EUROPEAN COMMISSION EuropeAid Co-operation Office General Affairs Evaluation

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March 2001

The first version of this manual was drawn up in 1993 by a working party of the Commission under the aegis of the Evaluation Unit with consultations from Member States and ACP experts. This second version, likewise produced by the Evaluation Unit of the EuropeAid Co-operation Office with contributions from both within and outside the Commission, has benefited from the valuable assistance of PARTICIP GmbH, which did the preparatory work, carried out the training, and helped to develop this manual.

European Commission – EuropeAid

Manual Project Cycle Management

0DQXDO 3URMHFW &\FOH 0DQDJHPHQW 7DEOH RI FRQWHQWV 1. 2. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 1 THE PROJECT CYCLE .................................................................................................. 3 2.1. Definitions: The Six Phases of the Project Cycle...................................................... 3 2.2. Key PCM Principles ................................................................................................. 4 2.3. The Basic Format or Structure of Project and Programme Documents .................... 5 2.4. Sector Programmes ................................................................................................. 6 3. THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK........................................................................................ 8 3.1. What is the Logical Framework? .............................................................................. 8 3.2. Limits of the Logframe Matrix ................................................................................... 9 3.3. The Logical Framework Approach: Two Stages ....................................................... 9 3.4. The Four Parts of Analysis ..................................................................................... 10 3.4.1. Stakeholder Analysis ......................................................................................... 10 3.4.2. Problem Analysis............................................................................................... 12 3.4.3. Analysis of Objectives ....................................................................................... 14 3.4.4. Analysis of Strategies ........................................................................................ 15 3.5. The Planning Stage ............................................................................................... 17 3.5.1. Building the Logframe Matrix ............................................................................. 17 3.5.2. First Column: Intervention Logic ........................................................................ 17 3.5.3. Second Column: Objectively Verifiable Indicators.............................................. 18 3.5.4. Third Column: Sources of Verification................................................................ 19 3.5.5. Fourth Column: Assumptions ............................................................................ 19 3.5.6. How to Identify the Intervention Logic? .............................................................. 20 3.5.7. How to Identify Assumptions? ........................................................................... 22 4. QUALITY FACTORS .................................................................................................... 24 4.1. What are Quality Factors? ..................................................................................... 24 4.2. How to Plan for Quality .......................................................................................... 25 5. COMPLETING THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK ............................................................. 28 5.1. How to Identify Objectively Verifiable Indicators (OVIs) and Sources of Verification (SOV)? ................................................................................................ 28 5.2. How to Identify Means and Costs?......................................................................... 31 5.3. Final Quality Check of the Logframe ...................................................................... 31

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...2......European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management 6.................. Preparing Activity Schedules........................................... USING THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK TO PLAN COMPLEX INTERVENTIONS: INTERLOCKING LOGFRAMES.............................. Preparing Resource Schedules..... 34 6... 35 7............................................ USING THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK TO DEVELOP ACTIVITY AND RESOURCE SCHEDULES...................... 34 6................................................................................................... 39 ii ................................................................... 8.............. 36 GLOSSARY OF TERMS.........1...........................................................................

to improve the management of external co-operation actions – projects and programmes of all kinds – by taking better account of essential issues and framework conditions in both designing and implementing projects and programmes:  &OHDU DQG UHDOLVWLF REMHFWLYHV IRU SURMHFWV DQG SURJUDPPHV ⇒ the drawing of a clear distinction between the objectives and the means of achieving them. the cross-cutting issues of HQYLURQPHQWDO SURWHFWLRQ. while the VWUDWHJLF DUHDV deriving from the Maastricht Treaty are the following1: o VXVWDLQDEOH GHYHORSPHQW. investment. social and human development and environmental protection. the respect for the VRFLRFXOWXUDO values of the people involved. “owned” by the recipient country. using. risks and assumptions: major external factors which could significantly affect project success. locally renewable resources. The REMHFWLYH of PCM was. 1 See DEV-19-00-OPS. COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL AND THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT: The European Community’s Development Policy. which updates the original 1993 version. which are called upon to run the projects. as well as JHQGHU differences to be acknowledged and gender inequalities to be reduced. ⇒ ⇒  ³4XDOLW\´ IDFWRUV WR HQKDQFH SURMHFW EHQHILWV LQ WKH ORQJ UXQ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒  &RQVLVWHQF\ ZLWK DQG FRQWULEXWLRQ WR ³RYHUDUFKLQJ SROLF\ REMHFWLYHV´ E\ SURM HFWV DQG SURJUDPPHV ⇒ PCM is closely linked to the broader framework of external co-operation actions of the EC. 1 . whether public or private. the management FDSDFLW\ RI WKH LQVWLWXWLRQV. employment. which was already widely used by many donors. This manual. the HFRQRPLF DQG ILQDQFLDO viability of project funding. and the sustainability of benefits in the longer term. the need to choose DSSURSULDWH WHFKQRORJLHV.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management  . in particular through promoting equitable growth.1752'8&7. for which SRYHUW\ UHGXFWLRQ LV WKH FHQWUDO REMHFWLYH. which are all part of the overarching policy objectives. including several Member States and encouraged by the Development Assistance Committee of the OECD.21 In 1992 the Commission adopted “Project Cycle Management” (PCM). a set of project design and management tools based on the Logical Framework method of analysis. particularly for sectoral policies. presents the main features of PCM. a clear and realistic definition of the Project Purpose which must always entail sustainable benefits for the target group(s). the need for a UDWLRQDO SROLF\ IUDPHZRUN. for example. and remains.

GHPRFUDF\ KXPDQ ULJKWV UXOH RI ODZ and when necessary peacemaking and conflict prevention. trying to ensure that projects / programmes are consistent with and contribute to these “overarching policy objectives” of the Community’s external co-operation. this manual uses two examples: • • a road sector support programme example. beneficiaries. It entails the active participation of stakeholders (target groups. the project example deals with regional / local specificities. Therefore.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management o o o ⇒ LQWHJUDWLRQ LQWR WKH ZRUOG HFRQRP\. the PCM approach has been widened covering not only the traditional project approach. tools and standard document layouts throughout the life of a project is sometimes referred to as the “integrated approach” to managing the project cycle. There is a considerable number of common elements to these examples. including through support to regional co-operation and integration. and to illustrate the basic elements of the approach. Compared to 1993. On a more operational level. Finally. that shows the usefulness of the approach at sector level. PCM is a collection of relatively simple concepts and tasks or techniques. the XVHIXOQHVV of PCM depends on the quality of information available (especially from intended beneficiaries and target groups). local institutions and decision makers) throughout the project or programme cycle. including: ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ the concept of the project cycle stakeholder analysis the “Logical Framework” planning tool key quality factors activity and resource schedules standardised. Like all concepts and tools. but while the sector example looks at the more broader issues. coherent structures for key project documents. PCM seeks to consider these issues from the very beginning of the project cycle. but also VHFWRU SURJUDPPHV for which its principles are equally applicable. The use of these concepts. and an example of a more traditional feeder roads project focusing on maintenance. 2 . and informed decisionmaking at key stages in the preparation and implementation of projects and programmes. and on how well it is used. ILJKW DJDLQVW SRYHUW\. PCM seeks improvements by providing for proper feasibility / design studies. monitoring and evaluation.

including a Logical Framework (see Section 3) with indicators of expected results and impact (see Section 5. and evaluated with a view to improving the strategy and further action. which then is formulated.  'HILQLWLRQV 7KH 6L[ 3KDVHV RI WKH 3URMHFW &\FOH Programming: a )LJXUH  7KH 3URMHFW &\FOH The establishment of general guidelines and principles for EU co-operation with a country. 2 Throughout this manual the word “project” refers both to a “project” – a group of activities to produce a project purpose in a fixed time frame – and a “programme” – a series of projects whose objectives together contribute to a common overall objective. formulation. Sometimes referred to as design. taking account of the orientations of the Country Strategy Paper. WKH VHFWRUDO DQG WKHPDWLF IRFXV RI (8 DLG LV DJUHHG DQG LGHDV IRU SURMHFWV DQG SURJUDPPHV DUH EURDGO\ RXWOLQHG.1). at sector. needs and interests of possible stakeholders are analysed and ideas for projects and other actions are identified and screened for eventual further study. which leads to an idea for a specific action. 3 3 . Appraisal3: All significant aspects of the idea are studied. and implementation and resource schedules (Section 6). should be produced. Detailed implementation schedules.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management  7+( 352-(&7 &<&/( The way in which projects2 are planned and carried out follows a sequence beginning with an agreed strategy. Based on analysis of the country’s problems and opportunities. of other donors’ actions and of local and EU capacities. Identification: Within the framework established by the Country Strategy Paper. country or even multi-country level. problems. or ex-ante evaluation. The outcome is a decision on whether or not the option(s) developed should be further studied in detail. Beneficiaries and other stakeholders should actively participate in the detailed specification of the project idea. The outcome is a Country Strategy Paper or a Country Support Strategy (terms used synonymously). preparation. and D GHFLVLRQ LV WDNHQ ZKHWKHU RU QRW WR IXQG WKH SURMHFW A formal agreement with the partner Government or another entity is then signed by both including essential financing implementation arrangements. implemented. 5HOHYDQFH WR SURE OHPV DQG IHDVLELOLW\ DUH NH\ LVVXHV. Financing: The financing proposal is completed and considered by the appropriate internal or external committee. and taking account of the EU’s and the local priorities. Sectoral. key quality factors (see Section 7) and the views of the main stakeholders. thematic and initial or “pre-feasibility” project studies may be done to KHOS LGHQWLI\ VHOHFW RU LQYHVWLJDWH VSHFLILF LGHDV DQG WR GHILQH ZKDW IXUWKHU VWXG LHV PD\ EH QHHGHG to formulate a project or action. The outcome is a decision on whether or not to propose the project for financing.

the duration and importance of each phase may vary but the basic process is the same for all projects of all kinds. The aim is to determine the relevance and fulfilment of objectives. This XVXDOO\ LQYROYHV FRQWUDFWV IRU VWXGLHV WHFKQLFDO DVVLVWDQFH ZRUNV RU VXSSOLHV Progress is assessed (= monitoring) to enable adjustment to changing circumstances. either to help steer the project or to draw lessons for future projects and programming. as systematic and objective as possible. enabling the incorporation of lessons learned into the decision-making process of both recipients and donors”4.e. Use of the /RJLFDO )UDPHZRUN $SSURDFK to analyse the problems. An evaluation should OHDG WR D GHFLVLRQ WR FRQWLQXH UHFWLI\ RU VWRS D SURMHFW and the conclusions and recommendations should also be taken into account when planning and implementing other similar future projects. at its end (“final evaluation”) or afterwards (“ex-post evaluation”).H\ 3&0 3ULQFLSOHV In practice. programme or policy. Evaluation: Evaluation is an “assessment. Disciplined production of JRRGTXDOLW\ NH\ GRFXPHQW V. An evaluation can be done during implementation (“mid-term”). )LJXUH  7KH 3URMHFW &\FOH 0DLQ 'RFXPHQWV DQG 'HFLVLRQV The Project Cycle: Major Documents and Decisions 8‚ˆ‡…’à T‡…h‡rt’ÃQhƒr… 9rpv†v‚Ãu‚Ã‡‚à ˆ†rÅr†ˆy‡†ÃvÃ sˆ‡ˆ…rà ƒ…‚t…h€€vt @‰hyˆh‡v‚Ã †‡ˆq’ Q…v‚…v‡’Ãh…rh†à †rp‡‚…†à ‡v€r‡hiyr Q…r Q…r srh†vivyv‡’à †‡ˆq’ 9rpv†v‚Ãuvpuà ‚ƒ‡v‚†Ã‡‚Ƈˆq’à sˆ…‡ur… 9rpv†v‚Ã‡‚Ãp‚‡vˆrà h†Ãƒyhrq…ǂÅr ‚…vr‡Ãƒ…‚wrp‡Ã€vq ‡r…€Ãr‰hyˆh‡v‚ Q…‚t…r††Ãhqà H‚v‡‚…vtà Srƒ‚…‡† 9rpv†v‚Ãhi‚ˆ‡Ã ‡urÁrrqÃs‚…à r‘‡r†v‚ Arh†vivyv‡’à †‡ˆq’ 9rpv†v‚Ãur‡ur…Ç‚à a q…hÃˆƒÃhÃs‚…€hyà svhpvtłƒ‚†hy 9…hs‡Ã Avhpvtà Q…‚ƒ‚†hy Avhpvtà Q…‚ƒ‚†hy 9rpv†v‚Ã‡‚à Avhpvtà 6t…rr€r‡ sˆq  . project design. its design. developmental efficiency. impact and sustainability. At the end of implementation. a decision should be taken to close or extend the project. 2. implementation and results. An evaluation should provide information that is credible and useful. effectiveness. The essential PCM principles are: 1. and work out a suitable solution – i. overall objectives. of an ongoing or completed project.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management Implementation: The agreed resources are used to achieve the project purpose (= the target group(s) receive the planned benefits) and the wider.

Consulting and involving NH\ VWDNHKROGHUV as much as possible. to ensure structured and well-informed decision-making. 3. 4 OECD / DAC. in each phase. 1999 4 .

European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management 4. in terms of VXV WDLQDEOH EHQHILWV IRU WKH LQWHQGHG WDUJHW JURXS V. Clearly formulating and focussing on the Project Purpose.

and linkage with other donors’ activities Description of the intervention (objectives. • • •  7KH %DVLF )RUPDW RU 6WUXFWXUH RI 3URMHFW DQG 3URJUDPPH 'RFXPHQWV The basic ‘format’ or layout follows the core logic of the logframe (see Section 3):  6XPPDU\  %DFNJURXQG Overall EC and Government policy objectives. projects are relevant to the DJUHHG VWUDWHJ\ and to the real problems of target groups / beneficiaries. PCM brings together aid management principles. EHQHILWV generated by projects are sustainable. including stakeholder analysis  3URMHFW  SURJUDPPH GHVFULSWLRQ objectives. projects are IHDVLEOH meaning that objectives can be realistically achieved within the constraints of the operating environment and the capabilities of the implementing agencies. and strategy to reach them.. commitment of Government to overarching policy objectives of the EC such as respect of human rights  6HFWRUDO DQG SUREOHP DQDO\VLV. including project purpose. implementation schedule Estimated cost and financing plan Special conditions and accompanying measures by Government / partners Monitoring and Evaluation Participation and ownership by beneficiaries Policy support Appropriate technology Socio-cultural aspects Gender equality Environmental protection Institutional and management capacities Financial and economic viability  4XDOLW\ IDFWRUV ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ $QQH[: Logframe (completed or outline. poverty reduction and to FURVVFXWWLQJ LV VXHV such as gender equality. 5.PSOHPHQWDWLRQ $UUDQJHPHQWV ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ Physical and non-physical means Organisation and implementation procedures Timetable. results and activities and main indicators)  $VVXPSWLRQV 5LVNV DQG )OH[LELOLW\  . respect of the environment (relevance to and compatibility with theses issues in the broad sense). analytical tools and techniques. and the strategy to attain them ⇒ ⇒ Including lessons from past experience. Incorporation of NH\ TXDOLW\ LVVXHV into the design from the beginning. and applies them within the structured decision-making process of the cycle to ensure that: • projects respect and contribute to RYHUDUFKLQJ SROLF\ REMHFWLYHV RI WKH (& such as respect of human rights. depending on the phase) 5 . and links with the Commission’s country programme or strategy.

3DUWQHUV DGRSW FRPPRQ DSSURDFKHV across the sector and for sub-sectors. $OO VLJQLILFDQW IXQGLQJ for the sector supports a single sector policy and expenditure programme under government leadership (sector expenditure framework and annual budget). which have sufficient national capacity to elaborate and implement national policies and co-ordinate donor activities. priorities and standards which apply to all public activity in the sector including that financed by donors. the Country Support Strategy identifies the sectors to be supported by the EC. In this context it is clear that external assistance will be more and more directly integrated into government plans and the national budget. towards co-financing and budget support. the imple- 6 . if conditions allow. During the $SSUDLVDO phase emphasis is on detailed design and on reaching agreement on WKH SULQFLSOHV WKDW ZLOO JRYHUQ WKH LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ RI WKH SUR JUDPPH Such principles might include issues such as the equitable allocation of resources between central and local administrations. The Sector Programme Cycle is comparable to the project cycle. It aims at providing a public expenditure framework for both local and external resources in support of the development and implementation of an equitable. 2. In a process of dialogue between government. As a result. The RXWFRPH is a decision on ZKHWKHU RU QRW WR JR DKHDG ZLWK D VHFWRU SURJUDPPH WR EH MRLQWO\ GHVLJQHG 3. This has led the donor community to engage in the support of sector approaches (sector programmes). but does not change significantly for the implementation (reporting on progress) or evaluation phases. donors evolve from supporting specific activities to co-financing a policy with the partner country and other donors. The RXWFRPH LV DQ DJUHHPHQW RQ ZKLFK VHFWRUV WR VXSSRUW 2. Through a sectoral policy document and strategic framework JRYHUQPHQW WDNHV UHVSRQVLELOLW\ for setting policies. and tend to develop. pre-appraisal of the sector programme takes place. However. During the . These co-ordinated efforts are made on the basis of objectives set by the government and in the framework of a coherent public sector expenditure programme. $ VHFWRU DSSURDFK DLPV DW EURDGHQLQJ WKH QRWLRQ RI LPSDFW EH\RQG WKH VFRSH RI RQH VSHFLILF GRQRU. 3. donors and other stakeholders at the national and sector level.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management The format mainly reflects the tasks involved in project preparation. 6HFWRU SURJUDPPHV KDYH WKUHH PDLQ IHDWXUHV 1.  6HFWRU 3URJUDPPHV Major efforts have been made in recent years to ensure that projects are part of a national policy and that donor co-ordination is improved. During the 3URJUDPPLQJ phase. PDFURHFRQRPLF DQG EXGJHWDU\ VLWXDWLRQ TXDOLW\ RI SXEOLF ILQDQFH PDQDJH PHQW LVVXHV RI JRRG JRYHUQDQFH VHFWRU SROLFLHV and the soundness of the objectives are assessed. and satisfactory policy. well balanced. Government and the donor reach broad agreement on the sector policy and strategy (normally agreed with other donors also). the starting point being the Country Support Strategy: 1. such an approach is insufficient particularly in countries. the appropriateness of the expenditure framework and the coherence of the annual workplans and budgets are analysed. the necessary transparency of the budgetary process and accounting system.GHQWLILFDWLRQ phase.

including government and other donors’ funds also. Indicators of sector programmes are often linked to internationally set targets (OECD / DAC International Development Goals). the sector programme is implemented within the framework of the public sector expenditure programme. 4. 6. 7 . etc. Details of programme priorities. sector reforms and investments are agreed. while medium-term implementation should be subject to FRQGLWLRQV EDVHG RQ SHUIRUPDQFH DQG RXWFRPHV.PSOHPHQWDWLRQ phase. the focus is on conclusions and recommendations with regard to the outcomes of the programme. During the (YDOXDWLRQ phase. This will result in the amount of support being modulated on the basis of the level of achievement of objectives and the amount of services provided to the beneficiaries. normally with both government and other donors. 5. Under joint funding arrangements. During the .European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management mentation of administrative and institutional reforms. a decision is taken on whether or not to fund the programme. only a limited number of strong pre-conditions should be identified under the sectoral approach. During the )LQDQFLQJ phase. the follow-up of expenditure is not limited to the EC contribution only but extends to the entire sector financing. The outcome is a decision whether or not to propose the programme for financing. and possible improvements to the sector policy and programme. As for the issue of FRQGLWLRQDOLW\.

)LJXUH  7KH /RJLFDO )UDPHZRUN 0DWUL[ The Logical Framework Matrix D‡r…‰r‡v‚Ã G‚tvp Piwrp‡v‰ry’à Wr…vsvhiyrà Dqvph‡‚…† T‚ˆ…pr†Ã‚sà Wr…vsvph‡v‚ 6††ˆ€ƒ‡v‚† P‰r…hyyà Piwrp‡v‰r† Q…‚wrp‡Ã Qˆ…ƒ‚†r Sr†ˆy‡† 6p‡v‰v‡vr† Hrh† 8‚†‡ Q…rp‚qv ‡v‚† There are close links between the Logical Framework and the basic document format. activities. such as the detailed budget.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management  7+( /2*. but will fill up gradually in the ensuing phases of appraisal.  :KDW LV WKH /RJLFDO )UDPHZRUN" The Logical Framework was developed in the 1970s and is now used by a large number of different agencies. financing. as well as for its evaluation. project / programme purpose. results. the logical framework is also useful for the implementation of a project / programme. 5 Often referred to as “sustainability factors”. This should reflect the causal relationships between the different levels of objectives. 8 . The framework should be drawn up during preparation (identification) although it cannot be fully completed at this stage. means and cost. The main results of this process are summarised in a matrix which shows the most important aspects of a project / programme in a logical format (the “logframe”). The method involves the presentation of the results of analysis in such a way that it is possible to set out the project / programme’s objectives in a systematic and logical way. A critical analysis of TXDOLW\ IDFWRUV5 enables adjustments to the project purpose. It thus plays a role in each phase of the cycle. activities. assumptions and indicators. implementation and evaluation. assumptions and indicators. the breakdown of responsibilities. results. the implementation schedule and a monitoring plan.&$/ )5$0(:25. to indicate how to check whether these objectives have been achieved. above all in the section / paragraph headings on overall objectives. The logical framework thus becomes the tool for managing each phase of the project cycle and a “master tool” for creating other tools. and to establish what assumptions outside the control of the project / programme may influence its success. In addition to analysis and design.

Many other factors will also influence a project / programme’s success. however good it is. which has to be re-assessed and revised as the project itself develops and circumstances change during implementation. a tool.  7KH /RJLFDO )UDPHZRUN $SSURDFK 7ZR 6WDJHV Drawing up a logframe has two stages. which are carried out progressively during the Identification and Appraisal phases of the project cycle: 1. The $QDO\VLV 6WDJH during which the existing situation is analysed to develop a vision of the ‘future desired situation’ and to select the strategies that will be applied to achieve it. including: • • • • The information available The ability of the planning team Good consultation of stakeholders.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management  /LPLWV RI WKH /RJIUDPH 0DWUL[ The Logical Framework has proved its usefulness in helping those who prepare and implement projects to better structure and formulate their ideas and to set them out in a clear. notably the organisational skills of the team or organisation in charge of implementation. ensuring balanced representation of different interests. standardised way. Each logframe should be the fruit of a thorough analysis and a joint planning process whose quality depends upon a number of factors. the logframe should reveal the contradictions. If the policy is misconceived or if the logic is poor. )LJXUH  6XFFHVV RI D 3URMHFW 6RPH )DFWRUV Success of a Project: Some Factors Good / careful planning Project addresses real problems of the target groups Parties involved stick to their commitments Beneficiaries are clearly identified by gender and socio-economic group Fair representation of different interests through participation Efficient project management Competent and motivated project team Fair allocation of costs and benefits between women and men Organisational capacity 6XFFHVV RI D SURMHFW 7KH HVWDEOLVKPHQW RI D ORJIUDPH VKRXOG QRW EH D IRUPDO µEOXHSULQW¶ H[HUFLVH. including of women and men Thorough consideration of lessons learnt In particular. The logframe is thus just a tool for improving project planning and implementation. The key idea is that projects / programmes are designed 9 . However. cannot alone guarantee successful results (µJDUEDJH LQ JDUEDJH RXW¶). though it cannot of itself design better policies. the logframe must also be seen as a G\QDPLF WRRO.

In this stage.  7KH )RXU 3DUWV RI $QDO\VLV  6WDNHKROGHU $QDO\VLV Any individuals. A number of stakeholders in this example are identical for the two levels. It is therefore vital to analyse the gender differences and inequalities and to take them into account in the intervention. women and men have inequitable access to services (e. Everywhere. social and political life. Stakeholder analysis and problem analysis are closely connected: without people’s views on a problem. Gender inequalities hinder growth and harm development. Whenever logframes are re-considered during the life of a project. its objectives. The 3ODQQLQJ 6WDJH is when the project idea is further developed into a practical.. education) and to opportunities in economic. problems and potentials of women and men among the stakeholder groups. the original stakeholder analysis should be reviewed. However. groups of people. transport. In all societies. The stakeholder analysis must therefore systematically identify all JHQGHU GLIIHUHQFHV. ensuring balanced representation of the interests of women and men. involving representatives of the main stakeholders. and how. their importance for and contribution to the two types of intervention may vary considerably. It is important that stakeholder analysis take place at an early stage in the identification and appraisal phases of a project / programme. In order to maximize the social and institutional benefits of the project / programme and minimise its negative impacts. there are differences in the roles and responsibilities of women and men. the logframe is drawn up. In an ideal case the project / programme should be designed in a participatory planning workshop. where tools for activity and resource scheduling are described). The following figure provides an example of a stakeholder analysis for a roads sector programme and for a feeder roads project. as well as their needs and interests. as well as the specific interests. and in their access to and control over resources and their participation in decision-making. 10 . stakeholder analysis identifies all likely to be affected (either positively or negatively). nor eventual solutions will become clear. and activities and resources are defined and scheduled (see Section 6. health. operational plan ready to be implemented.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management to address the problems faced by target groups / beneficiaries. strategies and resource allocation. even unintentionally exacerbate existing disparities. Failure to adequately address gender issues can damage the effectiveness and sustainability of projects and programmes. institutions or firms that may have a relationship with the project / programme are defined as stakeholders. both women and men. nor their needs. There are four steps to the Analysis Phase: ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ Stakeholder Analysis Problem Analysis (image of reality) Analysis of Objectives (image of an improved situation in the future) Analysis of Strategies (comparison of different options to address a given situation) 2.g. neither its nature.

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the problem tree represents a comprehensive picture of the H[ LVWLQJ QHJDWLYH VLWXDWLRQ: The impact of this type of diagram is often greatest if it is prepared at a workshop of those concerned (who therefore know the situation) led by a person who understands the group’s dynamic and is experienced in the method (a moderator).European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management )LJXUH  ([DPSOH RI D 3UREOHP 7UHH Roads Sector Programme: Problem Tree 8‚ˆ‡…’Ãp‚€ƒr‡v‡v‰rr††Ã‚Ã v‡r…h‡v‚hyÀh…xr‡†Ã…rqˆprq B‚‰r…€r‡Ãvp‚€rÇu…‚ˆtuà ‡h‘h‡v‚Ã…rqˆprq Ã@‰v…‚€r‡hyy’Ã…ryr‰h‡ǂÃirà hhy’†rqÃvÃqr‡hvy ÃBrqr…Ær†v‡v‰rǂÃirÃsˆ…‡ur…à T‚pvhyÃp‚†‡Ã‚sà ‡…hssvpÃvp…rh†vt Q…v‰h‡rÃv‰r†‡€r‡Ãhqà t…‚‡uÃuh€ƒr…rq SrqˆprqÃrh…vt†Ãs…‚€Ã ht…vpˆy‡ˆ…hyłqˆp‡†Ã B‚‚q†Ãvp…rh†vty’Ãr‘ ƒr†v‰rÃvÃˆ…ihÃ€h…xr‡†Ã hhy’†rqÃr†ƒrpvhyy’Ãp‚pr…vtà v€ƒhp‡Ã TrrÃhy†‚Ƈhxru‚yqr…Ãhhy’†v† A…r„ˆr‡Ã …‚hqà hppvqr‡† 7ˆ†Ãp‚€ƒh’à ‡…h†ƒ‚…‡Ãp‚†‡Ã vp…rh†rqà ChˆyhtrÃsv…€†Ã ‡…h†ƒ‚…‡Ãp‚†‡Ã vp…rh†rq U…hqr…†Ãh…rà ˆvyyvtǂÆr…‰rà …ˆ…hyÀh…xr‡†Ã 6t…vpˆy‡ˆ…hyà ƒ…‚qˆprÃy‚‚†r†Ãv‡†Ã €h…xr‡ÃÉhyˆrà Q…v‰h‡rłhqȆr…†Ã …ryˆp‡h‡Ã‡‚Ãh’Ã…‚hqà ‡h‘ (IIHFWV S‚hqÁr‡‚…xÃqr‡r…v‚…h‡vtÃà S‚hqÃirqÃhqƈ… shprÃurh‰vy’Ãqh€htrqà Rˆhyv‡’ÂsłhqÃp‚†‡…ˆp‡v‚Ã iry‚Ã†‡hqh…qÃà S‚hq†Ãh…rÁ‚‡Ã…ruhivyv‡h‡rqà ‚…Ãr‘ƒhqrq S‚hq†Ãh…rÁ‚‡Ã p‚……rp‡y’Àhv‡hvrq Hrh†Ã‚sDžh† ƒ‚…‡h‡v‚ tr‡‡vtà urh‰vr…à G‚……vr†Ãhqà iˆ††r†Ãh…rà ‚‰r…y‚hqrqà Crh‰’Ã…hv†Ã qˆ…vtÇurÃh†‡Ã ’rh…† D‰r†‡€r‡ÃvÃ ‡…h†ƒ‚…‡Ãvs…h †‡…ˆp‡ˆ…rÐrhx T‚€rÆrp‡v‚†Ã‚słhq†Ã ‚‡Ãp‚‰r…rqÃi’à €hv‡rhprÇrh€† B‚‰r…€r‡Ã€hv ‡rhpr ‡rh€†Ã‚‡Ã rssrp‡v‰rÃÃà 8‚€€ˆhyÃhqȅ ihÃ€hv‡Çrh€†Ã ‚‡Ãrssrp‡v‰rÃÃà Rˆhyv‡’Ƈhqh…q†Ã @‘ƒy‚v‡h‡v‚Ã‚sà s‚…r†‡†Ãhqà €vr†Ãvp…rh†vt h…rÁ‚‡Ãpyrh…y’à qrsvrqÃÃà 8‚†‡…ˆp‡v‚Ãsv…€†Ã h…rÁ‚‡Ãƒ…‚ƒr…y’à €‚v‡‚…rqà B‰‡†ÃsvhpvhyÆv ‡ˆh‡v‚ ƒ…rph…v‚ˆ† 8‚€ƒr‡rpvr†Ã ‚sÇrh€†Ãy‚ 8‚€ƒr‡rpvr†Ã ‚sÇrh€†Ãy‚ V†r…Ãpuh…tr†Ãh…rà ‚‡Ãsˆyy’Ãp‚yyrp‡rq P‰r…yhƒƒvtÃhqà U…h†ƒ‚…‡r…†Ã q‚Á‚‡Ã…r†ƒrp‡Ã …rtˆyh‡v‚† 8‚‡…‚yÀrh †ˆ…r† ‚Ãy‚hq†Ã vrssrp‡v‰rà ˆpyrh…Ã…r†ƒ‚†vivyv ‡vr†Ãv‡uvÃHPU S‚hqÆrp‡‚…Ãv†Ã‚‡Ã hÀhw‚…Ã…v‚…v‡’ Hhv‡rhprÅr†ƒ‚† vivyv‡vr† ir‡rrÃpr‡…hyà hqÅrtÃt‰‡Á‚‡Ãqrsvrq Urpu‚y‚t’à ˆ†rqÂi†‚yr‡rà Urpu‚y‚t’à ˆ†rqÂi†‚yr‡rà B‚‰r…€r‡Ã ‡rh€†Ãrhxy’à †‡hssrqà 8‚syvp‡†Ãr‘v†‡Ã ‚Ãyrhqr…†uvƒÃÉà ‚…thv†h‡v‚Ã U…hssvpÂyvpvtÁ‚‡Ã rssrp‡v‰r XrvtuÃi…vqtr†Ã‚ˆ‡Ã ‚s…qr… HPUy’Ã…rpr‡y’à r†‡hiyv†urq &DXVHV Feeder Roads Project: Problem Tree T‚pvhyÃp‚†‡Ã‚sà Q…v‰h‡rÃv‰r†‡€r‡Ãhqà t…‚‡uÃuh€ƒr…rq SrqˆprqÃrh…vt†Ãs…‚€Ã ht…vpˆy‡ˆ…hyłqˆprà B‚‚q†Ãvp…rh†vty’Ãr‘ ƒr†v‰rÃvÃˆ…ihÃ€h…xr‡†Ã (IIHFWV ‡…hssvpÃvp…rh†vt Ã@‰v…‚€r‡hyy’Ã…ryr‰h‡ǂÃirà hhy’†rqÃvÃqr‡hvy ÃBrqr…Ær†v‡v‰rǂÃirÃsˆ…‡ur…à A…r„ˆr‡Ã …‚hqà hppvqr‡† 7ˆ†Ãp‚€ƒh’à ‡…h†ƒ‚…‡Ãp‚†‡Ã vp…rh†rq ChˆyhtrÃsv…€†Ã ‡…h†ƒ‚…‡Ãp‚†‡Ã vp…rh†rq U…hqr…†Ãh…rà ˆvyyvtǂÆr…‰rà …ˆ…hyÀh…xr‡†Ã 6t…vpˆy‡ˆ…hyà ƒ…‚qˆprÃy‚‚†r†Ãv‡†Ã €h…xr‡ÃÉhyˆrà hhy’†rqÃr†ƒrpvhyy’Ãp‚pr…vtà v€ƒhp‡Ã TrrÃhy†‚Ƈhxru‚yqr…Ãhhy’†v† Srtv‚hyłhqÁr‡‚…xÃqr‡r…v‚…h‡vtÃÃà S‚hqÃirqÃhqƈ…shprà urh‰vy’Ãqh€htrqà ƒ…v€h…’Ã…‚hq†Ã Rˆhyv‡’ÂsłhqÃp‚† ‡…ˆp‡v‚ iry‚Ã†‡hqh…q Q…v€h…’ÃhqÃsrrqr…Ã…‚hq†Ã h…rÁ‚‡Ã…ruhivyv‡h‡rq Arrqr…Ã…‚hq†Ãr‡‚…xà qr‡r…v‚…h‡vt D‰r†‡€r‡ÃvÃ G‚……vr†Ãhqà iˆ††r†Ãh…rà ‚‰r…y‚hqrqà Crh‰’Ã…hv†Ã qˆ…vtÇurÃh†‡Ã ’rh…† ‡…h†ƒ‚…‡Ãvs…h †‡…ˆp‡ˆ…rÐrhx Crh‰’Ã…hv†Ã qˆ…vtÇurÃyh†‡Ã ’rh…† T‚€rÆrp‡v‚†Ã‚sà …‚hq†Ã‚‡Ãp‚‰r…rqÃi’à €hv‡rhprÇrh€† Arrqr…Ã…‚hq†Ãh…rà ‚‡Ãp‚……rp‡y’à €hv‡hvrq B‰‡†ÃsvhpvhyÆv &DXVHV U…h†ƒ‚…‡r…†Ãq‚à ‚‡Ã…r†ƒrp‡Ã …rtˆyh‡v‚† Rˆhyv‡’Ƈhq h…q† h…rÁ‚‡Ãpyrh…y’à qrsvrqÃà 8‚†‡…ˆp‡v‚Ãsv…€†Ã h…rÁ‚‡Ãƒ…‚ƒr…y’à €‚v‡‚…rqà ‡ˆh‡v‚ ƒ…rph…v‚ˆ† SrtÃHPUÀhv‡r hpr ‡rh€†Ã‚‡Ã rssrp‡v‰rÃÃà 8‚€€ˆhyÃhqȅ ihÃ€hv‡Çrh€†Ã ‚‡Ãrssrp‡v‰rÃÃà V†r…Ãpuh…tr†Ãh…rà ‚‡Ãsˆyy’Ãp‚yyrp‡rq 8‚‡…‚yÀrh †ˆ…r† ‚Ãy‚hq†Ã vrssrp‡v‰rà P‰r…yhƒƒvtÃhqà ˆpyrh…Ã…r†ƒ‚†vivyv ‡vr†Ãv‡uvÃHPU S‚hqÆrp‡‚…Ãv†Ã‚‡Ã hÀhw‚…Ã…v‚…v‡’ 8‚€ƒr‡rpvr†Ã ‚sÇrh€†Ãy‚ 8‚€ƒr‡rpvr†Ã ‚sÇrh€†Ãy‚ Urpu‚y‚t’à ˆ†rqÂi†‚yr‡rÃà U…hssvpÂyvpvtÁ‚‡Ã rssrp‡v‰r XrvtuÃi…vqtr†Ã‚ˆ‡Ã ‚s…qr… HPUy’Ã…rpr‡y’à r†‡hiyv†urq Hhv‡rhprÅr†ƒ‚ †vivyv‡vr† ir‡rrÃpr‡…hyà hqÅrtÃt‰‡Á‚‡Ãqrsvrq SrtÃHPUà ‡rh€†Ãrhxy’à †‡hssrq  Urpu‚y‚t’à ˆ†rqÂi†‚yr‡rÃà  8‚syvp‡†Ãr‘v†‡Ã ‚Ãyrhqr…†uvƒÃÉà ‚…thv†h‡v‚Ã Once complete. 13 .

and so have to be addressed in other projects. The ‘negative situations’ of the problems diagram are converted into solutions. For example. with the participation of representative parties. Illustrate the means-end relationships in a diagram.  $QDO\VLV RI 2EMHFWLYHV Analysis of objectives is a methodological approach employed to: • • • Describe the situation in the future once problems have been remedied.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management This approach can be combined with others such as technical. or the attempt to solve them abandoned. the results of which may complement the analyses of the group. economic or social studies. expressed as ‘positive achievements’. ‘agricultural production is low’ is converted into ‘agricultural production increased’. These positive achievements are in fact REMHFWLYHV. This diagram provides a clear overview of the desired future situation. so other solutions need to be found. Verify the hierarchy of objectives. and are presented in a diagram of objectives showing a means / end hierarchy. Some objectives may be unrealistic. Often such a diagram shows some objectives that cannot be achieved by the project envisaged. )LJXUH  ([DPSOH RI DQ 2EMHFWLYH 7UHH Roads Sector Programme: Objective Tree 8‚ˆ‡…’Ãp‚€ƒr‡v‡v‰rr††Ã‚Ã v‡r…h‡v‚hyÀh…xr‡†Ãvp…rh†rq 6qqv‡v‚hyÂiwrp‡v‰r†Ã vÃv‡hyvp†ÃhqÃvÃiyˆr B‚‰r…€r‡Ãvp‚€rÇu…‚ˆtuà ‡h‘h‡v‚Ãvp…rh†rq Ã@‰v…‚€r‡hyy’Ã…ryr‰h‡à ‡‚ÃirÃsˆ…‡ur…ƃrpvsvrq ÃBrqr…Ær†v‡v‰rǂÃirà sˆ…‡ur…ƃrpvsvrq T‚pvhyÃp‚†‡Ã‚sà Q…‚iyr€†Ãv‡u‚ˆ‡Ã †‚yˆ‡v‚Ãˆqr…yvrq ‡…h†ƒ‚…‡Ã…rqˆprq Q…v‰h‡rÃv‰r†‡€r‡Ãhqà t…‚‡uÃrp‚ˆ…htrq @h…vt†Ãs‚…Ãht…vpˆy‡ˆ…hyà ƒ…‚qˆprÃvp…rh†rqà 8‚†‡Ãs‚…Ãt‚‚q†ÃvÃˆ…ihÃ €h…xr‡†Ã†‡hivyv†rqà D‰r†‡‚…†Ãvs‚…€rqÃhi‚ˆ‡Ã rÃ€h…xr‡Ãp‚qv‡v‚†à ‚ƒƒ‚…‡ˆv‡vr† S‚hqà hppvqr‡†Ã …rqˆprq U…h†ƒ‚…‡Ãp‚†‡Ãs‚…à iˆ†Ãp‚€ƒhvr†Ã …rqˆprq U…h†ƒ‚…‡Ãp‚†‡Ã s‚…ÃuhˆyhtrÃsv…€†Ã …rqˆprq H‚…rDžhqr…†Ã †r…‰rň…hyà €h…xr‡†Ã Hh…xr‡Ã‰hyˆrÂsà ht…vpˆy‡ˆ…hyłq ˆpr €hv‡hvrqà Q…v‰h‡rłhqȆr…†Ã h…rÐvyyvtǂÃh’à …‚hqÇh‘ (QGV S‚hqÁr‡‚…xÀrr‡†Ã‡…hssvpÃqr€hq†ÃÃà S‚hqÃirqÃhqƈ…shprà yr††Ãqh€htrqà S‚hqÃp‚†‡…ˆp‡v‚Ã †‡hqh…q†Ã€r‡Ãà S‚hq†Ãh…rà …ruhivyv‡h‡rq S‚hqÁr‡‚…xà v†Ãr‘ƒhqrq S‚hq†Ãh…rÃir‡‡r…à €hv‡hvrq Hrh†Ã‚sDžh† ƒ‚…‡h‡v‚ tr‡‡vtà urh‰vr… G‚hqÃyv€v‡†Ã …r†ƒrp‡rqÃi’à y‚……vr†Ãhqà iˆ††r†Ãà Crh‰’Ã…hv†Ã qˆ…vtÇurà ƒh†‡Ã’rh…† D‰r†‡€r‡ÃvÃ ‡…h†ƒ‚…‡Ãvs…h †‡…ˆp‡ˆ…rÃvp…rh†rq Q…v‰h‡rÆrp‡‚…à €‚…rÃv‰‚y‰rqà vÃ€hv‡rhpr H‚…rłhq†Ã p‚‰r…rqÃi’à €hv‡Çrh€† B‚‰r…€r‡Ã€hv ‡rhpr ‡rh€†Ã €‚…rÃrssrp‡v‰rà 8‚€€ˆhyÃhqà ˆ…ihÃ€hv‡Çrh€†Ã €‚…rÃrssrp‡v‰rà Rˆhyv‡’Ƈhqh…q†Ã @‘ƒy‚v‡h‡v‚Ã‚sà s‚…r†‡†Ãhqà €vr†Ãvp…rh†vt pyrh…y’ÃqrsvrqÃà 8‚†‡…ˆp‡v‚Ãsv…€†Ãh…rà hqr„ˆh‡ry’À‚v‡‚…rqà S‚hqÆrp‡‚…Ãv†Ã‚‡Ã hÀhw‚…Ã…v‚…v‡’ 8‚€ƒr‡rpvr†Ã‚sà ‡rh€†Ãv€ƒ…‚‰rq Sr‰rˆrÃs…‚€Ã ˆ†r…Ãpuh…tr†Ã Urpu‚y‚t’ÃÃv†Ã €‚…rà hqr„ˆh‡rÃÃÃà B‰‡†ÃsvhpvhyÆv ‡ˆh‡v‚ ƒ…rph…v‚ˆ† B‚‰r…€r‡Ã ‡rh€†Ãir‡‡r…à Hhv‡rhprà †‡hssrqà 8‚syvp‡†Ã‚Ã yrhqr…†uvƒÃÉà ‚…thÅr†‚y‰rqà Urpu‚y‚t’Ãv†Ã €‚…rà hqr„ˆh‡rÃÃà 8‚€ƒr‡rpvr†Ã ‚sÇrh€†Ã v€ƒ…‚‰rq Rˆhyv‡’Ãp‚‡…‚yà U…h†ƒ‚…‡r…†Ã …r†ƒrp‡Ã …rtˆyh‡v‚† 8‚‡…‚yÀrh †ˆ…r† ‚Ãy‚hq†Ã rssrp‡v‰rà Sr†ƒ‚†vivyv‡vr†Ã v‡uvÃHPUÃqrsvrq †’†‡r€Ãr†‡hiyv†urq vp…rh†rq 9…v‰r…†Ã†r†v‡v†rq hi‚ˆ‡Ãrssrp‡Ã‚sà urh‰’Ãy‚hq† U…hssvpÂyvpvtà rssrp‡v‰r XrvtuÃi…vqtr†ÃvÃ ˆ†rÃhqÀhv‡hvrq T‡hssvtÃhq…thv† h‡v‚ ‚sÃHPUÃv€ƒ…‚‰rq …r†ƒ‚†vivyv‡vr†Ãir‡rrÃ pr‡…hyÃhqÅrtÃt‰‡à ir‡‡r…ÃÃqrsvrq 0HDQV 14 .

for instance: priorities of stakeholders (both women and men). and what objectives will remain OUT. the selected clusters or strategy may form a ‘project-sized’ intervention. One or more of them will be chosen as the strategy for future operation. time required. etc. or a programme consisting of a number of projects. contribution to reducing inequalities. likelihood of success. budget. the different clusters of objectives of the same type are all called strategies. relevance of the strategy. This step requires: • • • Clear criteria for making the choice of strategies The identification of the different possible strategies to achieve the objectives The choice of the project strategy In the hierarchy of objectives. and what the project purpose and overall objectives will be. Strategy analysis involves deciding what objectives will be included IN the project. The most relevant and feasible strategy is selected on the basis of a number of criteria. 15 .European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management Feeder Roads Project: Objectives Tree (QGV T‚pvhyÃp‚†‡Ã‚sà ‡…hssvpÅrqˆprq Q…v‰h‡rÃv‰r†‡€r‡ÃhqÃt…‚‡uà vÃ‡urÅrtv‚Ãrp‚ˆ…htrq @h…vt†Ãs…‚€Ãht…vpˆy ‡ˆ…hy ƒ…‚qˆprÃvp…rh†rqà 8‚†‡Ãs‚…Ãt‚‚q†ÃvÃˆ…ihÃ €h…xr‡†Ã†‡hiyv†rqà 6qqv‡v‚hyÂiwrp‡v‰r†Ã vÃv‡hyvp†ÃhqÃvÃiyˆr Q…‚iyr€†Ãv‡u‚ˆ‡Ã S‚hqà hppvqr‡†Ã …rqˆprq U…h†ƒ‚…‡Ãp‚†‡Ãs‚…à iˆ†Ãp‚€ƒhvr†Ã …rqˆprq U…h†ƒ‚…‡Ãp‚†‡Ã s‚…Ãuhˆyhtrà sv…€†Ã…rqˆprq H‚…rDžhqr…†Ã †r…‰rň…hyà €h…xr‡†Ã Hh…xr‡Ã‰hyˆrÂsà ht…vpˆy‡ˆ…hyłq ˆpr €hv‡hvrqà †‚yˆ‡v‚Ãˆqr…yvrq Ã@‰v…‚€r‡hyy’Ã…ryr‰h‡à ‡‚ÃirÃsˆ…‡ur…ƃrpvsvrq ÃBrqr…Ær†v‡v‰rǂÃirà sˆ…‡ur…ƃrpvsvrq Srtv‚hyłhqÁr‡‚…xÀrr‡†Ã‡…hssvpÃqr€hq†ÃÃà S‚hqÃirqÃhqƈ…shprà yr††Ãqh€htrqà ƒ…v€h…’Ã…‚hq†Ã S‚hqÃp‚†‡…ˆp‡v‚Ã †‡hqh…q†Ã€r‡ Q…v€h…’ÃhqÃsrrqr…Ã…‚hq†Ã h…rÅruhivyv‡h‡rq Arrqr…Ã…‚hq†Ãr‡‚…xà €hv‡hvrq D‰r†‡€r‡ÃvÃ‡…h† G‚hqÃyv€v‡†Ã…r †ƒrp‡rq i’Ãy‚……vr†Ã hqÃiˆ††r†Ãà Crh‰’Ã…hv†Ã qˆ…vtÇurÃh†‡Ã ’rh…† ƒ‚…‡Ãvs…h†‡…ˆp‡ˆ…rà vp…rh†rq Crh‰’Ã…hv†Ã qˆ…vtÇurÃyh†‡Ã ’rh…† H‚…rłhq†Ãp‚‰r…rqà i’Àhv‡Çrh€† Arrqr…Ã…‚hq†Ãh…rà ir‡‡r…Àhv‡hvrq S‚hqȆr…†à iruh‰v‚ˆ… v€ƒ…‚‰rq B‰‡†ÃsvhpvhyÆv ‡ˆh‡v‚ ƒ…rph…v‚ˆ† IrÃp‚€€ˆhyà hqȅihÃ€hv‡à ‡rh€†Ãp…rh‡rq SrtÃHPUÀhv‡à ‡rh€†Ã€‚…rà rssrp‡v‰rÃà 8‚€€ˆhyÃhqȅ ihÃ€hv‡Çrh€†Ã €‚…rÃrssrp‡v‰rÃÃà 0HDQV U…h†ƒ‚…‡r…†Ã …r†ƒrp‡Ã …rtˆyh‡v‚† Rˆhyv‡’Ƈhqh…q†Ã pyrh…y’Ãqrsvrqà 8‚†‡…ˆp‡v‚Ãsv…€†Ãh…rà hqr„ˆh‡ry’À‚v‡‚…rqà Sr‰rˆrÃs…‚€Ã ˆ†r…Ãpuh…tr†Ã vp…rh†rq Rˆhyv‡’Ãp‚‡…‚yà †’†‡r€Ãr†‡hiyv†urq S‚hqÆrp‡‚…Ãv†Ã‚‡Ã hÀhw‚…Ã…v‚…v‡’ Q…v‰h‡rÆrp‡‚…à €‚…rÃv‰‚y‰rqà vÃ€hv‡rhpr 8‚€ƒr‡rpvr†Ã ‚sÇrh€†Ã v€ƒ…‚‰rq 8‚‡…‚yÀrh †ˆ…r† ‚Ãy‚hq†Ã rssrp‡v‰rà Urpu‚y‚t’Ãv†Ã Sr†ƒ‚†vivyv‡vr†Ã v‡uvÃHPUÃqrsvrq Hhv‡rhprÅr†ƒ‚†vivyv‡vr†Ã ir‡rrÃpr‡…hyÃhqÅrtÃt‰‡à 9…v‰r…†Ã†r†v‡v†rq hi‚ˆ‡Ãrssrp‡Ã‚sà urh‰’Ãy‚hq† U…hssvpà ƒ‚yvpvtà rssrp‡v‰r XrvtuÃi…vqtr†Ã vÃˆ†rÃhqà €hv‡hvrq ir‡‡r…ÃÃqrsvrq SrtÃHPUà ‡rh€†Ãir‡‡r…à †‡hssrq €‚…rÃhqr„ˆh‡rà à T‡hssvtÃhq…thv† h‡v‚ ‚sÃHPUÃv€ƒ…‚‰rq Urpu‚y‚t’Ãv†Ã €‚…rÃhqr„ˆh‡rà à 8‚€ƒr‡rpvr†Ã ‚sÇrh€†Ã v€ƒ…‚‰rq 8‚syvp‡†Ã‚Ãyrhq r…†uvƒ É…thà …r†‚y‰rqà Pr…†uvƒÃs‚…à €hv‡rhprà ruhprqà  $QDO\VLV RI 6WUDWHJLHV The final step of the Analysis Stage involves selecting the strategy(ies) which will be used to achieve the desired objectives. Depending on the scope and amount of work entailed. including gender inequalities.

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The matrix has four columns and four rows: • The YHUWLFDO ORJLF identifies what the project intends to do. both physical and non-physical) to be mobilised (2nd column. 4 row). and resources used by. The KRUL]RQWDO ORJLF relates to the measurement of the effects of. The Overall Objectives will not be achieved by the project alone (it will only provide a contribution to the achievement of the Overall Objec- 17 . It sets out the basic strategy underlying the project: • • • • The activities and means (inputs. )LJXUH  9HUWLFDO DQG +RUL]RQWDO /RJLF • Vertical and Horizontal Logic Piwrp‡v‰ry’à D‡r…‰r‡v‚Ã G‚tvp Wr…vsvhiyrà Dqvph‡‚…† T‚ˆ…pr†Ã‚sà Wr…vsvph‡v‚ 6††ˆ€ƒ‡v‚† P‰r…hyyà +RUL]RQWDO ORJLF Piwrp‡v‰r† Q…‚wrp‡Ã Qˆ…ƒ‚†r Sr†ˆy‡† 6p‡v‰v‡vr† Hrh† 8‚†‡ Q…rp‚qv 9HUWLFDO /RJLF  )LUVW &ROXPQ . The 2YHUDOO 2EMHFWLYHV of the project / programme explain why it is important to society. By carrying out these Activities.QWHUYHQWLRQ /RJLF ‡v‚† The first column of the logical framework is called the “Intervention logic”. They also help to show how the programme fits into the regional / sectoral policies of the government / organisations concerned and of the EC. the project through the specification of key indicators. Results. and the sources where they will be verified. the Results are achieved. clarifies the causal relationships and specifies the important assumptions and uncertainties beyond the project manager’s control. The four levels of objectives are defined as follows: 1. in terms of the longer-term benefits to final beneficiaries and the wider benefits to other groups.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management  7KH 3ODQQLQJ 6WDJH  %XLOGLQJ WKH /RJIUDPH 0DWUL[ The logical framework is a way of presenting the substance of a project / programme in a comprehensive and commonly understandable form. as well as into the overarching policy objectives of EC co-operation. The Project Purpose contributes to the Overall Objectives. Purpose and Overall Objectives are referred to globally as “objectives”. Usually. Results collectively lead to the achievement of the Purpose.

QGLFDWRUV They are the operational description6 of: • • • the Overall Objectives the Project Purpose the Results The physical and non-physical 0HDQV (inputs) necessary to carry out the planned activities are placed in the ‘bottom’ row of the second column. there are no indicators for activities in the logical framework matrix. i. They summarise what will be undertaken by the project. namely the start of enjoyment of sustainable benefits by the target groups. There should only be one Project Purpose per project. 2.e. Clarifying and agreeing precisely what will define the project’s success is therefore a critical step in project design. 18 . 5HVXOWV are “products” of the activities undertaken. but will require the contributions of other programmes and projects as well. place. and be defined in terms of sustainable benefits for the target group(s). the combination of which achieve the Purpose of the project. time. i. )LJXUH  /HYHO RI 2EMHFWLYHV Levels of Objectives D‡r…‰r‡v‚Ã G‚tvp CvtuÃyr‰ryÂiwrp‡v‰r†Ã‡‚ÐuvpuÇurà ƒ…‚wrp‡Ãp‚‡…viˆ‡r† P‰r…hyyà Piwrp‡v‰r† Uurłwrp‡¶†Ãpr‡…hyÂiwrp‡v‰r vÃ ‡r…€†Ã‚sÇurƈ†‡hvhiyrÃirrsv‡†Ãs‚…à ‡urÇh…tr‡Ãt…‚ˆƒ† Q…‚wrp‡Ã Qˆ…ƒ‚†r Qu’†vphyÃhqÁ‚Ã Uurłqˆp‡†Ã‚sȁqr…‡hxrÃhp‡v‰v‡vr† Sr†ˆy‡† ƒu’†vphyÀrh†Ã rpr††h…’Ç‚à ˆqr…‡hxrÃhp‡v‰v‡vr† Uh†x†Ãr‘rpˆ‡rqÃh†Ãƒh…‡Ã‚sÇurłwrp‡Ã ‡‚Ã…‚qˆprÇurłwrp‡¶†Ã…r†ˆy‡† 6p‡v‰v‡vr† Hrh†  6HFRQG &ROXPQ 2EMHFWLYHO\ 9HULILDEOH .e. A good OVI should be SMART. Having more than one Project Purpose could imply an excessively complex project. The 3URMHFW 3XUSRVH is the objective to be achieved by implementing the project and which is likely to outlive the project.: Specific: measure what it is supposed to measure – 0HDVXUDEOH and – $YDLODEOH at an acceptable cost – 5HOHYDQW with regard to the objective concerned. target group(s). A rough estimation of the 6 They describe the project’s objectives in terms of quantity. quality. and hence possible management problems. 4. and cover it – 7LPHERXQG. Multiple Project Purposes may also indicate unclear or conflicting objectives. The Purpose should also express the equitable benefits for women and men among the target group(s). 3.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management tives). $FWLYLWLHV – the actions (and means) that have to be taken / provided to produce the results. The Purpose should address the core problem.

Government. once these results and the assumptions at this level are fulfilled. but may affect its implementation and longterm sustainability?” The vertical logic in the logframe. results will be achieved. These will affect the project’s implementation and long-term sustainability but lie outside its control. )LJXUH  7KH 9HUWLFDO /RJLF The Vertical Logic D‡r…‰r‡v‚Ã G‚tvp 6††ˆ€ƒ‡v‚† P‰r…hyyà Piwrp‡v‰r† Q…‚wrp‡Ã Qˆ…ƒ‚†r    $VVXPSWLRQV Sr†ˆy‡† $VVXPSWLRQV 6p‡v‰v‡vr† $VVXPSWLRQV 3UHFRQGL WLRQV 19 . the project purpose will be achieved. the relationship between the 1st and the 4th column. These conditions must be met if the project is to succeed. works as follows: • • • • once the pre-conditions are met. The costs and sources of financing (EC. once the purpose has been achieved and the assumptions at this level are fulfilled.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management necessary resources should be presented in this box. the activities can start up. The activities are related to the different results. etc. and if the assumptions at this level hold true. Indicators for activities are usually defined during the preparation of an activity schedule specifying the activities in more detail. contribution to the achievement of the overall objectives will have been made by the project. once the activities have been carried out.e. objectives not included in the intervention logic and other H[ WHUQDO IDFWRUV remain.  )RXUWK &ROXPQ $VVXPSWLRQV It will have become apparent during the Analysis Phase that the project alone cannot achieve all the objectives identified in the objective tree. and are included as assumptions in the fourth column of the Logframe. i. the Project Purpose and the Results can be found (described by the objectively verifiable indicators). Once a strategy has been selected.  7KLUG &ROXPQ 6RXUFHV RI 9HULILFDWLRQ Sources of verification indicate where and in what form information on the achievement of the Overall Objectives.) are placed in the bottom row of the third column. Assumptions are the answer to the question: “What external factors are not influenced by the project. So.

GHQWLI\ WKH . objectives that reflect sustainable benefits can be identified. Add other results that also further the achievement of the purpose. etc. e. The means-ends relationships are again analysed. • 5. Identification of the Purpose Select from the hierarchy of objectives the objective that describes a sustainable benefit to the target groups. Activities are formulated with the verb in front: “Organise training sessions”.g. By moving higher. to which the project will contribute. as denoted below by the boxes with dotted lines. paying attention to the specific interests of under-represented groups.GHQWLI\ WKH . in a planning workshop).QWHUYHQWLRQ /RJLF" 1.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management  +RZ WR . During this stage it is important to ensure that the levels of objectives are correct. Identification of the Overall Objectives Select from the objective tree one or more objectives at the top which describe long term benefits for society or the sector. then the REMHFWLYHV WKDW OLH ZLWKLQ WKH VFRSH RI WKH SURMHFW FDQ EH WUDQVSRVHG IURP WKH REMHFWLYH WUHH LQWR WKH PDWUL[.QWHUYHQWLRQ /RJLF" Once agreement can be reached among stakeholders on what should be the Project Purpose. and additional results and activities may be incorporated. To do so. including both women and men. The objectives selected for inclusion in the project are transposed into the first column of the Logframe. 1RWH • • $GG RQO\ PDLQ DFWLYLWLHV LQ WKH /RJIUDPH 5HODWH WKHP WR WKH 5HVXOWV E\ DWWULEXWLQJ QXPEHUV WR HDFK DFWLYLW\ $FWLYLW\  LV UH ODWHG WR 5HVXOW  $FWLYLW\  WR 5HVXOW . and are thus results. 3. 7DEOH  +RZ WR .g. Identification of Results Select from the objective tree the objectives that – by the “means-to-end” logic – achieve the purpose. through discussions with stakeholders (e. “Co-ordinate with major stakeholders”. 4. through additional studies. These can be identified following a supplementary analysis of the opportunities and risks of the situation in question. Add other activities identified after supplementary analysis of the opportunities and risks of the situation in question. it is helpful to start at the bottom of the tree. Identification of activities • Select from the objectives tree the objectives that – by the “means-to-end” – produce the results and translate them into activities. 2. There are four levels of objectives.

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QWHUYHQWLRQ /RJLF Roads Sector Programme: Building the Logframe: Specifying the Intervention Logic D‡r…‰r‡v‚ÃG‚tvp Piwrp‡v‰ry’ÃWr…vsvhiyrÃDqvph‡‚…† T‚ˆ…pr†Ã‚sÃWr…vsvph‡v‚ 6††ˆ€ƒ‡v‚† P‰r…hyy Piwrp‡v‰r† 8‚ˆ‡…’Ãp‚€ƒr‡v‡v‰rr††Ã‚Ãv‡r…h‡v‚hyà €h…xr‡†Ãv€ƒ…‚‰rq D‰r†‡€r‡†Ãv‡‚Ãht…vpˆy‡ˆ…hyÃr‘ƒ‚…‡Ãp…‚ƒ†Ã vp…rh†rq A‚‚qƈƒƒy’Ƈhivyv†rq Q…‚t…h€€rà Qˆ…ƒ‚†r Sr†ˆy‡† S‚hqÁr‡‚…xÀrr‡†Ã‡…hssvpÃqr€hq† ÃCrh‰’‰ruvpyr‰r…y‚hqÅrqˆprqÅ‚hq† !ÃS‚hq†Ãh…rȃt…hqrqÃhqÅruhivyv‡h‡rq "ÃS‚hqÁr‡‚…xÃv†Ãr‘ƒhqrq #ÃS‚hq†Ãh…rÃir‡‡r…Àhv‡hvrq 6p‡v‰v‡vr†  ÃTr†v‡v†rÃy‚……’ÃhqÃiˆ†Ã‚r…†Ãhqà q…v‰r…†Ãhi‚ˆ‡Ã‡urÃrssrp‡Ã‚s urh‰’Ãy‚hq† !ÃD€ƒ…‚‰rDžhssvpÂyvprÃp‚‡…‚y† "ÃSrƒhv…ÃhqÀhv‡hvÃrvtuÃi…vqtr† ! Ã9rsvrĈhyv‡’Ƈhqh…q†Ãs‚…Ãhyyǒƒr†Ã‚sà …‚hq† !!ÃDqr‡vs’Ã…v‚…v‡’Ã…‚hq†Ã‡‚à …ruhivyv‡h‡rˆƒt…hqr !"ÃH‚v‡‚…Ã…‚hqÅruhivyv‡h‡v‚Ãhqà ˆƒt…hqvt !#ÃD€ƒ…‚‰rÃp‚yyrp‡v‚Ã‚słhqǂyy†ÃhqÇh‘r† " ÃDqr‡vs’Ã…v‚…v‡vr†Ãs‚…Ã…‚hqÁr‡‚…xà r‘ƒh†v‚ "!Ã8‚†‡…ˆp‡ÃrÃ…‚hq† ""ÃH‚v‡‚…Ã…‚hqÃp‚†‡…ˆp‡v‚Ãpy‚†ry’ "#ÃD€ƒ…‚‰rÃp‚yyrp‡v‚Ã‚słhqǂyy†ÃhqÇh‘r† # ÃSr‰vrÃhqÃv€ƒ…‚‰rÃhƒƒ…‚hpuǂà €hv‡rhpr #! D‰‚y‰rÅv‰h‡rÆrp‡‚…À‚…rÃvÃ €hv‡rhpr #" D€ƒ…‚‰rłhqÃp‚‰r…htrÃi’Àhv‡rhprà ‡rh€† ## Dp…rh†rÃrssrp‡v‰rr††Ã‚sÀhv‡rhprà ‡rh€† …rtÃHPUÃp‚€€ˆhyÃhqȅih 0HDQV &RVWV Q…rp‚qv‡v‚† Feeder Roads Project: Building the Logframe: Specifying the Intervention Logic D‡r…‰r‡v‚ÃG‚tvp Piwrp‡v‰ry’ÃWr…vsvhiyrÃDqvph‡‚…† T‚ˆ…pr†Ã‚sÃWr…vsvph‡v‚ 6††ˆ€ƒ‡v‚† P‰r…hyy Piwrp‡v‰r† Tˆƒƒy’ÂsȅihÃ€h…xr‡†Ðv‡uÃht…vpˆy‡ˆ…hyà ƒ…‚qˆprÃs…‚€Ã‡urÅrtv‚Ã†‡hivyv†rq Srtv‚†Ãp‚€ƒr‡v‡v‰rr†† ‚Ãh‡v‚hyÃÉà v‡r…h‡v‚hyÀh…xr‡†Ãv€ƒ…‚‰rq Q…‚wrp‡Ã Qˆ…ƒ‚†r Sr†ˆy‡† ÃArrqr…Ã…‚hq†Ãh…rÅruhivyv‡h‡rq !ÃRˆhyv‡’ÂsÃsrrqr… …‚hq†Ãr‡‚…xÃv†Ãvp…rh†rq 6p‡v‰v‡vr†  ÃDqr‡vs’Ã…v‚…v‡’Ãsrrqr…Ã…‚hq†Ã‡‚Ã…ruhivyv‡h‡r !ÃH‚v‡‚…Ã…‚hqÅruhivyv‡h‡v‚Ãvpyˆqvtà †ury‡r…Ãyvtu‡vtÇryrƒu‚r†ÃhqłhqÆhsr‡’à €rh†ˆ…r†Ãur…rÃhƒƒ…‚ƒ…vh‡r "ÃD€ƒ…‚‰rÃp‚yyrp‡v‚Ã‚słhqǂyy†ÃhqÇh‘r†Ã ! ÃSr‰vrÃhqÃv€ƒ…‚‰rÃhƒƒ…‚hpuǂà €hv‡rhpr !! Dp…rh†rÃp‚€ƒr‡rpr†Ã‚sÃhyyǒƒr†Ã‚sà €hv‡rhprÇrh€† …rtÃHPUÃp‚€€ˆhyÃhqà ˆ…ihà !" D€ƒ…‚‰rÃhqÃhqhƒ‡Ã‡rpu‚y‚t’ǂЂ…xvtà p‚qv‡v‚† !# D‰‚y‰rÅv‰h‡rÆrp‡‚…À‚…rÃvÃ€hv‡rhpr !$ Dv‡vh‡rÃp…rh‡v‚Ã‚sÁrÃ€hv‡rhprÇrh€† !%Ã@uhprÇrh€†r…†uvƒÃs‚…Àhv‡rhpr !& Tˆƒƒ‚…‡Ã‚…thv†h‡v‚hyÃhqwˆ†‡€r‡†Ã‚sà €hv‡rhprÇrh€† !' H‚v‡‚…Ãhqƈƒƒ‚…‡Ãhyyǒƒr†Ã‚sà €hv‡rhprЂ…x† Hrh† 8‚†‡† Arrqr… …‚hq†Ãr‡‚…xÀrr‡†Ã‡…hssvpÃqr€hq !(ÃDp…rh†rr…†uvƒÃ‚sÃsrrqr…Ã…‚hq†Ãi’Ãhyyà ‡’ƒr†Ã‚sȆr…†Ã‡…hqr…†ÀrЂ€rÃr‡pà vpyˆqvtÆr†v‡v†h‡v‚Ã‚Ãv€ƒ…‚‰rqÃq…v‰vtà iruh‰v‚ˆ…Ãr‰v…‚€r‡Ãr‡p Q…rp‚qv‡v‚† 21 .European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management )LJXUH  %XLOGLQJ WKH /RJIUDPH 6SHFLI\LQJ WKH .

GHQWLI\ $VVXPSWLRQV" The probability and significance of external conditions being met should be estimated as part of assessing the degree of risk of the project. A useful way of assessing the importance of assumptions is with the following flowchart. Once assumptions have been identified. Some will be critical to project success. In this way they can be verified and assessed. they are stated in terms of the desired situation.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management  +RZ WR . Then. )LJXUH  $VVHVVPHQW RI $VVXPSWLRQV Assessment of Assumptions D†Ã‡urÃr‘‡r…hyÃshp‡‚…Ãv€ƒ‚…‡h‡4 `r† I‚ XvyyÃv‡ÃirÅrhyv†rq4 9‚Á‚‡ÃvpyˆqrÃvÃy‚ts…h€r 6y€‚†‡Ãpr…‡hvy’ 9‚Á‚‡ÃvpyˆqrÃvÃy‚ts…h€r Gvxry’ DpyˆqrÃh†ÃhÃh††ˆ€ƒ‡v‚ Vyvxry’ D†Ãv‡Ãƒ‚††viyrǂÅrqr†vtÃ‡urłwrp‡ÃvÃ ‚…qr…Ç‚ÃvsyˆrprÇurÃr‘‡r…hyÃshp‡‚…4 Srqr†vtÃ‡urłwrp‡Ãi’Ãhqqvtà hp‡v‰v‡vr†Ã‚…Ã…r†ˆy‡†0Års‚…€ˆyh‡rÇurà Q…‚wrp‡ÃQˆ…ƒ‚†rÃvsÁrpr††h…’ `r† I‚ Uurłwrp‡Ãv†Ã‚‡Ãsrh†viyr 22 . these external factors are transposed at the appropriate level of the logframe. and others of marginal importance.

European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management )LJXUH  %XLOGLQJ WKH /RJIUDPH &RPSOHWLQJ $VVXPSWLRQV Roads Sector Programme: Building the Logframe: Completing Assumptions D‡r…‰r‡v‚ÃG‚tvp Piwrp‡v‰ry’ÃWr…vsvhiyrÃDqvph‡‚…† T‚ˆ…pr†Ã‚sÃWr…vsvph‡v‚ 6††ˆ€ƒ‡v‚† P‰r…hyy Piwrp‡v‰r† 8‚ˆ‡…’Ãp‚€ƒr‡v‡v‰rr††Ã‚Ãv‡r…h‡v‚hyà €h…xr‡†Ãv€ƒ…‚‰rq D‰r†‡€r‡†Ãv‡‚Ãht…vpˆy‡ˆ…hyÃr‘ƒ‚…‡Ãp…‚ƒ†Ã vp…rh†rq A‚‚qƈƒƒy’Ƈhivyv†rq Q…‚t…h€€rà Qˆ…ƒ‚†r S‚hqÁr‡‚…xÀrr‡†Ã‡…hssvpÃqr€hq† ‡ D‡r…r†‡ÃvÃƒ…‚qˆp‡†Ãs…‚€Ãp‚ˆ‡…’Ã…r€hv†Ã ‡urÆh€r ‡ 8yv€h‡vpÃp‚qv‡v‚†Ã…r€hvÃ†‡hiyr ‡ Q…vprÂyvp’Ã…r€hv†Ãsh‰‚ˆ…hiyr Sr†ˆy‡† ÃCrh‰’‰ruvpyr‰r…y‚hqÅrqˆprqÅ‚hq† U…hssvpÃsy‚Ãvp…rh†r†Ãh‡Ã‡urÆh€rÅh‡rÃh†Ã irs‚…r !ÃS‚hq†Ãh…rȃt…hqrqÃhqÅruhivyv‡h‡rq "ÃS‚hqÁr‡‚…xÃv†Ãr‘ƒhqrq #ÃS‚hq†Ãh…rÃir‡‡r…Àhv‡hvrq 6p‡v‰v‡vr†  ÃTr†v‡v†rÃy‚……’ÃhqÃiˆ†Ã‚r…†ÃhqÃq…v‰r…†Ã hi‚ˆ‡Ã‡urÃrssrp‡Ã‚s urh‰’Ãy‚hq† !ÃD€ƒ…‚‰rDžhssvpÂyvprÃp‚‡…‚y† "ÃSrƒhv…ÃhqÀhv‡hvÃrvtuÃi…vqtr† ! Ã9rsvrĈhyv‡’Ƈhqh…q†Ãs‚…Ãhyyǒƒr†Ã‚słhq† !!ÃDqr‡vs’Ã…v‚…v‡’Ã…‚hq†Ã‡‚Ã…ruhivyv‡h‡rˆƒt…hqr 0HDQV &RVWV Xrh‡ur…Ãp‚qv‡v‚†)ÃShvshyyÃq‚r†Ã‚‡Ãtr‡Ã ‚…†r !"ÃH‚v‡‚…Ã…‚hqÅruhivyv‡h‡v‚Ãhqȃt…hqvt !#ÃD€ƒ…‚‰rÃp‚yyrp‡v‚Ã‚słhqǂyy†ÃhqÇh‘r† " ÃDqr‡vs’Ã…v‚…v‡vr†Ãs‚…Ã…‚hqÁr‡‚…xÃr‘ƒh†v‚ "!Ã8‚†‡…ˆp‡ÃrÃ…‚hq† ""ÃH‚v‡‚…Ã…‚hqÃp‚†‡…ˆp‡v‚Ãpy‚†ry’ "#ÃD€ƒ…‚‰rÃp‚yyrp‡v‚Ã‚słhqǂyy†ÃhqÇh‘r† # ÃSr‰vrÃhqÃv€ƒ…‚‰rÃhƒƒ…‚hpuǂà €hv‡rhpr #! D‰‚y‰rÅv‰h‡rÆrp‡‚…À‚…rÃvÃ€hv‡rhpr #" D€ƒ…‚‰rłhqÃp‚‰r…htrÃi’Àhv‡rhprà ‡rh€† ## Dp…rh†rÃrssrp‡v‰rr††Ã‚sÀhv‡rhprÇrh€† …rtÃHPUÃp‚€€ˆhyÃhqȅih Q…rp‚qv‡v‚† ÃS‚hqÆrp‡‚…Ãqr‰ry‚ƒ€r‡Ã…r‡hv†Ãh‡Ãyrh†‡Ã v‡†Ãƒ…r†r‡Ãyr‰ryÂsÅv‚…v‡’ !ÃU…hssvpÂyvprÃp‚€€v‡‡rq ‡‚À‚…rƇ…vp‡Ã hƒƒyvph‡v‚Ã‚sÃp‚‡…‚yÀrh†ˆ…r† "ÃSr‡ˆ…†Ã‚Ãphƒv‡hyÃv‰r†‡rqÃh…rƈssvpvr‡Ã ‡‚Ðh……h‡Ãƒ…v‰h‡rÆrp‡‚…Ãv‰‚y‰r€r‡ÃvÃ €hv‡rhpr Feeder Roads Project: Building the Logframe: Completing Assumptions D‡r…‰r‡v‚ÃG‚tvp P‰r…hyy Piwrp‡v‰r† Tˆƒƒy’ÂsȅihÃ€h…xr‡†Ðv‡uÃht…vpˆy‡ˆ…hyà ƒ…‚qˆprÃs…‚€Ã‡urÅrtv‚Ã†‡hivyv†rq Srtv‚†Ãp‚€ƒr‡v‡v‰rr†† ‚Ãh‡v‚hyÃÉà v‡r…h‡v‚hyÀh…xr‡†Ãv€ƒ…‚‰rq Q…‚wrp‡Ã Qˆ…ƒ‚†r Arrqr… …‚hq†Ãr‡‚…xÀrr‡†Ã‡…hssvpÃqr€hq ‡ Q…v€h…’Ã…‚hqÁr‡‚…xÅruhivyv‡h‡rqÃÉà €hv‡hvrq ‡ D‡r…r†‡ÃvÃƒ…‚qˆp‡†Ãs…‚€Ã…rtv‚Ãh‡Ã yrh†‡Ã†‡hiyr ‡ S‚hqÃp‚†‡…ˆp‡v‚Ãsv…€†Ãh…rà hqr„ˆh‡ry’À‚v‡‚…rq Sr†ˆy‡† ÃArrqr…Ã…‚hq†Ãh…rÅruhivyv‡h‡rq !ÃRˆhyv‡’ÂsÃsrrqr… …‚hq†Ãr‡‚…xÃv†Ãvp…rh†rq G‚hqÃyv€v‡†Ãh…rÅr†ƒrp‡rqÃi’Ãy‚……vr†Ãhqà iˆ††r† 6p‡v‰v‡vr†  ÃDqr‡vs’Ã…v‚…v‡’Ãsrrqr…Ã…‚hq†Ã‡‚Ã…ruhivyv‡h‡r !ÃH‚v‡‚…Ã…‚hqÅruhivyv‡h‡v‚ÃvpyˆqvtÆury‡r…à yvtu‡vtÇryrƒu‚r†ÃhqłhqÆhsr‡’Àrh†ˆ…r†Ã ur…rÃhƒƒ…‚ƒ…vh‡r "ÃD€ƒ…‚‰rÃp‚yyrp‡v‚Ã‚słhqǂyy†ÃhqÇh‘r†Ã ! ÃSr‰vrÃhqÃv€ƒ…‚‰rÃhƒƒ…‚hpuǂà €hv‡rhpr !! Dp…rh†rÃp‚€ƒr‡rpr†Ã‚sÃhyyǒƒr†Ã‚sà €hv‡rhprÇrh€† …rtÃHPUÃp‚€€ˆhyÃhqà ˆ…ihà !" D€ƒ…‚‰rÃhqÃhqhƒ‡Ã‡rpu‚y‚t’ǂЂ…xvtà p‚qv‡v‚† !# D‰‚y‰rÅv‰h‡rÆrp‡‚…À‚…rÃvÃ€hv‡rhpr !$ Dv‡vh‡rÃp…rh‡v‚Ã‚sÁrÃ€hv‡rhprÇrh€† !%Ã@uhprÇrh€†r…†uvƒÃs‚…Àhv‡rhpr !& Tˆƒƒ‚…‡Ã‚…thv†h‡v‚hyÃhqwˆ†‡€r‡†Ã‚sà €hv‡rhprÇrh€† !' H‚v‡‚…Ãhqƈƒƒ‚…‡Ãhyyǒƒr†Ã‚sÀhv‡rhprà ‚…x† !(ÃDp…rh†rr…†uvƒÃ‚sÃsrrqr…Ã…‚hq†Ãi’Ãhyyà ‡’ƒr†Ã‚sȆr…†Ã‡…hqr…†ÀrЂ€rÃr‡pà vpyˆqvtÆr†v‡v†h‡v‚Ã‚Ãv€ƒ…‚‰rqÃq…v‰vtà iruh‰v‚ˆ…Ãr‰v…‚€r‡Ãr‡p Q…rp‚qv‡v‚† ÃRˆhyv‡’Ƈhqh…q†Ãs‚…Ãsrrqr…Ã…‚hq†Ã h…rÆr‡ !ÃTrp‡‚…Âyvp’Ãs…h€r‚…xÃpyrh…à vpyˆqvtÀhv‡rhprÅr†ƒ‚†vivyv‡vr† Hrh† 8‚†‡† Piwrp‡v‰ry’ÃWr…vsvhiyrÃDqvph‡‚…† T‚ˆ…pr†Ã‚sÃWr…vsvph‡v‚ 6††ˆ€ƒ‡v‚† 23 .

8 The Financial and Economic Analysis Manual (EC 1997) provides a comprehensive methodology to be used at the different phases of the project cycle.  :KDW DUH 4XDOLW\ )DFWRUV" Experience has demonstrated that the longer-term sustainability of project benefits depends on the following factors: 1. 2ZQHUVKLS E\ EHQHILFLDULHV – the extent to which target groups and beneficiaries of the project / programme (including men and women) have participated in its design and are involved so that it can have their support and be sustainable after the end of the EC financing. and to continue to provide services beyond the period of donor support. whereas sustainability per se occurs. 3. as well as contribute to reduced gender inequalities in the longer term. *HQGHU HTXDOLW\ – how the project will take into account the specific needs and interests of women and men and will lead to sustained and equitable access by women and men to the services and infrastructures. In the past it has been found that projects have failed to deliver sustainable benefits because they did not take sufficient account of a number of critical success factors. $SSURSULDWH WHFKQRORJ\ – whether the technologies applied by the project can continue to operate in the longer run (e. 5. 6. . and the extent to which the partner government has demonstrated support for the continuation of project services beyond the period of donor support. Consideration of these issues may lead to changes in the project design. 6RFLRFXOWXUDO LVVXHV – how the project will take into account local socio-cultural norms and attitudes.8 The substance and relative importance of these factors will depend on the context and on the specific features of the project / programme. and the project represents a viable long-term investment. availability of spare parts. after the life of a project / programme.QVWLWXWLRQDO DQG PDQDJHPHQW FDSDFLW\ – the ability and commitment of the implementing agencies to deliver the project / programme. 7 Here. 8. 3ROLF\ VXSSRUW – the quality of the relevant sector policy. or not. 4. (QYLURQPHQWDO SURWHFWLRQ – the extent to which the project will preserve or damage the environment and therefore support or undermine achievement of longer term benefits. (FRQRPLF DQG ILQDQFLDO YLDELOLW\ – whether the incremental benefits of the project / programme outweigh its costs.7< )$&7256 A project can be said to be sustainable when it continues to deliver benefits to the project / programme target groups for an extended period after the main part of the donor assistance has been completed.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management  48$/. “Quality” replaces the DAC term “Sustainability” to emphasise that quality is an issue that applies from the beginning of project / programme design.g. 7. sufficiency of safety regulations. and which measures have been taken to ensure that all beneficiary groups will have appropriate access to project services and benefits during and after implementation. 2. 24 . but should be kept in mind from the planning stage onwards. local capabilities of women and men in operation and maintenance). Quality is not an issue only to be considered shortly before the end of a project.

QVWLWXWLRQDO DQG PDQ DJHPHQW FDSDFLW\  (FRQRPLF DQG ILQDQFLDO YLDELOLW\ 25 . material) during and following implementation? Is there sufficient evidence that the chosen technologies can be used at affordable cost and within the local conditions and capabilities of all types of users. and that the project represents the most viable way to addressing the needs of women and men in the target groups?  3ROLF\ VXSSRUW  $SSURSULDWH WHFKQRORJ\  (QYLURQPHQWDO SURWHFWLRQ  6RFLRFXOWXUDO LVVXHV  *HQGHU HTXDOLW\  . also those of indigenous people? Will the project promote a more equitable distribution of access and benefits? Have sufficient measures been taken to ensure that the project will meet the needs and interests of both women and men and will lead to sustained and equitable access by women and men to the services and infrastructures. the preparation of the logframe continues with a review (questions) concerning the project / programme’s quality.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management  +RZ WR 3ODQ IRU 4XDOLW\ Having established the intervention logic (first column) and the assumptions (fourth column). support the project? How actively are and will they be involved / consulted in project preparation and implementation? What is their level of agreement on and commitment to the objectives of the project? Is there a comprehensive. what measures have been incorporated to build capacity during project implementation? Is there sufficient evidence that the benefits of the project will justify the costs involved. 7DEOH  %DVLF 4XHVWLRQV WR EH $GGUHVVHG WR (QVXUH 4XDOLW\  2ZQHUVKLS E\ EHQHILFL DULHV What evidence is there that all target groups. appropriate sector policy by the Government? Is there evidence of sufficient support by the responsible authorities to put in place the necessary supporting policies and resource allocations (human. as well as contribute to reduced gender inequalities in the longer term? Is there sufficient evidence that the implementing authorities will have the capacity and resources (human and financial) to manage the project effectively. financial. during and after implementation? Have harmful environmental effects which may result from use of project infrastructure or services been adequately identified? Have measures been taken to ensure that any harmful effects are mitigated during and after project implementation? Does the project take into account local socio-cultural norms and attitudes. and to continue service delivery in the longer term? If capacity is lacking. including both women and men.

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They should be presented in a standardised format. Means are SK\VLFDO DQG QRQSK\VLFDO UHVRXUFHV (often referred to as “Inputs”) that are necessary to carry out the planned activities and manage the project. e. it should be replaced by a simpler.  +RZ WR . The Activities should therefore be worked out sufficiently to enable estimates of the necessary physical and non-physical means. 31 . The work and costs of collecting information to be produced by the project itself should also be estimated and adequate means provided. the benefits justify the costs.g.e. An area for particular attention is the cost of collecting data on OVIs. whether: • • • • • • • • • the vertical logic is complete and accurate. sales of veterinary suppliers and pharmacies. Costs are the translation into financial terms of all the identified resources (means). the logical framework matrix is complete. ease of data collection and analysis) and its cost. but it can also be carried out independently by persons other than those who drew up the logical framework.). etc. such as target groups and beneficiaries. This will include the means and costs required for management support activities. the assumptions are realistic and complete. OVIs and SOV are thus not specified for Activities in the Logframe. This check should be carried out first at the end of the planning workshop during formulation. energy saving stoves.GHQWLI\ 0HDQV DQG &RVWV" The boxes “Means” and “Costs” replace OVIs and SOV at the level of Activities. indicators and sources of verification are accessible and reliable. the changes of household expenditure. the pre-conditions are realistic. might be counted. quality issues have been taken into account and.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management Sources outside the project should be assessed for accessibility. the Government and any other party. the likelihood of success is reasonably strong. reliability and relevance. particularly EC and partner country officials. which will specify the contribution of the EC.g. where appropriate. If an OVI is found too expensive or complicated to collect. the risks are acceptable. A distinction can be drawn between: • • human resources and material resources. cheaper and often indirect (proxy) OVI: e. or of tools or household goods (clothes. instead of conducting a detailed survey on incomes of farm households.  )LQDO 4XDOLW\ &KHFN RI WKH /RJIUDPH Once the means and costs have been established. This estimate should be completed at the end of the formulation phase. There is often a direct relationship between the complexity of the SOV (i. results or assumptions. additional studies are needed. but may be specified later when preparing an Activity Schedule. It should now be reviewed one last time to check. translated into activities. The following figures show what a completed logframe for the example sector programme and feeder roads project might look like.

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2 00 1.2 B/ 2. An overall project schedule may only specify activities on a quarterly or monthly basis.1 .2 Convene work ing gro ups to u ndertak e pla nning studi es 1.0 00 4 3 4 3 2 00 1 00 3 . what activities are to be undertaken.2 . 200 1.000 800 300 800 300 80 0 30 0 4.1 Convene s teering commi ttee 1. further planning can take place to add operational detail to the plan. 1 5 . An activity schedule is a method of presenting the activities of a project. 1 @ † ‡h i y v†u à Q yh   v  t ÃV  v ‡ 1.1 .1 A gree with g overnmen t p riority areas for p lanni ng stud ies 1.2 Hold reg ular s teering commi ttee mee tings 1. An example is shown below. 3 3 .2 .3 Undertak e pla nning studie s joi ntly with govern ment # Q …‚ ‰ v qr à t ‚ ‰ r … € r  ‡Ã  v ‡u à † ‡…h ‡r t ’ à ƒ y h  † / / / / / / / E Q UIP M E NT Com put ers Fax m odem O ffice furniture S A LA RIE S & A LLO W ANCE S (LO CA L) Count erpart s O ffice staff E TC.4 . 100 4 3 10 1.1 Mak e recom menda tions to governme nt 1.2 B/ 2.0 00 5 00 3. )LJXUH  $FWLYLW\ DQG 5HVRXUFH 6FKHGXOHV Activity and Resource Schedules /RJIUDPH 5HVXOWVEDVHG $FWLYLW\ 6FKHGXOH @ TU 6 7 G D TC H @ I U ÃP A ÃQ G 6 I I D I B ÃV I D U  à H D I D TU S ` à PA ÃU S 6I TQ PS U 6 8U D W D U D @ T `@6 Sà 5HVXOWVEDVHG 5HVRXUFH 6FKHGXOH @ T U 6 7G D T C H @ I U à P A Ã6 ÃQ G 6 I I DI B à VI D U à H DI DT U S ` à P A à U S 6 I T Q P S U (.2 A ssis t g overnmen t in the d evelopm ent of a fram ewo rk for po licy formul ation / / 6 6 6 6 6 6 Hv y r † ‡‚  r † 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mem bershi p of P S C i nclud es sen ior repre senta ti ve s from a ll rel eva nt Departme nts Term s of reference and sc hedu le for P S C a greed First 3 b riefi ng mee tings ru n and a ttended as pl anned W ritten ag reemen t of prio rity area s W orking group s convene d and sched ules o f work agre ed 1st d rafts of studie s circu lated Commen ts recei ve d from re levant Mi nistrie s & departm ents S tudie s comp leted W orking group s agree on reco mmend ations S trategy re comme ndatio ns su bmitted to governme nt . 000 500 3.2 .3 Hold reg ular b riefin gs for M inis ters and senio r civil se rva nts " V  q r …‡h x r à ƒ y h   v  t à †‡ˆ q v r † / / / 4 5 6 7 8 9 6 6 8 U D W DU D @ T 1. With the activity schedule prepared.0 00 5 00 3. 3 5 .4 A/ 1. The overall activity schedule (sometimes also called “implementation schedule”) is updated and detailed activity and resource schedules are to be prepared during the first months of project implementation (inception phase).1* 7+( /2*. Detailed information about net recurrent cost implications of the project may then lead to reformulation of the scope and ambition of the project.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management  86. The format can be adapted to fit with the expected duration of the project. further specification of means and scheduling costs can start.4 A/ 1. no. 34 .3 .2 Ide ntify a nd recru it cou nterpart sta ff ! G v h v †r à  v ‡u à … r y r ‰h  ‡Ã q r ƒ h … ‡€r  ‡† / / 1 2 3 Ref A CTIV ITIE S /INP UTS Unit Q uant it y p er pla nnin g period 1st qt r 2n d qt r 3rd qtr 4 th qtr A nnua l Costs per planning period Cost Fun din g Cos t Co des Project Recurre nt per un it source Do nor G ovt 1st qt r 2nd qt r 3rd qt r 4t h q tr Tot al Costs 1.3 . usually during the formulation phase. while an individual’s quarterly workplan may use a weekly format.9.7< $1' 5(6285&( 6&+('8/(6 The Logical Framework for a project describes often quite broadly.1 S et up office s and e quipm ent 1.1 00 3. no. After the logframe matrix has been completed. lum p mm mm 2 1 1 4 2 2 1. 72 '(9(/23 $&7. (< P M = Proj ect Man ager O M = Offi ce Man ager E 1 = Eco nomis t 1 E 2 = Pol icy S pec ialis t E 3 = Eco nomis t 2 L S = Lead rol e = Sup port role  3UHSDULQJ $FWLYLW\ 6FKHGXOHV All of the information in an activity schedule can be summarised in graphical format. 1 2. which identifies their logical sequence and any dependencies that exist between them. Both activity and resource schedules ought to be drafted during the feasibility study.0 00 3.4 A/ 1. 3 (576 Mon th 8 Mo nt h 9 Mon th 10 Mont h 1 1 Mo nth 1 2 Mon th 1  @ †‡h i y v † u à Q y h   v  t à V  v ‡ Mo nt h 2 Mo nth 3 Mon th 4 Mon th 5 Mo nth 6 Mon th 7 PM O M E1 E2 E3 1. and provides a basis for allocating management responsibility for completing each activity.3 .&$/ )5$0(:25. 3 3 . This is called a *DQWW &KDUW.4 . 000 800 200 2 .

They will have significant influence over the investment decision at project appraisal and subsequently on the smooth implementation of the project if the go-ahead is given.3 3. 5HFXUUHQW &RVWV may be covered (fully or partly) through increased revenue that has been generated through project activities. Project costings should allow the allocation of costs to the different funding sources so that each party is clear about their respective contributions.000 4 3 4 3 200 100 3.4 A /1.1 A gree with governm ent priority areas for planning studies 1. )LJXUH  ([DPSOH RI D 5HVRXUFH 6FKHGXOH Example of a Resource Schedule @ T U 6 7 G DT C H @ I U à P A à 6 à Q G 6 I I DI B à V I DU  à H DI D T U S `à P A à U S 6 I T Q P S U Ref A CTIV ITIE S /INPUTS Unit Quantity per planning period 1s t qtr 2nd qtr 3rd qtr 4th qtr A nnual Cos ts per planning period Cos t Funding Cos t Codes Projec t Recurrent per unit s ourc e Donor Govt 1s t qtr 2nd qtr 3rd qtr 4th qtr Total Cos ts 6 8 U D W DU D@ T 1.000 3. it is important to remember that the implementing agency will be required to meet any recurrent costs of maintaining service provision beyond the life of the project.3 Hold regular briefings for M inis ters and senior c ivil s ervants " V  q r …‡h xr à y h   v t Ƈˆ q v r † / / / 4 5 6 7 8 9 6 1.1 M ak e recom m endations to governm ent 1.2 A s sis t governm ent in the developm ent of a fram ework for polic y form ulation / / 6 6 6 6 6 6 H v yr †‡‚  r † 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 M em bership of P S C inc ludes s enior representatives from all relevant Departm ents Term s of reference and s chedule for P S C agreed Firs t 3 briefing m eetings run and attended as planned W ritten agreem ent of priority areas W orking groups c onvened and s chedules of work agreed 1st drafts of s tudies c irc ulated Com m ents rec eived from relevant M inis tries & departm ents S tudies com pleted W orking groups agree on recom m endations S trategy rec om m endations subm itted to governm ent . (< P M = P rojec t M anager OM = O ffice M anager E 1 = E c onom ist 1 E 2 = P olicy S pec ialis t E 3 = E c onom ist 2 L S = Lead role = S upport role  3UHSDULQJ 5HVRXUFH 6FKHGXOHV Cost estimates must be based on careful and thorough budgeting.4 A /1.2.100 4 3 35 .1.3.3 Undertake planning s tudies jointly with governm ent # Q …‚ ‰v q r à t ‚ ‰r … € r  ‡Ã  v ‡u Ƈ…h ‡r t ’à yh  † / / / 10 / / / / 1.000 500 3.000 800 200 2. Once 7RWDO &RVWV have been calculated.2. the means necessary to undertake the activities must be specified. Whether or not this is the case.3 5.1 5. no. Each activity should then be used as a checklist to ensure that all necessary means under that activity are provided for.200 1.2 B /2. Then.4.2 B /2. lum p mm mm 2 1 1 4 2 2 1. This list may become very detailed.2.2 Convene working groups to undertak e planning s tudies 1.100 3.1.000 800 300 800 300 800 300 4.3 3. It will probably be necessary to aggregate or summarise the cost information.4. no. the list of activities should be copied into an input and cost schedule proforma.3.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management )LJXUH  ([DPSOH RI DQ $FWLYLW\ 6FKHGXOH Example of an Activity Schedule @ T U 6 7 GD T C H @ I U ÃP A ÃQ G 6 I I DI B ÃV I D U à H D I D T U S ` ÃP A ÃU S 6 I T Q P S U 6 8 U D W DU D @T `@6 S à (.200 1.2 Identify and rec ruit c ounterpart s taff ! G v h v †r à  v‡u à …r y r ‰h  ‡Ãq r ƒ h … ‡€ r  ‡† / / 1 2 3 1.1 S et up offic es and equipm ent 1. Again.3.1 2.1 Convene steering c om m ittee 1.000 500 3.4 A /1.000 500 3.2 Hold regular steering c om m ittee m eetings 1. 3 (576 Month 8 Month 9 Month 10 Month 11 Month 12 Month 1  @†‡h i y v †u ÃQ y h   v t ÃV  v ‡ Month 2 Month 3 Month 4 Month 5 Month 6 Month 7 P M OM E1 E2 E3 1.1 @ †‡h i yv †u à Q y h   v  t à V  v ‡ E QUIP M E NT Com puters Fax modem Offic e furniture S A LA RIES & A LLOW ANCE S (LOCA L) Counterparts Offic e s taff E TC. it is important that the net recurrent cost implications of the project are clearly specified so that the future impact on the implementing agency’s budget can be determined.

These may be sector-wide programmes. we should be clear about what exactly we mean by “Purpose” or “Result” and who the target groups and beneficiaries are. The principles of LFA equally apply to this type of interventions. that to properly plan them it will be necessary to run through the Analysis and Planning Phase. when preparing interlocking logframes. 72 3/$1 &203/(.17(59(17. ..1* 7+( /2*. each logical framework can be worked out in sub-logframes.17(5/2&. However.QWHUYHQWLRQ )URP 3URJUDPPH WR &RPSRQHQW Levels of Intervention: From Programme to Component 3URJUDPPH P‰r…hyyà Piwrp‡v‰r† 3URMHFW &RPSRQHQW Q…‚wrp‡Ã Qˆ…ƒ‚†r P‰r…hyyà Piwrp‡v‰r Sr†ˆy‡† Q…‚wrp‡Ã Qˆ…ƒ‚†r P‰r…hyyà Piwrp‡v‰r 6p‡v‰v‡vr† Sr†ˆy‡† Q…‚wrp‡Ã Qˆ…ƒ‚†r 6p‡v‰v‡vr† Sr†ˆy‡† 6p‡v‰v‡vr† The system of sub-dividing a “master” logical framework is useful to show the coherence of components in a programme or project and to develop each component in more detail. In principle.&$/ )5$0(:25. )LJXUH  /HYHOV RI .e.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management  86. nation-wide programmes or regional programmes with a number of concerned sectors.1* /2*)5$0(6 Complex interventions comprising a number of components or projects are usually called “Programmes”. Each of these describes components of the “master” logical framework on a more detailed level.216 . 36 . i.

QFHQWLYHV IRU FRPSDQ\ FUHDWLRQ SURYLGHG  0DLQWHQDQFH ZRUNV WHQGHUHG  :RUNV UHJXODUO\ PRQLWRUHG $FWLYLWLHV  «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«  6FUHHQ FRPSHWHQFHV RI SULYDWH VHFWRU PDLQWHQDQFH ILUPV  'HYLVH DQG LPSOHPHQW FDSDFLW\ EXLOGLQJ PHDVXUHV IRU SULYDWH ILUPV  3URYLGH LQFHQWLYHV IRU FRPSDQ\ FUHDWLRQ  7HQGHU PDLQWHQDQFH ZRUNV  0RQLWRU ZRUNV UHJXODUO\  ««  3ULYDWH VHFWRU LQYROYHPHQW LQ PDLQWHQDQFH HIIHFWLYH 5HVXOWV  «  &RPSHWHQFHV RI SULYDWH VHFWRU PDLQWHQDQFH ILUPV VFUHHQHG  &DSDFLW\ EXLOGLQJ PHDVXUHV IRU SULYDWH ILUPV GHYLVHG DQG LPSOHPHQWHG  .European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management 7DEOH  /HYHOV RI .PSOHPHQW VXUYH\  'UDZ FRQFOXVLRQV  « 37 .QWHUYHQWLRQ )URP 3URJUDPPH WR &RPSRQHQW 6HFWRU 3URJUDPPH 5RDGV 2YHUDOO REMHFWLYHV &RXQWU\ FRPSHWLWLYHQHVV RQ LQWHUQDWLRQDO PDUNHWV LPSURYHG .QYROYH SULYDWH VHFWRU PRUH LQ PDLQWH QDQFH  .PSURYH URDG FRYHUDJH E\ PDLQWH QDQFH WHDPV  .

sustainable benefits for segments of target groups at national or regional sectoral level. and provided it is not used as a ‘blueprint’ only.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management The following should provide guidance in defining the different levels of REMHF WLYHV LQ D QDWLRQZLGH VHFWRU SURJUDPPH: • Worldwide. from large sector programmes to small interventions. at the level of the SXUSRVH Sustainable benefits for segments of target groups at national or regional sectoral level. logframes have to be re-assessed and revised as the project itself develops and circumstances change. at the level of the UHVXOWV • • This. shows that the Logical Framework is a useful tool for both project planning and management. Sustainable benefits for all target groups and beneficiaries at national and overall sectoral level. where applicable. nation-wide benefits beyond the scope of the programme at the level of the RYHUDOO REMHFWLYHV. including equitable benefits for women and men. to the overarching policy objectives of the EC.2 (“First Column: Intervention Logic“): • sustainable benefits for all target groups and beneficiaries at national and overall sectoral level. 38 . referring to the overarching policy objectives of the EC. including equitable benefits for women and men. supra-regional. including gender equality. referring.5. at the level of the RYHUDOO REMHFWLYHV. at the level of the SXUSRVH “products” of activities undertaken (ends) at national or regional sectoral level. As a G\QDPLF WRRO. at the level of the UHVXOWV )LJXUH  /HYHOV RI 2EMHFWLYHV LQ D 1DWLRQZLGH 6HFWRU 3URJUDPPH • • Levels of Objectives in a Nation-wide Sector Programme D‡r…‰r‡v‚Ã G‚tvp Xuh‡Ãq‚r†Ãv‡Ã€rhÃs‚…ÃhÆrp‡‚… ƒ…‚t…h€€r4 Ih‡v‚vqrÃirrsv‡†Ã‚…Ãir’‚qà ir’‚qÇurÆp‚ƒrÂsÇurà ƒ…‚t…h€€rǂÐuvpuÃv‡Ãp‚‡…viˆ‡r† Tˆ†‡hvhiyr irrsv‡†Ãs‚…Ãhyy ‡h…tr‡Ã Q…‚wrp‡Ã Qˆ…ƒ‚†r t…‚ˆƒ†Ãh‡Ãh‡v‚hyÃhqÆrp‡‚…hyà yr‰ryÃvpyˆqvtÃr„ˆv‡hiyrÃirrsv‡†Ã s‚…Ђ€rÃhqÀr Tˆ†‡hvhiyr irrsv‡†Ãs‚…Ært€r‡†Ã Crhy‡uƇh‡ˆ†Ã‚sÆpu‚‚yÃpuvyq…rÃ Sr†ˆy‡† ‚sÇh…tr‡Ãt…‚ˆƒ†Ãh‡Ãh‡v‚hy…à †rp‡‚…hyÃyr‰ryÈ…ƒ‚†rÂsƈi †rp‡‚…Ã…‚th€€r† !  6Ãr‘h€ƒyrÃs…‚€Ã‡urÃurhy‡uÆrp‡‚… P‰r…hyyà Piwrp‡v‰r† ‡ H‚…‡hyv‡’Ã…h‡r†Ã…rqˆpr† ‡ Q…‚qˆp‡v‰v‡’Ãvp…rh†rq Crhy‡uƇh‡ˆ†Ã‚sƒˆyh‡v‚Ãv€ƒ…‚‰rq v€ƒ…‚‰rqÃvÃ6yhq Ih‡v‚vqrÃsˆp‡v‚vtÃurhy‡uÃph…rà †r…‰vpr†Ãr†‡hiyv†urqÃh‡Ã†pu‚‚y† 6h…rr††Ãp…rh‡rqÃh€‚tÃpuvyq…rÃhqà ƒh…r‡†Ãhi‚ˆ‡Ãurhy‡uÃph…rÀrh†ˆ…r† " Rˆhyv‡’ÃhqÃrssvpvrp’ÂsÆrp‚qh…’à urhy‡uÃph…rÃv€ƒ…‚‰rqÃs‚…Æpu‚‚yà puvyq…r 6p‡v‰v‡vr† Q…‚qˆp‡†Ã‚sƈi†rp‡‚…à ƒ…‚t…h€€r†Ã…r†ˆy‡†Ã‚sƈi †rp‡‚…Ã…‚t…h€€r† The REMHFWLYHV RI RQH RI WKH SRVVLEOH SURMHFWV ZLWKLQ WKH QDWLRQZLGH VHFWRU SUR JUDPPH should correspond to the following levels of objectives described in Chapter 3. again.

External factors which could affect the progress or success of the project. Are those who benefit in whatever way from the implementation of the project.QWHUPHGLDWH EHQHILFLDULHV those who are supported within the project in order to better perform services to the target group(s). and selection of one or more for inclusion in the proposed project. Identification and verification of future desired benefits to which the beneficiaries attach priority. $QDO\VLV RI 2EMHF WLYHV $QDO\VLV RI 6WUDWHJLHV Critical assessment of the alternative ways of achieving objectives.e.g. benefiting from training measures to better perform their advisory services to “female and male members of farm households”. $SSUDLVDO Analysis of a proposed project to determine its merit and acceptability in accordance with established criteria. usually: ministries. followed by an examination by EC staff to assess the project’s merits and consistency with sectoral policies. and are formulated in a positive way. agricultural extension staff. It involves the establishment of the details of the project on the basis of a feasibility study. This is the final step before a project is agreed for financing. sequence and duration of project activities. The third phase in the project cycle. Term often synonymously used: Feasibility study / Ex-ante evaluation. Distinction may be made between: (a) 3URMHFW SDUWQHUV  GLUHFW EHQHILFLDULHV those who are supported by EC funds in order to manage design and implementation of a project. They form the 4th column of the logframe. a graphic representation similar to a bar chart. e. They summarise what will be undertaken by the project. A Gantt chart.g. It can also be used to identify milestones for monitoring progress. i. (b) .European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management  */266$5< 2) 7(506 $FWLYLWLHV $FWLYLW\ 6FKHGXOH The actions (and means) that have to be taken / provided to produce the results. but over which the project manager has no direct control. The output of an analysis of objectives is the objective tree / hierarchy of objectives. and to assign responsibility for achievement of milestones. setting out the timing. e. See “Gantt Chart”.: “Reform of penal procedures successfully implemented”. (c) 7DUJHW JURXS V. It checks that the project is feasible against the situation on the ground that the objectives set remain appropriate and that costs are reasonable. implementation agencies.

g. as well as for whom. benefit from the project in the long term at the level of the society or sector at large. $SSUDLVDO 3KDVH $VVXPSWLRQV %DU &KDUW %HQHILFLDULHV 39 . the group / entity who will be positively affected by the project at the Project Purpose level and with whom the project will work very closely. “consumers” due to improved agricultural production and marketing. “children” due to increased spending on health and education.g. (d) )LQDO EHQHILFLDULHV those who. e. or “the state” as such due to increased export earnings from improved agricultural production and marketing. &RPPLVVLRQ The European Commission. the “ female and male members of farm households” in the case of the above extension project. beyond the level of the target groups. e.

A periodic assessment of the efficiency. The public or private organisation. It includes a description of the particular project or programme to be funded. It is usually undertaken as an independent examination of the background. and the quality of the results achieved. the Partner Country government policy agenda. and is likely to meet the needs of its intended target groups / beneficiaries. objectives. An assessment of the contribution made by results to achievement of the project purpose. and how Assumptions have affected project achievements. activities and means deployed. i. sustainability and relevance of a project in the context of stated objectives. modification or rejection of the proposed project for further financing. MEDA (except Cyprus. A feasibility study. The executive arm of the European Union. economic. taking account of all policy. It represents the formal commitment of the European Union and the partner country to finance the (IIHFWLYHQHVV (IILFLHQF\ (XURSHDQ &RPPLV VLRQ (YDOXDWLRQ (YDOXDWLRQ 3KDVH )HDVLELOLW\ )HDVLELOLW\ 6WXG\ )LQDQFLQJ $JUHH PHQW  0HPRUDQGXP 40 . The fact that the results were obtained at reasonable cost. The purpose of CSPs is to provide a framework for EU assistance programmes based on EU / EC objectives. individual or consortium to which a contract is awarded.e. institutional. Development Assistance Committee of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). with a view to drawing lessons that may guide future decision-making. consortium or individual with whom the contracting authority enters into a contract. impact. The study should design the project in full operational detail. verifies whether the proposed project is well-founded.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management &RPPLWPHQW A commitment is a formal decision taken by the Commission to set aside a certain amount of money for a particular purpose. &RXQWU\ 6XSSRUW 6WUDWHJ\ '$& 'HOHJDWLRQ Term used as a synonym for Country Strategy Papers (CSP). Addresses the issue whether the project objectives can be really achieved. conducted during the Appraisal phase. gender-related aspects. &RQWUDFWRU &RVW &RXQWU\ 6WUDWHJ\ 3D Country Strategy Papers (CSPs) are an instrument for guiding. an analysis of the partner country’s situation. The Head of Delegation is often called Delegate or Ambassador. It initiates European Union policy and implements programmes and policies established by the EU legislative and budgetary authorities. socio-cultural. financial. results. The firm. Malta and Turkey) and ALA countries. The document signed between the European Commission and the partner country or countries subsequent to a financing decision. how well Means and Activities were converted into Results. effectiveness. The sixth and final phase of the project cycle during which the project is examined against its objectives. managing and SHUV reviewing EC assistance programmes. and the activities of other major partners. technical. CSPs are drawn up for all ACP. management. Costs are the translation into financial terms of all the identified resources (“Means”). The diplomatic office representing the European Commission accredited to countries or international institutions at the level of an Embassy. The study will provide the European Commission and partner government with sufficient information to justify acceptance. No expenditure can be incurred in excess of the authorised commitment. and lessons are used to influence future actions. environmental.

submitted by the Commission’s services to the relevant Financing Committee for opinion and to the Commission for decision.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management measures described.PSDFW . 41 . The fourth phase of the project cycle during which projects are approved for financing. EU policy on gender mainstreaming in development co-operation requires the integration of gender analysis at macro. and in decision-making at all levels.GHQWLILFDWLRQ 3KDVH .PSOHPHQWDWLRQ 3KDVH The fifth phase of the project cycle during which the project is implemented. their differential access to and use of resources and their specific needs. showing a means to ends relationship. All programmes and projects should actively contribute to reducing gender disparities in their area of intervention. which refers to the biologically determined differences between women and men. particularly in relation to the disparities between women and men. which updates the project design and or the terms of reference and sets the workplan for the rest of the project. in employment and economic activity. and progress towards achieving objectives is monitored. and on the achievement of the overarching policy objectives of the EC. meso and micro levels. Financing proposals are draft documents. often used for activity scheduling.QFHSWLRQ 5HSRUW The period from project start-up until the writing of the inception report. A diagrammatic representation of the proposed project interventions planned logically. It involves the initial elaboration of the project idea in terms of objectives. usually two to three months. nature. *DQWW &KDUW *HQGHU *HQGHU $QDO\VLV *HQGHU (TXDOLW\ +LHUDUFK\ RI 2EMHF WLYHV . A gender analysis allows the identification and integration of the dynamics of change in a given situation. scope and objectives and modalities of measures proposed and indicate the funding foreseen. )LQDQFLQJ 0HPRUDQ GXP )LQDQFLQJ 3KDVH )LQDQFLQJ 3URSRVDO See “Financing Agreement”. with a view to determining whether or not to go ahead with a feasibility study. The social differences that are ascribed to and learned by women and men. and the barriers to the full and equitable participation of women and men in project activities and to equity between women and men in the benefits obtained. . decision-making) of women and men. A gender analysis includes attention to: the different roles (productive. The first report produced at the end of the inception period. The second phase of the project cycle. After having received the favourable opinion of the Financing Committee. reproductive. throughout the project cycle.QFHSWLRQ 3HULRG . The effect of the project on its wider environment. as well as the monitoring of their evolution. including in health and education. Similar to a bar chart. they are the subject of the Commission’s subsequent financing decision and of the Financing Agreement which is signed with the respective partner country. Synonym: Objectives tree. and its contribution to the wider sectoral objectives summarised in the project’s Overall Objectives. and that vary over time and from one society or group to another. The objective is reduced disparities between women and men. The promotion of equality between women and men in relation to their access to social and economic infrastructures and services and to the benefits of development is vital. results and activities. interests and problems. Gender differs from sex. following a problem analysis. A method of presenting information graphically. They describe the general background.

problem analysis. managing and evaluating programmes and projects. and showing a means to ends relationship. . Description of the aim of a project or programme. The matrix in which a project’s intervention logic. following a problem analysis. involving stakeholder analysis. analysis of strategies. They also indicate times when decisions should be made or action should be finished. A distinction can be drawn between: human resources and material resources. A methodology for planning. to ensure that issues of relevance.QGLFDWLYH 3UR JUDPPHV These are prepared by the European Commission in co-ordination with partner country governments. The boxes “Means” and “Costs” replace OVIs and SOV at the level of Activities. They provide general guidelines and principles for co-operation with the European Union. A type of OVI providing indications for short and medium -term objectives (usually activities) which facilitate measurement of achievements throughout a project rather than just at the end. results.QSXWV . See “Means”. project purpose and overall objectives. They specify focal sectors and themes within a country or region and may set out a number of project ideas. The systematic and continuous collecting. In its generic sense it refers to activities. Means are physical and non-physical resources (often referred to as “Inputs”) that are necessary to carry out the planned activities and manage the project.QWHJUDWHG $SSURDFK . The strategy underlying the project. feasibility and sustainability remain in focus. The consistent examination of a project throughout all the phases of the project cycle. analysis of objectives. preparation of the logframe matrix and activity and resource schedules. objectively verifiable indicators and sources of verification are presented.QWHUYHQWLRQ /RJLF /RJIUDPH /RJLFDO )UDPHZRUN $SSURDFK /)$. analysis and using of information for the purpose of management and decision-making. A diagrammatic representation of the situation in the future once problems have been remedied. assumptions. It is the narrative description of the project at each of the four levels of the ‘hierarchy of objectives’ used in the logframe.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management .

QGLFDWRUV 29. 0HDQV 0LOHVWRQHV 0RQLWRULQJ 2EMHFWLYH 2EMHFWLYH 7UHH 2EMHFWLYHO\ 9HULILDEOH Measurable indicators that will show whether or not objectives have been .

but will require the contributions of other programmes and projects as well. The Overall Objectives will not be achieved by the project alone (it will only provide a contribution to the achievement of the Overall Objectives). as well as into the overarching policy objectives of EC co-operation. i. 2YHUDOO 2EMHFWLYHV They explain why the project is important to society.e. Pre-conditions (if any) are attached to the provision of aid. start with activities. They also help to show how the programme fits into the regional / sectoral policies of the government / organisations concerned and of the EC. in terms of the longerterm benefits to final beneficiaries and the wider benefits to other groups. 3UH&RQGLWLRQV 42 . Conditions that have to be met before the project can commence. achieved at the three highest levels of the logframe. OVIs provide the basis for designing an appropriate monitoring system.

and be defined in terms of sustainable benefits for the target group(s). implementation and evaluation of projects and programmes based on the integrated approach and the logical framework approach. environmental aspects. The purpose should address the core problem. appropriate technology. needs and priorities of the intended target groups and beneficiaries that the project is supposed to address. policy support. gender. See also “Indicative Programme”. and selects a preferred alternative on the basis of Quality Factors. economic and financial factors. conducted during the identification phase. A methodology for the preparation. A breakdown of the project budget where means and costs are linked to activities. information requirements and responsibilities at each phase so that informed decisions can be made at each phase in the life of a project. The appropriateness of project objectives to the real problems. It provides a structure to ensure that stakeholders are consulted. A series of activities with set objectives. socio-cultural aspects. and to the physical and policy environment within which it operates. Criteria that are known to have had a significant impact on the sustainability of benefits generated by projects in the past. It is usually submitted quarterly. It includes sections on technical and financial performance. A series of projects with a common overall objective. The project cycle follows the life of a project from the initial idea through to its completion. A structured investigation of the negative aspects of a situation in order to establish causes and their effects. ensures that all problems are identified and alternative solutions are appraised. and detailed per time period selected. modification or rejection of the proposed project for further appraisal. 3UREOHP $QDO\VLV 3UREOHP 7UHH 3URJUDPPH 3URJUDPPLQJ 3KDVH 3URJUHVV 5HSRUW 3URMHFW 3URMHFW &\FOH 3URMHFW &\FOH 0DQ DJHPHQW 3URMHFW 3XUSRVH 4XDOLW\ )DFWRUV 5HFXUUHQW &RVWV 5HOHYDQFH 5HVRXUFH 6FKHGXOH 43 . An interim report on progress of work on a project submitted by the project management / contractor to the partner organisation and the Commission within a specific time frame. showing a cause-effect relationship. and defines the key decisions. Costs for operation and maintenance that will continue to be incurred after the implementation period of the project. The Purpose should also express the equitable benefits for women and men among the target group(s). There should only be one Project Purpose per project. It draws on evaluation to build the lessons of experience into the design of future programmes and projects. The first phase of the project cycle during which the Indicative Programme is prepared. and institutional and management capacity. designed to produce a specific outcome within a limited time frame.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management 3UHIHDVLELOLW\ 6WXG\ The pre-feasibility study. A diagrammatic representation of a negative situation. The central objective of the project. and which have to be taken into account in the design and implementation of each project (previously: “Sustainability Criteria”): ownership by beneficiaries. The study will provide the European Commission and partner government with sufficient information to justify acceptance.

They are formulated in a negative way. The group / entity who will be positively affected by the project at the Project Purpose level and with whom the project will work very closely. potentials. 6WDUWXS 3HULRG 6XVWDLQDELOLW\ 6XVWDLQDELOLW\ &ULWHULD See “Quality Factors”. They form the third column of the logframe and indicate where and in what form information on the achievement of the Overall Objectives. 6WDNHKROGHUV Any individuals. A tool that can be used during all phases of the project cycle. See also “Assumptions”. problems.g. 5LVNV 6RXUFHV RI 9HULILFD WLRQ 6WDNHKROGHU $QDO\VLV Stakeholder analysis involves the identification of all stakeholder groups likely to be affected (either positively or negatively) by the proposed intervention. External factors and events that could affect the progress or success of the project. groups of people. e. Usually.European Commission – EuropeAid Manual Project Cycle Management 5HVXOWV The “products” of the activities undertaken. Analysis of an organisation’s 6trengths and :eaknesses. The conclusions of this analysis are then integrated into the project design. as well as for whom. namely a start of enjoyment of sustainable benefits for the target groups. 6:27 $QDO\VLV 7DUJHW *URXS V. positively or negatively – affect or be affected by the process and the outcomes of projects or programmes. The period of project implementation immediately after the arrival of the contractor / technical assistance. etc. institutions or firms that may have a relationship with the project / programme are defined as stakeholders. The likelihood of a continuation in the stream of benefits produced by the project after the period of external support has ended. and that are not very likely to hold true. and the 2pportunities and 7hreats that it faces. They may – directly or indirectly. the combination of which achieve the Purpose of the project. different subgroups have to be considered. the Project Purpose and the Results can be found (described by the objectively verifiable indicators).: “Reform of penal procedures fails”. the identification and analysis of their interests.

budget. The schedule that sets out the activities and resources necessary to achieve a project’s results and purpose. consultants. etc. 7HUPV RI 5HIHUHQFH Terms of Reference define the tasks required of a contractor and indicate project background and objectives. expected inputs and outputs. contracted for the transfer of know-how and skills and the creation and strengthening of institutions. planned activities. trainers. advisers. 7HFKQLFDO $VVLVWDQFH Specialists. timetables and job descriptions. :RUNSODQ 44 .