Study on job satisfaction

CHAPTER 1
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, INTRODUCTION, THEORIES OF JOB SATISFACTION, COMPANY PROFILE

Study on job satisfaction

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

HINDUSTAN UNILEVER (P) LTD. Is situated in santhome, Chennai. About 600 employees are working in this company. This research has been done to find out the satisfactory level of employees in their respective jobs and factors influencing their satisfaction about the job. The data was collected from direct feed back of the employees. About 30 employees were introduced and the details of the experience, feeling about their job, motivation type, promotion criteria, training system, working condition provided by the company, etc. were analyzed and satisfaction level was established among various employees. The report gives the details about job satisfaction of the HINDUSTAN UNILEVER (P) LTD. Suggestions are also added with this report to overcome the problems to make the employees more satisfactory.

Study on job satisfaction

INTRODUCTION
Job satisfaction refers to person feelings of satisfaction on the job, which act as a motivation to work and it is dynamic in nature. Everyone has an emotional reaction pertaining on their job. It can decline more quickly than it develops because employees spend approximately one third of their life at work. Their expectation is constantly changing regarding their job hierarchy round the clock through the year. Good feelings can come from high performance, quality work, learning new skills, working as part of a team assisting co-workers, demonstration personal growth and receiving compliments. All workers can exploit at least 10 sources of satisfaction. RATING SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION:  Productivity  Quality of work  Learning  Expressing Creativity  Professionalism  Recognition  Teamwork  Social Satisfaction  Personal Growth  Work Environment Rewards Job satisfaction increases with age, mostly because of seniority. Education level can also contribute to JOB SATISFACTION. Generally, higher the education, the more

Study on job satisfaction likely he or she will be dissatisfied with the job, thinking he or she is qualified to do a better job. MEANING OF JOB

Job is defined as any definite piece of works especially a trifling or temporary on nature. It can be any under taking or employment with a view of profit. It can be task or bit of work. DEFINITION OF JOB According to oxford dictionary, job is a regular paid position or post. It is a piece of work, task or assignment. It is a responsibility or function of somebody towards something.

MEANING OF JOB SATISFACTION

Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance; methods include job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work groups. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. The most common way of measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs. Questions relate to rate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities the work itself and coworkers. Some questioners ask yes or no questions while others ask to rate satisfaction on 1-5 scale (where 1 represents "not at all satisfied" and 5 represents "extremely satisfied"). Job satisfaction is the favorableness or unfavorableness with which employee view their work. It expresses the amount of agreement between once expectations of the job and rewards that the job provides to him. Job satisfaction is a part of life satisfaction. Since a job is an important part of life, job satisfaction influences once

Study on job satisfaction

general life satisfaction arises from a complex set of circumstances in the same way that motivation does job satisfaction is dynamic one. Job satisfaction is closely linked to the psychological approach to motivation, is the job satisfaction. What are the characteristics of job, which gives the job satisfaction to the employees? These are the dependent variables of job satisfaction; some of them are listed down by Locke and others. Job satisfaction, a worker's sense of achievement and success, is generally perceived to be directly linked to productivity as well as to personal well being. Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one's efforts. Job satisfaction further implies enthusiasm and happiness with one's work. The Harvard Professional Group (1998) sees job satisfaction as the keying radiant that leads to recognition, income, promotion, and the achievement of other goals that lead to a general feeling of fulfillment. For better or worse, employees spend many of their waking hours at work. In addition to working on assigned tasks, they typically interact with other persons (supervisors, fellow employees), and are exposed to organizational policies and practices. All these, in turn, influence employee feelings about their jobs and organizations that employ them. These feelings are often called job attitudes. A variety of attitudes relating to employment has been measured and studied. Examples include(1)-job involvement (preoccupation with one’s work) (2)-organizational commitment (loyalty to one’s employer) (3)-job satisfaction. Only satisfaction is discussed here because it has the longest history of both theory and measurement. Managers are concerned about job satisfaction for two main reasons. First, they often believe that job satisfaction influences such employee behaviors as attendance and length of service. It is commonly assumed that positive satisfaction leads to positive behaviors. Second, managers seek favorable satisfaction in its own right. In this context, managements view employees as a group to satisfy,

Study on job satisfaction

much as they attempt to satisfy other groups such as customers, clients, and investors. Positive job satisfaction provides evidence that management is doing all right by its employees. DEFINITIONS OF JOB SATISFACTION

Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state

resulting from the appraisal of one’s job; an affective reaction to one’s job; and an attitude towards one’s job. Weiss (2002) has argued that job satisfaction is an attitude but points out that researchers should clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which are affecting (emotion), beliefs and behaviors. This definition suggests that we form attitudes towards our jobs by taking into account our feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviors.

"Job satisfaction is defined as "the extent to which people like

(satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs" (Spector, 1997, p. 2). This definition suggests job satisfaction is a general or global affective reaction that individuals hold about their job. While researchers and practitioners most often measure global job satisfaction, there is also interest in measuring different "facets" or "dimensions" of satisfaction. Examination of these facet conditions is often useful for a more careful examination of employee satisfaction with critical job factors. Traditional job satisfaction facets include: co-workers, pay, job conditions, supervision, nature of the work and benefits." (Williams)  The job satisfaction of employee means the subjective sensational response to the relevant objective factors of jobs. Within this research, the operational definition of employee job satisfaction is based on the sum of variance between expected satisfaction and actual satisfaction in the mind or job takers (MSQ) proposed by Weisset al. (1967). We also refer to the measuring scales of job satisfaction research respectively proposed by Feng (1997) and Chen (2002).  Job satisfaction: “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences.” (Locke)

positions. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne . These studies (1924-1933). what should be. Internal satisfaction: Workers show their own satisfaction extents on the values. HISTORY OF JOB SATISFACTION: One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. sought to find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers’ productivity. Dissatisfaction occurs when the employee believes that these two components do not correspond. (2)-what values are desires for rewards the employee brings to the work place. FACTORS OF EMPLOYEES’ JOB SATISFACTION: There are two main factors of employees’ job satisfaction and they are:  External satisfaction  Internal satisfaction External satisfaction: Workers show their own satisfaction extents on factors like pay. primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School. Satisfaction is high when what is corresponds to what should be. promotion. responsibility sense. what is. social status. superiors’ admiration and affirmation and colleague interaction rising from tasks. autonomy and self-esteem triggered by tasks themselves. This evaluation depends on two components: (1)-what the employee actually experiences at work.Study on job satisfaction WHAT IS JOB SATISFACTION? The most commonly accepted definition views job satisfaction as depending on an evaluation the employee makes of the job and the environment surrounding the job.

This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay. IMPORTANT AMONG THEM ARE GIVEN BELOW: 1. Bryan. thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction. It should also be noted that the work of W. selfesteem needs. and self-actualization. . Herzberg`s satisfiers and job characteristic theory and relevant here. social needs. safety needs.L. causing a shift from skilled labor and piecework towards the more modern approach of assembly lines and hourly wages. It was later found that this increase resulted. However. 2. Frederick Winslow Taylor’s 1911 book. The initial use of scientific management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were forced to work at a faster pace. argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. Equitable Rewards: More than the rewards equity and fairness of reward is equally. Principles of Scientific Management. and Hugo Munster berg set the tone for Taylor’s work. laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. a motivation theory. workers became exhausted and dissatisfied. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories. Some argue that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. This book contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies. Scientific management (aka Taylorism) also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. not from the new conditions. Above all it must be meaningful. Challenging Job: Job must have scope for application of skill. knowledge and initiative. Equity theory of motivation is relevant. which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life – physiological needs. but from the knowledge of being observed. Walter Dill Scott.Study on job satisfaction Effect).

working conditions. Job satisfaction of an individual varies in accordance with the dynamic environment and social requirements. complicated and personal experience. As such it cannot be seen. they are treated very well and being paid equally. Supportive Working Condition: Supporting working conditions are equally important as the condition of work itself to improve job satisfaction. are relevant. Job satisfaction is the contents to which a person is attached toward his job and the activities associated with it. For example. Supportive colleagues /supervisors: This yet another aspect with satisfy an employee. McCleliands affiliation need theory and social information processing model etc. This is linked to the absence of Herzberg`s dissatisfies. on the job security. if organizational participants but feel that they are working much harder than other in the department. Job satisfaction is the ultimate function of so many individual attitudes taken together. it can only be inferred. There are three important dimensions of job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation. CONCEPT OF JOB SATISFACTION . supervisions. but are receiving fewer. The cluster of attitude questionnaire includes pay. Second. ‘Locke’ gave comprehensive definition of job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting the appraisal of once job or job experience. Web has referred earlier the role of good supervision. they are likely to a positive attitude towards the job. If it is very complex. an employee can assume to have a composite attitude about job as whole. Job satisfaction is basically an individual matter. and interpersonal relations.Study on job satisfaction 3. job satisfaction is often determined by how well outcomes exceed expectations. Herzberg`s absences of dissatisfies. 4. they will probably have a negative attitude toward the work. They will be dissatisfied or the other hands if they feel. the boss and or coworkers. Persons are to accept even a lower pay if the work place is near home an example. Job satisfaction is a generalized attitude towards the job based on evolution of different aspects of the job characteristic to be evaluated together in a same way. In effect.

IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION It is an established fact that job satisfaction usually leads to qualitative and quantitative improvement in performance.Study on job satisfaction Job satisfaction is the end feeling of a person after performing a task. interest and aspirations. Those jobs. The feel would be positive or negative depending upon whether need is satisfied or not. It is a group phenomenon where as job satisfaction is an individual feeling. the worker gets pleasure. IMPORTANCE TO WORKER AND ORGANIZATION: Frequently. Job satisfaction is different from motivation and moral. Motivation refers to the willingness to work. The satisfaction which people experience in their job is in large part the consequence of the extent to which the various aspects of their work situations tend to be relevant to their job related value systems. the job will be satisfying. Thus. on the other hand. When work becomes interesting. job satisfaction is an employee's general attitude toward his job. aims and motives that he wants to fulfill. work underlies self-esteem and identity while unemployment lowers . To the extent that a person's job fulfills his dominant needs and is consistent with his expectations and values. implies a positive emotional state. Attitudes are pre-dis-positions that make the individual behave in a particular way. Job satisfaction. is the end feeling which may influence subsequent behavior. on the contrary. Every worker strives hard to achieve maximum job satisfaction and even the management should recognize the need for job satisfaction as it directly influences the overall production. Morale implies a general attitude toward work and work environment. Satisfaction. job of his choice gives him tremendous psychological satisfaction. a chance to fulfill his interest and aptitudes gives him satisfaction and motivates him for efficient and qualitative performance. Thus every individual has special abilities. which provide the worker. Every individual has certain needs. Job satisfaction may be considered a dimension of morale and morale could also be a source of satisfaction. inherited capacities. Satisfaction in job includes motivation and interest in work.

flexible. who are motivated by fear of job loss. For the organization. Job satisfaction and occupational success are major factors in personal satisfaction. However. as well as improved punctuality and worker morale. studies dating back to Herzberg's (1957) have shown at least low correlation between high morale and high productivity. and termination. monotonous jobs can erode a worker's initiative and enthusiasm and can lead to absenteeism and unnecessary turnover. but leave my factories. will not give 100 percent of their effort for very long. It is important to note that the literature on the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity is neither conclusive nor consistent. 123). 1996. Take away my factories. absenteeism. job satisfaction brings a pleasurable emotional state that often leads to a positive work attitude. Job satisfaction is also linked to a more healthy work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity. At the same time. self-esteem. p. and soon we will have a new and better factory" (quoted in Brown. turnover. and self-development. and loyal. but leave my people. self-respect. and it does seem logical that more satisfied workers will tend to add more value to an organization. and soon grass will grow on the factory floors. it is also a temporary one. thus protecting the "bottom line. SATISFACTION FACETS: . To the worker. Though fear is a powerful motivator. job satisfaction of its workers means a work force that is motivated and committed to high quality performance. A satisfied worker is more likely to be creative. And although only little correlation has been found between job satisfaction and productivity. Unhappy employees. innovative. and as soon as the threat is lifted performance will decline. Tangible ways in which job satisfaction benefits the organization include reduction in complaints and grievances. Brown (1996) notes that some employers have found that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequisite to satisfying or delighting customers." No wonder Andrew Carnegie is quoted as saying: "Take away my people. Increased productivity the quantity and quality of output per hour worked—seems to be a byproduct of improved quality of working life.Study on job satisfaction self-worth and produces anxiety.

(2)-the people one works with. requires that assessments of satisfaction measure each facet separately. This. and job security) practices (for example. compensation. Such independence is significant when management attempts to influence the satisfaction of its work force. in term. Three in particular deserve mention: (1)-organizational policies and promotions. the above figure shows employee A as satisfied with fellow employees but satisfied with the work and HR policies. Satisfaction with alternative job facets: Employee Facet A B Co-workers Organizational policies Work itself High Low Low Low High Low As a hypothetical example. Bear in mind that satisfaction with any single facet may not be highly related to satisfaction with any other facet. policies aimed at improving satisfaction require correct identification of those job characteristics that employees believe need improvement.Study on job satisfaction Employees experience satisfaction with many different components or facets of the work environment. including supervisors and co-workers. To be effective. (3)-the work itself. THEORIES OF JOB SATISFACTON .

MASLOW'S THEORY The need hierarchy notion of Maslow’s (1954) when was outlined in detailed is also relevant to the present topics. however a point which again seems to be upheld by the highly ambiguous existing data. STRODILL'S THEORY As we have pointed out several times one of the major sources of frustration in job satisfaction research is that therefore does not seems to be any clearly defined relationship between degree of job satisfaction and quality and quantity of job performance. which would result in greater satisfaction on the part of the employees. In Vroom's model. which is seems to be whether or not this valence should also lead to greater production while on the job is less clear. Strodill's(1959) extremely concerned with this. Instead he felt it is much more appropriate to view the individual in terms of the context of the total organization. which are able to satisfy more of the Maslow's needs. would be jobs. it would follow that the strength of the force on a worker to remain on his job is an increasing function of the valence of his job. . VROOM THEORY Like Maslow's model room's theory (1964) discuss is also relevant here. Thus satisfaction should be negatively related to turnover and absenteeism. decided that it was time to stop trying to value satisfaction as a causer job performance. Jobs.Study on job satisfaction Several different theories exist concerning the dynamics of job satisfaction and its general impact upon worker behavior. job satisfaction reflects valance of the job for this incumbent. Therefore from propositions.

satisfaction of individual expectation result in group integration and cohesiveness but it is not necessarily related to satisfaction when the condition leads to high morale and production are also those which lead to the reinforcement of worker expectations. and 2. production and morale. DETERMINANTS OF JOB SATISFACTION: The various factors influencing job satisfaction may be classified into two categories: 1. . Environment factors.Study on job satisfaction Strodill's conclusions were that the 'output' of organization is group integration. further. Personal factors ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS These factors relate to the work environment. recognition. main among which are as follow: ➢ JOB CONTENT Hertzberg suggested that job contents in term of achievement.

self-control and need satisfaction. responsibility and the work itself tend to provide satisfaction but their absence does not cause dissatisfaction. more challenging and provides greater freedom of operation. integrated and meaningful whole. Where the job is less repetitive and better paid. ➢ PAY AND PROMOTION All other things being equal. ➢ OCCUPATIONAL LEVEL The higher the level of the job in the organizational hierarchy the greater the satisfaction of the individual. ➢ WORK GROUP Man is a social animal and likes to be associated with others interaction in the work group help to satisfy social and psychological needs and therefore. But greater variety of task may not increase satisfaction unless the tasks from a unified.Study on job satisfaction advancement. job satisfaction tends to be higher. higher pay and better opportunities for promotion leads to higher job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is generally high when an individual is . more challenging and provides greater freedom of operation. Such jobs carry greater variety in job content. Such jobs carry greater prestige. One study revealed that professional people the most satisfied followed by salaried workers and factory workers were the least satisfied with their jobs. This because positions at higher levels are generally better paid. Isolated workers tend to be dissatisfied. Specialization increases repetitiveness leading to boredom and monotony.

➢ PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS Personal life exercises a significance influence on job satisfaction. there is a sharp decline after a pointy perhaps because an individual aspires for better and more prestigious job in the later years of his life.Study on job satisfaction accepted by his peers and has a high need for affiliation. ➢ SUPERVISION Considerate supervision tends to improve hob satisfaction of workers. The main elements of personal life are given below: • AGE Some research studies reveal a positive correlation between age and job satisfaction. • SEX One study revealed that women are less satisfied than men due to fewer job opportunities for females. But female workers may be more satisfied due to their lower occupational aspirations. . Workers in the advanced age group tent to be more satisfied probably because they gave adjusted with their job conditions. A considerate supervisor takes personal interest in his subordinates and allows them to participate in the decision making proves of high status and strongly directive leaders. However. Employee satisfaction from supervisory behavior depends upon the influence which the supervisor exercises on his own superior.

The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. When a person values a particular facet of a job. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. if Employee values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy.Study on job satisfaction • EDUCATIONAL LEVEL Generally more educated employees tend to be less satisfied with their job probably due to their higher hob aspirations. • MARITAL STATUS The general impression is that married employee and employees having more dependents tend to be more dissatisfied due to their greater responsibilities. the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e. research does not yield conclusive relationship between these two variables. Further. MODELS OF JOB SATISFACTION  Affect Theory Edwin A. But such employee may be more satisfied because they value their jobs more than unmarried workers. then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that . But it may decrease after twenty years of experience particularly among people who have not realized their job expectations. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met. his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met).g. • EXPERIENCE Job satisfaction tends to increase with increasing years of experience. However. compared to one who doesn’t value that facet. To illustrate.

as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction.Study on job satisfaction offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and . lower levels of neuroticism leads to higher job satisfaction. regardless of one’s job. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her\his own life. A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-evaluations Model. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet. general self-efficacy. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-evaluations Model. and neuroticism. general self-efficacy. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction. and neuroticism. proposed by Timothy A. Finally. regardless of one’s job. proposed by Timothy A. locus of control. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction. Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. Judge in 1998. Judge in 1998. Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs.  Dispositional Theory Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory [citation needed]. locus of control. Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem. Dispositional Theory.

 Job Characteristics Model Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model. task identity. task significance. etc. conversely predicting all employees will react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. promotion opportunities. Finally. lower levels of neuroticism leads to higher job satisfaction [citation needed]. researchers have been unable to reliably empirically prove the model. with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg's original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her\his own life. the theory does not consider individual differences. including job satisfaction. autonomy. The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job. for example achievement in work. which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes. and provide people with satisfaction. work motivation. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors.). While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research. and knowledge of the actual results). which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes . the model has been criticized in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured. absenteeism. as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform. The model states that there are five core jobs characteristics (skill variety. experienced responsibility for outcomes. in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction. Finally. Furthermore.  Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory) Frederick Herzberg’s two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. respectively. recognition. and feedback) which impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness.Study on job satisfaction general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction.

CREATING JOB SATISFACTION So. possibly including telecommuting Training and other professional growth opportunities Interesting work that offers variety and challenge and allows the worker opportunities to "put his or her signature" on the finished product Opportunities to use one's talents and to be creative Opportunities to take responsibility and direct one's own work A stable. secure work environment that includes job security/continuity An environment in which workers are supported by an accessible supervisor who provides timely feedback as well as congenial team members Flexible benefits. Apart from the factors mentioned above. A meta-analysis of studies that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM.Study on job satisfaction and behaviors----. such as child-care and exercise facilities Up-to-date technology Competitive salary and opportunities for promotion Probably the most important point to bear in mind when considering job satisfaction is that there are many factors that affect job satisfaction and that what makes workers happy with their jobs varies from one worker to another and from day to day. job satisfaction is also influenced by the employee's personal characteristics. and the nature of the work itself. Managers who want to maintain a high level of job satisfaction in the work force must try to understand the needs of each . Organizations that aspire to creating a work environment that enhances job satisfaction need to incorporate the following: • • • • • • • • • • Flexible work arrangements. how is job satisfaction created? What are the elements of a job that create job satisfaction? Organizations can help to create job satisfaction by putting systems in place that will ensure that workers are challenged and then rewarded for being successful. the manager's personal characteristics and management style.

Good management has the potential for creating high morale. have significant effects on job satisfaction. Job enrichment usually includes increased responsibility. or needs in the same workgroup. and a sense of purpose and meaning for the organization and its employees. a worker who takes some responsibility for his or her job satisfaction will probably find many more satisfying elements in the work environment.Study on job satisfaction member of the work force. One such step is job enrichment. scope. Of course. promotional opportunity. experiences. and skills utilization. managers can enhance job satisfaction by carefully matching workers with the type of work. Job enrichment is a deliberate upgrading of responsibility. and challenge in the work itself. task clarity and significance. Large companies that have used job-enrichment programs to increase employee motivation and job satisfaction include AT&T. and General Motors (Daft. recognition. learning. when creating work teams. and achievement. For example. Everett (1995) suggests that employees ask themselves the following questions: • • • • • When have I come closest to expressing my full potential in a work situation? What did it look like? What aspects of the workplace were most supportive? What aspects of the work itself were most satisfying? What did I learn from that experience that could be applied to the present situation? WORKERS' ROLES IN JOB SATISFACTION: . IBM. Managers who are serious about the job satisfaction of workers can also take other deliberate steps to create a stimulating work environment. Empirical findings by Ting (1997) show that job characteristics such as pay. 1997). managers can enhance worker satisfaction by placing people with similar backgrounds. Also. high productivity. and opportunities for growth. as well as organizational characteristics such as commitment and relationship with supervisors and co-workers.

This will relieve boredom and often gets one noticed. This helps to give meaning to one's existence. See the value in your work. Employer’s value and reward excellent reading. and speaking skills. Acquire new job-related knowledge that helps you to perform tasks more efficiently and effectively. Managers are encouraged to consider such theories as Herzberg’s (1957) and Maslow's (1943) Creating a good blend of factors that contribute to a stimulating. • Demonstrate creativity and initiative. writing.Study on job satisfaction If job satisfaction is a worker benefit. • • Develop excellent communication skills. with attendant increases in pay and other recognition. ASSURING JOB SATISFACTION: Assuring job satisfaction. A large part of job success is the ability to work well with others to get the job done. • Learn to de-stress. Appreciating the significance of what one does can lead to satisfaction with the work itself. over the long-term. Because of the relative prominence of pay in the reward system. Accept the diversity in people. and rewarding work environment is vital. Plan to avoid burnout by developing healthy stressmanagement techniques. • • • Develop teamwork and people skills. requires careful planning and effort both by management and by workers. surely the worker must be able to contribute to his or her own satisfaction and well-being on the job. Qualities like these are valued by most organizations and often result in recognition as well as in increased responsibilities and rewards. thus playing a vital role in job satisfaction. supportive. Know more. listening. challenging. The following suggestions can help a worker find personal job satisfaction: • Seek opportunities to demonstrate skills and talents. This often leads to more challenging work and greater responsibilities. it . Accept people with their differences and their imperfections and learn how to give and receive criticism constructively.

Satisfaction surveys are often conducted to get systematic information from employees. such information will almost certainly be obtained from a non representative sample of all employees. job satisfaction is a product of the events and conditions that people experience on their jobs. found that 71 percent of large organizations conducted employee attitude surveys. 91). SURVEYING JOB SATISFACTION: Before management can develop policies and practices to increase employee satisfaction. then a situational approach leads one to predict she is satisfied with her job" (p. there is some level of job satisfaction. the P/HR function was responsible for the survey process. if the pleasures associated with one's job outweigh the pains. An accurate assessment of employee satisfaction ordinarily requires a more formal procedure. but studies of organizational practice indicate they are conducted frequently. her supervisor is supportive. Very simply put. in essence. or maintain existing levels if they are found to be acceptable. and her coworkers are friendly. Brief (1998) wrote: "If a person's work is interesting. information gathered in this way may be misleading. for example. . Moreover. her promotional opportunities are good. The National Industrial Conference Board. her pay is fair. Unfortunately. Employees understandably are often reluctant to tell supervisors negative things about their hobs. Such surveys are not as prevalent as assessments of performance. information must be obtained from the organization’s work force. In more than 90 percent of these organizations. Management can informally acquire some insights into satisfaction levels based on impressions obtained from employees.Study on job satisfaction is very important that salaries be tied to job responsibilities and that pay increases be tied to performance rather than seniority. So.

. a satisfaction survey involves:  Choice of a satisfaction measure. satisfaction surveys should not even be conducted unless management is ready to make changes in policies and practices are called for by the survey’s results. measures have been designed to assess satisfaction along a variety of dimensions.  Analysis of results and feedback. An organization preparing for a survey is well advised to include measures of facets.Study on job satisfaction Satisfaction surveys can provide information on how employees feel about their jobs and the organization. Failure to follow up on the survey with appropriate managerial action may result in lower employee satisfaction than existed before. However. followed by  Administrative action. Each of these is discussed below. Employee expectations may be raised simply because employees are asked to participate in the survey process. with the increased knowledge of satisfaction facets. satisfaction questionnaire construction is a difficult and time-consuming activity. SATISFACTION MEASURES: Satisfaction is usually measured with paper-and-pencil questionnaires completed by employees. surveys are not completely neutral informationgathering devices. as well as overall satisfaction. First. Thus. There are several good reasons for using a satisfaction measure that has already been developed rather than tailoring an instrument specifically for the organization in which it is going to be used. Many early satisfaction questionnaires attempted to measure only overall satisfaction. because they provide somewhat different information for managers. More recently. Assuming management is prepared to make changes.  Administration of the measure.

As a consequence. it is possible to find out if satisfaction is increasing or decreasing over time. it is difficult to identify a level of satisfaction that is acceptable in some abstract fashion. One problem occurs if the sample of surveyed employees does not represent the total group to be considered. First bias is likely if employees are not motivated to answer the questionnaire seriously. length or weight. Older employees are usually more satisfied than younger employees. A more subtle bias.Study on job satisfaction The second reason is not quite so obvious and has to do with the nature of satisfaction itself. If the same measuring instrument is used each time. It is possible to find out if satisfaction is increasing or decreasing over time. in the abstract. satisfaction has no obvious zero point. can also occur. say. To illustrate. it is highly desirable to be able to compare current employee satisfaction levels with some standard or norm. SATISFACTION SURVEY ADMINISTRATION: Administration of a satisfaction survey must be planned and conducted carefully because there are several biases that can influence the results. For example. Another norm can be obtained from satisfaction measure has been widely used and information on other employees has been recorded and made available. Moreover. A sample that does not adequately represent all age levels in the organization will thus provide am erroneous view. satisfaction varies systematically with age. Management often includes all employees in the survey to overcome this type of bias. One such norm can be obtained from one’s employees by assessing satisfaction at more than one time. management should have a specific purpose for conduction the survey and communicate that purpose in the survey instructions. or vice versa. Unlike the measurement of. It is very difficult. Such a finding again suggests that . having to do with the accuracy of the responses provided by the employees survey. to say at what point satisfaction becomes dissatisfaction. To overcome this problem. a large national marketing organization found that sales people were more likely to feel that satisfaction surveys were desirable if they believed management acted on the results.

The integrity of the survey may be enhanced if it is administered and analyzed by an outside group such as university researchers. and perhaps employees with different characteristics. and time with the organization. reporting such information may lead to supervisory retaliation. employees think a supervisor is unsatisfactory. In any event. Usually management wants to know how satisfaction varies among different groups of employees. satisfaction levels across departments could be compared to turnover levels across departments. Average satisfaction among different groups can then be compared. In some cases. . They may believe their responses will somehow be used against them. For example. About the only constraint is to ensure that the number of employees in any group does not become so small that the responses become unreliable or that individual responses can be identified. Choice of appropriate groups partly depends on managerial estimates about where differences in satisfaction might exist. anonymity should e assured and strictly enforced.such as age. the organization may also want to see if satisfaction is related to other behaviors.Study on job satisfaction management should not conduct a satisfaction survey without making a specific commitment to follow up on the results. such as employee attendance or length of service. This is often accomplished by calculating the average satisfaction on each facet measured for groups in different parts of the organization (such as departments). If. sex. Comparisons can also be made with employees working in other organizations if a standardized measure with such information is used. for example. Overcoming these potential employee biases requires careful planning and administration. different job levels. ANALYSES AND FEEDBACK: Analysis of satisfaction survey information typically involves two issues. A second source of bias occurs when employees are afraid to give honest responses.

Incidentally. new organizations often do not have a well-developed policy manual and typically feel that they can do without it. First. ADMINISTRATIVE ACTION: The specific actions that management takes following a satisfaction survey. Feedback will likely have a positive impact pm employee attitudes toward the survey process. it is appropriate to focus on the positive steps that can be taken for future improvement. several general possibilities to keep in mind. the adequacy of present policy guidelines can be obtained be studying current issues and their impact as revealed by the survey. A large data processing firm. Obtaining employee suggestions for improving employment conditions is another reason to provide employees with survey feedback. it is often wise to start the feedback with top management who will be responsible for establishing policy on the actions taken to improve employment conditions. rather than to concentrate on the problems that caused difficulties in the past. however.Study on job satisfaction If the results of the survey are going to be beneficial. or course. For this reason. they must be communicated to the managers responsible for the changes suggested. Starting with top management serves the additional purpose of showing others in the organization that the survey results will be taken seriously. In addition. for example. There are. found that employees who received feedback (compared to those who did not) were most likely to (1) believe management was doing something about the survey results and (2) are satisfied with the feedback procedure. The P/HR department is likely to be involved in providing such feedback. The attitude survey can indicate whether the organization has matured to the point that some statement of policy might allow for more autonomous action by the managers in the field or by different parts of the organization. There are also good reasons to give feedback to the employees who participated in the survey. depend on the results. . this organization also found that the most favorable employee responses occurred when the feedback was provided to small groups rather than in written form or in plant wide meetings. In communicating to managers.

The scale is simple. participants answer either yes. one of the first scales used widely. point systems. or can’t decide (indicated by ‘?’) in response to whether given statements accurately describe one’s job. measured overall job satisfaction with just one item which participants respond to by choosing a face. The attitude survey can provide feedback on how the workers view the present cadre of supervisors. Finally. & Hulin (1969). Other job satisfaction questionnaires include: the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ).Study on job satisfaction Second. and the Faces Scale. handling supervisory problems is one of the most important aspects of work and yet one of the most difficult. is a specific questionnaire of job satisfaction that has been widely used. The JSS is a 36 item questionnaire that measures nine facets of job satisfaction. The Job in General Index is an overall measurement of job satisfaction. created by Smith. MEASURING JOB SATISFACTION: There are many methods for measuring job satisfaction. no. the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS). and forced choice answers. Other less common methods of for gauging job satisfaction include: Yes/No questions. The Job Descriptive Index (JDI). . It is an improvement to the Job Descriptive Index because the JDI focuses too much on individual facets and not enough on work satisfaction in general. The MSQ measures job satisfaction in 20 facets and has a long form with 100 questions (five items from each facet) and a short form with 20 questions (one item from each facet). promotions and promotion opportunities. True/False questions. checklists. coworkers. supervision. the Faces Scale of job satisfaction. the most common method for collecting data regarding job satisfaction is the Likert scale (named after Rensis Likert). This data is typically collected using an Enterprise Feedback Management (EFM) system. It measures one’s satisfaction in five facets: pay. and the work itself. Only turnover and absenteeism give clearer evidence of supervisory problems than that provided by the satisfaction survey. Kendall. By far.

Emotion regulation and emotion labor are also related to job satisfaction. Moods tend to be longer lasting but often weaker states of uncertain origin. Taking the social interaction perspective. Emotional dissonance is a state of discrepancy between public displays of emotions and an internal experience of emotions that often follows the process of emotion regulation. Positive and negative emotions were also found to be significantly related to overall job satisfaction. Frequency of experiencing net positive emotion will be a better predictor of overall job satisfaction than will intensity of positive emotion when it is experienced. studies of workers in a variety of occupations suggest that the consequences of emotional labor are not uniformly negative. Emotional dissonance is associated with high emotional exhaustion. low organizational commitment. while emotions are often more intense. and low job satisfaction. It was found that suppression of unpleasant emotions decreases job satisfaction and the amplification of pleasant emotions increases job satisfaction. or decrease one or more components of an emotion. The understanding of how emotion regulation relates to job satisfaction concerns two models: 1. Emotional dissonance. maintain. workers’ emotion regulation might beget responses from others during interpersonal encounters that subsequently impact their own job satisfaction. Although early studies of the consequences of emotional labor emphasized its harmful effects on workers. 2. (Weiss and Cropanzano. There is some evidence in the literature that state moods are related to overall job satisfaction. For example: The accumulation of favorable responses to displays of pleasant emotions might . short-lived and have a clear object or cause. Emotion regulation includes all of the conscious and unconscious efforts to increase. 1996).Study on job satisfaction JOB SATISFACTION AND EMOTIONS: Mood and emotions while working are the raw materials which cumulate to form the affective element of job satisfaction. Social interaction model. Emotion work (or emotion management) refers to various efforts to manage emotional states and displays.

Study on job satisfaction positively affect job satisfaction. employee personality may be more important than job satisfaction. In short.30.29). job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant work behaviors. was r=. However. This correlation is reciprocal. With regard to job performance. . instead. and turnover. some research has found that job satisfaction is not significantly related to life satisfaction when other variables such as nonworking satisfaction and core self-evaluations are taken into account. and the notion that "a happy worker is a productive worker" should not be the foundation of organizational decision-making. both satisfaction and performance is the result of personality. the meta-analysis found that the relationship between satisfaction and performance can be moderated by job complexity.52) than for jobs of low to moderate complexity (ρ=. such that for high-complexity jobs the correlation between satisfaction and performance is higher (ρ=. meaning people who are satisfied with life tend to be satisfied with their job and people who are satisfied with their job tend to be satisfied with life. the relationship of satisfaction to productivity is not necessarily straightforward and can be influenced by a number of other work-related constructs. Performance of emotional labor that produces desired outcomes could increase job satisfaction. Further. the average true correlation.18. A recent meta-analysis found an average uncorrected correlation between job satisfaction and productivity to be r=. An important finding for organizations to note is that job satisfaction has a rather tenuous correlation to productivity on the job. The link between job satisfaction and performance is thought to be a spurious relationship. Further. as the idea that satisfaction and job performance are directly related to one another is often cited in the media and in some non-academic management literature. corrected for research artifacts and unreliability. One common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life satisfaction. RELATIONSHIPS AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Job Satisfaction can be an important indicator of how employees feel about their jobs and a predictor of work behaviors such as organizational citizenship. This is a vital piece of information to researchers and businesses. absenteeism.

. such as customer satisfaction and financial measures. as well as broader environmental impacts. measuring. and. while other publications provide practical guidance on understanding. at times controversial history related to the study and understanding of employee attitudes and job 404 • HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT.Study on job satisfaction CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS: The field of industrial/organizational psychology has a long. In particular. 1996). global arena. winter 2004 satisfaction. One likely future direction of employee attitude research will be to better understand the interplay between the person and the situation and the various internal and external factors that influence employee attitudes. is needed and has been largely overlooked in past research.g. 2004. a better understanding of the role of emotion. Some of this research is very specific and aimed primarily at other researchers. Edwards & Fisher. ongoing research will provide more in-depth understanding of the effects of employee attitudes and job satisfaction on organizational measures. In addition. Greater insights on the relationship between employee attitudes and business performance will assist HR professionals as they strive to enhance the essential people side of the business in a highly competitive. and improving employee attitudes (e. rich. CHAPTER 2 . Kraut.

Study on job satisfaction REVIEWS OF LITERATURE .

National Cheng Kung University. the operation of learning organizations has a significantly positive effect on employees’ job satisfaction. Both leadership and organizational culture can positively and significantly affect the operation of learning organization.000 questionnaires were mailed out and received 134 valid replies. ROC. the operation of learning organization and employees’ job satisfaction. Tainan. . Design/methodology/approach – A quantitative research design was employed. ROC ABSTRACT Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship among leadership. Taiwan.Study on job satisfaction REVIEW OF LITERATURE A study on relationship among leadership. Taiwan. and Ming-Shing Lee Graduate Institute of Business Administration. In addition. A total of 1. organizational culture. the operation of learning organization and employees’ job satisfaction Su-Chao Chang National Cheng Kung University. Findings – The research results indicate that the various operation extents of learning organization have significant difference under the dimensions of leadership. organizational culture and the operation of learning organization. Research limitations/implications – Although this research is adopted with questionnaire investigation and concise questions to the best of one’s ability it is still not known whether the respondents can substantially understand the original contextual meaning of the questionnaire to show the results with a true reflection. organizational culture.

Job satisfaction. with the increasing number of knowledge workers in Taiwan.Study on job satisfaction Practical implications – The paper shows that. developing employees’ potentials. more money incentives. etc. Taiwan Paper type Research paper . Keywords Leadership. an attempt is made to make business organizations aware of the effect of organization learning activities in Taiwan and the job satisfaction of employee. giving education and training activities. Instead. through setting a good example to employees. encouraging innovation and learning activities. this is necessary to keep people with excellent talents. Also. they are required to enhance their own skills in transformational leadership and. Learning organizations. Originality/value – The paper adopts the experimental methodology to observe the learning achievement within the business organizations in Taiwan. Organizational culture. it is impossible for business administrators to satisfy employees’ demands by means of conventional leadership.

Taiwan. Namely: (1) Integral definition: This definition emphasizes workers’ job attitude toward environment with focal attention on the mental change for individual job satisfaction of employee (Locke. and Ming-Shing Lee Graduate Institute of Business Administration.Study on job satisfaction Job satisfaction of employee Review by: Su-Chao Chang National Cheng Kung University. 1953. ROC Author: Hoppock (1935) indicates that job satisfaction means the mental. Taiwan. physical and environmental satisfaction of employee and the extent of job satisfaction can be known by inquiring employees about the job satisfaction extents. Satisfaction. ROC. Homans. the said sensibility and explanation are also affected by self reference structures of individual employee (Morse. Work Values. 1996). 1994. (3) Reference structure theory: It emphasizes the fact that the objective characteristics of organizations or jobs are the important factors to influence employees’ working attitude and behaviors but the subjective sensibility and explanation of working employees about these objective characteristics. 1991).. The academic definitions of job satisfaction can be divided into three types. 1969. Robbins. 1976. National Cheng Kung University. 1961). the larger difference means the lower satisfaction (Smith et al. Fogarty. and . Tainan. Hodson. (2) Differential definition: It emphasizes job satisfaction and the difference between the actually deserved reward and the expected reward from employees.

SCHERLING Department of International Business Chinese University of Hong Kong ABSTRACT- This study of 927 employees in Taiwan is an attempt to explain job satisfaction and sex differences with reference to work values. The sex difference was not attributable to differences in work values. Initially. and status satisfaction than did female employees. Subsequent analyses showed that male employees had higher rank and higher task. reward.Study on job satisfaction Sex Differences in Taiwan's Organizations CHAU-KIU CHEUNG Department of Applied Social Studies City University of Hong Kong STEVEN A. the results confirmed that both job satisfaction and work values consisted of 4 common dimensions pertaining to the task. THEORY AND RESEARCH ON JOB SATISFACTION and work values have been focused on cases in the Western world and have not addressed issues in . and status. Placing higher values on the task and team dimensions and a lower value on the reward dimension seemed to lead to greater job satisfaction. team. team.

job level. The results were consistent with the hypotheses: The relationship between job satisfaction and intent to leave was significantly different from zero and consistently negative. and status (promotion) dimensions. 1991). which appear to be important factors of job satisfaction identified by studies in the West. and job satisfaction in nonWestern societies such as Taiwan because of the paucity of published studies of gender and work among Chinese people (Chia. Such research is of interest because the sociocultural context of Taiwan is sharply different from that of Western countries and therefore furnishes a crucial test for sex differences in dimensions of job satisfaction and work values. Furthermore. Fishbein and his colleagues . employees from a large U. across levels of job satisfaction. both in replacement costs and work disruption. Allred. reward (tangible reward). HELLMAN Tulsa Community College ABSTRACT. meta-analytic procedures were applied to determine the generalizability of the relationship between job satisfaction and intent to leave. 1996). with regard to task (intrinsic reward). In this study. theorists have sought to explain factors that predict turnover. Subsequent analyses on the federal agency studies showed that career stage indicators (age and tenure) moderated the relationship between job satisfaction and intent to leave. & Jerzak. In an effort to promote clarity. Job Satisfaction and Intent to Leave CHAN M.S. THE VOLUNTARY TURNOVER of desirable employees is generally considered detrimental to the organization. team (social reward). 1997. More research is necessary to elucidate relationships among gender. and job level. work values.Study on job satisfaction other societies and ethnic groups ( Tuch & Martin. Hui & Tan. federal agency were less likely than employees within the private sector to leave the organization.

and turnover intentions with actual turnover. using cross-lagged panel correlation and latent variable LISREL analysis.Steel and Ovalle (1984). 1975. Mobley. 1978. Lane. & Hollingsworth. suggesting that the relationship between these two variables was spurious and due to error variance. Steel & Ovalle. 1993). implying a spurious or reciprocal relationship between the two variables. A review of studies conducted primarily in the United States indicated that Intent to leave an organization has gained much empirical and theoretical support as an important predictor of actual turnover (Kraut. Although the cross-lagged correlations were significantly positive. 1987. organizational commitment. Horner. Test-retest coefficients for both variables were moderately positive. Job Satisfaction Differences Between Military and Ex-Military Personnel: The Role of Demographic and Organizational Variables .Study on job satisfaction (Fishbein. The cross-lagged path coefficients in the LISREL models were not significantly positive. & Mathews. showing that the relative ranking of individuals on these variables was fairly stable. Fishbein & Ajzen. 1967. Tett & Meyer. compared the relationships of job satisfaction. 1984. the difference between them was not significant. Life and Job Satisfaction: A Two-Wave Panel Study DUNCAN CRAMER Department of Social Sciences Loughborough University ABSTRACT – A time-related relationship between job and life satisfaction over 13 months was examined in 299 professional employees of a British engineering company. Prestholdt.1975) argued that behavioral intention is the primary antecedent to actual behavior. using meta-analytic methods.

and job importance were related to high levels of job satisfaction. shorter tenure. Satisfaction Of Accomplishment Book Review by HONNASIRI . dispositional. For ex-Army personnel. Kerry Chamberlain. and Carol MacDonald Department of Psychology Massey University Palmerston North. high leader support. For both groups. New Zealand This study examines differences in job satisfaction between military and ex-military Personnel and examines the contribution of demographic. low job conflict and pressure. and low centralization and formalization also contributed to higher levels of job satisfaction. There were a number of significant differences. autonomy. For Army personnel. and organizational variables to those differences. low levels of negative affect (a propensity to have a negative outlook on life in general). however. and high challenge. These results suggest that differences in job satisfaction between the two groups may be due to (a) different variables that contribute to job. income contributed to higher levels of job satisfaction. Analysis of data from 571 current New Zealand Army personnel and 171 exArmy personnel found that Army personnel rated significantly lower than the latter on overall job satisfaction and on 7 of 15 job satisfaction facets. New Zealand Nigel Long. between Army and ex-Army groups on job satisfaction predictors.Study on job satisfaction FIONA ALPASS Department of Nursing and Midwifery Massey University Palmerston North.

if you allow yourself to enjoy it after. we should figure out what we really want and then let that put our souls at peace by first achieving it and then allowing ourselves to enjoy it. that accomplishment-though it will be credited to uswould only cripple us preventing us from enjoying it. do only what you love to. higher and higher which are of no avail. It disallows inadequacy” Satisfaction and Employee Turnover Book Summary by: AcaDemon . If we don’t. Instead of wasting our time and energy this way. you’ll find yourself not wanting more because the urge of your soul to achieve it has been satisfied. We seem to have the perception that by limiting ourselves. The whole effort then becomes nullified (with the pain it causes) making it a pointless achievement because at the end of it we are too weakened to actually sit back and enjoy it. you’ll look for that achievement which you value in other achievements till you find it.is there one or can we reach as high as we choose to? We can always aim for and reach higher if we have what it takes. Let us learn to enjoy a job well done. We can relax in that satisfaction that that accomplishment gives us until we run out of it again. We hide this search for satisfaction of accomplishment with our efforts to achieve better and better. If the achievement is not something you value. maybe that is our purpose. saying that we’ve done enough. The result of a job done voluntarily is satisfaction of the soul because of the joy and happiness that it brings to the soul. Why is it that we try to achieve anything at all in the first place? We’ve all got a desire to achieve something. the greater the price is to pay. “If you want to love what you do.Study on job satisfaction Author: SUNIL NORONHA A high point of possible achievement. It has its own sacrifice and suffering but they are enjoyable because we know what they will result in. We tell ourselves that there’s never enough to be done and that we have done that and whatever else is there to do beyond that is a matter of pride. Till that peace keeps our souls at rest. The higher we want to reach. it puts our souls at peace. we don’t allow ourselves to reach our heights. When you do accomplish such a feat. An achievement that we value satisfies us. more and more. there is no need to achieve anything more.

Workers in Internal EAP Settings Book Summary by: AcaDemon Published: November 12. 2006 When employees identify with organizational goals. Managers Can Create Satisfied Employees Book Review by: Adnan . if any. they are less likely to leave the organization to work for another. the paper considers the extent of the relationship. This paper explains that. particularly among skilled employees. It shows how past research has linked various human resource management practices to employee turnover. in order for firms to survive in a global economy. To begin with. 2006 This study attempts to determine the relationship between work autonomy and job satisfaction of EAP social workers in internal employee assistance program settings by looking at a number of work related factors. they need to design effective human resource management (HRM) practices that encourage the retention of high-performing employees.Study on job satisfaction Published: November 12. between work autonomy and job satisfaction among social workers. This paper assesses which HRM practices have the greatest impact on employee satisfaction and have the potential to reduce employee turnover. It then looks at the nature of job satisfaction from a social Worker's perspective as well as how employee assistance programs can assist social work managers in improving social worker job satisfaction.

Strong (1955) found a positive and significant vocational interests and satisfaction. Konungo (1952) suggested that investigation of organizational phenomenon such as productivities satisfaction and involvement of workers in their requirement of some theoretical or rational formulation. and supportive colleagues. 2006 MANAGERS CAN CREATE SATISFIED EMPLOYEES: A review of the evidence has identified four factors conducive to high levels of employee job satisfaction.Study on job satisfaction Author: Anonymous Published: February 15. each of these factors is controllable by management. supportive working conditions. which after cutlets for aggression. But the relationship was not varying high. equitable rewards. A factor. analysis of the data available yielded two factors named general satisfaction and favorable attitude towards company worker popularity and correlated or attitude towards income showed little correlation with other variables probably due to the inflexibility or pay rate on these jobs. Importantly. Butler (1959) conducted a questionnaire and interview study of 27 factory foremen factors studied included their votes as supervisors or subordinates security pay and protects the useful . Most probably because measurement of interest kinds to concern itself with defining satisfaction is rent in jobs itself. significant difference in job satisfaction were obtained between workers in a communist union. Strangers (1958) in a study. mentally challenging work. SOME OTHER IMPORTANT REVIEWS ARE AS FOLLOWS: Venzelest (1951) sociometric rating of inter-personnel desirability and satisfaction questionnaire response was obtained on the group of carpenters. in a non communist union and are a controlled group. The interpretation of data that persons keenly dissatisfied with their jobs which develop aggressive tensions and are attracted to doctrines and group. Where as all jobs do not possess such sources of stimulation nor is everyone motivated to find more as and in itself.

. The adults who changed job showed the greatest increases in the job satisfaction. Sharma (1983) has also emphasized the importance of organizational climate in employee work motivation and job satisfaction. The active personal sense of being fully response for a defined work over a strong motivating force with most foremen. Rother (1968) analyzed the attitude of various employees towards job and company date from two independent studies of job satisfaction is analyzed in terms of herberg’s two factor theory.Study on job satisfaction of the concept of “Job satisfaction” in a study is questioned. Rajappa (1978) has high listed the importance of working environment in the analysis of work motivation satisfaction. Grahm (1966) through proper supervisory and organizational practices. much can be done to motivate can individual towards greater productivity while allowing him to fulfill his psychological needs. Hop Pock (1960) job satisfaction scored 23 employed adult was followed up there appears to a positive relationship between job satisfaction and age. Nasain (1973) investigations revealed that the drilling of not while accomplishment and lack of consistency in management policies where the contributing factors in their satisfaction.

Study on job satisfaction CHAPTER 3 NEED FOR THE STUDY. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY NEED FOR THE STUDY . OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY. SCOPE OF THE STUDY.

Study on job satisfaction It is important for the organization to know the feelings of its employee towards their job so as to supervise them well in tone with the organizational objectives. ➢ To keep the employee satisfied in their job. It is also important to motivate the employees towards the organizational objectives. SCOPE OF THE STUDY . ➢ To find out whether or not the employees are provided with sufficient pay and better working condition. ➢ To find out the feeling of the employees towards their job. ➢ To develop possible solution to keep the employees satisfied in their job. ➢ To find out the level of source of job satisfaction in the organization.

It may not apply to other similar organizational tools and strategies differ from one another. Introducing with various department backed by the questionnaires was the main source of qualitative data. The study covers the tools to indicate the level of satisfaction from their job they do.  This study is helpful to the organization for conduction further research.Study on job satisfaction The study was conducted for the employee of Hindustan Unilever Limited of all levels to find out the level of employee satisfaction.  This study will be helpful to the organization for identifying the area of job satisfaction for the employee. Primary data was collected by issuing questionnaires to the employees and information was also collected by personally interacting with the employees.  To identify the employee level of satisfied on their job.  This study helps to take managerial decision as and when necessary by the organization. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY Primary Objectives: To study employee job satisfaction in HINDUSTAN UNILEVER LTD .  It is helpful to identify the employee’s level of satisfaction towards safety and welfare measures.

 To know whether the employee are satisfied with their welfare facilities provided by the organization. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The study on job satisfaction of the employees in Hindustan Unilever Limited. . The research was done whether the employees were satisfied with their job in their organization.  To analyze the relationship between employee and the superiors. climate and opportunity for involvement of working the organization.  To find out whether the employee are satisfied with the company’s promotion policy department.  To find out the level of satisfaction regarding training and development program conducted by the organization.Study on job satisfaction Secondary objectives:  To know the satisfaction level of employee regarding their salary in various department.  To collect the opinion from the employee regarding working conditions.

Santhome in Chennai. William “Research means any organized inquiry designed and carried out to provide information for solving a problem”. It adopts scientific method. Research is directed towards findings answers to pertinent questions and solutions to problems. Research is a scientific method that will yield us pertinent results. It is not a mere compilation. it aims at describing. • • FIELD OF STUDY: The researcher has conducted the study among the employees of the various departments of HINDUSTAN UNILEVER LTD at South Canal Road. It would be difficult to comprehend the nature and content of research without an appreciation of scientific method. SOURCE OF DATA: .Study on job satisfaction INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: According to Emory C. but purposive investigation. CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESEARCH: • • Research is a systematic and critical investigation into a phenomenon. interpreting and explaining a phenomenon.

The pilot survey also enabled the researcher to visualize the time it would take to administer the questionnaire. The secondary data is obtained through official record and register of the organization. Universe: The present research study includes all the employees of various department of HINDUSTAN UNILEVER LTD . Secondary Data: The Secondary data used when an investigator was the data. After analyzing and taking into consideration the suggestions received from the external guide draft questionnaire was prepared. The descriptive research is concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual as of a group. Research Design: The study is carries out by using descriptive research. .Study on job satisfaction Primary Data The primary data will be collected by using questionnaire and personal interviews. Pilot study: Pilot survey was conducted among a few from various designations to know about the validity and reliability of the questionnaire.total strength 600. which has already collected by others.

experience. The researcher assured them that this study is purely for academic purpose and the details will be kept confidential. Tools of data collection: The questionnaire was prepared to study the employee retention among the employees HINDUSTAN UNILEVER LIMITED. Relationship with subordinates. Under this sample design.The questionnaire was prepared on the following dimensions. .Study on job satisfaction Sampling: A sample of 30 employees out of 600 drawn from various departments was selected for study by random sampling design. Personal data such as qualification. every item of the universe has an equal chance of inclusion is the sample. 3. Data collection: The questionnaire was personally handed over to various departments requesting them to get the questionnaire filled up duly by the employees of the respective departments and dispatch the same back to the researcher. salary. grade. age. 2. sex. Feeling about the job. 1.

So.  Job satisfaction is wide area. STATISTICAL DATA ANALYSIS: The data collected were carefully analyzed and processed. Overall job satisfaction. The above mentioned scores were allotted to the responses in such a way that a response in such a way that a response indicative of the most favorable attitude is given the highest score and that with the most unfavorable attitude is given the lowest score. bar graphs. 8. 5. Job security. The statistical tools applied by the researcher for the analysis of data are percentage table. Satisfaction with company’s work culture. 6. pie-chart. Satisfaction with salary. cannot cover all the area. Treatment by superior 9. and histograms to draw meaningful inferences. all the data cannot be correct. Satisfaction Towards The Fringe Benefits 7. In that the researcher. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY:  Some of the employees are having fear to fill up the questionnaire.Study on job satisfaction 4. . Policies for Your Career Development 10.

 The sample size at the study was limited to 30.  Some of the employees did not respond and return back the questioners issued to them. .  Busy working schedule of the employees. not in entire employees of the employees.  The time duration for collecting data was too short. which was inconvenient for the researcher.  Particular time slot was given by the management to meet the employees.Study on job satisfaction  There may be error due to the bias of the employees.

3 .6 53.Study on job satisfaction CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Table1 AGE GROUP OF RESPONDENTS RESPONDENTS AGE Below -25years 26-35 years COMPOSITION 8 16 PERCENTAGE 26.

3 100 Source: survey Interpretation: From the above table it is clear that 26. 6. 53.Study on job satisfaction 36-45 years 46-55years Above 55 years TOTAL 3 2 1 30 10 6.3% of the respondents are in the age group of 25-35 years.3% of the respondents are in the age group of Above 55 years.6 3.6% of the respondents are in the age group of Below-25 years. 10% of the respondents are in the age group of 36-45 years.6% of the respondents are in the age group of 46-55 years and 3. .

Study on job satisfaction Table 2 GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS GENDER COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE .

FIGURE 2 .Study on job satisfaction MALE 19 63 FEMALE 11 37 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: From the above table it is clear that 63% of respondents belong to male gender where as 37% belongs to female gender.

Study on job satisfaction Table 3 RESPONDENTS EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION QUALIFICATION COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE TECHNICAL 4 13 GRADUATE 12 40 .

Study on job satisfaction POSTGRADUATE 13 44 DIPLOMA NIL 0 OTHERS 1 3 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: From the above table educational qualification it is clear that 13% of the respondents are technical. 44% of the respondents are postgraduate. FIGURE 3 . 40% of the respondents are graduate. 3% of the respondents are others and there are no diplomas.

Study on job satisfaction Table 4 RESPONDENTS WORK EXPERIENCE RESPONDENTS EXPERIENCE COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE 0-5years 14 46 6-10years 12 40 11-15years 3 10 Above 15years 1 4 TOTAL 30 100 .

10% of the respondents have between 11-15 years of experience and 4% of the respondents have above 15 years of experience. FIGURE 4 .Study on job satisfaction Source: survey Interpretation: It is inferred from the table-4 that 46% of the respondents have between 0 – 5 years of experience. 40% of the respondents have between 6-10 years of experience.

OF RESPONDENTS Table 5 RESPONDENTS GROSS SALARY Ab ov e .Study on job satisfaction WORK EXPERIENCE 120 100 PERCENTAGE 80 60 40 20 0 DE 11 -1 5y ea rs 05y ea rs 610 ye ar s 15 ye ar s TI TU TO TA L AT NO.

21000-Rs.000 9 30 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: From the above table it is clear that 3% of the respondent’s salary is between Rs.5000-RS10.21000-RS25.5000Rs.20000. 40% of the respondent’s salary is between Rs.Study on job satisfaction SALARY COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE RS.000 1 3 RS. 27% of the respondent’s salary is between Rs.25000.25.000 12 40 RS.000 8 27 Above RS.11000-.11000-RS20.10000.25000 and 30% of the respondent’s salary is above Rs. .

Study on job satisfaction FIGURE 5 Table 6 MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS MARITAL STATUS COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE .

FIGURE 6 .Study on job satisfaction MARRIED 12 40 SINGLE 18 60 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: From the above table it is clear that 40% of the respondents are married whereas 60% of the respondents are single.

Study on job satisfaction Table 7 OPINION OF JOB SECURITY BY RESPONDENTS RESPONDENT’S OPINION COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE Highly Satisfied 12 40 Satisfied 10 34 Neutral 7 23 3 .

FIGURE 7 . 34% of the workers are satisfied with the job security provided. and it is found that there is no workers highly dissatisfied with the security provide by the organization. 23% of the workers are neutral with the job security provided.Study on job satisfaction Dissatisfied 1 Highly Dissatisfied NIL 0 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: It is evident from the table that 40% of the workers are highly satisfied with the job security provided by the organization. 3% of the workers are dissatisfied with the job security provided.

Study on job satisfaction Table 8 TREATMENTS BY THE SUPERIORS RESPONDENT’S OPINION COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE Good 26 86 Fair 2 7 Poor 2 7 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: .

Study on job satisfaction The above table reveals that nearly 86% of the respondents are said good about the treatment of the superiors. 7% of the respondents are said fair about the treatments of the superiors and same 7% of the respondents are said poor about the treatment of the superiors. FIGURE 8 Table 9 RESPONDENCES SATISFACTION WITH COMPANY’S WORK CULTURE PERCENTAGE RESPONDENT’S COMPOSITION .

Study on job satisfaction OPINION 18 Highly Satisfied 60 Satisfied 11 37 Dissatisfied 1 3 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: It is evident from the above table that 60% of the respondents are highly satisfied with the company’s work culture. . 37% of the respondents are satisfied with the company’s work culture and 3% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the company’s work culture.

Study on job satisfaction FIGURE 9 Table 10 EXTENT OF SATISFACTION TOWARDS THE FRINGE BENEFITS RESPONDENT’S OPINION COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE Excellent 15 50 20 Very good 6 .

FIGURE 10 . 20% of the respondents are feels very good towards the fringe benefits.Study on job satisfaction Good 8 27 Fair NIL 0 Poor 1 3 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: The above table reveals that nearly 50% of the respondents are feeling excellent towards the fringe benefits. 27% of the respondents are feels good towards the fringe benefits. no respondents feels fair towards the fringe benefits and 3% of the respondents feel poor towards the fringe benefits.

Study on job satisfaction Table 11 ORGANIZATIONAL POLICIES FOR YOUR CAREER DEVELOPMENT RESPONDENT’S OPINION COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE Excellent 16 54 Good 10 33 Fair 3 10 1 3 .

Study on job satisfaction Poor TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: The above table reveals that nearly 54% of the respondents are feeling excellent about organizational policies for your career development. 33% of the respondents are feeling good about organizational policies for your career development. 10% of the respondents are feel fair about organizational policies for your career development and 3% of the respondents are feeling poor about organizational policies for your career development. FIGURE 11 .

Study on job satisfaction Table 12 LEVEL OF COMMUNICATION WITH THE SUPERIOR RESPONDENT’S OPINION COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE Good 18 60 Better 10 33 Best 2 7 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: .

33% of the respondents says that they have better level of communication of the superiors and 7% of the respondents say that they have best level of communication of the superiors.Study on job satisfaction It is evident from the above table that 60% of the respondents say that they have good level of communication of the superiors. FIGURE 12 Table 13 OPPORTUNITIES IN THE ORGANIZATIONAL FOR UTILIZING YOUR ABILITIES .

.Study on job satisfaction RESPONDENT’S OPINION COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE Excellent 15 50 Very good 8 27 Good 6 20 Poor 1 3 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: The above table reveals that nearly 50% of the respondents are feeling excellent about opportunities in the organization for utilizing the abilities. 20% of the respondents are feeling good about the opportunities in the organization for utilizing the abilities and 3% of the respondents are feeling poor about opportunities in the organization for utilizing the abilities. 27% of the respondents are feeling very good about opportunities in the organization for utilizing the abilities.

Study on job satisfaction FIGURE 13 Table 14 SATISFISFACTION TOWARDS WORKING CONDITION AND FACILITIES RESPONDENT’S OPINION COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE Highly satisfied 16 53 Satisfied 7 23 .

23% of the workers are satisfied towards working condition and facilities.Study on job satisfaction Moderately satisfied 5 17 Dissatisfied 2 7 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: It is evident from the table that 53% of the workers are highly satisfied towards working condition and facilities. FIGURE 14 . 17% of the workers are moderately satisfied towards working condition and facilities and 7% of the workers are highly dis-satisfied towards working condition and facilities.

Study on job satisfaction Table 15 SATISFISFACTION TOWARDS THE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME RESPONDENT’S OPINION COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE Fully 17 57 Substantially 6 20 Partially 4 13 Fairly 3 10 TOTAL 30 100 .

10% of the respondents say that they fairly satisfied towards the training and development programme. 13% of the respondents say that they partially satisfied towards the training and development programme.Study on job satisfaction Source: survey Interpretation: It reveals from the table that 57% of the respondents say that they fully satisfied towards the training and development programme. FIGURE 15 Table 16 SATISFISFACTION TOWARDS THE PROMOTIONAL POLICIES IN THE ORGANIZATION . 20% of the respondents say that they substantially satisfied towards the training and development programme.

20% of the respondents say that they partially satisfied towards the promotion policies in the . 30% of the respondents say that they substantially satisfied towards the promotion policies in the organization.Study on job satisfaction RESPONDENT’S OPINION COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE Fully 11 37 Substantially 9 30 Partially 6 20 Fairly 4 13 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: It reveals from the table that 37% of the respondents say that they fully satisfied towards the promotion policies in the organization.

Study on job satisfaction organization and 13% of the respondents say that they fairly satisfied towards the promotion policies in the organization. FIGURE 16 Table 17 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT THE LEVEL OF RESPONSIBILITIES IN THE ORGANIZATION RESPONDENT’S OPINION COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE Very High 10 33 33 High 10 .

14% of the respondents feel moderate whereas 17% of the respondents feel not so about the employee’s responsibilities in the organization. 3% of the respondents feels not at all the employee’s responsibilities in the organization.Study on job satisfaction Moderate 4 14 Not So 5 17 Not at all 1 3 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: It is seen from the above table that 33% of the respondents feel very high opinion about the employee’s responsibilities in the organization. FIGURE 17 . same 33% of the respondents feel a high opinion about the employee’s responsibilities in the organization.

Study on job satisfaction Table 18 OPINION ABOUT GRIEVANCES SOLVED BY THE COMPANY RESPONDENT’S OPINION COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE Excellent 12 40 Very good 10 33 Good 2 7 13 Fair 4 .

7 % of the respondents are feeling good about grievances solved by the company and 13% of the respondents are feeling fair whereas 7% of the respondents are feeling poor about grievances solved by the company.Study on job satisfaction Poor 2 7 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: The above table reveals that nearly 40% of the respondents are feeling excellent about grievances solved by the company whereas 33% of the respondents are feeling very good. FIGURE 18 .

Study on job satisfaction Table 19 OPINION TOWARDS THE POSITIVE ENCOURAGEMENT OF SUPERIORS RESPONDENT’S OPINION COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE Never 13 43 To Some Extent 5 17 Not Always 8 27 Always 4 13 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey .

FIGURE 19 Table 20 OPINION TOWARDS THE APPRAISAL PROCESS IN ORGANIZATION .Study on job satisfaction Interpretation: The above table reveals that nearly 43% of the employees feel never towards the positive encouragement of superiors. 17% of the employees feel to some extent towards the positive encouragement of superiors whereas 27% of the employees feel not always towards the positive encouragement of superiors and just 13% of the employees feel always towards the positive encouragement of superiors.

Study on job satisfaction RESPONDENT’S OPINION COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE Fully 11 36 Substantially 9 30 Partially 5 17 Fairly 5 17 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: From the above table it is clear that nearly 36% of the respondents are fully satisfied towards the appraisal process in organization whereas 30% of the respondents are substantially satisfied towards the appraisal process in organization. 17% of the .

Study on job satisfaction respondents are partially satisfied and same 17% of the respondents are fairly satisfied towards the appraisal process in organization. FIGURE 20 Table 21 RESPONDENTS OPINION TOWARDS TIME MANAGEMENT RESPONDENT’S OPINION COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE Always 16 54 23 Sometimes 7 .

FIGURE 21 .Study on job satisfaction Never 7 23 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: The above table reveals that nearly 54% of the respondents are always satisfied towards time management. 23% of the respondents are sometimes satisfied towards the time management and same 23% of the respondents are never satisfied towards the time management.

Study on job satisfaction Table 22 REASONS TO STAY AT YOUR JOB RESPONDENT’S OPINION COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE Interesting work 6 20 Benefits 8 27 Enjoy my coworkers 2 7 .

etc) 4 13 Feel appreciated for what I do 0 0 Career opportunities 4 13 No time to look for new job 3 10 100 TOTAL 30 . club membership.Study on job satisfaction Challenging job assignments 2 7 Location is convenient 0 0 Good boss 1 3 Perks (cars.

good boss by 3% of respondents. no time to look for new job by 10% of respondents. benefits by 27% of respondents. challenging job assignment by 7% of respondents. perks by 13% of respondents. .Study on job satisfaction Source: survey Interpretation: The above table shows that the reason to stay at job is interesting work by 20% of respondents. career opportunities by 13% of respondents. enjoy my coworkers by 7% of respondents.

Study on job satisfaction FIGURE 22 Table 23 PRIMARY REASONS FOR LEAVING THE PRESENT JOB RESPONDENT’S OPINION COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE Career advancement 6 20 Challenging and interesting work 4 13 Better managers/better managed place to work 0 0 Work / life balance 2 7 Low morale 0 0 .

challenging and interesting work by 13% of respondents. work/life balance by 7% of respondents. . unfair treatment by 3% of respondents and salary by 40% of respondents.Study on job satisfaction Location / commute 0 0 Education and development opportunities 5 17 Unfair treatment 1 3 Job security 0 0 Salary 12 40 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: The above table shows the reason to leave the present job is Career advancement by 20% 0f respondents. education and development opportunities by 17% of respondents.

Study on job satisfaction FIGURE 23 Table 24 OPINION OF RESPONDENTS TO REFER FRIENDS AND RELATIVES TO JOIN THIS ORGANIZATION .

Study on job satisfaction RESPONDENT’S OPINION COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE Yes 23 77 No 7 23 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: The above table reveals that 77% of respondents said yes to refer their friends and relatives to join this organization whereas 23% of the respondents said no to refer their friends and relatives to join this organization. .

Study on job satisfaction FIGURE 24 Table 25 OVERALL SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEE IN ORGANIZATION RESPONDENT’S OPINION COMPOSITION PERCENTAGE 33 .

Study on job satisfaction Very high 10 High 11 37 Moderate 4 13 Not so 3 10 Not at all 2 7 TOTAL 30 100 Source: survey Interpretation: From the above table it is clearly shows that 33% of respondents are very high satisfied with the overall satisfaction of employee in organization. . 13% of the respondents are moderately satisfied. 10% of the respondents are not so satisfied and other 7% of respondents are not at all satisfied with the overall satisfaction of employee in organization. 37% of respondents are highly satisfied.

Study on job satisfaction FIGURE 25 CHAPTER 5 .

20000. It is found that 40% of the respondent’s salary is between Rs.11000-. It is found that 44% of the respondents are postgraduate. 7. 6. It is found that 63% of the respondents are male gender. It is found that 53. It is found that 86% of the workers are said good about the treatment of the superiors.Rs. . It is found that 60% of the respondents are single. CONCLUSION FINDINGS 1. 2. It is found that 40% of the workers are highly satisfied with the job security provided by the organization.3% of the respondents are in the age group of 25-35 years. 3. It is found that 46% of the respondents have between 0 – 5 years of experience. SUGGESTION. 8. 4.Study on job satisfaction FINDINGS. 5.

. It is found that 60% of the workers are highly satisfied with the company’s work culture. 13. 19. It is found that 43% of the employees feel never towards the positive encouragement of superiors. It is found that 57% of the respondents say that they fully satisfied towards the training and development programme. 11. It is found that 53% of the workers are highly satisfied towards working condition and facilities. It is found that 50% of the respondents are feeling excellent about opportunities in the organization for utilizing the abilities. 17. 15. It is found that 33% of the respondents feel very high opinion about the employee’s responsibilities in the organization. 18. It is found that 40% of the respondents are feeling excellent about grievances solved by the company. 16. 12. It is found that 60% of the respondents say that they have good level of communication of the superiors. 14. It is found that 54% of the respondents are feeling excellent about organizational policies for your career development. 20. It is found that 50% of the respondents are feeling excellent towards the fringe benefits.Study on job satisfaction 9. 10. It is found that 37% of the respondents say that they fully satisfied towards the promotion policies in the organization. It is found that 36% of the respondents are fully satisfied towards the appraisal process in organization.

Study on job satisfaction

21. It is found that 54% of the respondents are always satisfied towards time management. 22. It is found that the reason to stay at job in benefit by 27% of respondents. 23. It is found that the reason to leave the present job is salary by 40% of respondents. 24. It is found that 77% of respondents said yes to refer their friends and relatives to join this organization. 25. It is found that 37% of respondents are highly satisfied with the overall satisfaction of employee in organization.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The followings are the recommendations provided by researcher based on the findings of the study:

1. The company can improve the salary and the perks offered to the employees. 2. The company can improve the working condition and facilities. 3. The company can improve the training and development programme. 4. The company can improve the promotional policies in the organization. 5. The company can take more steps to solve the grievances.

Study on job satisfaction

6. Superiors can give more positive encouragement to their subordinates. 7. The company can improve the appraisal process in organization. 8. The company can improve the allowance provided to the employees.

CONCLUSION

In the study the area causing dissatisfaction has been identified and some suitable measures recommended, if following this content can be removed so as to enhance employee’s dissatisfaction.

As far as the researcher has studied, this is a general positive note about the employee’s job satisfaction on HINDUSTAN UNILEVER LIMITED.

These have great relevance to the society and the management, when a worker is fully satisfied the mental pressure becomes less and he will be contributing to the

Study on job satisfaction

organization and the nation. It also leads to a pleasant relationship with the family members.

CHAPTER 6
BIBLIOGRAPHY, QUESTIONAIRE

Human Resource and personal management KOTHARI C. ABRAHAM. (1998). D. F. R. P. (1968). 2004 WEBSITES: WWW. Job Satisfaction: How People Feel About Their Jobs and How It Affects Their Performance.Study on job satisfaction BIBLIOGRAPHY BRIEF. HERZBERG.. CRANNY... V. O. AND STONE. Thousand Oaks. PETERSON. AND CAPWELL.S. (1957). MAUSNER. H. ARTHUR P.P. ASWATHAPPA K. "A Theory of Human Motivation. C.google. Pittsburgh: Psychological Service of Pittsburgh. B. E. Attitudes in and Around Organizations.P.. SMITH..i-gate. Job Attitudes: Review of Research and Opinion. HERZBERG. C. MASLOW.RAO.com WWW. Human Resouces Management." Psychological Review 50:370-396. F. "One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?" Harvard Business Review 46 (January):53-62. FREDERICK. Research Methodology Method & Techniques.. CA: Sage. (1943). (1992). F. New York: Lexington Books.com . J.

5000-10000 b) Rs.20000 d) Rs.15000 c) Rs. 11000.Study on job satisfaction WWW. Above 250000 . 16000 .com QUESTIONNER A STUDY ON EMPLOYEES JOB SATISFACTION IN AN ORGANISATION: (A) PERSONAL PROFILE 1) Name of the employee 2) Sex: a) male b) female 3) Education Qualification: a) Technical b) Graduate c) Post graduate d) Diploma e) Other specify_____________ 4) You belong to the age group of: a) Below 25 years b) 26-35years c) 36-44years D) 45-55years e) Above 55years 5) Your work experience (in years) a) Below 5years b) 6-10 years c) 11-15 years d) Above 15 years 6) How much is your gross salary per month? a) Rs.yahoo.

Study on job satisfaction 7) Martial status: a) Married b) Unmarried 8) Your opinion about the job security provided by the organization. a) Good b) Fair c) Poor 10) Are you satisfied with the work culture in the company? a) Highly satisfied b) Dissatisfied c) Satisfied 11) What is the extent of your satisfaction toward the company’s fringe benefits? a) Excellent b) Very good c) Good d) Fair e) Poor !2) Organizational policies for your career development a) Excellent b) Good c) Average d) Poor 13) Level of communication with the superior a) Good b) Better c) Best 14) Opportunities in the organizational for utilizing your abilities a) Excellent b) Very good c) Good d) Poor 15) Are you satisfied with the working condition and the facilities provided to you? a) Highly satisfied b) Satisfied c) Moderately satisfied d) Dissatisfied e) Highly dissatisfied 16 ) Are you satisfied with the training and development programme provided by the company? a) Fully b) Substantially c) Partially d) Fairly 17) Are you satisfied with promotional policies of your organization? a) Fully b) Substantially c) Partially d) Fairly . a) Highly satisfied b) Satisfied c) Neutral d) Dissatisfied e) Highly dissatisfied 9) Treatment by superiors.

club membership. 20) Are you positively encouraged by superiors in all areas of delivery? a) Never b) to some extent c) Not always d) Always 21) Is your appraisal process in tune with your expectations? a) Fully b) Substantially c) Partially d) Fairly 22) Regarding time management. do you receive sufficient time to deliver assignments.Study on job satisfaction 18) Are you satisfied with the level of your responsibilities of your job? a) Very high b) High c) Moderate d) not so e) not at all 19) Your satisfaction level as regards solving your grievances? a) Excellent b) Very good c) Good d) Fair e) Poor. etc) Feel appreciated for what I do Enjoy my coworkers Challenging job assignments Location is convenient Education and development No time to look for new job Career opportunities . or do you have to put in extra hours? a) Always b) sometimes c) Never 23) What are the reasons you STAY at your present job? (Select all that apply) Salary Interesting work Benefits Good boss Perks (car.

26) Overall how satisfied are you as an employee with the company? a) Very high b) High c) Moderate d) not so e) not at all .Study on job satisfaction 24) What are the primary reasons you would LEAVE your present employer for another? (Select all that apply) Salary Career advancement Challenging and interesting work Better managers/better managed place to work Work/life balance Low morale Location/commute Education and development opportunities Unfair treatment Job security 25) Would you like to refer your friends and relatives to join this company? a) Yes b) No.