stores and it was after that they sickened. Put back on commercial chicken food, they recovered. Dr. Eijkman also learnt that the favorite food of the people was white polished rice. This was prepared by rubbing off the brown outer coating of the rice grains. Dr. Eijkman decided to try an experiment. He fed a number of hens with polished rice until they became paralyzed. The hens were then divided into two groups. One group, the control, was kept on the usual polished diet. The other group was given not only polished rice, but t he outer brown rice skins as well. In a short time, the control group which ate nothing but white rice died of beriberi. The test group that received the brown rice polishings was cured. This was the first carefully controlled experiment showing that there was something in the food that could prevent a dangerous disease. Eijkman did not appreciate the true meaning of this at first. He thought there was a toxin of some sort in rice grains and that this was neutralized by something in the hulls. The hulls were removed when rice was polished, leaving the toxin in the polished rice neutralized. However, why assume the presence of two different unknown substances, a toxin and an antitoxin, when it was only necessary to assume one: some food factor required in traces? The outstanding exponents of this latter view were Hopkins and a Polish-born biochemist Casimir Funk. Each suggested that not only beriberi, but also such diseases as scurvy, rickets were caused by the absence of trace of food factors. Under the impression that these food factors belonged to the class of compounds known as ³amines´ Funk suggested these factors be named vitamins (life amines) and ever since the name was adopted.

Notes to the text Protein Germ Toxin Polished Hull Scurvy Rickets [pr ti:n] [d m] [t ksin] [p l  t] [h l] [sk :vi] [r k ts] Protein Germene Toxin cur at. Which are the causes of beriberi? 6. diet i) to become completely involved in something 10. immerse f) a substance that stops or reduces the effect of a toxin (poisonous substance) in your body 7. on which a particular type of crop is grown 2. germ a) a large farm. Answer the following questions: 1. Which are the symptoms of beriberi? 2. I. Comprehension check 1. Are vitamins important for our health? 2. animals. toxin e) a poisonous substance. What does the term ³beriberi´ mean? 3. lustruit Coaj Scorbut Rahitism Exercises . Find in the text words for each definition: . or because of illness or chance 4. victim g) any of a group of natural substances which are necessary in small amounts for the growth and good health of the body 8. especially in a hot part of the world. What did dr. p . caused by infection or a failure of health rather than by an accident 3. surprising way 3. vitamin d) a very small organism that causes disease 5. either because of the actions of someone or something else. plantation c) someone or something which has been hurt. etc. vanish h) the food and drink usually eaten or drunk by a person or group 9. especially one which is produced by bacteria and which causes disease 6. Eijkman¶s experiment? 5. especially in a sudden. disease j) to disappear or stop being present or existing. Match the word with the definition: 1. Was beriberi a bacterial disease? 4. damaged or killed or has suffered. antitoxin b) (an) illness of people. . Which was dr.. plants. Eijkman find out after doing the experiment? 7.

I wish__________________ 4. I regret this. I regret this. We wouldn¶t be together now c) we would still be rich. fruit. or the state of being well h _____________________ 9. To remove the covering or the stem and leaves from some f ruits. Any feeling of illness or physical or mental change which is caused by a particular disease. If you hadn¶t gambled all our money . in which the bones become soft and not shaped correctly r___________ II. If he had hidden the money in my f) he wouldn¶t be in prison. I should have. a disease which children who do not have enough vitamin D can suffer from. Vocabulary and Grammar 1. I wish___________________ 10. The condition of the body and the degree to which it is free from illness. 2. If only__________________ 2. I don¶t want to. I am sorry now. A test done in order to learn something or to di scover whether something works or is true e ____________________ 8. 4. To prepare land and grow crops on it. If you didn¶t have a lot of money b) unless he really needed it. 5. I have to pay tax. The natural outer layer which covers a person. I didn¶t study at university. If only__________________ 8. I want a girlfriend. I didn¶t take the exam. I want to live near the sea. 3. I crashed my father¶s car. vegetables and seeds h _____________________ 10. I don¶t like it. I wish___________________ 9. house 2. s _______ 5.I met my wife when I was 32. I want to have a swimming pool. especially a plant like a grass such as rice or wheat g ____ 4. If only____ b) 1. I wish__________________ 3. ± I wish I lived in New York. 6. 1. a) Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first: Example: I want to live in New York. Match the beginnings and endings: a) if I hadn¶t seen your advert in the Lonely Hearts column.To rub something using a piece of cloth or brush to clean it and make it shine p« 6. any single problem which is caused by and shows a more serious and general problem s _____________________ 7. or the meat of this bird which is cooked and eaten c__________ 3. I am working tomorrow. I wish___________________ 7. I wish__________________ 5. Insert the following words in the text below: 1. If David hadn¶t stolen the money d) I would give it to the police. animal. If only__________________ 6. He wouldn¶t have stolen the money e) I wouldn¶t have married you. A type of bird kept on a farm for its eggs or its meat.1. or to grow a particular crop c _________ 2. A seed from a plant. etc. I was horrible to my brother. Earlier would ha ve been better.

in disorder f) look or smell very good. 5. hot potato 7. salt Men working hard in (1)_____ moist atmosphere sweat much. He is a __________ in his company so you should be very nice to him. not nervous or anxious 4. muscles.Tablets. big cheese 4. The issue of building the nuclear power plant is a real _________ for the local town council. intense and exceedingly (6)______ cramps of the (7)______ probably due to the harmful effect of the low Na (8)______ of the intestinal fluid.5 per cent) or by taking salt (10)_____. 2. If they (2)______ the water lost but not the (3)______. replace. She quit the job because of some small problems but she has jumped __________ because now her problems are much worse. 3. Fill in the gaps with the correct idiom from the box: 1. in a nutshell 8. Match the idiom with its definition: 1. deficiency. relieved. painful. symptom. We went to the meeting and they told us _______ what would be happening to everyone next year. apple of her/his eye 2. 3. bad egg 3. She is really _______ now. 4. want to eat or drink very much g) a bad person. NaCl (4)______ is produced. content. cool as a cucumber 5. hot. 6. . He is a real _________ and just sits around watching TV and staying indoors all day. in the soup 9. 7. She told her boss that she was sick but he saw her downtown shopping. couch potato 6. A common (5)______ is wide-spread. out of the frying pan and into the fire a) an important person. The cramps are (9)______ by drinking saline solution (0 . The restaurant is supposed to be wonderful and every time that I see the menu i t makes __________. make one¶s mouth water 10. a leader b) a very lazy person c) briefly. Nowadays such workers are given salt tablets prophylactically. bum h) go from something bad to something worse i) a question or argument that is controversial and difficult to settle j) calm. in a few words d) someone or something that one likes a lot e) in serious trouble.

Translate the following passage into English: Vitaminele sunt produse alimentare necesare pentru men inerea func iilor vitale. III. You are Dr. 2. 3. Arrange a competition entitled ³What do we know about vitamins?´ Divide the group in two. Insuficien a de vitamine în alimente sau modificarea procesului de asimilare a lor duce la dereglarea schimbului de substan e. Writing 1. We are preparing for a TV program. Share your impressions with your colleagues. 2. Write an essay on the following statement: An Apple a Day Keeps the Doctor Away . Dar cantitatea de vitamine în produsele alimentare este variat i nu tot timpul asigur necesit ile organismului. . He is always _____________ and never worries about anything. Eijkman. . Organismul omului i cel al animalelor nu sintetizeaz vitaminele. You are consulting a patient with a strange nerve disease. Make up short dialogues on the following imaginary situations: 1. Organismele trebuie s primeasc vitamine permanent în cantit i determinate. 4. You¶ve made an experiment with two groups of chickens. The little girl is __________________. 10. . The question to be discussed is ³vitamins´. The team that utters the last sentence is the winner. . That man is a ________ so you should try and avoid him if you can. 3. Can¶t it be beriberi? Ask the patient about the symptoms and diagnose his disease.8. 9. de aceea necesit s le primeasc sintetizate. . You are a doctor. one of which died. ± . Interview a physician on this point. .