Propagation Model Development and Radio Planning for Future WiMAX Systems Deployment in Beirut

American University of Beirut Final Year Project Spring 2006

Advisor: Prof. Walid Y. Ali-Ahmad Group: Mohamed Hasna, 200300514 Ali Dabbous, 200300532 Adel Yammout, 200300530 Imad Atwi, 200300534

Submitted on: 23.05.2006

Abstract
This report talks about what has been achieved during this year regarding the project assigned by Cedarcom; “Propagation Model Development and Radio Planning for future WiMAX Deployment in Beirut.” The report demonstrates the advantages of WiMAX compared to other wireless broadband access systems in non line of sight (NLOS) scenarios. Moreover, the report sheds light on the literature survey done in this project and the analysis made to come up with the most suitable propagation model. The propagation model developed is divided into two main parts: outdoor and indoor models. The outdoor model is based on the ITU-525 model for the calculation of the received free space electric field and Deygout 94 for diffraction losses. The indoor model takes into consideration the two main construction materials in Beirut buildings: concrete and glass. The model was validated through several field measurements done in Salim Slem and Ras AlNabe’ areas. The complete model was implemented in a stand-alone software that can be linked to ICS Telecom using a dynamic linked library (dll).

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Acknowledgements
We would like to express our gratitude to Dr. Walid Y. Ali Ahmad, Ms. Maha Wazen, and Mr. Raed Dabbous for their support and assistance in the development of our final year project.

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3..….2 2..8 Diffraction…………………………………………….9 Fresnel Zone and Path Clearance …………………..………….2 2.2.4 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation………………………….………13 2..2 4 Literature Survey 2.………….4.2.……...10 2..1 1.3 Topography…………………………………………………………15 Building and other structures ………………………………………15 Morphology…………………………………………………………16 iv ..……………….Contents Abstract ii Acknowledgements 1 Introduction 1..3.1 2..3 2.….3 2 iii 1 Problem Definition…………………………………………………………….……………2 Report Structure……………………………………………………………….2..4.1 Objectives of the project…………………………………………..………….4.1 2..2 2.4 Propagation Environment Models……………………………………………15 2.……….3.7 Reflection…………………………………………….…………12 Empirical Models……………………………………….1 2.2 1.1 2..4 Free Space Propagation ………………………………….3 Propagation and Channel Models……………………………………….2.……12 2.…….…7 2.……………..2 WiMAX Technology Overview…………………………………..3 Theoretical Models……………………………………….12 Physical Models……………………………………………..

.5..1 3.20 Conclusion…………………………………………………………….29 v ...2 Outdoor Model……………………………………….2 Hardware Equipment…………………………………………………………22 Software………………………………………………………………………22 23 5 Measurements 5.2.1 6.2 Empirical vs.…………………….1.. Physical models………………………………………………..…………………….4 Measurement Material………………………………….1 Measurement setup……………………………………….4 2..17 Diffraction Geometry…………………………….…….5.……….3 Free Space model …………………………………….…………26 Calibration……….18 Subpath Attenuation…………………………………..…………25 Measurement Cases……………….5 Atmospheric and meteorological conditions…………….1 4.………….5.21 22 4 Budget 4..…………….…………23 5..1 5...…….…………27 29 6 Implementation 6..……………….1.…………...…………16 ATDI Manual + ITU-R 525/526 models……………………………….1.2 2.………………….……….1 2.………………..…………….4.……….3 5..…29 Indoor Model……………………………………….1..2 5.19 20 3 Design alternatives: Comparison and Analysis 3.16 2..23 Measurement Procedure………………………………….

3.3 6..………………….3.2 6..………………….3 Glass Model…………………………………….1 6.……….6..44 GUI Thread………………....2 6.41 6..44 Data Processor Thread……………….1 6.3.45 Graphics Engine Thread……………….………….29 Concrete Model……………………………….………..……….…………………….2.33 Implementation of the model in software……………….49 7 8 9 Evaluation System Constraints Conclusion 53 56 57 58 Bibliography vi ..……….3.…………..4 Net Link Thread………………...2.…………………………..……….………………………………...……….

14 ICS Telecom propagation model menu…………………………………………...5 Relative Cell Radii for Adaptive Modulation………………….………………………………………………. er= 5.……………….. frequency = 2..….3 5.…………….24 GPS Unit.…………………………………….1 2.17 Clearance ratio……………………………………………..1 6. thickness at normal incidence: f = 2.………..32 6.6 Equipment used for the measurements…………………………….……………….31 Attenuation of glass vs.9 RF Propagation and Fresnel Zone………………………….…31 Attenuation of glass vs.. er= 5.…………………………………………………………………………….7 2.6 2.32 vii ..……………11 NLOS demonstration…………………………………….4 2.5 The Effect of Sub-Channelization………………………………….…….List of Figures 2.6 GHz.8 2.13 2.6 GHz...…….……….……………18 Subpath Attenuation Method……………………………………….14 2...15 OFDM technology.…………………………………………………………………….2 5..4 Attenuation of glass vs.11 2.2 6...3 Multi ray internal successive model used.……………...10 2...……9 Wave being diffracted using the Wedge Model…………….9 2. Incident angle of the following parameters: thickness = 1 cm .…..10 LOS demonstration………………………………………….……………23 Receiver antenna.…………….1 5..5 2..………………………………………………………..24 CPE. frequency at normal incidence: thickness = 1 cm . ………………………………….……………………………………………………………….6 Two-dimensional geometry showing specular reflection………….…………………..4 5.3 2. er= 5………………………………………………………………………………..11 Overhead view of the ten-ray model……………………………….8 Reflection and Scattering from a Rough Surface………………….……………18 Radius of fresnel ellipsoid…………………………………………...……………...……….5 5.12 2..2 2.……………19 5.……………….…25 Measurement Setup………………………………………………………………26 Measurement positions.…………….…28 6.10 OLOS demonstration……………………………………………….………….

7 Attenuation of concrete vs.43 Data set section. incident angle of the following parameters: er= 5.………48 Indoor model parameters………………………………………….………………………………………………………………….5 cm.19 6.……….23 GUI.…………………………………………………………………………36 6. 20.2 cm.14 6. 20.………………………………………………………………….16 6..…36 6.8 Attenuation of concrete vs.……………………………………………………….42 6.………………………………………....….18 6.……………………………………………….…...15 6.11 The two kinds of reinforcements that were taken into consideration..05 S/m. 30.. s = 0.…………48 Calculation Output…………………………………………………. frequency of the following parameters: thickness = 20. frequency of the following parameters: thickness = 10..10 Averaged Attenuation of concrete vs. thickness of the following parameters: er= 5.12 Averaged Attenuation of slightly (14 cm) and heavily (7cm) concrete vs.………49 viii . s = 0.……………………………………………………………………….…………47 Graphics options group box…………………………………………………. s = 0....21 6.3 cm.…………44 Terrain creation group box……………………………………………………..22 6..05 S/m frequency = 0.6. and heavily reinforced consisting of 7 cm spacing between metal rods.………………………………………………………………40 6.…47 Calculation options group box………………………………………….6 Attenuation of concrete vs. The two specimens are taken from [Stone].13 The solution displayed on ICS Telecom after receiving the solution from the dll……………………………………………………………………………….2 cm.3 cm……………………41 6.……35 6.…39 6.………………………………………………………………….1 S/m. 30. frequency of the following parameters: thickness = 10.890 GHz..5 cm after correlating with the above measurement.5 Effect of w/c ratio on the real part of the dielectric constant at one day for PCC. Slightly reinforced concrete consisting of 14 cm spacing between metal rods.…38 6.………34 6.20 6. incident angle of the following parameters: er= 5..9 Averaged Attenuation of concrete vs.…45 Terrain file specification…………………………………………………………46 Antenna properties group box……………………………………………………46 Antenna properties…………………………………………………….17 6.3 cm.

. er= 6………………………………………………………………………………….54 ix ..2 Attenuation of glass vs.1 Attenuation of glass vs..9 cm ... er= 5………………………………………………………………………………….…50 3D model…………………………………………………………….……….6.52 7.26 6.27 2D terrain image……………………………………………………..……51 WireFrame Model…………………………………………………….…………51 WireFrame model with fresnel zone…………………………………………….3 cm .53 7.….25 6.24 6..…. frequency at normal incidence: thickness = 1. frequency at normal incidence: thickness = 1.

a wireless internet provider. WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a technology for “wireless” broadband. [2] Thus we can see how crucial the choice and application of the appropriate propagation models is in order to ensure proper system performance before the roll out. twisted pair. Cedarcom. and much more. and wireless. Therefore the selection of the appropriate channel model should be given careful though and analysis. 1.16a at the mentioned range. impaired system performance. Propagation and channel models are fundamental tools for designing any fixed broadband wireless communication system. channel modeling is a very crucial step in a wireless system planning. since a model is developed to adequately depict the system performance. Therefore. they are running a pre WiMAX network which is a Single Carrier 802. the system design can be modified accordingly to before the system is built. whenever and wherever they need it. the system performance will be evaluated.Chapter 1 Introduction The ever growing demand for high speed data connection to drive many of the businesses. [1] As with every communication system. The main criterion for the design at hand is the new frequency range that WiMAX operates in and the unique environment where it will be deployed.5 GHz range. and 2. These technologies have become an integral part of any developed nation and are as fundamental as a country’s water and electrical grids. precipitated an unprecedented growth in the area of telecommunications. Its main purpose it to predict what kind of distortion and weakening will the channel have on the transmitted signal. 1 . Broadband wireless will revolutionize people's lives by enabling a high-speed connection directly to the information they need. Some of the channel models used for system planning were initially designed for much lower frequency ranges such as the 900. Wireless systems have gained a lot of concentration and advancement in the last few years. Failing to do so will result in poor design. personal uses. Currently. Many technologies bloomed such as optical fiber. poor coverage. 1800. proposed a project to work on the development of a channel model for future WiMAX deployment in Beirut which will be in the 3. the design should be accurate to provide better coverage and better performance. and dissatisfied customers. coaxial cable. It is an evolving standard for point-to-multipoint wireless. a designer needs to appropriately choose a model to address the design problem at hand.1 Problem Definition As was mentioned in the introduction. Channel modeling is a very pragmatic endeavor. [2] Depending on these results. If it does not. The channel model predicts what will happen to the transmitted signal as it goes through a certain channel to reach the receiver.5 GHz range. determining whether it meets the performance goals and objectives or not.

Finally. which makes it overcome the impediments for NLOS scenarios. and freespace loss. which is crucial for the tuning of our model of choice. 1. After the literature survey. 1. The model must be verified by several field measurements that include outdoor and indoor cases in Ras Beirut. Depending on these parameters. channel models have varied dependency on the environment information. and few of the channel models apply correctly to this scenario. The model should take into consideration various outdoor and indoor scenarios.3 Report Structure Chapter two introduces the subjects we have researched that are relevant to our design project. by a dynamic linked library loaded by the program. Thus. The program should have a user friendly interface that allows any network planner engineer having little experience in building construction materials to easily specify the indoor model parameters. In addition. The indoor model should take care of different obstruction materials in Beirut buildings which are mainly concrete and glass. Therefore.2 Objectives of the project The main objective of this project is to come up with the most accurate channel model at 3. this chapter introduces the physical model that Cedarcom is currently using as the propagation model which is the ITU-R 525 along with subpath and diffraction models. empirical. as we shall see later in this report.Chapter 1. an introduction is given on the parameters that affect signal attenuation as it passes in the channel such as reflection. Measurements are crucial for building or verifying any propagation model. three main propagation models are realized: theoretical. no sufficient research and development has been done so far in this new frequency range. accordingly chapter 5 discusses the measurement equipment and the procedure followed to have a correct measurement. compares them and selects the most suitable model adhering to our design specs. Chapter 4 discusses the required budget for our project. The model will be implemented using an external program which is linked to the software provided by Cedarcom Company. The outdoor propagation model should encompass line of sight and non-light of sight cases. three main categories of propagation models are defined: theoretical. Since physical models require various databases on the environment ranging from terrain information to rain rates. Chapter 3 discusses these alternatives. The developed propagation model should prove to be accurate to within ± 3 dB of the measurements done. empirical. we need to come up with the most suitable channel model which accurately depicts the system performance under a certain environment before WiMAX system rollout in the area of Ras Beirut. and physical.5GHz for WiMAX deployment in Ras Beirut. they are discussed in details in this section. INTRODUCTION 2 Very few models were initially designed with the intention to apply them to high frequency ranges and even fewer were tested at such frequencies. . In addition. diffraction. and physical. This chapter covers the WiMAX features in addition to its advantages over other broadband wireless systems.

social and sustainability constraints that faced us during the design and implementation of the project. Chapter 8 sheds light on the economical. Chapter 7 talks about the evaluation of the model via relating them to the measurements done and other references. INTRODUCTION 3 Chapter 6 discusses the development of the model and the implementation of the model in the program.Chapter 1. Finally. environmental. . chapter 9 concludes the report by giving an overall summary and the results we obtained.

and video services to hundreds of businesses or thousands of residences. WiMAX products are able to support downlink data rates of 65 Mbits/s at close range to 16 Mbits/s at distances of 9 to 10 km. As a result. is a form of broadband wireless access which is based on the IEEE 802. Directional antennas.16 standard for wireless metropolitan-area networks (MANs). Power control. Error correction techniques. Each bit stream is carried by a separate subcarrier and all subcarriers transmit in unison and simultaneously. 4.1 WiMAX WiMAX. [6. or Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. Sub-Channelization. 5] WiMAX is able to overcome the impediments found in NLOS propagation and deliver such high speed access using the following technologies and techniques: OFDM technology. Transmit and receive diversity. data. OFDM works by dividing the data stream into several parallel bit streams.Chapter 2 Literature Survey 2. The figure below depicts exactly how OFDM works in WiMAX. which is enough bandwidth and transmission range to deliver high-speed simultaneous access to voice. the technology behind WiMAX has been optimized to provide excellent non line of sight (NLOS) coverage. Unlike many technologies in the broadband wireless access domain that provide only line of sight (LOS) coverage. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) OFDM is a multi-carrier transmission technology that provides a superior means of transmitting wireless information in high multi-path environments in 2-11 GHz frequency range. 7] 4 . [3. Adaptive modulation.

Since we have a power limitation in the CPE. balancing the power in the uplink and downlink can be done by concentrating the power over fewer subcarriers in the uplink. 9] Multi-carrier multiplexing and transmission technique Achieves high spectral efficiency and data rates Has high resilience to RF interference Eliminates multi-path distortion effectively Minimizes frequency selective fading (FSF) Eliminates Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) Sub-Channelization WiMAX supports subchannelization which means that instead of transmitting on all 192 data subcarriers. As a result. The mechanism of subchannelization is very well depicted in the figure below. [3] Figure 2. you can transmit on just a subset.2 The Effect of Sub-channelization. OFDM technology. [4] .Chapter 2. 8. [6] Advantages of OFDM: [6. LITERATURE SURVEY 5 Figure 2. the system achieves greater range by using the same amount of power over fewer carriers.1.

The highest modulation scheme is used when the radio link is high in quality. The same scheme applies for receive diversity where several antennas are placed at the receiver side instead of being placed at the transmitter side. LITERATURE SURVEY Directional Antennas 6 The effectiveness of using directional antennas over omni-directional antennas have been proven and successfully deployed in several scenarios that operate under significant NLOS fading. This reduces the fade margin requirement and combats interference. [4] Advantages of Directional Antennas Increase of link availability compared to omni-directional antennas Decrease of the delay spread at both the Base Station and the CPE Suppression of any multi-path signals that arrive in the sidelobes and backlobes. the WiMAX system can transfer to a lower modulation scheme to maintain the connection quality and link stability.” The main feature of adaptive modulation is that it allows us to transmit at higher data rates during best case conditions as opposed to having a fixed scheme which transmits always at low data rates to account for the worst case conditions. [4] Figure 2. In transmit diversity. 10] Adaptive Modulation Adaptive modulation allows the WiMAX system to adjust the signal modulation scheme depending on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) condition of the radio link. This gives more capacity for the system. Transmit and Receive Diversity Diversity schemes are used to take advantage of multi-path and reflections signals that occur in NLOS conditions.Chapter 2. This helps in overcoming fading and reducing pathloss. This is due to several advantages found in directional antennas. During a deep signal fade. several antennas are placed at the transmitter side with a separation between them that guarantees independent fading between the transmitted signals across the wireless channel. “This feature allows the system to overcome time-selective fading.3 Relative Cell Radii for Adaptive Modulation [4] . [4.

2. This attenuation factor is characterized by the free space pathloss given by: Free space path loss = PLf = PR/PT = GTGR (λ / 4πr) 2 [2] The free space pathloss is characterized by the following: Inversely proportional to square the distance Proportional to the wave length (λ) Proportional to the antenna gains (GT and GR) . [2] 2. the transmit power of the CPE is approximately proportional to its distance from the base station. [4] After presenting a general introduction about the WiMAX wireless system and shedding light on its different attributes. such as the Strong Reed Solomon FEC and convolutional coding. This improves the overall performance of the system dramatically. the following section will discuss the physical properties of the electromagnetic waves. Although free space primarily means a vacuum. this level depends on many other factors such as the obstructions lying in the path between the CPE and the base station. As a result. thus decreasing potential interference with other co-located units. Concerning a LOS scenario. it is very fundamental to understand EM waves and how they get from one place to another in order determine the performance of a wireless link. [11. However in the NLOS scenario. In free space.2 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation In wireless communications.Chapter 2. the information that is transmitted from one end to another propagates in the form of electromagnetic (EM) waves. LITERATURE SURVEY Error Correction Techniques 7 WiMAX utilizes several error correction techniques in its receiver structure to reduce the signal to noise ratio requirements and significantly improve the bit error rate (BER) performance of the system. It is implemented by the base station sending power control information to each of the CPEs to regulate the transmit power level to a fixed threshold. These electromagnetic waves are the main carriers of data in wireless communication system.1 Free Space Propagation Free-space transmission is a principal consideration in basically all fixed broadband wireless communication systems. 12] Power Control WiMAX incorporates several power control algorithms to reduce the overall power consumption of the CPE. The amplitude. phase. are used to recover frames in error which may have been lost due to deep fades in the channel. 2. it can be practically implemented in short-range space-wave paths between elevated terminals. These techniques. or frequency (wavelength) of a wave can all be modified to represent the information. the signal gets attenuated as it travels from the transmitter to the receiver.

4. where hR is the difference in the maximum and 8 sin γ 0 minimum surface variations. The reflection takes place on the ‘specular point’ where the angle of incidence of the transmitted wave equals the angle of reflection of the reflected wave. LITERATURE SURVEY 8 However. reflection occurs when a signal intersects the ground.2. However. [2] 2.Chapter 2.2 Reflections from Rough Surfaces In the real world. In severe scenarios. most of the times. [2] There are two basic reflection types: Specular reflection from smooth surfaces. the surface may appear to be a pure scatterer.2. 2. free space propagation alone cannot depict what will exactly happen to the signal as it travels from the transmitter to the receiver as there are many effects that can substantially impact the communication link performance.2.2. we encounter surfaces that have random variations as in the earth’s surface or have systematic variations such as in the walls and roofs of artificial structures. seldom do we encounter reflections along a smooth surface. γ 0 is the angle between the incident ray and the surface (Fig. [2] Figure 2.5). The degree of roughness is given by the Rayliegh criterion: [2]. Reflections (scattering) from rough surfaces.2. 2.1 Specular Reflection As we can see in Figure 2. a wall or any other surface that that does not have any edges or discontinuities.4. Two dimensional geometry showing specular reflection [2] 2. hR ≥ λ .2 Reflection Reflection is one of the most important wave propagation phenomena involved in almost every type of fixed wireless systems.

2. experimental results have demonstrated the validity of the wedge diffraction calculation in predicting signal levels on a certain path obstructed by a building corner.3. Diffraction only happens when an object partially blocks the path of a propagating wave. [2] . diffracting wedges are considered a very important feature.6 Wave being diffracted using the Wedge Model. [2] 2. although highly computational.5 Reflection and Scattering from a rough surface. There are typically two models used in a wireless system design to model diffraction [2].2.Chapter 2. Wedge diffraction occurs at the corner of buildings. Figure 2. Moreover.[2] The wedge diffraction scheme. we will be heavily relying on diffraction in our study. The picture below depicts what happens to a wave under wedge diffraction. is used to find the diffraction attenuation for an obstructed interference path over a rooftop edge or the parapet of a building.1 Wedge Diffraction In city propagating environments.3 Diffraction Diffraction is an important wave propagation mechanism which can occur to any propagating wave in wireless communications. Since our environment deals with a nonline of sight scenario. LITERATURE SURVEY 9 Figure 2. at the edge of walls where they intersect roofs. 2. and at the junction of walls with the ground or street.

A general criterion for link system design is to set the path clearance so that a radius equal to 60% of the first fresnel zone is unobstructed. knife-edge diffraction is used in many propagation models.2. As shown in Figure 2. In concept. This means that any point along the path between the transmitter and the receiver should have a certain distance from any obstacle along the path. when the interior angle of the wedge is assumed to be zero. the first fresnel zone is the zone where the significant power is transmitted. LITERATURE SURVEY 10 2. Because of its resulting simplicity and speed of calculation efficiency.6 first fresnel zone criterion. which are determined by the obstacles’ positions with respect to the Fresnel zone.2 Knife-edge Diffraction Knife-edge diffraction is a special case of the wedge diffraction. [2. The knife-edge diffraction scheme is used as a model for many obstructed path circumstances including paths with terrain obstructions such as gently rolling hills that have very little resemblance to a knife-edge.e. the fresnel zones form elliptically shaped solids of revolution around the transmit-receive propagation path.4 Fresnel Zone and Path Clearance A crucial design objective in a fixed wireless design is to achieve adequate path clearance for the link. meaning that the power available at the receiver will be diminished if the first fresnel zone is significantly obstructed or blocked. As a result.6 criterion is depicted in the following figure: Figure 2.3.7. 13] The first fresnel zone with the 0. a wireless link could fall to one of three categories.Chapter 2.8 LOS demonstration [6] . This is so called the 0.2. Fresnel zone is the locus of the points where the diffracted path length is multiples of 180 degrees different from the direct path length. i. [2] 2.7 RF Propagation and Fresnel Zone [14] LOS (Line of Sight) Figure 2.

above the 60% mark Diffraction Losses are from 0-6dB Requires higher tower heights Seasonal effects due to the nature of the obstruction NLOS (Non Line of Sight) Figure 2.10 NLOS demonstration [14] NLOS Attributes More propagation loss Higher delay spread Higher ISI (Inter Symbol Interference) Pronounced multipath distortion .Chapter 2.9. LITERATURE SURVEY LOS Attributes: Requires 60% Fresnel (1st) zone clearance Diffraction losses are negligible Free space signal attenuation determines coverage 11 OLOS (Obstructed Line of Sight) Figure 2. OLOS demonstration [8] OLOS Attributes : Fresnel zone obstruction.

1 × log10 f − 0. LITERATURE SURVEY Higher Tx power required to meet SNR/BER limits 12 In the next section.3 Propagation and Channel Models Propagation and channel models are fundamental tools for designing any fixed broadband wireless communication system. Many cellular operators have ongoing measurements or drive-test programs that collect measurements of signal level. empirical. An example of a theoretical model is the “tapped delay line” model in which densely spaced delays and multiplying constants and tap-to-tap correlation coefficients are determined on the basis of measurements or some theoretical interpretation of how the propagation environment affects the signal. [2] An example of an empirical model is the “Cost-231 Hata “model which was devised as an extension to the “Hata-Okumura” model. The Hata-Okumura model is developed for the 500 to 1500 MHz frequency range using measurements done by Okumura and equations fitting to the path loss curves by Hata. [15. [13] 2. we will present the various propagation and channel models which are built on the basis of the afore discussed EM wave characteristics. Parameters included in empirical models are distance. Empirical models are widely used in mobile radio and cellular system engineering. 17] The Cost-231 model also has correction for urban.55 × log 10 hb ) × log10 d + C m ahm = (1. suburban and open areas. and network performance which are then used to refine empirical propagation models used in the system-planning tool. Measurements are typically done in the field to measure path loss. base antenna height.7) × hm − (1.8) where . and number of buildings. and physical.3. frequency.3 + 33. [2] 2. call quality.Chapter 2. The basic path loss equation for urban areas is: L = 46. These models are divided into three basic classifications: theoretical. It basically predicts what will happen to the transmitted signal while in transit to the receiver.9 − 6.2 Empirical Models Empirical models are based on observations or measurements.56 × log10 f − 0. 16. or other channel characteristics. They do not directly use information about any specific environment.3. CPE height.1 Theoretical Models These models are based on some theoretical assumptions about the propagation environment.82 × log10 hb − ahm + (44. Theoretical models are not suitable for planning communications systems to serve a particular area because there is no way to relate the parameters of these models to physical parameters of any particular propagation environment.9 × log10 f − 13. 2. delay spread. thus it can be useful for analytical studies of the behavior of communication systems under a wide variety of channel response circumstances.

hb = height of the base station (hub) above ground in meters. Physical models may or may not be site specific.3. Non site specific models uses physical principles of EM wave propagation to predict signal levels in a generic environment in order to develop some simple relationships between the characteristics of that environment.1 Empirical Model Building Formulation of propagation loss accounting for all potential propagation parameters For example: PL (dB ) = k1 + G a + k 2 × log10 f + k 3 × log10 R + n w (k 4 P1 + k 5 P2 ) + k 6 m f where f = operating frequency G a = Antenna Gain R = propagation distance P1 . P2 = angle of incidence to a wall nw. Databases of terrain elevations. These regression techniques will fit the measurements in a curve that will clearly show the model. On the other hand. [2] 3. measurements are taken for different frequencies.3. LITERATURE SURVEY 13 C m = 0 dB for medium sized city and suburban centers with moderate tree density. mf = number of walls and floors b/w Tx and Rx. f = frequency in MHz d = distance from the base station to the receiver (remote terminal) in kilometers. for the frequency parameter. measurements are taken from places with different heights. 3 dB for metropolitan centers. when particular elements of the propagation environment between the transmitter and receiver are considered. hm = height of the receiver (remote terminal) above ground in meters.Chapter 2. [2] 2. clutter heights. the modal is considered site specific. Measurement Setup Depict different scenarios according to parameters defined. Determination of propagation loss Evaluation of the path loss coefficients is done using linear regression or root mean square methods. i.2. for the height parameter. atmospheric refractivity conditions. k1… k6 = coefficients to be determined using some regression technique. . They rely on the basic principles of physics rather than statistical outcomes from experiments to find the EM field at a point.e. and rain intensity rates are all used in the design process.3 Physical Models Physical models are the most widely used propagation models for fixed broadband wireless systems.

and specifically the physical models. Several studies have been done to validate ray-tracing. if there is an incomplete or insufficiently refined description of the propagation environment.Chapter 2. there is a need to present the types of databases or models that provide such information about the environment. [2] . and other scattering mechanisms. The primary drawback to ray-tracing models is that the computations can take some time complete. which can predict EM scattering from objects in the propagation environment. Raytracing does not provide a complete and accurate calculation of the field at all locations in the environment. Ray-tracing is not a cohesive mathematical technique but a collection of methods based on geometric optics (GO). require detailed databases on the environment. The five propagation primitives usually included in ray tracing are: Free space propagation Specular reflection Diffraction diffuse wall scattering wall transmission In the computer implementation of a Ray-tracing model. LITERATURE SURVEY 14 An example of a physical model is the “Ray-tracing” model. the uniform theory of diffraction (UTD). Using the equation of the field and a database describing the propagation environment. This collection of field calculation methods are drawn upon mainly because none alone can successfully deal with all the geometric features of propagation environments likely to be encountered in broadband communication systems. [2] After seeing that some of the channel models. generally with good results when comparing ray-tracing signal level predictions with measurement values. but increased processor speed has helped this situation to some extent.11 Overhead view of the ten-ray model. all the rays are handled as complex electric field voltages that are affected by the magnitude and phase of the reflection and diffraction coefficients. However. the resulting ray trajectories from this model can be found. Figure 2.

1.1 Topographic Map Topographic maps are the fundamental source of information of terrain elevations.1. Each grid point contains the elevation of the specific terrain. There are two kinds of building databases: 2. 4. Land use or morphology (clutter).Chapter 2.2 Terrain DEMs A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) consists of a matrix of elevation points with fixed spacing in either meters or seconds of latitude and longitude. models that take into account more information about the propagation environment will probably have more accurate predictions than those that take into account less information.4. Obviously. Building and other structures.4. 2. 3. DEM for a given area can be developed using satellite imagery using low earth orbits ranging from 150 to 500 Km above the surface where these satellites are continuously taking photographs to collect information.4.2. These contour lines are drawn at regular spacing so that relative line density indicates how steep or shallow the terrain slope is.2 Building and Other Structures Building is one of the primary factors that affect short-range wireless communication links in urban areas so detailed information about the location and heights of buildings is needed. 2.4 Propagation Environment Models Wireless system wave propagation is affected by the elements and characteristics of the real environment in which the networks are deployed. The map includes information such as lines of constant elevation or contours.[2] 2. Atmospheric and meteorological conditions.1 Topography 2. Terrain elevations or topography. 2.4. All empirical and physical propagation models rely on information about the propagation environment to operate. LITERATURE SURVEY 15 2.1 Vector building databases . However the main disadvantage of DEMs is that their cost is quiet high.4. The raw description of the contours and a string of latitude and longitude coordinates where the elevation was found along the contour. The four main categories of propagation environment information that are used for designing fixed broadband wireless systems are: 1. The optical resolution of the photos improved from 10 m to 1 or 2 m.

Atmospheric refractivity depends on temperature. residential. which make these maps very inaccurate. building. It has a high degree of resolution in order of cm which makes it excellent for indoor wireless systems. Figure 2. and highway overpasses are represented by a very fine resolution regular grid of elevation points. Once determined.4 Atmospheric and Meteorological Factors Atmospheric refraction. These databases contains classification such as urban. shape.3 Morphology Morphology or clutter databases contain information that generally classifies the character of the land cover at a particular location on earth. It contains certain propagation models (both empirical and physical) that can be used to calculate the power received by an isotropic antenna from a base station. [2] 2. rain. longitude. densely urban. Rain is the primary factor in limiting the range of fixed broad band links operating above 8 GHz due to absorption. clutter databases can provide a degree of improved prediction over those obtained using terrain data alone.4. Rain-rates databases model rain as stationary events meaning that they do not describe the changing size. it is easy to build a planning software tool that can access them. they use physical models as their main propagation models. forest. 2. It can suit ray tracing models.2 Canopy building databases In these databases.e.12 shows the propagation model menu of ICS Telecom. 2. The base station’s parameters and GPS position are specified in the program. and fog have significant consequences on link performance thus it is necessary to have databases that describe what conditions are likely to occur in the area where a wireless link or network is being deployed. It is not as specific as the vector building data bases. The main parameters of the physical propagation models are: Free space model Diffraction geometry Subpath attenuation . In ATDI’s manual.Chapter 2. Clutter databases are in a grid matrix form similar to the terrain DEM where a clutter number is assigned to a point. LITERATURE SURVEY 16 In these databases. pressure and humidity. they explain the technical conventions used in ICS Telecom and some of the propagation models used. individual walls and roofs are represented by their latitude. foliage. i.4.2. and height coordinates. Since Cedarcom possesses a DEM database of greater Beirut. and agricultural. Maps having such measurements can be found in the ITU-R Recommendation.5 ATDI Manual and ICS Telecom Propagation Models ICS Telecom is a program made by ATDI for radio planning.4. which contains a database and map of a city which in our case is greater Beirut. 2. but can be easily dealt with. and movement of rain cells.

is a union composed of more than 1500 specialists from telecommunication organizations and administrations around the world that participate in the work of Radiocommunication Sector’s study groups. 2.5.8 . 3.12 ICS Telecom propagation model menu. Compile handbooks on spectrum management and emerging radiocommunication services and systems. LITERATURE SURVEY 17 Figure 2. [18] Conversion formulae proposed by the ITU-T P. ITU-R study groups 1.525-2 for free space propagation [19] Field strength for a given isotropically transmitted power: E = Pt – 20 log d + 74. ITU-R.Chapter 2.1 Free space model The free space model chosen by Cedarcom is the one described in the ITU-R P. Draft the technical bases for radiocommunication conferences.525-2 recommendation. 2. Develop ITU-R Recommendations on the technical characteristics of and operational procedures for radiocommunication services and systems. International Telecommunication Union–Radiocommunication Sector.

[2] r= d1d 2 [1] (See figure 2.14) f ( d1 + d 2 ) Figure 2. LITERATURE SURVEY Isotropically received power for a given field strength: Pr = E – 20 log f – 167.2 Diffraction geometry The diffraction geometry that is chosen by Cedarcom is the Deygout 94 multiple obstacle diffraction.13 Clearance ratio. In the case of one single knife-edge obstacle between the transmitter and the receiver.8 where Pt = isotropically transmitted power (dB(W)) Pr = isotropically received power (dB(W)) E = electric field strength (dB(µV/m)) f = frequency (GHz) d = radio path length (km) Lbf = free-space basic transmission loss (dB) S = power flux-density (dB(W/m2)).5.Chapter 2. [2] . the diffraction loss can be approximated by: 2 Ld = 6. 2.2 18 Free-space basic transmission loss for a given isotropically transmitted power and field strength: Lbf = Pt – E + 20 log f + 167. the clearance ratio is h v = 2 (See figure 2.9 + 20 log (v − 1) + 1 + (v − 1)  [20]     where v.2 Power flux-density for a given field strength: S = E – 145.14 Radius of Fresnel ellipsoid.13) r Figure 2.

Deygout proposed the following term: Lgr = 20log(75000d) – 20log(πh1h2f) where d = the distance between the Tx and Rx (in km) h1. LITERATURE SURVEY 19 In the case of multiple edges.3 Subpath attenuation Subpath attenuation is an additional correction term for the field strength. one searches for two secondary obstacles. h2 = Tx and Rx antenna heights repectively (in m) f = the frequency in MHz. [20] ICS Telecom offers some modified subpath attenuation methods. Deygout proposed that first we look for a primary obstacle obtained from the maximum clearance ratio v1 with respect to the line of sight between Tx and Rx. Figure 2. The most important method is the Standard Subpath Attenuation method where it is based on Lgr value but with a correction coefficient: Lsp = FZ * ρ * Lgr where ρ is the proportion of the total path that is located above the first Fresnel virtual ellipsoid. because it turned out that models with classical diffraction corrections provide too optimistic field strength values.5. The total diffraction loss is: Ld ' = ∑i Ld (vi ) 2. One between Tx and the primary obstacle and the other between the obstacle and Rx.15 below illustrates this in more detail. this search is performed recursively on each side of the secondary obstacles. ρ = (d1+ d2+ d3+ d4)/d. Then.15 Subpath Attenuation Method.Chapter 2. FZ (for Fresnel Zone) is a coefficient of reduction of this virtual ellipsoid: FZ = 1 means that the whole ellipsoid is considered. [2] . if an obstacle exists (v1 > 0). Figure 2. FZ = 0 means that the virtual ellipsoid reduces to the straight line of sight segment.

This is due to the fact that the extensive measurements that they were based on were done in the popular or more available frequency ranges then. Some models such as the MMDS band model and the Stanford University Interim (SUI) have been specifically developed for the MMGD frequency band from 2. In addition a conclusion is made about the type of model that needs to be selected for our design project. clutter and building Database (5m resolution) which is provided by Cedarcom. comprising of the DTM. under which the performance of such empirical models is unpredictable and in many cases have not been tested. the main purpose for these models is for analytical studies of the way a communication system behaves under a wide variety of channel response circumstances. Theoretical models are derived only from mathematical and physical theories such as the uniform theory of scattering. which is 800 to 2000 MHz.1 Empirical vs. and distance. street width. they are widely used for system equipment planning. [2] Third. The following section presents the main pros and cons for the two remaining types of models: empirical and physical model. and physical. Empirical models use extensive measurements in making an average description of the environment to predict median path loss. They are not practical for radio planning because they don’t use information about any specific environment. making their accuracy limited. These ranges vary greatly from that of our current design which is the 3500 MHz range. Physical models are part of our alternative analysis since there is a database of greater Beirut. the usage of empirical models in our design has many drawbacks. lack of correction factors for diversity in environment. However. Due to their simplicity. these empirical models suffer from various limitations such as inappropriate parameter variations. Physical models After discarding theoretical models from the analysis. as described above. system dimensioning. Second. 3. and Cost 231 W-I models have frequency limitations. and lack of the possibility to relate terrain type of the empirical model to the commonly available 20 . In addition there is no possibility to relate the parameters of these models to physical parameters in the real world. these models use parameters such as building heights. empirical and physical models are left for comparison.7 GHz. Therefore. most of the widely used empirical models such as Cost 231 Hata.Chapter 3 Design Alternatives: Analysis Comparison and As described above. First. Theoretical models. and other various generic system concept formulations. are not intended to be applied to any real propagation scenario. empirical. there exist three propagation models in our project: theoretical.5 to 2.

this clearly contradicts real systems in nonhomogenous propagation environments. this model would require comprehensive measurement scenarios and would be strenuous to achieve. Thus when applying the model in all directions from the transmitter and fixing the antenna height and environment used. and sometimes discontinuous. i.Chapter 3. However. location-specific. Therefore. physical models would have been a feasible option. However. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES: COMPARISON AND ANALYSIS 21 clutter or terrain databases.2 Conclusion We can conclude that relying on physical models would achieve the most accurate results compared to other propagation models under the current project circumstances. Thus the best alternative would have been to build a new empirical model. where the coverage area for a given base station is highly non circular. the empirical models are two dimensional. . using empirical models for our design project would give erroneous and unreliable results for our detailed. system planning. 16] Last but not least. It is important to note that had the terrain databases of greater Beirut been not available. Physical models rely heavily on high resolution terrain databases to give accurate results. The result of such models would be of great importance to our project since they would be location specific. 3. a circular coverage area would result. making the method of selecting a certain category for a particular system deployment not systematic. The last alternative for our design project is physical models.e. These models do not suffer from some of the limitations of empirical models such as the circular coverage area limit and the frequency range limit. [15. pathloss is described using a single equation as a function of the transmitter distance.

4. Aperto Manager 5. Cedarcom.4 GHz omni antenna 4.2 Software The two main software programs provided are: 1. whereas ICS Telecom full license was provided via our supervisor.Chapter 4 Budget There was no need for a budget plan and a source of funding for our project since the company which is sponsoring the project. 3.1 Hardware Equipment The hardware provided comprised of the following main units 1. 4.3 was provided by Cedarcom.3 22 . has provided all the hardware needed for measurement except for the omni antenna and the GPS unit that was provided by our supervisor. ICS Telecom 2. 2. In addition Aperto Manager 5. CPE (Customer Premise Equipment) GPS unit: A Global Positioning Satellite Connecting cables 2.

where we need specialized equipment and follow a procedure in order to correctly measure the field strength at a certain point in the environment. 5. Figure 5.1: Equipment used for the measurements. 5. 23 .1 Measurement setup The enhancement of the physical model will be based on measurements taken in the field.1 Measurement Material The picture below illustrates the equipment being used in the measurements that have been conducted.Chapter 5 Measurements This section describes the equipment used and the followed procedure for the measurement scenarios under the pre-WiMAX fixed wireless system currently installed. It also includes the measurements that have been done throughout this semester to evaluate our model.1. Correct measurements are crucial since they are the basis for tuning the model which will be used in our design.

The BS is PacketWave® 1000. CPE Figure 5. Receiver antenna.3. CPE This unit works as a modem which converts the IF signal from the receiver to baseband and sends the data to the computer via ethernet. Receiver Antenna Figure 5. An isotropic (omni directional) antenna should be used for the measurements to ensure correct measuring of the signal received from the base station.4 GHz omni antenna. Thus there would be minimal tuning of the direction of the antenna to get the correct signal. The transmit antenna is located in Abraj – sector 5. one of Aperto network products.2. The omni direction al antenna that we had available is a 2. .Chapter 5. MEASUREMENTS 24 Transmit Antenna One of the pre-WiMAX BSs currently deployed by Cedarcom will be used as the transmit antenna.

MEASUREMENTS 25 Computer A computer is needed on the receiver side to measure the received signal.4: GPS Unit.Chapter 5. 3. GPS Unit Figure 5. 2.5E cables used for connections: one with straight connectors. Aperto manager software is needed to display the measured signal. It is responsible for reading the received signal strength using specific setup. This is done using a GPS unit having a 5 m resolution Cables There are two Cat. It should have an Ethernet card and Java Runtime Environment installed. In addition. Connect the modem to the antenna using the cross cable.5): 1. Connect the straight cable from the Omni antenna to the modem. the other with cross connectors. 5.3 Software The software requires the presence of java runtime environment installed on the computer.2 Measurement Procedure The following procedure was used for measurements (see figure 5. . Connect the modem to the computer using the cross cable. To compare the measured signal with the one that the ICS software provides and that of our program. Aperto manager 5. Electric wire A basic two wire line of 1 mm width is used for power connections.1. we need to get the coordinates of the measured signal to input them in the software.

Using the Aperto manager 5. and therefore. our measurement cases were primarily concentrated on Salim Slem and Ras AlNabe’ areas. b. The average received signal in dBm will be read using the Aperto software via a graph that displays the received signal strength vs. Measurement Limitations: The distance between the receiver antenna and the base station had to be less than 1 km in order to receive a strong signal. Connect the modem to an electric outlet of 220 V. 6.5: Measurement Setup. several measurements have been done on the roof tops of many buildings in Beirut. Slightly maneuver the angle of the antenna to achieve the best possible signal. 5. The purpose of these measurements is to evaluate our model and verify that the results given by our model adhere to real life cases through the different measurements that we have conducted. 10. MEASUREMENTS 26 4.1. c. 9.528 GHz. Sector of the BS: 5. Figure 5.Chapter 5. the omni antenna that is available is a 2. 7. while the sector that we are working with .3 software the following measuring specs should be assigned: a. As previously mentioned.3 Measurement Cases Throughout this semester. Receiving signal frequency: 2. Place the omni antenna in an upright position. 8. Measure the location of the receiver antenna using the GPS unit. time. Assign a random IP address with its host to the computer.4 GHz antenna. 5. Designated pre-WiMAX BS: Abraj1.

29583 33.53035 -67 20 -85 M11 35. RF cable: which was estimated to be around 0.3009 33.53002 -67 25 -89 M18 35. MEASUREMENTS 27 is 2.4GHz. 5.29565 33.53092 -72 20 -91 M4 35.Chapter 5. Thus.3006 33.52581 -80 M7 35.3007 33.53078 -62 30 -86 M3 35.29587 33.30084 33.6 below shows the points on the ATDI map that corresponds to the measurements taken in the field. Measured Measur Wall Behind Calibrated ement Thickness Wall Coordinates Signal Name (cm) (dBm) (dBm) M1 35.53118 -67 M5 35.5GHz. Measurement 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Table 5.53011 -69 15 -86 M19 35.30106 33.30132 33. so we used this frequency in our measurements.29597 33.30154 33.30175 33.5301 -72 15 -90 M9 35. Below is a table that shows the different values of the signals that we have received through various measurement points.5dB additional loss in the receiver radio front end.30022 33.5 dB at 2.53104 -67 20 -87 Attenuation (dB) 18 24 19 15 18 21 18 24 18 12 20 15 22 17 20 Figure 5.5GHz. The minimum frequency that the sector can transmit is 2.53109 -65 20 -83 M14 35.53012 -71 15 -86 M17 35. there is an estimated loss of 1dB approximately (pattern loss and return loss).30051 33.52598 -70 M8 35. 2.1: Values of the measurement cases that were conducted.53001 -78 20 -97 M10 35.50429 33.1. .53048 -77 15 -92 M6 35.53099 -65 20 -85 M16 35.528 GHz. all our measurments were calibrated by this 1.30078 33.30343 33.30124 33.53041 -67 15 -79 M15 35. so at 2.53039 -68 M13 35.4 Calibration: In our measurement setup we have two sources of RF losses: 1.6 GHz.30023 33. The Omni antenna optimum characterisitics are tuned for 2.88413 -68 20 -86 M2 35.53059 -63 30 -87 M12 35.

MEASUREMENTS 28 Figure 5. .Chapter 5.6. Measurement positions.

2) Where 29 . The penetration loss for the signal component that cuts through the buildings. 6. Tg given by: Γe −2 jks e −2αs e + jko sin(θ ) Γg ≡ Γ − (1 − Γ ) 1 − Γ 2 e − 2 jks e − 2αs e + jko sin(θ ) 2 (6.2. This is typically true for our area of interest (Beirut) and throughout the region. Under the frequency of our interest (2. [21].6 GHz). 2.1. Γg. The diffraction loss using Deygout-94 method. The two predominant materials that the wave will encounter while passing from outdoor to indoor are: glass and concrete.2 Indoor Model As the electromagnetic wave propagates from the outdoor medium (air) to the indoor medium (air).1 Glass model As we know glass is a homogeneous material with known range of parameters. Therefore. we have used ITU-525 for the calculation of the free space field.Chapter 6 Implementation In this chapter.1 Outdoor Model For the outdoor model. the transmission and reflection characteristics of this material can be approximated by a multiray model as shown in Figure 6. two loss components are calculated: 1. The addition of the rays results in a generalized reflection.1) Tg = (1 − Γ 2 )e −2 jks e −2αs e + jko sin(θ ) 1 − Γ 2 e − 2 jks e − 2αs e + jko sin(θ ) (6. and transmission. it passes through a certain construction material that has significant effect on the power of the incoming wave. There are a lot of factors to be taken into account for each of the two materials to come up with an accurate model. So our focus will be on the implementation of a model for each of these two materials. If there is an obstruction between the Tx and Rx. we will discuss how we came up with the indoor model and explain how we implemented the indoor model in addition to the outdoor model for the ICS Telecom. the wavelength is not that small compared to the thickness of the material (couple of cms). 6. 6.

Given the above formulas and definitions. 2 + jωε 1. IMPLEMENTATION 2π 30 k= α= εr λ ω tan(δ ) 2π 2 is the propagation constant. Transmission Attenuation (dB) = 10 log (T ) Thus. and is given by: Γ= η 2 cos(θ t ) − η1 cos(θ i ) η 2 cos(θ t ) + η1 cos(θ i ) jωµ1.3) . Figure. is the propagation in free space. ko = λ l 1− sin (θ ) 2 s= is the path length inside the slab. 2 is the complex permittivity. 2 Where η1. ε. and permeability of the air and reflecting material and ω is the frequency of the incident radiation in radians. we can see that: Pr = Γg Pi 2 ( )+ P (dBm) Therefore. εr 2l d= εr is the path length difference. µ are the conductivity. 2 = σ 1. Where σ. εr Γ is the Fresnel reflection coefficient pertaining to a parallel polarization. permittivity. µ 0ε r ε 0 is the attenuation. sin 2 (θ ) 60σλ tan(δ ) = −1 is the loss tangent.Chapter 6. Pt (dBm) = 10 log Tg Pi = 10 log Tg Pt = Tg Pi 2 ( 2 ) 2 i 2 g (6.

015 0.4 -1.2 -1.Chapter 6.8 -2 -2.2.02 Figure 6.005 Attenuation (dB) 0.6 -1.1.4 -2.6 0.[21] The following three figures are based on the glass model just described.6 GHz. IMPLEMENTATION 31 Figure 6. thickness at normal incidence: f = 2. Multi ray internal successive model used. Attenuation of glass vs. εr= 5.2 -2. .01 thickness (m) 0. -1 -1.

5 frequency 3 3.6 -1.4. εr= 5.6 1 1. frequency = 2.4 -2.5 -3 -3.2 -2. εr= 5.5 -5 10 20 30 40 50 60 Incident angle (degrees) 70 80 90 Figure 6.5 -4 -4. Attenuation of glass vs. Attenuation of glass vs. Incident angle of the following parameters: thickness = 1 cm .5 Attenuation (dB) -2 -2.5 -1 -1.6 -0.5 x 10 4 9 Figure 6.3. IMPLEMENTATION 32 -0.Chapter 6.5 2 2.2 Attenuation (dB) -1.6 GHz. .8 -2 -2.4 -1.8 -1 -1. 0 -0. frequency at normal incidence: thickness = 1 cm .

the imaginary part (ε") which is given by σ/ω decreases with frequency. Water/Cement (W/C) ratio Cement concrete with a higher w/c ratio would be expected to have a higher dielectric constant due to higher pore water content. The dielectric constant of a concrete amalgamation and its equivalent electric conductivity depend on many variables such as: mixture. is much smaller than the increase in ω. w/c ratio. we can consider concrete to be a slab of a certain thickness and apply the above theoretical model to it. concrete is hardly a homogeneous element with predefined electrical properties. 23] Mixture As we know. We can see from [24] that using 8 different mixes of concrete showed somehow variable results around 30% difference in attenuation that results from the different dielectric constants and conductivity exhibited by the different mixes. the increase of σ. [22. Even a small amount of free water significantly affects the imaginary part of the dielectric constant due to an increase in electric conductivity. the difference of real part of the dielectric constant between the two specimens despite their close w/c ratio is shown: .Chapter 6. cure time/conditions. each of a certain mixture has an effect.2. Conductivity is more responsible for the loss behavior than the damping effects. [22] Frequency The imaginary part of the dielectric constant exhibits a general increase as frequency increases.2 Concrete model In theory. As we can see in the following figure. However. [22. however. IMPLEMENTATION 33 6. and frequency. concrete is made of various mixtures of cement. 25]. the real part of the dielectric constant decreases with frequency. Since conductivity increases with frequency (ω). Since the effect of polarization reduces with increasing frequency.

and w/c ratio.Chapter 6. reinforcement. We have focused on developing a model that is a function of the thickness of the wall. type of reinforcement used (slightly or heavily). Thus we have emphasized that our model to reflect general parameters reflecting curing time/conditions. but found no reference that actually defines the permittivity and the electric conductivity as a function of w/c ratio. mixture type. thus making it difficult for the movement of the free ionized water remaining in the cement. Effect of w/c ratio on the real part of the dielectric constant at one day for PCC. the dielectric constant would decrease with curing time [22. . which reduces ionic polarization and also conductivity due to decrease in ion production. the amount of free water in the cement decreases due to the cement hydration. in addition to thickness and angle of incidence. network planning engineers are not knowledgeable about the specificities of a concrete wall discussed above. thus the changes in electrical parameters would be minimal. the mixture will be fully cured. cure time and conditions. many of them have not been actually verified against measurements. the pore structure changes with curing time.[22] Cure time/ Conditions As the curing time increases. and frequency. Even though there are several theoretical models that tend to qualify for only a certain type of walls under certain conditions. The pore sizes become very small. IMPLEMENTATION 34 Figure 6. In addition. We have researched many references such as [26-34]. making the attenuation loss approximately constant from that point on. Also. 25]. The water changes from a free to an adsorbed state. and frequency of the EM wave hitting the concrete specimen. After an adequate amount of time. Therefore.5. and it would not be feasible to examine every type of wall in a certain area and get its attributes to achieve a successful network planning. Thus there was an impossibility to come up with a theoretical model of concrete that permits us to define its attenuation as a function of the above parameters.

5 dB as we can see in the following graph: -4 -6 -8 Attenuation (dB) -10 -12 -14 -16 0. We have also computed the attenuation of concrete as a function of the angle of incidence for the above parameters and found that there is close agreement to that of what was measured in [32] especially before an incident angle of 60 degrees(see figure 6. σ = 0.2 0. IMPLEMENTATION 35 To get a starting point. the following parameters were extracted for a given homogeneous concrete wall of thickness = 17 cm at 890 MHz: εr = 3 and σ = 0.3 Figure 6.05 S/m frequency = 0. we find that the attenuation at normal incidence is = 9.890 GHz.05 S/m. Thus applying the above theoretical multi ray model to these specific parameters.14 0.7).12 0.1 0. The following figure shows the agreement between the theoretical and measured model.22 thickness (m) 0. .16 0. we have seen from [32].Chapter 6. thickness of the following parameters: εr= 5.18 0.28 0. Attenuation of concrete vs.6.26 0.24 0.

Attenuation of concrete vs.7. incident angle for different parameters: Figure 6. We have also computed the attenuation of various parameters (εr.1 S/m.Chapter 6. incident angle of the following parameters: εr= 5. . IMPLEMENTATION 36 5 0 -5 -10 Attenuation (dB) -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 0 Theoretical Measured 10 20 30 40 50 60 Incidence angle (degrees) 70 80 90 Figure 6. incident angle of the following parameters: εr= 5.8. For example. σ = 0. the following figure shows the attenuation vs. σ = 0.05 S/m. σ) of concrete against frequencies and realized that the attenuation incurred due to the change in incidence angle is approximately the same as the one computed above. Attenuation of concrete vs.

40 46. IMPLEMENTATION 37 Thus we will take the above theoretical graph as a reference for our incidence angle loss.25 38.24 51.08 36.33 55.50 46. we can extract several important characteristics of the average concrete mix such as the frequency dependent nature and the thickness dependent nature.50 24. Average data from Stone.77 30.23 50.75 11.42 0.33 3. Freq (GHz) Wall width (cm) 10. i.67 85. In addition.5 9. The following is the data extracted from [24] and its corresponding figure (see figure 6. how the concrete attenuation changes as a function to frequency. thus increasing the overall attenuation greatly from what they would have been had the concrete specimen they were cured for months or years.5 24.85 2.16 63.33 38.1. we can also extract the effect of the slightly and heavily reinforced grids embedded in concrete.34 2.50 22.84 3 24.2 20.83 26.e.25 1 12. The limitations of this study are mainly the low cure time that the concrete specimen was subjected to.97 28.58 1.67 1. In order to get the frequency dependent nature of the concrete.75 22.5 20.5 14.9) from the 8 various mixtures of concrete and averaged over the three different thicknesses over the following frequency range: Table 6.3 30.25 18.35 2.57 41.99 72.75 15.67 38.50 38. However.Chapter 6.67 38. we shall use the most complete single examination of building material properties at microwave frequencies which was performed by Stone and coworkers at the US national Institute of Standards and Technology’s Gaithersburg laboratories [24].93 29.33 .01 52.73 36.25 13.90 31.5 0.50 4 24.50 2 16.83 84.43 37.00 1.

97 . frequency of the following parameters: thickness = 10.5 cm 80 70 60 Attenuation (dB) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.5 0.63 4 9.5 8. Averaged Attenuation of concrete vs.72 11.5 cm [24].43 16.46 12.64 3.26 10.90 29.84 21.25 7.94 22.27 1 5.94 21. Average calibrated data from Stone.79 15.81 1.96 19.5 4 4.58 34.24 34.3 30.2 20.16 15.93 12.9.01 15.5 3 3.3 cm 30.50 15.18 18.58 15. we get the following data table and corresponding graph: Table 6.12 12.68 14.89 9.5 2 Freq (GHz) 2.75 9.2 cm.5 dB @ 17 cm thickness).57 1.25 5.2 cm 90 20.Chapter 6. IMPLEMENTATION 38 10. 30.92 0. Freq (GHz) Wall width (cm) 10.98 15.5 3.2. 20.68 2.5 1 1.05 14. Therefore.78 2 6.5 9.5 6.75 6.20 2.3 cm.16 3 9.75 4.93 20.92 26.71 10.85 1.5 Figure 6. correlating the frequency change of the above data with the value that we have got above using the given parameter and theoretical mode ( 9.72 2.

30.3 cm. frequency of the following parameters: thickness = 10.5 cm 35 30 25 Attenuation (dB) 20 15 10 5 0 0 0. the affect of slightly and heavily reinforced steel on a concrete specimen.5 4 4.3 cm 30. 20. Averaged Attenuation of concrete vs.Chapter 6. Two cases of reinforcements are taken into consideration as we can see in the following figure: .10.5 Figure 6. We have also modeled using [24] reference.5 2 Freq (GHz) 2.2 cm. IMPLEMENTATION 39 10.2 cm 40 20.5 3 3.5 cm after correlating with the above measurement.5 1 1.

. The two specimens are taken from [24]. IMPLEMENTATION 40 Figure 6. The two kinds of reinforcements that were taken into consideration. Relying on the data that was measured by [24]. we come up with the following graph relating the non-reinforced concrete to its corresponding slightly and heavily reinforced concrete counterparts. Slightly reinforced concrete consisting of 14 cm spacing between metal rods. and heavily reinforced consisting of 7 cm spacing between metal rods.Chapter 6.11.

The program includes various propagation models used to calculate the power received by an antenna when a signal is transmitted from a base station. To include our model into ICS Telecom. When ICS Telecom needs to calculate a received power by an antenna.5 4 4. The structure includes: a.12.3 Implementation of the model in software ICS Telecom is a program from ATDI used by Cedercom. Averaged Attenuation of slightly (14 cm) and heavily (7cm) concrete vs. The Tx and Rx Antenna Height .Chapter 6. The number of ALT2 structures in the ALT2 array. The Tx’s x and y position (DTM point) c.5 2 Freq (GHz) 2.5 Figure 6.5 3 3. InModel structure: This structure includes general information about the transmitter and the receiver used to calculate the power. a dynamic linked library (dll) was created. it sends to the dll the following structures and arrays: 1. 6. The library is loaded from the propagation model menu of the program.5 1 1. frequency of the following parameters: thickness = 20. IMPLEMENTATION 41 20 cm No Rein 30 7 cm Rein 14 cm Rein 25 20 Attenuation(dB) 15 10 5 0 0 0.3 cm. b.

[20] Figure 6. f.13. The altitude of ground above sea level. ICS Telecom successively calls the DLL. The clutter code ( 0 = ground. then a 3 element pointer on an ALT2 structure (the third element is new). until a n element pointer is provided. The x and y DTM coordinates of the point.13). The diffraction loss When a field strength is computed along a profile of n points between the Tx and Rx. …. The ALT2 structure includes information about the DTM point. e. The distance between the transmitter and this DTM point. The DTM step in the x and y direction in meters. d. The field received c. The clutter altitude above ground. It includes the following fields: a. The solution displayed on ICS Telecom after receiving the solution from the dll. 5 = trees. The structure includes: a. the DLL is called n-1 times for a profile of length n to calculate the field received at the points between the receiver and transmitter (see figure 6.Chapter 6. OutModel: This structure needs to be filled by the dll. 9 = building ) c. The free space field received b. . ALT2 Array: The ALT2 array includes all the DTM points between the transmitter and the receiver. Thus. e. providing it first with a 2 element pointer of an ALT2 structure. 42 2. 3. The frequency. The Radiated Power in the direction of the receiver. b. IMPLEMENTATION d.

The Analyzer program runs four threads in parallel. OpenGL and Windows socket libraries. The data processor thread. tree. So the job of the dll was to send the structures it receives to an another external program (Analyzer) that will save the DTM points. The Analyzer program is an eight thousand line of code program that uses the Microsoft Foundation Class. the program calculates the field received from the pre-stored data set and antenna specification in the program. In the second function. an idea came up to copy all the DTM points from ICS Telecom to an external program that can draw the map as a 3D model by incorporating the height and using the clutter code to specify if this point is ground. IMPLEMENTATION 43 Using the fact that each DTM point in Beirut map used by ICS Telecom has unique x and y coordinates. In the first function. Therefore. calculate the power received and then fill up the OutModel and return it to the dll which will then return it to ICS Telecom. 3.14) 4. Figure 6. The graphical user interface (GUI) thread.14.Chapter 6. The Analyzer program has two main calculation functions. . analyze the data. water or building. The graphics engine thread. GUI. The four threads are: 1. the Analyzer program can be on another computer in the network and the dll will connect to it. This connection between the dll and the Analyzer program is done by establishing a TCP socket connection over port 4000. the Analyzer program calculates the field received from the data coming from the dll. The net link thread. 2. (see figure 6.

its information is displayed in the “Data Set Information” group box. So the Analyzer program should be able to identify which data received belongs to the same profile to save it in the same data set. When a connection is established. IMPLEMENTATION 44 6. In the “Data set Selection” group box there are buttons that: • Save and load the data set list into external files for future use. This job is the work of the data processor thread.3. Data set section. The net link thread just saves the data in a buffer and then the data processor thread reads the data from the buffer and groups data of the same profile into one dataset. As explained before. the concrete or glass loss will be calculated. the InModel structure and the ALT2 array are transmitted from the dll to the Analyzer program where the net link thread will save the received data into a buffer and then calculates the received power using first ITU-525 to calculate the free space received power.15). Then an entry is added in to the data set list box (see figure 6.2 Data processor thread The net link server saves the received data in a buffer.1 Net link thread The net link thread takes care of listening on port 4000 for any coming connection from the dll. so that it can be identified easily later. Then if there are any obstacles between the Tx and the Rx. • Empty the data set list.15.Chapter 6. Then the final received field will be calculated and the OutModel will be filled and return using the same TCP socket.3. Then if the indoor propagation model is enabled from the main menu of the program. When the user selects a data set from the data set list. The information displayed includes the InModel fields . Then the socket will be closed and the thread will wait for a new connection. Figure 6. This function was put is a separate thread so that the net link thread will not waste time in identifying which data belong to the same data set. Deygout-94 method will be used to calculate the diffraction loss. • Rename a data set list. ICS Telecom calls the dll n-1 times for a profile of n points. 6. • Delete a data set from the data set list.

3.3. the algorithm keeps updating the saved file with the last occurrence. Calculation section. 6.17. The group box contains three buttons: 1. 6. Terrain info: Displays the maximum x and y coordinates in a terrain file. a terrain file that contains all Beirut was created. Antennas properties section. 4. If a DTM point occur more than one time in the data set list.3. 2.Chapter 6. Coverage data were sent from the ICS Telecom to the Analyzer program using one km radius.16 shows the terrain creation controls group box. Graphics options section. Terrain creation group box. Figure 6. Terrain file specification and creation section.17 shows the “Terrain File” group box.3 GUI thread The GUI thread takes care of the user input. Terrain file specification. The main dialog is divided into five main parts: 1.3.3. 2. The “Terrain File” button specifies the terrain file that will be used for the 3D modeling. Then using create and update terrain functions. Update Terrain: Takes a terrain file created by “Create Terrain” and adds to it the new points from the data set list. Figure 6. Data set list section. The buttons in this group box are used to switch between the DTM points.2 Terrain file specification and creation section Figure 5.1 Data set list section The data set list part was discussed above in the data processor thread section. 6. Create Terrain: Creates a terrain file from all the data sets in the data set list.3. . 3. The algorithm saves the DTM points in a random access file in an efficient way so that they can be loaded later. 5. Figure 6. IMPLEMENTATION 45 and the ALT2 fields of each DTM point.16. The maximum x and y coordinates in the terrain file is displayed also.

Delete Antenna: deletes the selected antenna from the antenna list. Antenna Properties: opens the antenna properties dialog to set the various parameters of the antenna.3 Antennas properties section Figure 6.3. After setting the parameters of the antenna and pressing ok.3.19) where various parameters of the antenna are set. 3. Select Rx: select the selected antenna from the antenna list as the Rx antenna to be used for the calculation of the power received in the second calculation function. Data Set Rx: creates a new antenna with the x and y coordinates from the last DTM point in the data set which is selected in the data set list.18 shows the “Antenna Properties” group box. Figure 6. Antenna properties group box The group box contains 9 buttons: 1. Save Ant List: saves the antenna list with the properties of all the antennas in an external file for future use. Select Tx: select the selected antenna from the antenna list as the Tx antenna to be used for the calculation of the power received in the second calculation function. 4.Chapter 6. New Antenna: opens the antenna properties dialog (see figure 6.18. 7. The azimuth and zenith patterns are loaded from external files where for each angle the loss of the antenna is given. IMPLEMENTATION 46 6. 6. 9. 2. Load Ant List: loads an antenna list from an external file. 8. 5. a new antenna is created and added to the antenna list. . Data Set Tx: creates a new antenna with the x and y coordinates from the first DTM point in the data set which is selected in the data set list.

20. From the azimuth pattern. “Draw Terrain” button starts the graphics engine thread that creates the 3D model of the terrain file. IMPLEMENTATION 47 Figure 6.3. The “Create WireFrame Model” check box specifies if the 3D model can draw a WireFrame model of the buildings.3. the radiated power in the direction of the receiver is calculated.3. The “FZ” field specifies the amount of the first fresnel zone that will be used for calculating the subpath attenuations. The “Building Loss” field specifies the loss of the signal in dB . zenith pattern. 6. Figure 6. The “Create Data Set” button creates a new data set from the Tx and Rx antenna positions and uses the terrain file specified in the “Terrain File” group box to fill the DTM points between the Tx and Rx. Antenna properties. 6. azimuth rotation and transmitted power of the Tx antenna.5 Calculation section Figure 6.19. tilt. Graphics options group box. The names and most important parameters of the selected Rx and Tx antennas are shown below the buttons.Chapter 6.4 Graphics options section Figure 6.3.21 shows the “Calculation Options” group Box.20 shows the “Graphics Options” group box.

Chapter 6. IMPLEMENTATION 48 when it passes in a building of one Km width. For the glass obstruction. Calculation options group box The “Indoor Propagation Model” check box specifies if the indoor model calculations will be done for the two calculation functions. The “Set Indoor Model Parameters” button opens the “Indoor Model Parameters” dialog (see figure 6. the user should choose if the concrete is not reinforced.22. slightly reinforced or heavily reinforced. Figure 6. The thickness in cm of the obstruction material is specified in the thickness text field. For the concrete model. the relative dielectric constant and electric conductivity should be specified (default values are placed).22) where the obstruction material is specified as either concrete or glass. This value is used to calculate the power of the received signal when we take the signal component that passes through the building and not the diffracted component when there is an obstacle between the Tx and Rx. Indoor model parameters. .21. Figure 6.

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The “Calculate Received Power” button calculates the free space power received as if there was no obstruction. Then it calculates the indoor model loss. If there is an obstruction between the Tx and Rx, two loss components are calculated: 3. The diffraction loss using Deygout-94 method. 4. The penetration loss for the signal component that cuts through the buildings. For the two calculations, the final power received is calculated by subtracting the indoor model loss and the diffraction loss or the penetration loss from free space power received. All the values are displayed in the “Calculation Output” dialog (see figure 6.23). In addition the different subpath attenuations are displayed alone in the “Subpath Attenuation” group box.

Figure 6.23. Calculation Output.

6.3.4 Graphics engine thread
When “Draw Terrain” button is pressed in the “Graphics Options” group box, a new thread is created. The thread creates a new window and initializes the OpenGL interfaces. First the thread loads the terrain file that is specified in the “Terrain File” group box. It displays a 2D image of the terrain file and displays on the right the name and sector number of all the antennas in the antenna list (figure 6.24). Also on the terrain, each antenna will be drawn as a square with a small yellow line that represents the direction of the antenna. Using the mouse, the user can select which antenna is the Tx antenna and which antenna is the Rx antenna. Then the user creates, by clicking and dragging the mouse, a yellow box that represents the portion of the terrain that will be modeled in 3D. As soon as the box is specified, the graphics engine will go to its next state. In this state the graphics engine models in 3D to scale the terrain; where ground is drawn in black color, trees are drawn in green color, water is drawn in blue color and buildings are drawn in gray (figure 6.25). The “W” and “S” keys are used to move the user forward

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and backward respectively. The “A” and “D” keys are used to strafe the user left and right. The “Q” and “E” keys are used to move the position of the user up and down. The “R” and “F” keys are used to increase and decrease the speed of movement. The right and left arrow keys are used to rotate the view left and right. The up and down arrow keys are used to move the view up and down. Each antenna in the antenna list is drawn as a thin line above the building and the name of the antenna is written above the line. A red line will join the chosen Tx and Rx antennas. Pressing “1”, “2” and “3” keys will draw the first fresnel zone in red, the second fresnel zone in green and the third fresnel zone in blue respectively. If “Create WireFrame Model” check box is clicked, the user can press the “L” key and the WireFrame model will be rendered (figure 6.26). Then the user can press the “P” key to turn off the 3D rendering and keep only the WireFrame Model to see how the signal cut through buildings (figure 6.27).

Figure 6.24. 2D terrain image.

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Figure 6.25. 3D model.

Figure 6.26. WireFrame Model.

. WireFrame model with fresnel zone.27. IMPLEMENTATION 52 Figure 6.Chapter 6.

We will first present the evaluation of the glass model. 53 . verify and evaluate the results that the model gave and check if it adheres to the measurements that we have done.3 cm . we will have to validate our multi-ray model against other references that have done some measurements on glass slabs. the next important step is to validate.Chapter 7 Evaluation After coming up with the model. Attenuation of glass vs. εr= 5. Thus the following is a graph relating what our theoretical model gives to what the measurement in [stone] has given: Figure 7.1. Since there were no measurements involving glass attenuation. We will use glass measurements in [24] to correlate to our model. frequency at normal incidence: thickness = 1.

5 dB.3 -1.Chapter 7. Attenuation of glass vs.3 -70.33 1.25 1. Our program output will be based only on ITU-525.75 87. we will evaluate it using the measurements that we have done and relating it to what our program gives. the measurements were done on the same site rooftop but behind a non reinforced wall.9 -67.67 -63.5.1 20 30 20 -86 -86 -91 -85. EVALUATION 54 Figure 7. Thus we can see that the error between our model and what Stone has measured is on average less than 0. Measurements and program results. Error = Measured Program Program Meas. frequency at normal incidence: thickness = 1. As for the concrete model. Indoor (dB) -0. εr= 6. The below table shows the received power of the measurements done and what our program outputs.1. For the case of behind wall measurements.2.1 0.9 cm .6 89 Error = Behind Wall – Prog. – Wall Behind Measurement Calibrated Outdoor Indoor Program thickness Wall Name Signal Output Output outdoor (cm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dB) M1 M2 M3 M4 -68 -62 -72 -67 -67.1 -0.6 -2 . All the measurements done were LOS cases due to the omni antenna that did not have enough gain to be able to receive MLOS signals. The “program indoor output” in the table below is our program’s output based on ITU-525 and the loss of the implemented concrete model. Table 7.

9 -66.4 -67 -63.1 -66.Chapter 7.9 -70.1 -0. If we omit these measurements we would get the following average error for the overall model = 2. However.1 -5.3 0.4 -64.8 dB.8 0.7 -84.6 0 -1.5 -3 -2.6 -0.4 82. we can see that the program has deviated greatly due to presence of wires and metal doors that were near our measurements and would not be incorporated in a map or in our program.2 -85.4 15 -92 -77 55 -15 15 20 20 30 20 15 20 15 25 15 20 -90 -97 -85 -87 -83 -79 -85 -86 -89 -86 -87 -80 -87.6 -14 -9.3 We can see that in most cases the error between the measurements and what our model gives is very small (within ±3 dB). EVALUATION M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 M11 M12 M13 M14 M15 M16 M17 M18 M19 -77 -80 -70 -72 -78 -67 -63 -68 -65 -67 -65 -71 -67 -69 -67 -63 -70. .1 1.8 -66.3 -0.1 -65.2 -0.2 -3.7 -88.3 -69. in some of the measurements (such as M5).2 1.8 -66.1 -88.7 -10 -9.5 -3.5 -80.5 -82.8 0.6 -9. Thus giving rise to such erroneous measurements.4 -68.1 -0.3 -2.5 1.5 -82 -83.1 -2.4 -0.2 -67.8 -64.

However. we encountered a lot of constraints that tried to hinder our progress. they provided us with the necessary equipment. As a result. field measurements were done during the months of February and March. Finally.000 to get its license. However. through his connections. we had to face heavy winds and rain on the rooftops of buildings during our measurements. we had an important criterion to meet. our design does not depend on a specific map but it can be easily customized according to user needs and demands to stay robust. However. and since Cedarcom are the sponsors of the project. We overcame this problem by simply choosing other building to go to. therefore. was able to obtain the software for the university. The model has to function properly even if many new buildings were constructed. During the field measurements and despite the fact that we had a paper signed from the dean showing explicitly the nature of our project. Therefore.Chapter 8 System Constraints In our system design. This was primarily due to the non-helpful social characters of many people. On the economical level. As for the environmental aspect. we started watching the weather forecast new in order to have a vivid idea on when we will be able to perform the measurements. 56 . Prof. Walid Ali Ahmad. which is sustainability. the project required sophisticated measuring equipment which obviously cost a lot. we faced a problem of not being able to enter many buildings. we were able to successfully overcome all of these constraints to finally come up with required model. Another important economic constraint was being able to obtain the ATDI software which cost around $20.

we have implemented a propagation model that is divided into two main parts: outdoor and indoor models. additional field measurements should be performed using new WiMAX equipment in order to further develop the model and adhere to WiMAX specifications. the model was within ± 3 dB from the measurements. 57 . The indoor model takes into consideration the two main construction materials in Beirut buildings: concrete and glass. The model was validated through several field measurements done in Salim Slem and Ras AlNabe’ areas. Concerning the future work to be done. The outdoor model is based on the ITU525 model for the calculation of the received free space electric field and Deygout 94 for diffraction losses. The complete model was implemented in a stand-alone software that can be linked to ICS Telecom using a dynamic linked library (dll).Chapter 9 Conclusion In this final year project. Specifically.

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