The European Defence Community (EDC) was a plan proposed in 1950 by René Pleven, the French President of the

Council (name of Prime Ministers until 1958), in response to the American call for the rearmament of West Germany. The intention was to form a pan-European defense force as an alternative to Germany's proposed accession to NATO, meant to harness its military potential in case of conflict with the Soviet bloc. The EDC was to include West Germany, France, Italy, and the Benelux countries. A treaty was signed on 27 May 1952, but the plan never went into effect. The plan collapsed when it failed to obtain ratification in the French Parliament. There were Gaullist fears that the EDC threatened France's national sovereignty, constitutional concerns about the indivisibility of the French Republic, and fears about Germany's remilitarization. Communists opposed a plan tying France to the capitalist USA and setting it in opposition to the Communist bloc. Other legislators worried about the absence of the United Kingdom. The EDC went for ratification in the French National Assembly on 30 August 1954, and failed by a vote of 264-319 (Judt, 2005:245). By this time, concerns about a future conflict faded with the death of Stalin and the end of the Korean War. Concomitant to these fears were a severe disjuncture between the original Pleven Plan of 1950 and the one defeated in 1954. Divergences included military integration at the division rather than battalion level and a change in the command structure putting the NATO Supreme Commander in charge of EDC operational capabilities. Then Prime-Minister, Pierre Mendès-France attempted to placate the treaty's detractors by attempting to ratify additional protocols with the other signatory states. These included the sole integration of covering forces, or in other words, those deployed within Germany, as well as the implementation of greater national autonomy in regard to budgetary and other administrative questions. Great Britain approved of the plan in principle, but agreed to join only if the supranational element was decreased. The EDC would have established a pan-European military, divided into national components. In this military, the French, Italian, Belgium, Dutch and Luxembourg components would report to their national governments, whereas the German component would report to the EDC. This was due to the fear of a return of German militarism, so it was desired that the German government would not have control over the German military. However, in the event of its rejection, it was agreed to let the German government control its own military in any case (something which the treaty would not have provided). The EDC also provided for centralised military procurement. The EDC would have had a common budget, arms and institutions. After the failed ratification in the French National Assembly, the EC member states tried to create foreign policy cooperation in de De Gaulle-sponsored Fouchet Plans (19591962). European foreign policy was finally established during the third attempt with European Political Cooperation (EPC) (1970). This became the predecessor of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). Today, the Western European Union, the European Union and NATO all carry out some of the functions which was envisaged for the EDC, although none approach the degree of supranational military control that the EDC would have provided for.

The idea of the supranational European Defence Community of State and Government instructed their Foreign Ministers during The Hague summit (1969). as they thought that it might turn into a competitor for the European Commission. it disregarded the 'French grandeur' of the Charles de Gaulle era. . While EPC adopted the intergovernmental nature of the Fouchet Plans. the predecessor of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. the EC member states tried to give the internal market a foreign policy dimension. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s. which at the time was becoming more and more supranational. The Soviet war in Afghanistan (1979) and the handling of the Yugoslav Wars (19911995). The idea was to form a new 'Union of States'. De Gaulle feared a loss of national influence in the European Communities. Due to the success of the European Communities and the lack of enthusiasm of other states for this idea. The European Political Cooperation (EPC) was introduced in 1970 and was the synonym for European Union foreign policy coordination until it was superseded by the Common Foreign and Security Policy in the Maastricht Treaty (November 1993). to "study the best way of achieving progress in the matter of political unification. During the 1970s it was an active player in the Middle-East conflict and in the creation of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. at the time France's ambassador to Denmark. It was drawn up by Christian Fouchet. The EPC was amended and strengthened in the Copenhagen report (1973) and London report (1981). if matters within its competencies were concerned.[1] The Foreign Ministers subsequently drafted the Luxembourg / Davignon report (1970). but failed twice. an intergovernmental alternative to the European Communities. The European Commission would furthermore be able to express its opinion. The involvement of the United Kingdom guaranteed its Atlanticist nature. the EPC did not have the strong Paris-based Secretariat of the Fouchet proposals.Fouchet Plan The Fouchet Plan was a plan proposed by President Charles de Gaulle of France in 1961. The Netherlands had always been anxious about this idea. however. which created an informal intergovernmental consultation mechanism where member states could achieve 'politics of scale' (Ginsberg 1989). the Fouchet Plan never became a serious alternative. Finally. showed the weakness of the EPC. It was codified (formalized) with the Single European Act (1986). within the context of enlargement". The EPC turned out a 'mixed success'.

In 2009.Western European Union The Western European Union (WEU. then-WEU President Solana stated that there was no foreseeable reason to change the status of the non member countries in the organisation. the Treaty of Lisbon finally took over the WEU's mutual defence clause and as a result. Member countries: (modified Brussels Treaty . French: Union de l'Europe occidentale.1992) Associate partner countries: (Kirchberg . 6 associate member countries. Since the end of the Cold War. the European Union (EU) has been taking on a greater defence role and WEU tasks and institutions have been transferred to the EU. • Austria (1995) • Denmark 1 • Finland (1995) • Bulgaria • Ireland • Estonia . All of the following nations have since joined both NATO and the EU.1994) Observer countries were members of the European Countries that at the time were part Union.[1] [edit] Participating states The Western European Union had 10 member countries.1992) All of them were members of both NATO and the European Union. Since then. UEO) is an international organisation tasked with implementing the Treaty of Brussels (1948). These are the only nations that had full voting rights.Associate member countries: 1954) (Rome . a defence agreement among Western European nations during the Cold War. 1 of neither NATO nor of the EU. • • • • • • • • • • Belgium France Germany Greece (1995) Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Portugal (1990) Spain (1990) United Kingdom Associate membership was created to include the European countries that were members of NATO but not of the European Union. 5 observer countries and 7 associate partner countries. the Czech Republic & Hungary have also joined the EU. as of 31 March 2010. Poland. • • • • • • Czech Republic (1999) Hungary (1999) Iceland Norway Poland (1999) Turkey (1992) Observer countries: (Rome . On 14 June 2001. the treaty was terminated and the WEU's acivities are due to be wound up by July 2011. but not of NATO.

Belgium. concepts for the setting up of a 'Consultative Council'. The Treaty of Brussels was amended by the Protocol signed in Paris at the conclusion of the London and Paris Conferences on 23 October 1954. As a result of the failure of the European Defence Community on 23 October 1954 the WEU was established by the Paris Agreements with the incorporation of the then West Germany and Italy. On this occasion it was renamed the Western European Union. On 13 November 2000. To promote the unity and encourage the progressive integration of Europe. Thus in respect to the WEU it would have been more appropriate for it to be regarded as non-EU NATO member state (WEU associate status). however that situation is changing. and the Netherlands on 17 March 1948. so that it does not participate in the ESDP of the European Union. under the Amsterdam Treaty. which added West Germany and Italy to the Western Union. • • • • • Latvia Lithuania Romania Slovakia Slovenia (1996) [edit] History [edit] Treaty of Brussels Main article: Treaty of Brussels The Treaty of Brussels was signed by the United Kingdom. France. being member of both. To afford assistance to each other in resisting any policy of aggression. playing a major role in the Petersberg tasks. It has an opt-out from the Treaty of Maastricht (1992). WEU Ministers met in Marseille and agreed to begin transferring the organisation's capabilities and functions to .• 1 Sweden (1995) Denmark is an exception. cultural and social collaboration. The Brussels Pact had cultural and social clauses. The signatories of the Paris Agreements clearly stated their three main objectives in the preamble to the modified Brussels Treaty: • • • To create in Western Europe a firm basis for European economic recovery. It was a mutual intergovernmental self defence treaty which also promoted economic. the WEU was given an integral role in giving the EU an independent defence capability. Luxembourg. The basis for this was that a cooperation between Western nations would help stop the spread of Communism. The defence efforts resulting from the Brussels Treaty took form as the Western Union Defence Organisation. [edit] Transfers to the EU Originally.

the European Union. are replacements to the Western European Union Institute for Security Studies and the Western Union Satellite Centre which had been established to function in connection to the WEU.[7] . the role given to the WEU in the Amsterdam Treaty. For example. both established to function under the EU's CFSP pillar. declared by the WEU in 1992. the WEU's Parliamentary assembly was urged to dissolve itself. was removed by the Nice Treaty. not the EU's ESDP politics. as amended by the Treaty of Lisbon. Notably. peacekeeping and tasks of combat forces in crisis management. The Treaty of Lisbon has provisions for cooperation between the EU and both NATO (including the Berlin Plus agreement) and the WEU. it was not seen as wise to then create a separate double legislature for the CFSP.[3][4] However the defence commitment. With the transfer of responsibilities. instead. Article 42(7) of the Treaty of the European Union. His being head of both organisations permits him to oversee the ongoing transfer of functions from the WEU to the EU. the European Parliament was granted greater scrutiny over foreign policy. experience and expertise in defence policy. for example combining the two main foreign policy posts. The European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) and European Union Satellite Centre (EUSC). it renamed itself the "Interim European Security and Defence Assembly" and urged the European Convention to include it as a second chamber within the EU's institutional framework. But the Assembly saw itself as playing an important role. particularly with greater right of scrutiny. Therefore. of Article 4 of the Brussels Treaty. who is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) of the EU. membership. forming the basis of the European Security and Defence Policy which frames a common policy to deal with humanitarian and rescue. the WEU's Security Studies Institute and the Satellite Centre were transferred to the EU and became the European Union Institute for Security Studies and the European Union Satellite Centre. The European Constitution was giving the role of collective defence to NATO[citation needed].[6] A summary of some of the moves towards a merger of the WEU into the EU: • • • On 20 November 1999. However with the European Constitution aiming to streamline and simplify the EU's foreign policy. Javier Solana. The Petersberg tasks. was also appointed Secretary-General of the WEU. including peacemaking. to the intergovernmental style of the ESDP. on 1 January 2002. help improve EU-NATO relations and be more suited. has not been subsumed[5]. under its developing Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP)[2]. as it had a mandate to supervise WEU politics. Hence it argued it could effectively scrutinise the ESDP. being composed of national parliamentarians. were incorporated in 1997 into the treaty of Amsterdam of the EU. could be viewed as incorporating that defence commitment into the EU framework.

[10] Finally. It was created in 1996. [edit] Eurofor On 15 May 1995. The Assembly of WEU is a consultative institution. Declaration of Eurofor's (European Operational Rapid Force) creation was made by France. Portugal. Hungary. Eurofor became operational in June 1998 as a task force of the Western European Union.[12] A Parliamentary Assembly (composed of the delegations of the member states to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe) supervise the work of the Council.[8] On 30 March 2010 in a Written Ministerial Statement UK's Foreign Office Minister Chris Bryant gives notice that the UK intends to withdraw from the Western European Union within a year.[edit] Abolition In 2009. Italy. Norway. Netherlands. Italy.[14] These agencies were taken over by the European Defence Agency. Czech Republic. assisted by a Permanent Representatives Council on ambassadorial level. The body closed on 23 May 2005.[13] Western European Armaments Organisation (WEAO) was intended as an Armaments Agency but operations were limited to a research cell.[8] It is composed of the Council of the WEU (the Council) and the Assembly of the WEU (the Assembly). Denmark. the Spanish Presidency of the WEU. on behalf of the 10 Member States of the Modified Brussels Treaty announced the collective decision to withdraw from the Treaty and to close the WEU organisation by June 2011.[11] The WEU's acivities are due to be wound up by July 2011. and closed in August 2006.[1] There was much discussion about what to do with the WEU following the introduction of Lisbon. Luxembourg. Greece. Spain. Other transferred bodies include the Institute for Security Studies and the Satellite Centre. Turkey and the United Kingdom. with a staff of 65 and an annual budget of €13.[1] [edit] Organisation The WEU is headquartered in Brussels. Germany. It provided support services in defence research and technology. Western European Armaments Group (WEAG) was established as a forum for armaments cooperation in 1976 with the aim of creating a European Armaments Agency. the Treaty of Lisbon finally took over the WEU's mutual defence clause. Belgium. the Council of Ministers of the WEU met in Lisbon.[15] . France. Its membership reached 19 in 2000: Austria. Poland.4 million. The WEU is led by a Council of Ministers. Spain and Portugal.[9] On 31 March 2010 the German Foreign Affairs Ministry announced Germany's intention to withdraw from the Modified Brussels Treaty. Social and cultural aspects of the Brussels Treaty were handed to the Council of Europe to avoid duplication of responsibilities within Europe. including plans to scrap it. Sweden. but it does not have any obligations on the Council. Finland.

which is an intergovernmental body in which the member states are represented. formerly known as the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP). and the project was abandoned. but differs in that it falls under the jurisdiction of the European Union itself. including countries with no ties to NATO. NATO and the European Union itself. In her position as Chairman of the external relations configuration of the Council. [edit] Political and diplomatic history European security policy has followed several different paths during the 1990s. The ESDP was the successor of the European Security and Defence Identity under NATO. Formally. As a part of the partial merger of the WEU with the European Union these tasks now form a part of the European Security and Defence . was proposed but the French parliament failed to ratify the treaty. NATO soon overshadowed the organisation in importance. she prepares and examines decisions to be made before they are brought to the Council. a collective defence organisation composed of Treaty of Brussels states—who were members of NATO—was founded. [edit] Petersberg tasks The Petersberg tasks are a list of military and security priorities incorporated within the European Security and Defence Policy of the European Union. In the 1950s.ESDP The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). They were defined in June 1992 at the Hotel Petersberg near Bonn in Germany at a meeting of the Council of the WEU. [edit] Background Earlier efforts were made to have a common European security and defence policy. the Common Security and Defence Policy is the domain of the Council of the European Union. where the member states agreed to deploy their troops and resources from across the whole spectrum of the military under the authority of the WEU. In 1948. Nonetheless. is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the European Union (EU) and is the domain of EU policy covering defence and military aspects. a European Defence Community. peacekeeping and peacemaking nature that the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU) are empowered to do. similar in nature to the European Coal and Steel Community. the Western European Union. developing simultaneously within the Western European Union. The Petersberg tasks are the military tasks of a humanitarian. the Union High Representative Catherine Ashton also plays a significant role.

including peacemaking. The treaty signalled the progressive framing of a common security and defence policy based on the Petersberg tasks. the range of tasks the EU commits itself "includes" these tasks. backed up by credible military forces. Officially. . it was agreed that the Western European Union (WEU) would oversee the creation of a European Security and Defence Identity within NATO structures. but with the transfer of the most important WEU assets to the EU in 1999. Malo. The Petersberg tasks were first formulated by the Western European Union (WEU) in 1992 during a summit in at the Hotel Petersberg near Bonn. the task of territorial defence is considered the domain of NATO. Both the WEU and the EU are empowered to enforce the Petersberg tasks. They are formulated as: • • • Humanitarian and rescue tasks Peacekeeping tasks Tasks of combat forces in crisis management. the tasks were incorporated in the Treaty on European Union. in order to respond to international crises". and are central to strengthening the European Union's second pillar. which it had done since the Cold War. [edit] Incorporation of the Petersberg tasks and the WEU in the EU The European Union incorporated the same Petersberg tasks within its domain with the Amsterdam Treaty. this distinction is mostly artificial. and a readiness to do so. the means to decide to use them. ranging from the most simple to the most robust military intervention. there are many provisions to prevent competition with NATO.Policy. partly to allow European countries to act militarily where NATO wished not to. In 1998. where they stated that "the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action. further more the WEU was enforce to act for 50 years and today is just a relic of the past. during the European summit in Amsterdam. The Petersberg tasks cover great range of possible military missions. but is not limited by them. In 1997. Recent creation of the European Defence Agency made the WEU obsolete.[2] The ESDI was to create a European 'pillar' within NATO. the so-called Berlin-plus arrangement). traditional British reluctance to such a plan changed into endorsement after a bilateral declaration of French President Jacques Chirac and the British Prime Minister Tony Blair in St. As many European countries are fervent supporters of NATO. and partly to alleviate the United States' financial burden of maintaining military bases in Europe. The Berlin agreement allowed European countries (through the WEU) to use NATO assets if it so wished (this agreement was later amended to allow the European Union to conduct such missions. In practice. [edit] WEU-NATO relationship and the Berlin agreement At the 1996 NATO ministerial meeting in Berlin. the Common Foreign and Security Policy.

In May 2004. and EU liaison cells are now in place at SHAPE (NATO’s strategic nerve centre for planning and operations) and NATO’s Joint Force Command in Naples. Furthermore. The EU launched the European Capabilities Action Plan (ECAP) at the Laeken Summit in December 2001. In institutional terms. In the joint EU-NATO declaration of 2002. and ‘coherent and mutually reinforcing development of the military capability requirements common to the two organisations’. and no discrimination against non-EU members such as Turkey. equality and due regard for ‘the decision-making autonomy and interests’ of both EU and NATO. The Cologne Council also appointed Javier Solana as the High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy to help progress both the CFSP and the ESDP. In response to St. [edit] Helsinki Headline Goal Main article: Helsinki Headline Goal The European Union made its first concrete step to enhance military capabilities. to be able to carry out the so called “Petersberg Tasks”. the six founding principles included partnership—for example. extending the timelines for the EU's projects. it became clear that the objectives outlined in the Helsinki Headline Goal were not achievable quickly. A phrase that is often used to describe the relationship between the EU forces and NATO is "separable. mechanisms and assets to carry out military operations if NATO declines to act. EU defence ministers approved "Headline Goal 2010". crisis management activities should be "mutually reinforcing"—effective mutual consultation and cooperation. the former US-Secretary of State Madeleine Albright put forth the three famous D’s. in 1999 when its member states signed the Helsinki Headline Goal. Malo. However. the Cologne European Council decided to incorporate the role of the Western European Union within the EU. which allows the EU to use NATO structures.In June 1999. but not separate":[3] the same forces and capabilities will form the basis of . the partnership is reflected in particular by the "Berlin plus agreement" from March 2003. [edit] EU-NATO relationship and the Berlin Plus agreement Main article: Berlin Plus agreement Map showing European membership of the EU and NATO Concerns were voiced that an independent European security pillar might result in a declining importance of NATO as a transatlantic forum. no decoupling from the US and NATO. in line with the ESDP. an agreement has been signed on information sharing between the EU and NATO. They include the creation of a catalogue of forces. eventually shutting down the WEU. the 'Helsinki Force Catalogue'. which outline American expectations towards ESDP to this day: no duplication of what was done effectively under NATO.

failed states. The 80-person agency is headed by Nick Whitney. because "no single nation is able to tackle today's complex challenges". The total spent by the 27 EU nations on defence is approximately €160 billion ($250 billion). regional conflict. As such the ESS identifies a string of key threats Europe needs to deal with: terrorism. The post of High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security . formerly of the UK's Ministry of Defence. Its goals are to find a common security culture for the EU. CSDP and to enrich Europe’s strategic debate. so secure nor so free". Along these lines. [edit] European Union Institute for Security Studies Main article: European Union Institute for Security Studies The European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) was established by the Council Joint Action of 20 July 2001. and organised crime. The document starts out with the declaration that "Europe has never been so prosperous. to help develop and project the CFSP. It can be considered a counterpart to the National Security Strategy of the United States. it argues that in order to ensure security for Europe in a globalising world. [edit] European Security Strategy Main article: European Security Strategy The European Security Strategy is the policy document that guides the European Union's international security strategy. The document was approved by the European Council held in Brussels on 12 December 2003 and drafted under the responsibilities of the EU High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy CFSP Javier Solana. Its conclusion is that "The world is full of new dangers and opportunities". the right of first refusal exists: only if NATO refuses to act. With the emergence of the ESDP. Concerning missions. but portions can be allocated to the European Union if necessary. [edit] Treaty of Lisbon The Treaty of Lisbon renamed the ESDP to Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). Its headline reads: "A Secure Europe In A Better World". details of a European Defence Agency were finalised. multilateral cooperation within Europe and abroad is to be the imperative. proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.both EU and NATO efforts. the EU can decide to do so. it is the first time that Europe has formulated a joint security strategy. [4] [edit] European Defence Agency Main article: European Defence Agency On 12 July 2004.

Palestine. EUFOR Tchad/RCA reached full operation capability in mid-September 2008 and is expected to hand over security duties to the UN in mid-March 2009. EU missions outside the Balkans and the DRC have taken place in Georgia. The EU returned to the DRC during July–November 2006 with EUFOR RD Congo. which see their common defence realised in the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. the WEU became redundant. Between May and September 2003. Geographically. later that year. The UN-mandated mission involves troops from 25 EU states (19 in the field) deployed in areas of eastern Chad and the north-eastern Central African Republic in order to improve security in those regions. was in March 2003 in the Republic of Macedonia. acting unanimously. . following the 1999 declaration of intent.Policy has been created (superseding the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy and European Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy) Unanimous decisions in the Council of the European Union continue to instruct the EU foreign policy and CSDP matters became available to enhanced co-operation. The policy of the Union in accordance with this article shall not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain member states. under the North Atlantic Treaty. As well as Macedonia. and be compatible with the common security and defence policy established within that framework. It shall in that case recommend to the member States the adoption of such a decision in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements. All its remaining activities are to be wound up or transferred to the EU by June 2011. EUFOR Tchad/RCA[6]. Lisbon also led to the termination of the Western European Union in 2010 as. This laid out the "framework nation" system to be used in future deployments. justice and monitoring missions. which supported the UN mission there during the country's elections. so decides. with the solidarity clause and the expansion of the CSDP. EUPOL Proxima. This will lead to a common defence. and Ukraine-Moldova. the EU has maintain its deployment of peacekeepers in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sudan. [edit] Overseas deployments Main article: Overseas interventions of the European Union The first deployment of European troops under the ESDP. when the European Council. "Operation Artemis" began in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) under UN Security Council Resolution 1484. Since then. as part of EUFOR Althea mission[5]. there have been other small police. The common security and defence policy shall include the progressive framing of a common Union defence policy. Indonesia. There is also a judicial mission in Iraq (EUJUST Lex). "EUFOR Concordia" used NATO assets and was considered a success and replaced by a smaller police mission. the EU deployed its largest and most multi-national mission to Africa. On 28 January 2008.

5 national operational headquarters have been made available for use by the Union. the EU Operations Centre began work in Brussels. Centocelle in Rome and Larissa.g. It can command a limited size force of about 2000 troops (e. The EU can also use NATO capabilities. Northwood in London. Mont Valérien in Paris. Potsdam.[7] . • • • • • Political and Security Committee or PSC European Union Military Committee or EUMC European Union Military Staff or EUMS Committee for Civilian Aspects of Crisis Management or CIVCOM European Union Satellite Centre The CSDP is furthermore strongly facilitated by the European External Action Service.[edit] Current content and structure • • • • • European Defence Agency Helsinki Headline Goal European Gendarmerie Force European Union battle groups European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) [1] The following permanent political and military bodies were established after the approval of the European Council. Operation Artemis used Mont Valérien as its OHQ and EUFOR's DR Congo operation uses Potsdam. From 1 January 2007. a battlegroup). In addition to the EU centre. For example.