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MARK1149: Direct,Interactive & Digi Mktg Group Planning Activty Report MJ Housden, I Whitten

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BU/UG 30.00% 03/03/2011

Coursework is receipted on the understanding that it is the student's own work and that it has not, in whole or part, been presented elsewhere for assessment. Where material has been used from other sources it has been properly acknowledged in accordance with the University's Regulations regarding Cheating and Plagiarism.

000506780 000511468 000501172 000504903
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Marianne Trotta Oana Dinca Kendal Craymer Andrea Alessio

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Marketing Campaign for the Training and Development Agency for Schools (TDA)
Work carried out by: Andrea Alessio – 000504903 Kendal Craymer – 000501172 Marianne Trotta – 000506780 Oana Raluca Dinca – 000511468 Submission Date: 3rd March 2011

Degree Course: Advertising and Marketing Communications

Course Title: Direct, Interactive and Digital Marketing

Tutors: Matthew Housden; Ian Whitten

Page Count: 29 + 25 (as agreed)

In order to appreciate all creative solutions presented in this report in larger format and higher definition (including Flash-animated banners), visit www.tdaproject.blogspot.com or simply scan this QR code with your smartphone.

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Table of Contents
1.0 1.1 2.0 2.1 2.2 3.0 3.1 3.2 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.0 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Executive Summary.................................................................................................... 7 Objectives Outline .................................................................................................. 7 Market Overview ........................................................................................................ 7 SWOT and PESTEL ............................................................................................... 8 Competitive Landscape ........................................................................................... 9 Primary Research ..................................................................................................... 10 Quantitative .......................................................................................................... 10 Qualitative ............................................................................................................ 11 Overall Brand Considerations ................................................................................... 11 Brand Awareness .................................................................................................. 11 Brand Identity ....................................................................................................... 11 Communication Outline ........................................................................................ 12 Segmentation ............................................................................................................ 13 Acquisition (Stage 1) ................................................................................................ 14 Objectives ............................................................................................................. 14 Strategy................................................................................................................. 14 Campaign.............................................................................................................. 14 Offline Media Evaluation ............................................................................... 15 Online Media Evaluation ............................................................................... 17 Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) ................................................................ 18 Campaign Timeline ........................................................................................ 19

6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4 6.4

Testing .................................................................................................................. 20 SMS (Cold List)............................................................................................. 20 Newspapers.................................................................................................... 21

6.4.1 6.4.2

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6.4.3 6.4.4 6.4.5 6.4.6 6.4.7 6.4.8 6.4.9

Radio ............................................................................................................. 21 Magazines ...................................................................................................... 22 Loose Inserts .................................................................................................. 22 Science Museums .......................................................................................... 23 Outdoor ......................................................................................................... 23 Student Fairs .................................................................................................. 23 AdWords and Facebook ................................................................................. 23

6.4.10 Banners and Spotify ....................................................................................... 24 6.5 6.6 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Budgeting ............................................................................................................. 24 Evaluation ............................................................................................................. 25 Conversion (Stage 2) ................................................................................................ 26 Objectives ............................................................................................................. 26 Strategy................................................................................................................. 26 Campaign.............................................................................................................. 26 The Seven Steps ............................................................................................. 27 Database Strategy .......................................................................................... 28

7.3.1 7.3.2 7.4

Testing .................................................................................................................. 30 Email (1) ........................................................................................................ 30 Email (2) ........................................................................................................ 31 SMS (1) ......................................................................................................... 31 MMS ............................................................................................................. 31 Direct Mail .................................................................................................... 32 SMS (2) ......................................................................................................... 32

7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3 7.4.4 7.4.5 7.4.6 7.5 7.6 8.0

Budgeting ............................................................................................................. 33 Evaluation ............................................................................................................. 33 Database ................................................................................................................... 34

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8.1 8.2 8.3 9.0

Objectives ............................................................................................................. 34 Strategy and Management ..................................................................................... 34 Future Managerial Implications ............................................................................. 34 Recommendations .................................................................................................... 35

10.0 References ................................................................................................................ 36 Appendix A – Secondary Research ..................................................................................... 40 Appendix B – Brand Identity............................................................................................... 41 Appendix C – Primary Research ......................................................................................... 42 C.1 C.2 Objectives ............................................................................................................. 42 Methodology......................................................................................................... 42 Quantitative Research .................................................................................... 42 Qualitative Research ...................................................................................... 43

C.2.1 C.2.2 C.3

Questionnaire: Results .......................................................................................... 43 Main Findings ................................................................................................ 45 The Fishbein Model ....................................................................................... 45

C.3.1 C.3.2 C.4

In-Depth Interviews: Results ................................................................................. 46

Appendix D – TDA in Universities ..................................................................................... 47 D.1 D.2 D.3 D.4 Newspapers/Magazines ......................................................................................... 47 Radios ................................................................................................................... 49 Websites ............................................................................................................... 50 Student Fairs ......................................................................................................... 51

Appendix E – Radio Creative Brief ..................................................................................... 52 Appendix F – Creative (Stage 1) ......................................................................................... 53 F.1 F.2 F.3 Newspapers and Magazines .................................................................................. 53 AdWords .............................................................................................................. 53 Facebook .............................................................................................................. 54

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F.4 F.5 F.6 F.7

Outdoor................................................................................................................. 54 Banners ................................................................................................................. 55 Buttons ................................................................................................................. 55 SMS (Cold List) .................................................................................................... 56

Appendix G – Creative (Stage 2) ......................................................................................... 57 G.1 G.2 G.3 G.4 G.5 Email .................................................................................................................... 57 SMS (1) ................................................................................................................ 58 MMS .................................................................................................................... 58 Direct Mail (Brochure) .......................................................................................... 59 SMS (2) ................................................................................................................ 61

Appendix H – Database ....................................................................................................... 62 Appendix I – Online Questionnaire (Type 0; Type 1) .......................................................... 64 Appendix J – Bibliography .................................................................................................. 65

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1.0

Executive Summary

The present report suggests a direct marketing campaign for the Training and Development Agency for Schools (henceforth referred to as TDA) in order to achieve precise objectives that are outlined below. Since alternatives to a teaching career are countless, it was deemed necessary that TDA should establish a strong presence inside Universities as a way to engage in a more personal communication with students. Both online and offline media were considered as a means to reach this wide audience through different channels and on multiple occasions during the day.

1.1

Objectives Outline

The following is a summary of the objectives of this report and functions as an overview of the whole marketing campaign devised. Each point is going to be looked at in more detail further on in this report. • • • • • • • •

Generate 40,000 enquiries (warm prospects); Increase enquirer-applicant conversion from 26% to 30% (12,000 applicants); Stimulate students and graduates in having teaching in their career ‘consideration set’; Change perceptions that students currently hold of teaching; Devise communication strategies for ‘high fliers’ (1st, 2:1); Devise communication strategies specifically tailored for Maths and Science students; Ensure TDA is in the evoked set of those people considering teaching as a career; Enrich, enhance and update current database as a future means to analyse trends and patterns in prospects’ behaviour, evaluate media effectiveness and generate ‘hot lists’.

2.0

Market Overview

The following paragraph illustrates the outcome of the application of SWOT, PESTEL and Porter’s (1980) Five Forces analysis on the market in which TDA operates.

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2.1

SWOT and PESTEL

Figure 1. SWOT and PESTEL Analysis Strengths TDA is Government funded, therefore: • It is financially more stable; • It creates a sense of security (see also Appendix C for in-house research results). It is the main point of contact for aspiring teachers. “Route to Training” – it offers step by step guidance throughout the process of becoming a teacher. Weaknesses Not every school within the UK is using TDA’s service (TDA, 2011). Information overload on website leads to confusion as to TDA’s function. People might go directly to ITT courses for training without TDA’s involvement.

Brand communication is overdone: after applying, 10 emails were received in slightly more than a week. This can lead to prospects opting out. Lack of punctuality: as a test, an info pack was requested and it was received after almost two weeks. This can lead to prospects losing interest. Opportunities Threats The school’s White Paper “The Importance of Teaching grants have been reduced by 6% for Teaching” places teacher quality at the centre the academic year 2011-2012 with further of school improvement as part of the new expected cuts of approximately 20% for the year reform (Education, 2011). 2012-2013 (BBC, 2010). Political Economical Teaching subjects such as Science and Maths will be exempt from any grant cuts as they are seen as tactically important (BBC, 2010). Government offers good pension schemes for teachers (DirectGov, 2011). Current economic downturn has left many Governmental budget cuts might pose as a threat people (including graduates) jobless. This might for TDA when recruiting new prospects. produce a higher demand for teaching. • 2.5 million jobless in the UK in November 2010 (Statistics, 2010); • 40% of employers have stopped graduate recruitment in 2009/2010; • Average of 69 applicants for each graduate job (BBC, 2010). Teaching offers a good starting salary as well as the opportunity for future career.

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Social Technological

Due to recession, an increasing number of Teaching as a job career has acquired quite a people are seeking job alternatives that would poor perception. provide security and opportunities for career development (TDA Press Release, 2011). Increase in Maths and Science teachers applicants (TDA, 2010). Increase in social media popularity makes 24/7 contact with customers and prospects more feasible. Web-based training materials. Cost-effective solutions to communicate with prospects (podcast, webinars, etc.).

Environmental

As a Government-lead agency, TDA always has to be aware of new environmental regulations and comply to them straight away.

TDA must comply with the Data Protection Act (1998). This means that: Legal • TDA has to ask permission to utilise sensitive information (opt-in) for mailing purposes; • Customers can choose to opt-out anytime.

2.2

Competitive Landscape

Levels of competition are very high. As a company offering a teaching career to graduates, TDA is competing against virtually all other careers available to graduates and is therefore in competition (albeit indirect) with websites such as prospects.ac.uk and milkround.com offering a plethora of job opportunities. As a consequence of that, TDA needs to ensure its presence inside Universities to get students interested in teaching at an earlier phase.

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Figure 2. Porter’s (1980) Five Forces model applied to TDA’s current market position

3.0

Primary Research

Research has been carried out in order to find out students’ perceptions of teaching and what would make them consider such a career. A hundred questionnaires formed the basis of this primary research alongside a series of in-depth interviews. This paragraph is only a summary of the main findings that were deemed as germane for building a relevant communication. For a deeper analysis of both quantitative and qualitative approaches, see Appendix C.

3.1

Quantitative

The survey conducted helped devise the following strategy for the communication: • • •

Mention that TDA is Government operated so that any thought of possible scam is instantly dispelled; Clearly state the annual income of a teacher in order to alter poor perceptions around the average teaching salary; Show how teaching can be both very challenging and rewarding.

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3.2

Qualitative

The five in-depth interviews helped shape the right emotional appeal and appropriate tone of voice to be given to the communication strategy: • • • •

Teaching is about inspiring people and sharing one big, powerful passion; Teaching is not an ordinary job: it is alive and only honest passion nurtures it; It is a fair job, in the sense that the two parties involved will benefit from it only if both feel equally rewarded; Bad teachers are quickly forgotten; great teachers will be remembered forever.

4.0

Overall Brand Considerations

All marketing strategies and creative solutions proposed throughout this report do not aim to alter TDA’s brand image or branding strategy; instead, they suggest a sound communication plan whose core and sole purpose is to ease prospects’ acquisition and subsequent conversion. In order to ensure that the communication plan devised is in line with past and recent company’s branding strategies, a comprehensive analysis of TDA’s brand identity was carried out (see Appendix B) so as to keep the tone and the mood consistent with the brand across all marketing communications.

4.1

Brand Awareness

From in-house research conducted, it was discovered that 70% of students did not know about TDA. More importantly, amongst those who were considering teaching as a future career, only 37.3% had heard of the company (see Appendix C.3.1).

4.2

Brand Identity

TDA projects a strong image of reliability and professionalism, it represents a serious yet innovative company whose mission is to guide and inspire young, bright graduates through the process of becoming teachers and take the challenging, highly rewarding opportunity to

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make a difference in somebody else’s life. Considering this is tactically important as it sets not only the way the brand is expected to behave but it is also helpful in identifying and addressing properly the right target.

Figure 3. Brand Identity Prism (Adapted from: Kapferer, 2002, p. 183)

4.3

Communication Outline

Bearing in mind that TDA is asking for a life-changing decision, the communication strategy proposed in this report will focus on the challenging and rewarding aspect of teaching in order to change perceptions currently held of the profession. This will become a dominant emotional selling proposition (ESP) across all communications. Primary research has also shown that students perceive teaching salaries as being very low (see Appendix C.3.2); therefore it is deemed strategically important to alter these perceptions. All advertising and marketing messages will share the following basic guidelines:

Tone of voice (TOV): honest, reassuring, exciting, challenging, inspiring. Mood: professional, helpful, enthusiastic.

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5.0

Segmentation

The main target market of this marketing campaign is graduates with a qualification of 2:1 or above; however, within this segment three further sub-segments have been identified and profiled as follows:

Figure 4. Prospect’s Profile High Fliers How many?1 How old? Which degree class? Academic year of graduation What newspapers do they read? What magazines do they purchase? Internet usage2 (Average: HPW) What websites do they visit more often?3 Mobile usage4 (Average: HPD) How many of them own a smartphone?5 Social network usage6 (Average: HPM) 1,220,000 (circa) 20-25 1st – 2:1 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 Metro Guardian n/a High (45) google.co.uk facebook.com youtube.com High (2) 34% High (84%) (6.07) Maths graduates 30,000 (circa) 20-25 1st – 2:1 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 Metro Guardian New Scientist Focus High (45) google.co.uk facebook.com youtube.com sciencefocus.com newscientist.com High (2) 34% High (84%) (6.07) Science graduates 170,000 (circa) 20-25 1st – 2:1 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 Metro Guardian New Scientist Focus High (45) google.co.uk facebook.com youtube.com sciencefocus.com newscientist.com High (2) 34% High (84%) (6.07)

1Figure

spread across four academic years for England and Wales (Source: Hesa, 2011) Ofcom (2010) 3 Source: DoucleClick (2011) 4 Source: Nielsen (2011) 5 Source: Mintel (2011)
2 Source:

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6.0

Acquisition (Stage 1)

It illustrates the various steps that will lead to prospect acquisition via marketing and advertising communication on relevant media channels.

6.1
• •

Objectives
Stimulate 40,000 enquiries within a 12 month period; Enrich and update current database.

6.2
• • •

Strategy
Strong integration of online and offline media as a means to corroborate the message being sent as well as reach the target audience on multiple platforms at different times; Build strong presence on-site with TDA stands in student fairs and advertising onto Universities’ newspapers, magazines, radios and websites; Reach Maths and Science students at the very source of their passion, thus meaning advertising in key science magazines such as New Scientist and Focus, and distributing flyers in front of Science Museums.

6.3

Campaign

The 12-month campaign (starting May 2011 and ending April 2012) is targeting both students and graduates; therefore while TDA’s presence in Universities is almost mandatory, other media different than those primarily targeted at students will be employed as a means to get in contact with people who graduated up to two years ago (Academic Year 2008-2009).

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6.3.1 Offline Media Evaluation •

University: Advertising in Universities’ newspapers, magazines and radios. This can be done through BAM, the UK’s leading student marketing booking agency. Since the company could not disclose information regarding prices, a list of 34 Universities is provided as an example in Appendices D.1 and D.2 and used throughout the report.

Plasma TVs: Complement aforementioned advertising. The service can be purchased from SubTV, a multichannel marketing agency with a system of plasma screens across 86 Universities that are estimated to reach approximately 1.75 million students aged 18 to 24 at a cost of £5/’000.

Outdoor: High-impact billboards and bus stop advertising situated close to Universities will be used (along with flyers) to increase awareness about TDA amongst students and reinforce all other marketing activities carried out.

Students Fairs: A list of 20 Universities offering Maths, Physics and Chemistry courses is provided in Appendix D.4 where TDA will have stands during Students Fairs in the months of October 2011 and March 2012. The cost for each stand is around £300 comprising of cost for promotions undertaken by Universities through students’ portals and private emails.

• •

Newspapers and Radio: Metro, Guardian and Heart FM are used to reach people who have already graduated. See creative brief for radio in Appendix E. Mobile: A list of students’ phone numbers is to be rented at campusmedia.co.uk at a cost of £150/’000. Students have already given permission to be contacted; therefore there is no violation of the Data Protection Act (1998). Texts will be sent through Dynmark Direct at £35/’000.

Magazines: Maths and Science students/graduates are readers of specialised publications, such as New Scientist and Focus. Advertising inside these magazines is deemed tactically important, especially in the form of loose inserts.

Science Museums: Flyers will be distributed in front of Science Museums of the five biggest cities in England: London, Birmingham, Leeds, Manchester, and Liverpool. Figures for monthly visitors were estimated from sciencemuseum.org.uk and the average response rate was taken from Marketing Minefield (2011).

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Figure 5. Offline Media Evaluation Medium Type Newspapers1 The Guardian Metro University (34)2 Radio University (15)2 Heart Mobile Cold List3 Magazines New Scientist Focus Plasma TV SubTV University4 Loose Inserts The Guardian New Scientist Focus Events Student Fairs5 Flyers6 Science Museum (5)7 University Outdoor8 Billboards Bus Stops
1 2 List

Volume Reached 1,100,000 3,500,000 560,640 261,200 321,502 200,000 87,729 73,600 1,750,000 225,000 87,729 73,600 131,511 175,000 n/a n/a n/a

CPT (£) 5.07 2.67 22.82 13.50 20.84 185.00 21.09 20.38 5.00 35.00 76.00 55.00 45.62 55.00 10.00 n/a n/a

Total Cost (£) 5,573 9,348 12,795 3525 6,700 37,000 1850 1500 8750 7875 6667 4048 6,000 20,000 3,000 12,000 8,000

Possible Response Response Volume 0.03% 0.02% 0.20% 0.15% 0.15% 1.75% 0.15% 0.15% 0.05% 0.45% 0.65% 0.65% 0.50% 1.30% n/a n/a n/a 330 700 1121 392 482 3500 132 110 875 1013 570 478 658 2275 n/a n/a n/a

Cost per Lead (£) 16.89 13.35 11.41 9.00 13.89 10.57 14.06 13.59 10.00 7.78 11.69 8.46 9.12 8.79 n/a n/a n/a

Rank

14 10 8 4 12 7 13 11 6 1 9 2 5 3 n/a n/a n/a

RPC (readers per copy) affects actual readership. of prices and readership/listenership was acquired through BAM (2011). 3 Cold list is to be rented at campusmedia.co.uk. SMS are sent through Dynmark Direct at £35/’000. 4 Total reach and price list acquired at SubTV (2011). 5 Figure for 20 Universities. 6 Flyers are bought at £10/’000 at cheapleaflets.net. 7 London, Birmingham, Leeds, Manchester, Liverpool. Average monthly visitors were taken from sciencemuseum.org.uk. Each museum will have two people flyering in front (ten in total) paid £50 per day (£15,000 per month in total). 8 List of prices (48 sheets for billboards) was acquired from outdooradvertisingltd.co.uk. Cost is per month.

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6.3.2 Online Media Evaluation •

AdWords: Since Google is the main search engine utilised by the target audience identified (DoubleClick, 2011), paid search advertising through AdWords is going to be used in order to drive traffic to TDA’s website. The average CPC is estimated at £0.90 for the following keywords:

teaching, TDA, become a teacher, teacher training, pgce courses, get into teaching, graduate opportunities, graduate jobs, graduate careers, become a maths teacher, become a math teacher, teach mathematics, teach maths, maths graduate careers, maths graduate opportunities, become a chemistry teacher, teach chemistry, chemistry graduate careers, chemistry graduate opportunities, science graduate opportunities, science graduate careers, teach science, train to teach, become a physics teacher, teach physics, physics graduate opportunities, benefits of becoming a teacher, how to become a teacher, want to become a teacher, why become a teacher, why becoming a teacher.

Facebook: Facebook has been identified as the second most popular website (after Google) amongst TDA’s visitors, with 9.33% of them accessing the social network before going to tda.gov.uk and 11.72% after (Alexa, 2011). Facebook’s reach is estimated at 2,448,940 people for both graduates and current students aged 18-25. Average CTR is around 0.08% and subsequent conversion ranges from 5% to 15% (Facebook Advertising, 2011).

Spotify: Over 1.5 million people aged 18-24are registered as Spotify users in England and Wales. Audio adverts supported by scrolling banners will be used to reach the large target audience.

Twitter: It is proposed that TDA should have a solid presence on Twitter throughout the campaign. Tweets will inform followers on a daily basis about teaching events, graduate fairs where TDA is present, testimony of people who have chosen a career in teaching, also information on competitive salaries and bursaries.

University: Advertising on Student Unions’ portals can be done through BAM. As the company could not disclose any information regarding pricing, a list of 32 Universities was compiled (see Appendix D.3) to illustrate part of this medium’s potential.

Banners: Flash banners will be placed onto employment websites, as well as, onto job sections of influential newspapers (Guardian, Daily Mail).

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Figure 6. Online media Evaluation
Medium Type Internet AdWords Spotify Social Media Facebook Banners jobs.guardian.co.uk jobs.dailymail.co.uk newscientist.com wordreference.com milkround.com prospects.ac.uk jobsite.co.uk nus.org.uk University (32) TOTAL Total Reach (per month) 1,672,764 1,584,000 2,448,940 160,000 20,000 84,000 150,000 27,000 130,000 570,000 39,000 6885704 Total Impressions (per month) 2,579,000 CPM (£) CPC (£) Total Cost (£) 1,204 14,256 1,371 1,360 170.00 680.40 956.25 189.00 975.00 3,420 234.00 8018 32833.97 CTR Conversion Response Volume Cost per Lead (£) Rank

9.00 3.11 -

0.90 0.70 0.85 0.85 0.90 0.85 0.70 0.75 0.75 0.75 -

0.08% 0.80% 0.08% 1.00% 1.00% 0.90% 0.75% 1.00% 1.00% 0.80% 0.80% 0.40% -

8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% -

107 1014 157 128 16 60 90 22 104 365 25 825 2913

11.25 14.06 8.75 10.63 10.63 11.25 10.63 8.75 9.38 9.38 9.38 9.71 11.27

5 6 1 4 4 5 4 1 2 2 2 3

6.3.3 Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) SEO will play a major role in the online activities suggested in this report as it will help improve TDA’s website ranking on search engines. The main problem identified is the lack of redirection between tda.gov.uk and www.tda.gov.uk as illustrated in the figure below.

Figure 7. Lack of Redirection

(Source: Website Grader, 2011)

This can lead to a risk of duplicate content and search engines would give more importance to the one that gets more backlinks. Although the www and non-www types of a site lead to the same page and have the same content, they are different subdomains (Seda, 2009).

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6.3.4 Campaign Timeline
MONTH MEDIUM Newspapers Magazines Loose Inserts Events Flyers Outdoor Mobile Radio University Guardian Metro New Scientist Focus Guardian New Scientist Focus Student Fairs Science Museum (5) Billboard Bus Stops Cold List Heart Newspaper Website Radio Plasma TV (SubTV) AdWords SEO Spotify Banners Facebook Twitter May June July August September October November December January February March April

Internet

Social Media

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6.4

Testing

Each medium employed in Stage 1 is going to be tested to ensure it delivers the expected results. Furthermore, when two or more solutions are proposed, testing becomes necessary to understand which alternative pulls more responses. Due to the high costs of testing, it was decided to operate at an 80% confidence level. A higher rate of confidence level (i.e. 90% or 95%) would have in fact demanded far too many names for each test to be significant. The sample size for each testing was selected according to the following formula: 𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑆𝑆 = (𝑐𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑜𝑆𝑆𝑜𝑜𝑐𝑐𝑆𝑆 𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑙𝑙𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆 ∗ )2 × 𝑆𝑆𝑒𝑒𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑒𝑆𝑆𝑜𝑜 𝑟𝑟𝑆𝑆𝑠𝑠𝑆𝑆𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑆𝑆 × 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑆𝑆𝑠𝑠𝑆𝑆𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑆𝑆 (𝑆𝑆𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑟 𝑒𝑒𝑜𝑜𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑟𝑟𝑆𝑆𝑜𝑜𝑐𝑐𝑆𝑆 ∗∗ )2

* Confidence level is expressed in terms of standard deviations (80% confidence level equals to 1.281 s.d.). ** The error tolerance will vary according to the medium employed.

6.4.1 SMS (Cold List) The sample size for SMS was calculated (and rounded) at 4,500 names, working at an 80% confidence level but limiting the error tolerance to 0.25%. As the average response rate for SMS from a cold list is 1.75% (Media Burst, 2011), the test will establish whether this also applies to this case. Considering all things work as planned, this medium should deliver a response rate fluctuating within the range of 1.50% – 2.00%. Confidence level Expected response Error tolerance Sample size 80% 1.75% 0.25% 4,500

Furthermore, two creative solutions are proposed at this stage and too need to be tested. The first one has a more emotional appeal, whereas the second focuses more on showing the teaching’s economical benefits. It is assumed here that the second solution will pull more responses, as illustrated in the figure below. Emotional (ESP) Benefit Sending quantity 4,500 4,500 Response rate (%) 1.50 1.85 | 0.35 |

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In order to be sure that the same result will happen again, the absolute value of the difference in response between the two cells has to be greater than the limit of error (Thomas and (𝑟𝑟𝑆𝑆𝑠𝑠𝑆𝑆𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑆𝑆 × 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑆𝑆𝑠𝑠𝑆𝑆𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑆𝑆) (𝑟𝑟𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑆𝑆 × 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑆𝑆𝑠𝑠𝑆𝑆𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑆𝑆) 𝐿𝐿𝑠𝑠𝑆𝑆𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑒 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑆𝑆𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑟 = 𝐶𝐶𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑜𝑆𝑆𝑜𝑜𝑐𝑐𝑆𝑆 𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑙𝑙𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆 × � + = 𝑠𝑠𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑆𝑆 𝑠𝑠𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑆𝑆 Housden, 2002). Therefore:

(1.5 × 98.5) (1.85 × 98.15) = 1.281 × � + = 1.281 × √0.0328 + 0.0403 = 1.281 × 0.2704 = 0.3465 4,500 4,500 Since the expected limit of error obtained is smaller than the absolute value of the difference in response between the two cells (0.35), the result obtained is significant. The solution pulling more responses (“Benefit”) will be sent to all other numbers in the list. 6.4.2 Newspapers It was decided to advertise on a quarter page (22x5) rather than half-page. Due to Sainsbury’s square root principle, an advert space which is double in size will not pull twice as many responses, but just the square root of the increase in size. Only the cost would double. The quarter page was therefore deemed as a more cost-effective solution. A/B split runs will be used on both Metro and Guardian to test two different creative solutions as well as the effectiveness of each medium. 6.4.3 Radio Heart FM will be tested during the first three weeks of September, right before students return to University. The schedule illustrated below applies to the Essex region only.

Figure 8. Heart FM advertising schedule
Day Part Overnight Breakfast Mid-Morning Afternoon Weekend Afternoon PM Drive Evening Spot Length No.Of Spots Avg.Spot Rate Time Bands Monday Tuesday Wendsday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 3 9 6 6 3 6 5 7.58 72.63 76.24 64.5 46.42 81.88 16.38 00:00-06:00 06:00-10:00 10:00-13:00 13:00-16:00 13:00-17:00 16:00-19:00 19:00-23:59 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 2

1 2 1

1 1

2 1

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Week 1 2 3 Total

Average Population Average impacts Average Reach Average % Reach OTH 906,339 906,339 906,339 906,339 877,208 877,208 877,208 2,631,624 219,258 219,258 219,258 321,502 24 24 24 35 4 4 4 8

Spots 38 38 38 114

Station Cost 2,233.33 2,233.33 2,233.33 6,700

It is here assumed that Heart FM will not deliver as expected (0.15% response rate). As it scored quite poorly in the offline media ranking (12thout of 14, with a cost per lead of £13.89) any response rate lower than the one estimated cannot be tolerated. 6.4.4 Magazines The effectiveness of both Focus and New Scientist is going to be tested. As they scored low in the offline media ranking (respectively, 11th and 13th out of 14) the testing is trying to understand if a response rate higher than what is initially believed (0.15%) can be achieved. It is here assumed that the response rate will not be higher; therefore advertising in both magazines will be abandoned in favour of loose inserts. 6.4.5 Loose Inserts Split run tests have proven particularly effective with loose inserts (Bird, 2007). The advantage of this medium is that more than two solutions can be tested at the same time. For example, along with the usual split between emotional-driven and benefit-oriented messages, also a mix of the two can be tested as well as a fourth and fifth creative solutions. Since testing is undertaken at an 80% confidence level and the expected response is well below 1%, it is important to keep the error tolerance to a minimum as shown in the figure below. Confidence level Expected response Error tolerance Sample size 80% 0.50% 0.15% 3,500

Furthermore, each newspaper and magazine has its own rules regarding the minimum quantity of loose inserts to be purchased; therefore increasing the quantity of the sample size will reduce the error tolerance and meet the publisher’s demand.

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6.4.6 Science Museums Distributing flyers in front of the five Science Museums will be tested for two weeks. This may seem quite a long period of time, but it is necessary to allow a little longer for this kind of activity to deliver results as they will not be as immediate as with SMS. It is here assumed that the distribution of flyers will prove to be very effective, especially in targeting key segments such as Maths and Science students. For this reason it will be carried out for three months. 6.4.7 Outdoor Billboard and bus stop advertising will sustain marketing activities undertaken inside Universities. Such outdoor activities are believed to have an important impact on the amount of enquirers acquired through students’ newspapers, magazines and radio as they build brand awareness and recognition. However, they will be tested too. Their effectiveness, in fact, will be monitored in the month of October and compared to results obtained in May, during a period when the same marketing activities were undertaken in Universities, but outdoor had not yet been employed. If successful, outdoor advertising will be used again in March 2012. 6.4.8 Student Fairs Here it is expected that at least 1 out of 200 second and third year students will participate at the Student Fair and apply to get more information on becoming a teacher. Since this appears quite feasible to accomplish, it is assumed that the target will be met and TDA will renew its presence for a second Student Fair (March 2012) in all 20 Universities. 6.4.9 AdWords and Facebook Both Google and Facebook offer free software to monitor PPC campaigns; therefore both activities will be tested for a month. Along with the medium itself, also the different solutions proposed are going to be tested (see Appendices F.2 and F.3) to understand which creative approach is more effective and/or if some of the solutions need to be improved.

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6.4.10 Banners and Spotify The effectiveness of Flash-animated banners will be tested on all websites and Spotify. Furthermore, since different versions are provided (see Appendix F.5), tests will also show which one is proving to be the more effective in terms of prospects’ acquisition.

6.5

Budgeting
Response Volume 330 700 1,121 392 482 n/a 3,500 132 110 875 1,013 570 478 658 2,275 n/a 107 1,014 157 173 Times/Months Used 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 5 5 2 3 n/a 8 1 1 6 Total Responses 990 2100 3363 1176 482 n/a 3500 132 110 875 4052 2850 2390 1316 6825 n/a 856 1014 157 1038 Total Cost (£) 16719 28044 38385 10575 6700 5000 37000 1850 1500 8750 31500 33335 20240 12000 60000 3,000 9632 14256 1371 8160

Medium Newspapers The Guardian Metro University (34) Radio University (15) Heart Creative brief Mobile Cold List Magazines New Scientist Focus Plasma TV SubTV University Loose Inserts The Guardian New Scientist Focus Events Student Fairs Flyers Science Museum (5) University Internet AdWords Spotify Social Media Facebook Banners jobs.guardian.co.uk

Cost (£)

5,573 9,348 12,795 3,525 6,700 5,000 37,000 1,850 1,500 8,750 7,875 6,667 4,048 6,000 20,000 3,000 1,204 14,256 1,371 1,360

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jobs.dailymail.co.uk newscientist.com wordreference.com milkround.com prospects.ac.uk jobsite.co.uk nus.org.uk University (32) Outdoor Billboard Bus Stops TOTAL

22 91 96 29 140 365 25 825 n/a n/a 15680

170.00 680.90 956.25 189.00 975.00 3,420 234.00 8,018 12,000 8,000 192465

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 3 1 1 -

132 546 576 174 840 2190 150 2475 n/a n/a 40309

1020 4085 5738 1134 5850 20520 1404 24054 12000 8000 431822

6.6
• • • • • •

Evaluation
Total number of enquirers: 40,309 (circa); Total budget allocated: £500,000; Total budget spent: £431,822; A minimum of £50,000 of the leftover is to be spent on database and website maintenance as well as market research; 3.64% leftover (£18,178) will be used for unexpected expenses, unforeseen events and all sorts of contingencies; Average cost per enquiry: £10.71.

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7.0

Conversion (Stage 2)

It illustrates the prospect’s journey after his/her enquiry and shows how the use of different media approaches and communications will ensure the required conversion.

7.1
• •

Objectives
Acquire 12,000 new applicants (30% conversion); Enhance database. Divide enquirers in “Type 0”, “Type 1” and “Type 2” to analyse trends and patterns in their behaviour for future management’s considerations.

7.2
• • • •

Strategy
Testing of the message with emotional appeal vs. message with benefit at each new stage in the communication plan and apply the more effective; Personalised communication for each segment at each stage; Training of staff to deliver better support and customer service as well as functioning as a powerful marketing tool to convert enquirers into applicants; Send an online questionnaire to all non-applicants to find out why they have not applied and if they still consider pursuing a career in teaching. Label and archive them as either “Type 0” or “Type 1”.

7.3

Campaign

The communication plan devised for Stage 2 is divided into seven phases and will last a maximum of 20 days for each prospect. Each message sent out at each phase will be highly personalised as prospects have entered their details when applying through the TDA’s website during Stage 1. It is relevant to notice that, in compliance with the current Data Protection Act (1998), only people who gave permission for their personal details to be used (through double opt-in) will be contacted.

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7.3.1 The Seven Steps 1. Email (1): It will be administered through Dynmark Direct at a cost of 0.82p per message. The response rate from warm prospects is expected between 1% and 2% (Tapp, 2008);

2.

Email (2): Same as Email (1) but response is a little lower;

3.

SMS (1): It will be administered through Dynmark Direct at a cost of 3.6p per text. The response rate from warm prospects ranges between 2% and 2.5% (DMA, 2011).

4.

MMS: It will be administered through Media Burst at a cost of £85/’000. The response rate, although usually higher, is expected around 3% for this kind of activity.

5.

Direct Mail: A personalised pack will be sent to all enquirers remained. This report proposes a brochure as an example (see Appendix G.4) but it can also be something more complex. Whatever pack is sent, however, it is of extreme importance that it is tailored to the specific individual. Prices for posting were acquired from Royal Mail (36p per pack for First Class) and overall CPT was estimated at around £600 during this phase, taking into account printing costs. The response rate is usually quite high, around 6% or 7% and even slightly more sometimes (Bird, 2007).

6.

Telephone Follow/Up: It is demonstrated that a telephone call within three or four days after direct mail boosts response up to three or four times (Thomas and Housden, 2002). The phone call needs to be nothing more than a friendly enquiry and staff will have to be trained properly so as to make something similar to a soft-sell. Outbound calls will be administered by Lead Line at a CPT of £1,700.

7.

SMS (2): Same as SMS (1) but it will create a sense of urge (see Appendix G.5). This is a famous copywriting technique and will gain responses from those who wait until the very last minute to make a decision (Bird, 2007; Sugarman, 2007).

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7.3.2 Database Strategy At the end of Stage 2, prospects who have not applied or have blown out anytime during the process will be sent an online questionnaire (see sample in Appendix I) asking the reasons for them doing so. The chance to win £50 worth of Amazon vouchers will be offered as an incentive to complete it. All prospects will then be divided into three types:

1.

Type 0: Prospects who have not applied and do not consider pursuing a teaching career anymore;

2.

Type 1: Prospects who have not applied but still consider pursuing a teaching career in the future;

3.

Type 2: Prospects who have applied.

Prospects labelled as “Type 0” will not be contacted again, whereas those who have been archived as “Type 1” will constitute the key starting point for generating future ‘hot lists’. Prospects who have not compiled the questionnaire will be archived as “Type 1” as default. See also section 8.3 for future managerial implications and database management. See flowchart for Stage 2 overleaf.

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Conversion rate at each stage

1. 1.7%

2. 1.3%

+680 +511 +970

Blowout

(High-fliers, Maths, Science)

40,000

Hard Bounce 3

1&2

EMAIL

Soft Bounce

X2

SMS (1)

3. 2.5%

Blowout

Soft Bounce Yes

RESEND EMAIL

Application completed

29
DAY 1 DAY 3 DAY 5

Application completed? No Yes No

Loop 1 Blowout

Called for more info? No

Customer Service tries to convert Yes

4. 3%

+1135

Application completed? No

4 Yes

MMS

3. 7.4%

+2,716

Blowout

5

Loop 1

Blowout

No application Blowout

(personalised pack is sent)

Blowout

Application completed?

DAY 7

DIRECT MAIL

Application completed?

4. 16%

+5,438

6

No

Yes

Application completed Application completed

DAY 12

Loop 1 No application Yes

TELEPHONE F/UP

DAY 16

Blowout 7

Application completed? No

5. 2.0%

+571

SMS (2)
Yes Update info (if necessary)

DAY 20

TOTAL 30% ~12,022 Questionnaire

Blowout

Application completed? Questionnaire No

ARCHIVE (Type 0 or 1)

DATABASE

ARCHIVE (Type 2)

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7.4

Testing

Each medium is going to be tested at an 80% confidence level. When two or more creative solutions are proposed, testing will establish which one pulls more responses. 7.4.1 Email (1) • • •

Subject line A (emotional) vs. Subject line B (economical benefit); Content A (emotional) vs. Content B (economical benefit); Banner vs. No banner.

Since each of the three testing elements has only two possible permutations (A or B), a total of 23 permutations are identified: List 1 Subject A Content A Banner List 2 Subject A Content A No banner List 3 Subject A Content B Banner List 4 Subject A Content B No banner List 5 Subject B Content A Banner List 6 Subject B Content A No banner List 7 Subject B Content B Banner List 8 Subject B Content B No banner

The problem with setting a low error tolerance (0.20%) is that it will require far too many names inside each test cell to be significant (6,850). Therefore, testing needs to be done either with a higher degree of error tolerance (if deemed reasonable) or by assuming that emails with banner will pull more responses, thus meaning cutting down the lists from eight to four. Confidence level Expected response Error tolerance Sample size 80% 1.70% 0.20% 6,850 Confidence level Expected response Error tolerance Sample size 80% 1.70% 0.40% 1,700

After testing, the permutation that pulled more responses will be sent to all other prospects. It is here assumed that List 7 will pull more responses.

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7.4.2 Email (2) • •

Non-openers of previous email will be sent a different subject line but same content; Openers of previous email will be sent the same subject line but different content.

7.4.3 SMS (1) For SMS, two versions of creative are to be tested (see Appendix G.2). Confidence level Expected response Error tolerance Sample size 80% 2.50% 0.30% 4,500 Mailing quantity 4,500 4,500 Response rate (%) 2.3 2.8 | 0.5 |

Emotional (ESP) Benefit

Limit of error = 0.4256

Significant

After testing, the message that pulled more responses will be texted to all other prospects. It is here assumed that the benefit-oriented message will pull more responses. 7.4.4 MMS As with SMS, two creative solutions are to be tested: one more benefit-oriented, the other playing on a more emotional level (ESP). Confidence level Expected response Error tolerance Sample size 80% 3.00% 0.40% 3,000 Mailing quantity 3,000 3,000 Response rate (%) 2.7 3.3 | 0.6 |

Emotional (ESP) Benefit

Limit of error = 0.5641

Significant

It is here assumed that the message “Benefit” will pull more responses (see Appendix G.3).

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7.4.5 Direct Mail A brochure personalised by subject studied will be sent to all prospects (see Appendix G.4 for example showing a Maths brochure). The copy will play both on the challenging role of becoming a teacher as well as on the competitive salary and benefits. Testing will be carried out to understand which of the following permutations pulls more responses. List 1 Branded envelope Headline with benefit List 2 Branded envelope Headline with ESP List 3 Non branded envelope Headline with benefit List 4 Non branded envelope Headline with ESP

All future brochures will be sent according to the outcome of this test. 7.4.6 SMS (2) This is a final call to action. Prospects will be literally invited to “hurry up” and complete the application form. The text message will emphasise what the prospect is missing if he/she does not apply to become a teacher. This can be either an emotional reward or, once again, a pure economic benefit (see Appendix G.5). Confidence level Expected response Error tolerance Sample size 80% 2.00% 0.30% 3,500 Mailing quantity 3,500 3,500 Response rate (%) 1.8 2.3 | 0.5 |

Emotional (ESP) Benefit

Limit of error = 0.4338

Significant

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7.5

Budgeting
Medium Type (or Channel) Total (£) 328 322 1397 3216 22022 8000 57779 1028 50 93764 Conversion (%) 1.70% 1.30% 2.50% 3.00% 7.40% n/a 16.00% 2.00% n/a CPA (£) 0.48 0.63 1.44 2.50 8.11 n/a 10.63 1.80 n/a 7.80

Quantity CPT (£) 40,000 39,320 38,809 37,839 36,703 8,000 33,987 28,549 1 8.20 8.20 36 85 600 1,000 1,700 36 -

Applicants 680 511 970 1135 2716 n/a 5438 571 n/a 12022

Email (1) Email (2) SMS (1) MMS Direct Mail (printing and posting)1 Telephone2 Inbound3 F/up - Outbound SMS (2) Incentive Vouchers4 TOTAL

36p per pack with Royal Mail + 20-30p for printing each brochure or any other kind of personalised pack. Prices for inbound and outbound calls are here provided if TDA cannot administer it internally. 3 Depending on the amount of people calling for more information (20% of all enquirers is the figure here assumed). Inbound calls will be administered by AlldayPA. 4 £50 worth of Amazon voucher is offered for completing the questionnaire.
1 2

7.6
• • • • •

Evaluation
Total number of applicants: 12,022 (30% conversion); Total budget allocated: £100,000; Total budget spent: £93,764; 6.24% leftover will be used for unexpected expenses, unforeseen events and all sorts of contingencies; Average cost per application: £7.80.

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8.0

Database

The following paragraph is for the consideration of present and future database management. It sets the objectives to meet in order to carry out reliable data research and illustrates the different steps in the strategy to achieve this. See Appendix H for possible database structure.

8.1
• •

Objectives
To organise data in order to ease its usage and accessibility for building future marketing communication strategies; To use database to segment customers in order to create more relevant, better tailored communications.

8.2
• • • •

Strategy and Management
De-duplication. Cleanse database from duplicates deriving from the purchase or rental of ‘cold lists’ or multiple enquiries from the same prospect; To ensure database processes comply with the current Data Protection Act (1998); To offer double opt-in option to enquirers; To draw a picture of the average enquirer through the identification of patterns and commonalities from his/her response to advertising and further subdivide prospects into “Type 0”, “Type 1” or “Type 2” (see Appendix H);

• •

To gain understanding in media effectiveness and best time/location of contact; To identify geographical areas that are under/over-represented;

8.3

Future Managerial Implications

With the large amount of data gathered after Stage 1 and Stage 2, the database manager in charge will be able to distinguish between prospects who were converted (“Type 2”) and prospects who were not converted; in that last group, an online questionnaire sent to all nonapplicants (see Appendix I) will allow to further discern those who still consider teaching

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35

(“Type 1”) from those who do not anymore (“Type 0”). This will provide future management with a list of warm prospects and the understanding of which medium works better as far as the acquisition of prospects is concerned (an example is provided in Appendix H).

9.0
• • •

Recommendations
Undertake further qualitative research on perceptions around teaching, especially inside key segments such as Maths and Science students/graduates; Monitor brand awareness, recognition and recall to ensure TDA is in prospects’ evoked set; Continually enhance, maintain and update database to provide present and future management with more insightful and accurate information.

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10.0 References
AdPlanner (2011), [WWW], Available from: www.google.com/adplanner [Accessed on: 17/01/2011]

Alexa (2011), [WWW], Available from: www.alexa.com [Accessed on: 25/01/2011]

AlldayPA (2011), [WWW], Available from: http://www.alldaypa.com [Accessed on: 02/02/2011]

BAM (2011), “Student Marketing”, [WWW], Available from: www.sumarketing.co.uk [Accessed on: 16/02/2011]

BBC (2010), [WWW], Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/haveyoursay/2010/07/is_competition_for_graduate_jo.html [Accessed on: 22/01/2011] http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-12019678 [Accessed on: 26/01/2011]

Bird, D. (2007), Commonsense Direct & Digital Marketing, London, Kogan Page.

Campus Media (2011), “Student Marketing & Media Advertising”, [WWW], Available from: www.campusmedia.co.uk [Accessed on: 02/02/2011]

Cheap Leaflets (2011), [WWW], Available from: www.cheapleaflets.net [Accessed on: 17/02/2011]

DMA (2011), [WWW], Available from: www.the-dma.org [Accessed on: 25/02/2011]

DirectGov (2011), [WWW], Available from: www.direct.gov.uk [Accessed on: 28/01/2011]

Dynmark Direct (2011), “Pricing”, [WWW], Available from: www.dynmark.com [Accessed on: 20/02/2011]

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37

DoubleClick (2011), [WWW], Available from:www.google.com/doubleclick [Accessed on: 13/01/2011]

Education (2011), [WWW], www.education.gov.uk [Accessed on: 27/01/2011]

Facebook Advertising (2011), [WWW], Available from: www.facebook.com/advertising [Accessed on: 17/01/2011]

Hesa (2011), “Students and Qualifications”, [WWW], Available from: www.hesa.ac.uk [Accessed on: 26/01/2011]

Kapferer, J.N. (2002), The New Strategic Brand Management: Creating and Sustaining Brand Equity Long Term, Fourth Edition, London, Kogan Page.

Lead Line (2011), [WWW], www.leadline.co.uk [Accessed on: 03/02/2011]

Marketing Minefield (2011), “Marketing with Leaflets and Flyers”, [WWW], Available from: www.marketingminefield.co.uk [Accessed on: 21/02/2011]

Media Burst (2011), [WWW], Available from: www.mediaburst.co.uk [Accessed on: 21/02/2011]

Mintel (2011), [WWW], Available from: http://academic.mintel.com/sinatra/oxygen_academic/search_results/show&/display/id=4798 14/displaytables/id=479814 [Accessed on: 26/01/2011] http://academic.mintel.com/sinatra/oxygen_academic/search_results/show&/display/id=4798 86/display/id=521206?select_section=521081 [Accessed on: 28/01/2011]

Ofcom (2010), [WWW], Available from: http://consumers.ofcom.org.uk/2010/08/tv-phonesand-internet-take-up-almost-half-our-waking-hours [Accessed on: 27/01/2011]

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Outdoor Advertising UK Ltd (2011), “For All Outdoor Advertising”, [WWW], Available from: www.outdooradvertisingltd.co.uk [Accessed on: 23/02/2011]

Porter, M.E. (1980), Competitive Strategy, New York, The Free Press.

Royal

Mail

(2011),

“Corporate

&

Public

Sector”,

[WWW],

Available

from:

www.royalmail.co.uk [Accessed on: 03/02/2011]

Science Museum (2011), “Visitors”, [WWW], Available from: www.sciencemuseum.ork.uk [Accessed on: 15/01/2011]

Seda, C. (2009), Search Engine Advertising: Buying Your Way to the Top to Increase Sales, Berkley, New Riders.

Statistics (2011), [WWW], Available from: www.statistics.gov.uk [Accessed on: 28/01/2011]

SubTV (2011), [WWW], Available from: www.sub.tv [Accessed on: 10/02/2011]

Sugarman, J. (2007), TheAdWeek Copywriting Handbook, New Jersey, Wiley.

Tapp, A. (2008), Principles of Direct and Database Marketing: A Digital Orientation, Fourth Edition, Harlow, Financial Times Prentice Hall.

TDA (2011), [WWW], Available from:www.tda.gov.uk [Accessed on: 16/11/2010]

Thomas, B., Housden, M. (2002), Direct Marketing in Practice, Oxford, ButterworthHeinemann.

Website Grader (2011), [WWW], Available from: www.websitegrader.com [Accessed on: 14/01/2011]

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Appendices:
A: Secondary Research B: Brand Identity C: Primary Research D: TDA in Universities E: Radio Creative Brief F: Creative (Stage 1) G: Creative (Stage 2) H: Database I: Online Questionnaire (Type 0; Type 1) J: Bibliography

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Appendix A – Secondary Research
Figure 9. Proposed model for TDA’s 360-degree marketing strategy

In red are the three pillars on which TDA’s communication must constantly work. A change in general perceptions of teaching (accomplished through relevant advertising) will in fact build trust towards the brand. As a consequence of that, levels of brand awareness and recall will raise. This can be achieved with a wide range of activities illustrated above, most of which are fully analysed throughout this report.

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Appendix B – Brand Identity
1. TDA’s brand image sums up all the efforts and high budgeting put into advertising and marketing communications. It reflects the idea consumers have built in their minds within time of the brand and shows a company that deals with all due seriousness with a very serious matter yet not forgetting to give it an indispensable modern touch.

2.

TDA’s personality sets the way the consumer expects the whole organisation will behave when the first contact is made. Through its advertising messages, the consumer has already learned how to interact with the brand and what to expect from it – that is constant challenge and reliable support.

3.

Relationship is what the consumer feels the company ultimately provides. In TDA’s case, this is the experienced and knowledgeable guidance each customer will benefit of throughout the whole process of choosing the specific ITT course to become a teacher.

4.

Culture helps a business set its future goals and establishes the right path to achieve them. TDA’s culture lies in the slogan flaunted on the homepage of its website: “Developing people, improving young lives”. A mission, in the noblest meaning of the term.

5.

Reflection is the reason why consumers turn to TDA in the first place. The brand image gets hold of a person’s self-concept and reminds them of what they want to be. Ultimately, they are recent graduates inspired by their great passion of making a difference in somebody else’s life.

6.

Self-image sets the distance between the consumer and the brand image. Theoretically, the closer the two figures are, the higher the interest in the product/service will be. Through its branding strategy, TDA also makes sure to attract aspiring teachers that are serious about and dedicated to the job while being innovative and modern in their way of communicating ideas.

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Appendix C – Primary Research
In-house research has been carried out in order to gain insight into students’ perceptions of teaching as a career. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches have been considered. The results obtained helped devise a more problem-oriented communication strategy that helped position teaching as a challenging, rewarding and fairly profitable career. All research conducted was in line with the standards of MRS Code of Conduct and Data Protection Act (1998) and sensitive information will be kept anonymous and confidential.

C.1
• • • •

Objectives
To gain valuable insight in why students consider teaching as a career; To find out what variables* are more appealing when considering a job; To discover what students’ perceptions of teaching are in terms of those variables; To understand if students who consider teaching as a career are aware of TDA.

* A list of variables was identified through Mintel (2011) and included: salary; degree of challenge of the job; how rewarding it is; amount of holidays; flexibility of hours.

C.2

Methodology

The research (both quantitative and qualitative) was administered inside the University of Greenwich in the period from 15th to 25th of January. A university setting was deemed as more appropriate because it is directly linked with TDA’s operations. C.2.1 Quantitative Research Quantitative research took the form of a self-administered questionnaire which provided the researchers with insights from a key age segment (18- to 28-year-olds). This is not representative of the whole UK population but it does give a good understanding of current perceptions of teaching from students, which is ultimately the scope for which the questionnaire was administered in the first place. The sample size was set as not smaller than 100 participants because otherwise the researchers might have been supplied with data potentially misleading. The sampling method

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selected was purposive (or judgemental) sampling as the researchers felt that the analysis of students’ perceptions was more relevant to the purpose of this research, especially when considering that it would set the basis for the development of a tailored, problem-oriented communication strategy. To ensure ease of readability and full comprehension of the questions presented, a pilot testing of 10% of all questionnaires was carried out, leaving the researchers without any doubt about possible misinterpretations from respondents. C.2.2 Qualitative Research Qualitative research took the form of five in-depth interviews which was conducted only after the analysis of the results obtained through quantitative research. Only students who were considering teaching as a career took part in the interview. The sampling method utilised was snowball sampling as it was considered less time-consuming if each interviewee provided the name of someone who would be willing to take part in the interview. The length of each interview was one hour as this ensures deeper analysis and provides sufficient time for eventual investigation of relevant matters. The researchers decided to settle with five interviews after saturation point was reached.

C.3

Questionnaire: Results

See questionnaire sample with percentage of respondents overleaf.

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Perceptions of a Teaching Career
We are undertaking a survey to find out students’ perceptions of teaching as a career. Please fill in this questionnaire to help us with our study. All information will remain confidential.
Q1 Have you considered teaching as your future career? Yes 51.0% No 49.0% Have you heard of Training & Development Agency for Schools (TDA)? Yes 28.0% No 72.0% How important are the following attributes when considering a job? -3 = Not at all important +3 = Extremely important
-3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3

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Q5

Do you consider Government operated services more reliable? Yes 71.0% No 29.0% About You

Q2

Q6

Are you... ?
Male Female

52.0% 48.0%

Q3

Q7

Salary

0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 8.0 32.0 58.0 % % % % % % %
Challenging

Which of the following age brackets applies to you? 18-22 50.0% 23-27 38.0% 28+ 12.0% What degree course are you attending? Architecture 2.0% Business 32.0% Chemistry 2.0% Computer & IT 6.0% Economics 6.0% Languages 2.0% Law 2.0% Marketing 3.0% Mathematics 9.0% Medicine 1.0% Politics 3.0% Psychology 5.0% Science 5.0% Other 16.0%

Q8 0.0 3.0 0.0 6.0 17.0 37.0 37.0 % % % % % % %

Holidays

1.0 2.0 4.0 15.0 21.0 33.0 24.0 % % % % % % %
Flexible hours

0.0 3.0 5.0 11.0 20.0 35.0 26.0 % % % % % % %
Rewarding

2.0 0.0 2.0 3.0 12.0 28.0 53.0 % % % % % % % Q4 How do you perceive teaching in terms of the following attributes?
1- 2- 3- 4- 5- 6Extre Very Poor Aver High Very mely poor age High poor 7Extre mely high

Salary

1.0 6.0 27.0 23.0 28.0 12.0 3.0 % % % % % % %
Challenging

Q9

0.0 4.0 9.0 16.0 27.0 26.0 18.0 % % % % % % %
Holidays

0.0 3.0 8.0 8.0 23.0 28.0 30.0 % % % % % % %
Flexible Hours

What is your expected graduation grade? 1st 39.0% 2:1 55.0% 2:2 5.0% 3rd 1.0% Pass 0.0%

4.0 6.0 7.0 15.0 23.0 33.0 12.0 % % % % % % %
Rewarding

2.0 4.0 10.0 18.0 23.0 29.0 14.0 % % % % % % %

Thank you for completing this questionnaire.

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C.3.1 Main Findings •

Almost half (49%) of the people surveyed was considering teaching as a career but only 28% of them had heard of TDA; o Amongst those who were considering teaching, an outstanding 62.7% had never heard of TDA;

• • • • • • • •

71% of the people interviewed thought that Government operated services are more reliable; There is a higher percentage of males (57.7%) considering teaching as a career than females (43.75%); Older students (28+) are 15% more prone to consider a career as teachers than younger students (18-27); Amongst 18-22 students, 66% had never heard of TDA; Amongst 23-27 students, 79% had never heard of TDA; Amongst 28+ students, 75% had never heard of TDA; Students expecting a First are more likely to consider teaching (59%) than those expecting a 2:1 (47.2%) or a 2:2 (40%); Amongst all students surveyed, the most likely to consider teaching as a career are those attending courses such as Chemistry, Computer & IT, Languages, Mathematics, Medicine, Psychology and Science;

Amongst all students surveyed, those who the least had heard of TDA were attending courses such as Business, Computer & IT, Economics, Languages, Law, Mathematics, Politics and Psychology;

• •

Out of 5 Science students surveyed, 4 were considering teaching (80%) but only 2 of them (40%) had heard of TDA; Out of 9 Maths students surveyed, 5 were considering teaching (55.5%) but only 3 of them (33.3%) had heard of TDA.

C.3.2 The Fishbein Model The Fishbein (1975) model was used to measure students’ perceptions of teaching on a series of five attributes which were previously sourced via Mintel (2011). These represent the main

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variables people consider when looking for a job. Students were first asked to rank each of the five attributes on a 7-point scale (Likert scale) and then asked to express their beliefs about teaching according to the same range of variables.

Figure 10. Results obtained from the application of the Fishbein model.
Attributes Salary Challenging Holidays Flexible hours Rewarding Total E 2.43 1.96 1.48 1.57 2.19 Teaching 4.19 5.16 5.55 4.94 4.99 be 10.18 10.11 8.21 7.76 10.93 47.19

From the results obtained, it is evident that a job is likely to appeal more to students if it has a good starting salary, is challenging enough and is also a highly rewarding one. The amount of holidays throughout the year and flexibility of hours do not seem to play a major role, but incidentally are amongst the top attributes that the students surveyed linked to teaching, at the expense of salary which scored the lowest (4.19 out of 7). Overall, students agreed that teaching is both very challenging and rewarding but they may still not be inclined to pursue it as a career due to the poor perceptions around its salary.

C.4

In-Depth Interviews: Results

All five aspirant teachers interviewed shared the following viewpoints when asked why they wanted to become teachers: • • • • •

They love what they do and thus want to share their passion; Teaching is not an ordinary job as there is not a real routine: each day is different because they are dealing with people; If done properly, teaching is a very interactive and rewarding job; Students’ honest and complete attention to a teacher’s words is priceless; They were influenced in their choice by one specific teacher who showed passion about the job and was able to transmit it.

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Appendix D – TDA in Universities
As previously discussed, BAM can offer a quick and easy service for targeting students in Universities through a broad series of media specifically targeted at students. Since the company could not disclose any information about pricing, a list of 34 student newspapers and magazines is here provided along with 15 radio stations and 32 Student Union’s websites on which online marketing activities will be undertaken. Prices and volume of readers or listeners were acquired directly from Universities.

D.1

Newspapers/Magazines
University (Newspaper/Magazine) Volume Reached 20,000 12,000 13,485 15,000 12,245 16,500 17,810 14,265 8,340 12,000 21,260 25,000 19,845 16,275 19,200 Cost per '000 (£) 25.00 29.17 25.95 23.33 34.71 22.73 39.30 10.52 47.96 41.67 14.11 23.80 12.60 36.87 18.23 Total Cost (£) 500 350 350 350 425 375 700 150 400 500 300 595 250 600 350 Possible Response 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% Response Volume 40 24 27 30 24 33 36 29 17 24 43 50 40 33 38 Cost per Lead (£) 12.50 14.58 12.98 11.67 17.35 11.36 19.65 5.26 23.98 20.83 7.06 11.90 6.30 18.43 9.11

Rank 20 24 22 18 25 17 29 2 32 30 6 19 5 27 11

Arts London Less Common More Sense Bath Insider Bedfordshire The Blend Birmingham Spaghetti Junction Bradford Bradford Student Brighton The Verse Bristol Epigram Brunel Le Nurb Buckinghamshire The Bucks Student Cambridge The Varsity City University City Offline Cardiff GairRhydd Derby Dusted Durham The Palatinate Exeter Exepose

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Gloucestershire Space Glamorgan TAG Hull HULL Fire Leeds The Leeds Student Liverpool Beat Montfort The Demon Manchester Grip Newcastle The Courter Nottingham Impact Oxford The Oxford Student Plymouth The Knowledge Portsmouth The Pugwash News Queen Margaret The Echo Roehampton Fresh Swansea The Waterfront UCL Pi Media West London Edify Westminster Smoke Magazine Worcester The Voice TOTAL

8,445 22,710 18,700 24,500 24,380 18,895 27,000 14,000 24,000 15,000 22,365 20,000 5,330 8,195 13,875 8,000 17,000 17,800 7,220 560,640

47.37 4.40 16.04 22.45 14.36 12.17 22.22 35.71 12.50 26.67 19.90 16.25 37.52 18.30 25.23 50.00 14.71 22.47 48.48 22.82

400 100 300 550 350 230 600 500 300 400 445 325 200 150 350 400 250 400 350 12795

0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% -

17 45 37 49 49 38 54 28 48 30 45 40 11 16 28 16 34 36 14 1121

23.68 2.20 8.02 11.22 7.18 6.09 11.11 17.86 6.25 13.33 9.95 8.13 18.76 9.15 12.61 25.00 7.35 11.24 24.24 11.41

31 1 9 15 7 3 14 26 4 23 13 10 28 12 21 34 8 16 33

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D.2

Radios
University (Radio Station) Bath URB Bournemouth BIRSt Birmingham BurnFM Bradford Ramair Bristol BURST Brighton Burst Radio Cambridge CamFM Canterbury+Kent CSR Hull JamRadio Leeds LSRfm Manchester Fuse FM Newcastle NSR Nottingham URN Swansea Xtreme Radio Westminster Smoke Radio TOTAL Volume Reached Cost per '000 (£) 19.58 16.79 13.82 26.11 18.08 14.24 19.58 7.83 12.57 9.59 8.70 16.79 9.79 20.09 13.20 13.50 Total Cost (£) 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 3525 Possible Response Response Volume Cost per Lead (£)

Rank

12,000 14,000 17,000 9,000 13,000 16,500 12,000 30,000 18,700 24,500 27,000 14,000 24,000 11,700 17,800 261,200

0.15% 0.15% 0.15% 0.15% 0.15% 0.15% 0.15% 0.15% 0.15% 0.15% 0.15% 0.15% 0.15% 0.15% 0.15% -

18 21 26 14 20 25 18 45 28 37 41 21 36 18 27 392

13.06 11.19 9.22 17.41 12.05 9.49 13.06 5.22 8.38 6.39 5.80 11.19 6.53 13.39 8.80 9.00

12 9 7 15 11 8 13 1 5 3 2 10 4 14 6

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D.3

Websites
Total Impressions (per month) 37,000 35,000 170,000 100,000 42,000 55,000 200,000 37,000 85,000 59,000 150,000 47,000 280,000 39,000 75,000 85,000 35,000 20,000 20,000 95,000 110,000 55,000 150,000 75,000 40,000 45,000 65,000 90,000 70,000 150,000 35,000 28,000 2,579,000 CPM (£) 2.70 2.86 1.51 3.27 7.57 1.82 2.15 2.70 1.18 3.62 0.73 4.06 1.19 2.56 1.33 3.60 2.86 12.23 5.00 1.35 2.68 2.84 7.82 6.40 2.50 2.60 4.45 1.66 8.97 4.48 2.86 3.57 3.11 Total Cost (£) 100.00 100.00 257.40 327.46 318.00 100.00 429.12 100.00 100.00 213.54 109.20 190.94 334.32 100.00 100.00 305.78 100.00 244.60 100.00 128.56 295.00 156.24 1172.36 480.00 100.00 117.00 289.00 149.00 628.00 672.00 100.00 100.00 8017.52 Response Volume 12 11 54 32 13 18 64 12 27 19 48 15 90 12 24 27 11 6 6 30 35 18 48 24 13 14 21 29 22 48 11 9 825 Cost per Lead (£) 8.45 8.93 4.73 10.23 23.66 5.68 6.71 8.45 3.68 11.31 2.28 12.70 3.73 8.01 4.17 11.24 8.93 38.22 15.63 4.23 8.38 8.88 24.42 20.00 7.81 8.13 13.89 5.17 28.04 14.00 8.93 11.16 9.71

University

CTR

Conversion

Rank

Bath Bedfordshire Birmingham Bournemouth Bradford Brighton Brunel Buckinghamshire Derby Durham Gloucestershire Huddersfield Hull Kingston Lincoln Liverpool Liverpool JM London Met London South Bank Newcastle Nottingham Trent Oxford Brookes Plymouth Portsmouth Roehampton Salford Surrey Swansea Teeside University of London Westminster Worcester TOTAL

0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% 0.40% -

8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% -

14 17 6 20 29 8 9 15 2 23 1 24 3 11 4 22 18 32 27 5 13 16 30 28 10 12 25 7 31 26 19 21

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D.4

Student Fairs

A list of 20 Universities where TDA will have stands during Student Fairs (October 2011; March 2012) is here provided. TDA’s presence is spread out across England and Wales as illustrated by Figure 11. University of Birmingham; University of Bath; University of Plymouth; University of Portsmouth; London South Bank University; Kings College London; University College London; University of Essex; University of Cardiff; University of Aberystwyth; University of Manchester Metropolitan; University of Leeds; Nottingham Trent University; Sheffield Hallam University; University of Brighton; University of East Anglia; University of Liverpool; University of Southampton; University of Hertfordshire.

Figure 11. Student Fairs across England and Wales

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Appendix E – Radio Creative Brief
The radio spot produced will be broadcasted on both Heart FM and the student radio stations.

Date: 02/02/2011

Client: Training and Development Agency for Schools (TDA) Product: Teaching training/career Client contact: Andrea Alessio Job number: RV-001 Budget:£5,000

Agency: RADIOVILLE Account Manager: Liz Carter Creative Director: Tim Craig

Main Objective: Generate a minimum of 482 enquiries (0.15% conversion) over a period of three weeks. Secondary Objectives: • Change people’s perceptions of teaching; • Encourage students to consider a career in teaching; • Reach parents and influencers; • Emphasise the experienced guidance offered by TDA. Target Audience: Students in their penultimate or final year in University expected to get a qualification of 2:1 or above and recent graduates who are looking for a career. They are ambitious, passionate about what they do and thrilled about starting a new, challenging and rewarding job. In-house research showed that they hold poor perceptions of teachers’ salary. They don’t usually think of teaching as a career option, but they can be influenced by the right message. Tone of Voice: honest, reassuring, exciting, challenging, inspiring. Mood: professional, helpful, enthusiastic. Call to action: Encourage listeners to access main website and register. Messages: • Earn up to £43k by the time you’re 30; • Chance to receive a tax-free bursary of up to £9k to train; • Be part of the next generation of teachers. Format: • 30s Review date: • 02/04/2011

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Appendix F – Creative (Stage 1)
All creative solutions here listed are available in larger format and higher definition at: www.tdaproject.blogspot.com.

F.1

Newspapers and Magazines

F.2

AdWords

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F.3

Facebook

F.4

Outdoor

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F.5

Banners

Flash-animated versions are available at: www.tdaproject.blogspot.com

F.6

Buttons

To be used on employment websites and job sections of online newspapers.

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F.7

SMS (Cold List)

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Appendix G – Creative (Stage 2)
The following sections illustrate the creative solutions suggested to convey a meaningful and personalised message to each prospect throughout the phases of the communication plan.

G.1

Email

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G.2

SMS (1)

SMS with emotional appeal (ESP) vs. SMS with benefit

G.3

MMS

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G.4

Direct Mail (Brochure)

TDA has to bear in mind that what they are asking people to do will change their lives forever. It is not something that has to be taken light-heartily. All information, therefore, needs to be relevant (that means customer-tailored), seriously presented yet with a pervading tone of excitement and challenge. The brochure was written also bearing in mind other rules that are proved to enhance response: • • • • •

Copy is written in serif type – this will make reading easier; Black copy on a white background (therefore no ‘reversed out’); Long copy sells more than short copy (provided that the information in the letter is relevant to the reader, he/she will take time to read up to 3-4 pages); Copy is written in the prospect’s language (i.e. jargon is appreciated by those who can understand it); Neat structure, text is justified and there is clear division of headings and subheadings.

Writing intelligent mailings will attract intelligent candidates looking for a challenging and exciting career or life-change.

See example of Maths brochure overleaf.

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G.5

SMS (2)

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Appendix H – Database
Table 12. Example of database structure Personal Data Title Name Last Name Gender Nationality Address City/Town Postcode Date of Birth Marital Status Current Occupation Email Address Mobile Number Mr. James Smith Male English 8 Edith Terrace London SW10 0TQ 18/09/1988 Bachelor Unemployed james.smith@gmail.com 07567584355 Education Graduated? Graduation Year Expected Graduation Degree Course University Degree Level Yes 2010 B.A. Mathematics University of Greenwich 2:1

After Stage 1 Date of Enquiry Medium (1) Medium (2) Medium (3) 23/05/2011 Science Museum (LDN) New Scientist -

After Stage 2 Converted? Type 0
N.B. • •

Yes Type 2 No

Type 1

If ‘Yes’: When? After Which Medium? If ‘No’: When declined? After Which Medium?

10/06/2011 Telephone F/up -

Grey areas are not applicable to current prospect; Blue area indicates prospect’s type (see sections 7.3.2 and 8.3).

Amongst many other advantages, the database will also help draw a picture of the average enquirer. For example, there might be a common pattern amongst those who enquired during Stage 1 and then applied after Stage 2 (i.e. location, media through which they were recruited, creative solution to which they responded, etc.) and this information will represent a strong advantage when building new marketing communications in the future.

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Figure 13. Example of CPE and CPA by medium

By analysing the large amount of data gathered after Stage 2, the database manager will be able to understand which medium is working better in terms of prospect’s conversion rather than just acquisition. The example above is just an assumption of what could happen when testing the same advert with the same format on two different media channels, in this case two newspapers. While at first one would argue that advertising on Metro is more convenient (CPE is £3.53 cheaper), after Stage 2 the Guardian shows a higher conversion rate with CPA being £2.60 cheaper than Metro. Future management should consider this in order to maximise ROI and should also apply the same test on all media utilised in order to discover which one is performing better in terms of conversion (not just in pulling more responses) and invest more on that in the future.

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Appendix I – Online Questionnaire (Type 0; Type 1) TDA – Questionnaire
Fill in this questionnaire and you could win £50 worth of Amazon vouchers! N.B. All information collected will remain confidential.
Q1 Do you still considered teaching in the future?
Yes No

Q2

If your answer was ‘No’, why?
I got a job elsewhere I changed my mind Personal reasons I was disappointed with TDA Other Please specify ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ………………………………………………

Q3

Would you suggest TDA to any of your friends or relatives?
Yes No

Q4

How would you rate TDA in terms of the following attributes? -3 = Extremely poor +3 = Extremely good
-3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3

Clarity of information Customer service Website’s ease of navigation Advertising

Q5

Feel free to add any other comment you have.

………………………………… ………………………………….. .………………………………….

Thank you for completing the questionnaire.
Your name has been entered in the prize draw. Should you win, we will get in touch to arrange the delivery of your £50 worth of Amazon vouchers!

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Appendix J – Bibliography

Barry, P. (2008), The Advertising Concept Book: Think Now, Design Later, New York, Thames & Hudson.

Caples, J. (1997), Tested Advertising Methods, Fifth Edition, New York, Pearson.

Chaffey, D. (2006), Internet Marketing: Strategy, Implementation and Practice, Third Edition, Harlow, Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Fallon, P., Senn, F. (2006), Juicing the Orange: How to Turn Creativity into a Powerful Business Advantage, Boston, Harvard Business School Press.

Fishbein, M., Ajzen, I. (1975), Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behaviour: An Introduction to Theory and Research, Reading, Addison-Wesley.

Halligan, B., Shah, D. (2010), Inbound Marketing: Get Found Using Google, Social Media, and Blogs, New Jersey, Wiley.

Ingram, A., Barber, M. (2005), An Advertiser’s Guide to Better Radio Advertising: Tune in to the Power of the Brand Conversation Medium, Chichester, Wiley.

Ogilvy, D. (1983), Ogilvy on Advertising, London, Prion.

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