User’s Guide

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Windows Interface for the U.S. EPA AERMOD Meteorological Preprocessor (AERMET)

Jesse L. Thé, Ph.D., P.Eng. Cristiane L. Thé, M.A.Sc. Michael A. Johnson, B.Sc.

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© 1999-2000 Lakes Environmental Software. All rights reserved. Windows, Windows 95, Windows NT, MS Write, MS-DOS, are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the USA and other countries.

Published by Lakes Environmental Software 450 Phillip Street, Suite 2 Waterloo, Ontario N2L 5J2 Canada Tel.: (519) 746-5995 Fax: (519) 746-0793 Web Site: http://www.lakes-environmental.com e-mail: info@lakes-environmental.com

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LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
You should carefully read the following license and warranty information. Opening this package indicates your acceptance of these terms and conditions. Lakes Environmental Software, a division of Lakes Environmental Consultants Inc., retains the ownership of this copy of the software. This copy is licensed to you for use under the following conditions: COPYRIGHT NOTICE This software is owned by Lakes Environmental Software and is protected by both Canadian copyright law and international treaty provisions. You must treat this software like any other copyrighted material (e.g., a book or musical recording). Lakes Environmental Software authorizes you to make archive copies of the software to protect it from loss. The software may be moved from one computer to another, as long as there is no possibility of two or more people using it at the same time. Licensee may not distribute, rent, sub-license, lease, alter, modify, or adapt the software or documentation, including, but not limited to, translating, decompiling, disassembling, or creating derivative works without the prior written consent of Lakes Environmental Software. Licensee agrees that in case of transference of ownership of the software, the transferee must expressly accept all terms and conditions of this agreement. The provided software and documentation contain trade secrets and it is agreed by the licensee that these trade secrets will not be disclosed to non-licensed persons without written consent of Lakes Environmental Software. WARRANTY AND LIABILITY Lakes Environmental Software warrants that, under normal use, the material of the magnetic diskettes and the documentation will be free of defects in materials and workmanship for a period of 60 days from the date of purchase. In the event of notification of defects in material or workmanship, Lakes Environmental Software will replace the defective diskettes or documentation. The above warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, whether written, express, or implied. Lakes Environmental Software specifically excludes all implied warranties, including, but not limited to, loss of profit, and fitness for a particular purpose. In no case shall Lakes Environmental Software assume any liabilities with respect to the use, or misuse, or the interpretation, or misinterpretation, of any results obtained from this software, or for direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages resulting from the use of this software. Specifically, Lakes Environmental Software is not responsible for any costs including, but not limited to, those incurred as a result of lost profits or revenue, loss of data, the costs of recovering programs or data, the cost of any substitute program, claims by third parties, or for other similar costs. In no event will Lakes Environmental Software's liability exceed the amount of the license fee. GOVERNING LAW This license agreement shall be construed and enforced in accordance with the laws of the Province of Ontario, Canada. Any terms or conditions of this agreement found to be unenforceable, illegal, or contrary to public policy in any jurisdiction will be deleted, but will not affect the remaining terms and conditions of the agreement. ENTIRE AGREEMENT This agreement constitutes the entire agreement between you and Lakes Environmental Software.

. TX Our development effort was enormously facilitated by our team members: Igor Raskin Oleg Shatalov Valeriy Smotrikov Irina Tchoumatcheva Mark Hilverda Sarah Thuring Aglaia Obrekht Nina Obrecht All codes.. Consultants Ltd.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank all those who have helped with reviews and suggestions for the successful completion of this software. and user’s guides are the intellectual property of Lakes Environmental Software. NC Trevor Billington – T. Some of our main contributors were: 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Russell Lee . UK Jeff Secrest – The Air Group.Independent Consultant. Billington Eng. executables. We have received useful feedback from our users and for that we are truly grateful.

The user is responsible for checking the input data and the results for consistency.S.DISCLAIMER This document and accompanying software follow the U. EPA AERMOD Meteorological Preprocessor (AERMET) program and documentation to the best of our understanding. .

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...................................3-11 The QA Upper Air Variables Tab........................................................................................................ 3-1 X X X The Hourly Surface Data Window.............. 1-4 Toolbar Buttons ....................................... 2-4 Upper Air Data ........ 1-8 Using Online Help ........................................................... 2-1 Hourly Surface Data.......................................................................................... 3-1 The QA Surface Variables Tab...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................2-12 Additional Parameters Tab ...................................................................................2-17 QA On-Site Variables Tab...........3-15 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software i ..........................................3-15 The On-Site Data Tab....................3-11 Upper Air Data Tab......... 3-9 The Upper Air Data Window ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2-7 Application Site .....................................................................2-10 A Brief Tutorial for On-Site Data......................................................................................................... 2-1 X X X X X X Creating an Aermet View Project ............................................................................... 2-6 Sectors ......................................................................................................... EPA AERMET Program........ 2-2 QA Surface Variables Tab....................................................................2-11 On-Site Data Tab .................... 1-1 The Aermet View Interface ............................................... 1-3 Menu Bar........................................................................................................................................... 2-4 QA Upper Air Variables Tab.....................................................S................................................................................................. 1-1 X X X X X X X X The U................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1-3 The Aermet View Window..........................2-18 Chapter 3 Using Aermet View ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................1-10 Chapter 2 Tutorial ........................................................1-10 Getting Technical Support......................................................................................Contents Contents Chapter 1 Introduction...... 2-8 Running AERMET ....... 2-4 Upper Air Data Tab..............................2-11 Data Records Tab................................................................................................................................... 2-7 Sectors & Surface Parameters..........................................................................................................................3-14 The On-Site Data Window .............................................................................................................................................. 1-9 How This User’s Guide is Organized ......................................... 2-2 Hourly Surface Data Tab................................................... 3-1 Hourly Surface Data Tab.....................

..................3-33 The AERMET Output Files.............................................................Introduction X X X X References The Data Records Tab...............................................................................................................3-17 The Additional Parameters Tab ........3-35 The QA Procedure .3-26 Running the U............ 4-1 ii Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software ....................3-22 The Application Site Window ..........................................................................................................................................3-33 Runtime Error Messages ......................3-22 The QA On-Site Variables Tab......................................................................3-34 The Surface File........................................................3-32 Running AERMET.................................................................3-31 The Project Status Dialog Box........................................................................S........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ EPA AERMET Program............................................................................................3-24 The Application Site Tab.........................................3-24 The Sectors and Surface Parameters Tab ...............................................3-34 The Profile File ...........................................................................3-36 ............................Chapter 1 ....

AERMET processes meteorological data in three stages: 1) The first stage extracts meteorological data from archive data files and processes the data through various quality assessment checks. Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 1-1 . Lakes Environmental has put in a lot of effort to create the easiest to use and most stable interface on the market.S. 3) The third stage reads the merged meteorological data and estimates the necessary boundary layer parameters for use by AERMOD. Thank you for choosing Aermet View. 2) The second stage merges all data available for 24-hour periods (surface data.S.S.Chapter 1 . EPA short term air quality dispersion model AERMOD. upper air data.S. EPA AERMET Program The Aermet View Interface The Aermet View Window Menu Bar Toolbar Buttons Using Online Help How this User’s Guide is Organized Getting Technical Support The U. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) AERMET program. This chapter gives you a brief description of the Aermet View interface and the EPA AERMET program and introduces the basic components of Aermet View to allow a quick start into the interface. Contents Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y The U.a Windows interface for the U. and on-site data) and stores these data together in a single file. EPA AERMET Program The AERMET program is a meteorological preprocessor which prepares hourly surface data and upper air data for use in the U.Introduction CHAPTER 1 Introduction Welcome to Aermet View . AERMET was designed to allow for future enhancements to process other types of data and to compute boundary layer parameters with different algorithms.

cloud cover. EPA User’s Guide for AERMET – DRAFT) The minimum input data requirements to AERMET are: ♦ The upper air soundings. 1-2 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software .Introduction Out of this process two files are written for AERMOD: 1) A Surface File of hourly boundary layer parameters estimates. Currently.e. ♦ The hourly surface observations of wind speed. This search restricts the applicability of AERMET to those longitudes where the 1200 GMT sounding corresponds to the early morning hours. such as from an instrumented tower.. A one-hour window of time in the search allows for the possibility of an early or late launch time. wind direction. When on-site meteorological data. 2) A Profile File of multiple-level observations of wind speed. dry bulb temperature. i. the Western Hemisphere. and ceiling height. AERMET Processing Stages (Source: U. The surface and upper air stations should be carefully selected to ensure they are meteorologically representative of the general area being modeled.Chapter 1 . this data can be incorporated into the AERMET processing and is used in the generation of the Profile File. wind direction. AERMET uses the 1200 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) upper air sounding from the National Weather Service for this purpose. is available. and standard deviation of the fluctuating wind components.S. temperature. A flowsheet depicting the Aermet processing stages is shown below. A limitation of the AERMET model is: ♦ The temperature structure of the atmosphere prior to sunrise is required by AERMET to estimate the growth of the convective boundary layer for the day.

..exe: U..exe) without any modifications.... EPA AERMET executable for Stage 3.. see your Windows documentation....exe: Aermet View executable..hlp: Aermet View Help file.S.S.....S.... Windows 98....... or to close Aermet View..Introduction The Aermet View Interface Aermet View is a user-friendly interface for the U...Displays the interface name. EPA AERMET program. to switch to another application... The files provided with Aermet View are: ♦ Aermetvw........ Aermet View contains all the available options of the U.. Minimize button . For more information on standard Window commands... The Aermet View Window Aermet View’s window components follow the standard Window features.. and Windows NT... Title bar.. EPA AERMET executables (Stage1n2. Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 1-3 ........ EPA AERMET program and uses the U......Chapter 1 .. ♦ MetStations.... The components of the Aermet View window are: Y Y Y Control menu .. This interface was developed specially for Microsoft Windows and runs under Windows 95. ♦ Aermetvw... ♦ Stage1n2.. ♦ Stage3.... EPA AERMET executable program for Stages 1 and 2..exe: U...The Control Menu box displays the sizing options....S...DB and MetStations..... Aermet View.....PX: Database files containing information for surface and upper air NWS stations....... and between brackets the full path and name of the project file in use..Minimizes the Aermet View window..exe and Stage3. ♦ AermetDB: Folder containing database files used by Aermet View...S.

............. or restores it to its pre-maximized size and position...This area displays a helpful tip for the window that is currently open................................... To open a menu... A menu appears displaying a list of related commands. Menu bar ...........Chapter 1 .. Y Y Toolbar buttons ............These are a series of buttons that take you into the various data input windows of AERMET.. Close button .......This button will close Aermet View.................. Tip Frame .........Displays menu names....Introduction Y Y Y Maximize/Restore button ..... Menu Bar The following is the description of each menu option: 1-4 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software ..............Maximizes Aermet View window........... move the mouse over the menu name and then press the left mouse button....

.........Opens the Hourly Surface Data window in which you specify the hourly surface data file.................. Close Project .......... Save Project ... where you specify the name of the new Aermet View project file (*.Chapter 1 .......Displays the New Project dialog box......................Closes the Aermet View interface........................... Save Project As ..........AMF)......Displays a list of up to four of the most recently used Aermet View project files.....AMF) to be opened............ Open Project .... and the QA surface variables.. allowing you to save the current Aermet View project with a different name (*.Saves the current Aermet View project file (*......Introduction File (Alt.................................................. F) New Project.......... associated Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 1-5 .......AMF)......................... Exit ...AMF)..Displays the Open Project dialog box.......... # List of Files .... where you specify an existing Aermet View project file (*..Closes the current project.......... I) Hourly Surface Data ............. Input (Alt....Displays the Save Project As dialog box.................... information...... Clicking on any of them will quickly open the selected project.........

.... Opens Windows WordPad to examine the Stage 1 input file (*.. any additional parameters..Introduction Upper Air Data........Opens the On-Site Data window in which you specify the on-site data file... which displays any missing information....... From the Project Status dialog box you can run AERMET...... needed to run AERMET Stage 1... which tells you whether your project is complete and which parts need to be completed...Opens the Upper Air Data window in which you specify the upper air data file........Chapter 1 ...Opens the Sectors and Surface Parameters window in which you specify wind direction sectors............ View (Alt. R) Input File ¾ Stage 1 ..IN1) generated by Aermet View................... and the QA upper air variables.... R) Run Aermet . the data record....................................................................Opens the Status tab of the Project Status dialog box... On-Site Data... and the QA on-site variables................. Run (Alt..... and sitespecific information........ 1-6 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software ...... associated information....... Details ................... From the Project Status dialog box you can run AERMET................. Application Site.............Displays the Details tab of the Project Status dialog box..

and 3....Opens Windows WordPad to examine the report file (*. Opens Windows WordPad to examine the Stage 2 input file (*. You can view the Message files for Stage 1......ARP) generated by AERMET that summarizes the input....... and TD6201 upper air met data.IN3) generated by Aermet View. SAMSON surface met data..... Output File ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Surface File . a description of each parameter is available for easy verification of the data..................................Opens Windows WordPad to examine the output Profile file generated by AERMET.. and 3................... Report File ............................ Opens Windows WordPad to examine the message file (*........... Utilities (Alt.......Opens Windows WordPad to examine the output Surface file generated by AERMET. Multi-Year Data.................. Opens Windows WordPad to examine the Stage 3 input file (*....Chapter 1 . You can view the Report file for Stage 1.......... 2. In this format.................. Message File...... This utility allows you to combine more than one year of surface or upper air met data in one single file............... U) Met View .. 2.... needed to run AERMET Stage 2.... Profile File............................... Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 1-7 .......... The following formats are supported: SCRAM surface met data.............IN2) generated by Aermet View.....Allows you to specify a file to be opened in Windows WordPad. CD144 surface met data.....................................MSG) generated by AERMET which allows you to identify potential problems with the met data....... needed to run AERMET Stage 3..........................Displays the Multi-Year Met Data File Utility......Displays the Surface and Profile files in a grid format...Introduction ¾ ¾ Stage 2 ..... Other File ...... Stage 3 ....

. File | Open Project ................................... and other related links......Lets you open an existing Aermet View project file... Lakes Web site.... The function of each one of these buttons is explained below....................Chapter 1 ... free met data............... from which you can select topics................Displays the copyright notice......... 1-8 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software ...Displays information on “How to Use Help”....... About .......Introduction Help (Alt.... Team ........................... options for Lakes Web Links . H) Contents .. Lets you save the current Aermet View project file............. Help on Help ...... Toolbar Buttons The toolbar buttons are shortcuts to some of the menu commands.. Displays technical support Environmental software.... Lets you create a new Aermet View project file.................................Displays Aermet View Help Contents....... and version number for the Aermet View interface..................... authors.... File | New Project ...........Lets you search for help on a particular topic........ Technical Support .............. Search for Help on . Displays information on the Aermet View development team............ Displays Web links for product upgrades.................................... File | Save Project .......

.. This utility can generate wind rose plots for your AERMET surface meteorological data.... Lets you run the U.. ... Opens the Upper Air Data window in which you specify the Upper Air Data file..... and related information collected from EPA’s documentation and guidelines.S.. how to use Aermet View..... and the QA upper air variables...Introduction Run | Run Aermet ...... Aermet View Help is a very useful tool as you learn both Aermet View and the AERMET program. Input | Upper Air Data .. and Site Information Utilities | Met View .S...Opens the Hourly Surface Data window in which you specify the Hourly Surface Data file. Surface Parameters.......... EPA AERMET program. Input | On-Site Data .... a description of each parameter is available for easy verification of the data... Using Online Help Aermet View Help contains extensive information on the U.... Input | Hourly Surface Data ..... Input | Application Data... EPA AERMET program requirements.. associated information..... Displays the Surface and Profile files in a grid format..... and the QA on-site variables. any Additional Parameters....... the Data Record... Opens the Sectors and Surface Parameters window in which you specify Wind Direction Sectors... You can have access to Aermet View online Help in the following ways: Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 1-9 ...... In this format...... Opens the On-Site Data window in which you specify the On-Site Data file.... and the QA surface variables. Displays Lakes Environmental WRPLOT View........Chapter 1 . associated information.....

. ♦ Context-Sensitive Help (F1): Many parts of the Aermet View interface support a contextsensitive help. See the description of these menu commands below..Using Aermet View: This chapter explains how to use the Aermet View interface. etc.. gives you quick tips on Aermet View options and inputs.g. Chapter 2 . How This User’s Guide is Organized The Aermet View User’s Guide is organized to help you learn Aermet View quickly and easily. the status bar message changes to indicate what a particular command does.Introduction: This chapter presents basic information on the EPA AERMET program and the Aermet View interface. input field.). ♦ Help Toolbar Button: The [Help] button located on the toolbar will display the Help Contents for the window you are currently working on.Chapter 1 . The guide is broken into functional groupings as follows: Chapter 1 .. the Contents and the Search for Help on. From there you can jump to any topic you want. If you need any assistance please contact the Lakes Environmental technical support staff. You can also get to the search dialog box by clicking the [Search] button on any Help screen. Contents: Select this option if you want to see Aermet View Help Contents.. the cursor focus should be over the item of interest (e. Please have your serial number and version number ready when calling us.m. 1-10 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software . Search for Help on . As you move the mouse on the screen. Monday through Friday. option buttons. Chapter 3 . located on the bottom part of every window. ♦ Status Bar Quick Tips: The status bar.Tutorial: This chapter presents a step by step example using Aermet View. so you can quickly search for a particular topic. : This option displays the Search dialog box. This way you can get help without having to go through the Help menu. Our technical support hours are from 9:30 a. EST. 2. Getting Technical Support Lakes Environmental is dedicated to providing full technical support for its software. to 5:00 p..m. To get a context-sensitive help on a specific option or topic. 1.Introduction ♦ Help Menu: Two menu commands are available on the Help menu.

450 Phillip Street.Introduction Lakes Environmental Software Inc.Chapter 1 .com Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 1-11 .lakes-environmental. : (519) 746-5995 Fax : (519) 746-0793 e-mail : support@lakes-environmental. Suite 2 Waterloo. Ontario N2L 5J2 Canada Tel.com Web Site : http://www.

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AMF. Select File | New Project… to display the New Aermet View Project dialog box. If you only want to browse this tutorial. EPA AERMOD model. Step 3: Step 4: Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 2-1 . Click the OK button. Step 2: Aermet View’s About dialog box appears on the screen. Select the Directory and Drive and enter the File Name for your new project.S. This tutorial will guide you through the basic steps in processing meteorological data files for use with the U.Chapter 2 – Tutorial CHAPTER 2 Tutorial Before you jump right into Aermet View. Contents ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Creating an Aermet View Project Hourly Surface Data Upper Air Data Application Site Running AERMET A Brief Tutorial for On-Site Data Creating an Aermet View Project Follow the steps below to start your Aermet View tutorial: Step 1: From the Windows Start menu choose Programs > Lakes Environmental > Aermet View or double-click on the Aermet View icon if you have created a shortcut on the desktop. you might want to start with a simple tutorial. we have included a file in the installation disk as TUTORIAL.

Step 7: Select the SRAM file format. 2-2 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software .dat hourly surface file located C:\ISCView3\Tutorial\Met (if this was your installation directory). CD-144. and SAMSON. AERMET can process three formats: SCRAM (MET144). Hourly Surface Data Tab ♦ Hourly Surface Data File Name: You must specify the name and path for the hourly surface data file. Press the Preview button to preview the surface data file. Follow the steps described below to build your tutorial project. Step 5: Select the S1482688. This window contains two tabs: the Hourly Surface Data tab and the QA Surface Variables tab. in your Step 6: ♦ Format: This is the format of the hourly surface data file that you have specified.Chapter 2 – Tutorial Hourly Surface Data The Hourly Surface Data window is the first window displayed when you create a new project or open an existing one. Press the Specify File button ( ) to display the Open dialog box.

♦ Latitude/Longitude: This is the location of the surface station from which hourly observations are being used. Step 10: Leave the default value of 0 (No Conversion). columns 1 to 5. Step 9: Latitude: Longitude: 42 deg 58 min 1 sec North 83 deg 45 min 0 sec West ♦ Adjustment for Local Time: This is the number of hours required to convert the time of each data record on the surface met data to local standard time (LST).Chapter 2 – Tutorial ♦ Station ID: This is the ID for the surface station from where your hourly surface met file is originated. Step 8: Make sure 14826 was specified. Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 2-3 . The surface data in the SCRAM file format writes the station ID on every row. The 0 value means that the hourly surface observations were reported in local standard time.

2-4 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software . we are not carrying out any QA on the surface variables. press the Dates button. Press the File button to display the Open dialog box. By double clicking on a specific variable. and missing indicators for all variables. Step 11: By default. the U. 1988 End Date: December 31.S. EPA AERMET model can only process data from TD-6201 format. Please check if the dates are the following: Start Date: January 01. Step 12: Double-click on any QA surface variable to check its default values.Chapter 2 – Tutorial ♦ Dates to be Retrieved (Start – End): These are the start and end dates (inclusive) of the data to be extracted from the surface data file. Follow the steps described below to build your tutorial project. units. description. you will be able to check the default ranges. During the quality assessment (QA) process. 1988 QA Surface Variables Tab On the QA Surface Variables tab you may select one or more variables to be audited. Upper Air Data Tab ♦ Upper Air Data File Name (NCDC TD-6201): You must specify the name and path for the upper air data file. This window contains two tabs: the Upper Air Data tab and the QA Upper Air Variables tab. Aermet View specifies the Dates to be retrieved from January 1 to December 31 of the year of the surface data you have specified. Upper Air Data The Upper Air Data window is displayed when you press the Upper Air menu tool bar button. audited variables are checked as being missing or outside a range of acceptable values. For this tutorial. Currently. To change the date range.

On the upper air data file.Chapter 2 – Tutorial Step 13: Select the A148264.ua upper air data file located C:\ISCView3\Tutorial\Met (if this was your installation directory). Step 14: in your Press the Preview button to preview the upper air data file. Step 15: Select the Fixed-Length format. ♦ Station ID: This is the ID for the upper air station from where your upper air data file is originated. Step 16: Make sure 00014826 was specified as the station ID. ♦ Format: This is the format of the NCDC TD-6201 upper air data file. Two formats are available: fixed-length blocks and variable-length blocks. Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 2-5 . the station ID is given on the first 8 characters.

Please make sure the following was specified: Start Date: 1988/01/01 End Date: 1988/12/31 QA Upper Air Variables Tab On the QA Upper Air Variables tab you may select one or more variables to be audited. ♦ Dates to be Retrieved (Start – End): These are the start and end dates (inclusive) of the data to be extracted from the upper air data file. press the Dates button. Step 17: Latitude: Longitude: 42 deg 58 min 1 sec North 83 deg 45 min 0 sec West ♦ Adjustment for Local Time: This is the number of hours required to convert the time of each data record on the upper air met data to local standard time (LST). audited variables are checked for being missing or outside the range of acceptable values. Step 18: Make sure 5 (Eastern) was selected. To change the date range. By double clicking on a specific 2-6 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software . then the dates will be shown here.Chapter 2 – Tutorial ♦ Latitude/Longitude: This is the location of the upper air station from which upper air data are being used. This means that a factor of 5 will be used to convert GMT time reported in the upper air data to local standard time. Step 19: If you already selected the dates in the Hourly Surface Data tab. During the quality assessment (QA) process.

Step 22: Select 5 (Eastern). The following information is requested about the application site: ♦ Site ID: This is an eight character alphanumeric specifier that identifies your site. we will provide a brief hands-on on how to specify the parameters for the on-site data. Sectors The Application Site window is displayed when you press the Sectors menu tool bar button.Chapter 2 – Tutorial variable. description. For this tutorial we are not going to use on-site data when processing the met data. The On-Site met data is optional. at the end of this tutorial. For this tutorial. Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 2-7 . you will be able to check the default ranges. however. and missing indicators for all variables. Step 20: Double-click on any QA upper air variable to check its default values. Follow the steps described below to add data to your tutorial project. This window contains two tabs: ♦ Application Site. and ♦ Sectors & Surface Parameters. we are not auditing any upper air variables. Application Site Information regarding the location of the site for which data are being prepared (application site) is essential for the process of data. Step 21: Specify MySite ♦ Time Zone: This is an adjustment factor to convert the time of each upper air sounding in the input data file from local standard time back to Greenwich Mean Time to locate the 12Z sounding. units.

Chapter 2 – Tutorial ♦ Latitude/Longitude: This is the location of the application site. For each sector the end angle must be specified. Bowen ratio. Step 25: Specify an anemometer height of 10 m. if on-site data are missing for the hour. 2-8 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software . The end of one sector must be the beginning of another. Sectors are defined clockwise and they must cover the full circle. you need to specify the frequency that these characteristics change (annually. In order to better quantify these characteristics. Sectors & Surface Parameters Surface characteristics at the measurement site influence boundary layer parameter estimates. These influences are quantified through the surface albedo. and roughness length. The latitude and longitude coordinates should be for the location of the source. Step 23: Latitude: Longitude: 42 deg 0 min 0 sec North 83 deg 0 min 0 sec West Some additional parameters are also requested on the Application Site tab: ♦ Estimate Boundary Layer Parameters Using NWS Data when On-Site Data are Missing: If this option is checked. or monthly) and the number of different sectors. seasonally. ♦ Wind Direction Sectors: A minimum of 1 and maximum of 12 sectors can be specified. ♦ Anemometer Height [m]: This is the height in meters of the NWS wind instrument (anemometer). then AERMET uses NWS data to estimate boundary layer parameters. Step 24: Check this option.

The frequency can be annual. Step 28: Select the Annually option and specify the following parameters: Albedo = 0. Surface Roughness: this is related to the height of obstacles to the wind flow. 3. The Non-Uniform option allows you to specify your own sectors’ end angles. This button is only visible when you place your mouse cursor at the cell. Albedo: this is the fraction of total incident solar radiation reflected by the surface back to space without absorption.15 Bowen Ratio = 2 Surface Roughness = 0. ♦ Specify Surface Parameters for Sectors: The frequency at which surface parameters may change must be defined before the parameters are specified. by season. Step 27: Select the Uniform option. 2. The Uniform option automatically places end angles for each sector by dividing the circle on equal sectors.Chapter 2 – Tutorial Step 26: Specify 1 for the Wind Direction Sectors option. Typical values for all the above parameters are available by pressing the button ( ) located on the right hand side of each cell. ♦ Start Angle [deg]: You can use the default values for the start angle for each sector. The following surface parameters must be specified for each period of time: 1. or by month. Bowen Ratio: the daytime Bowen Ration is an indicator of surface moisture.12 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 2-9 .

Stage 1 . Also. 2-10 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software . Creating Model Input Files: in this stage. temperature and the standard deviation of the fluctuating components of the wind. The first file contains boundary layer scaling parameters and reference-height winds and temperature. Step 30: When each stage finish running. the files from stage 1 are combined into a single ASCII file. Stage 2 – Merging Data: in this stage. it is time to run the U. The second file contains one or more levels (profile) of winds. Step 29: Press the Run menu toolbar button. We hope you have successfully completed the tutorial. press the Run button. EPA AERMET model. 3.Chapter 2 – Tutorial Running AERMET Now that we have specified all the data for our tutorial example. EPA AERMET model will run in three stages: 1.Extraction and Quality Assessment: in this stage. The Project Status dialog box is displayed informing you the name for the two output files that will be generated after AERMET runs. The U. Close the DOS window. 2. Press the Run menu toolbar button or select Run | Run Aermet from the menu.S. and View | Output File | Profile File… Step 31: Your tutorial project is complete.S.. on the Details tab you will get a brief description of any missing data. If your project is complete. then the following message appears on the bottom of the DOS window: AERMET Data Processing Finished Successfully. Check the Details tab for any missing information. You can preview the generated files by selecting the following menu options: View | Output File | Surface File. the data is extracted/retrieved and the assessment of the quality of the data is performed.. the merged file is read in conjunction with site-specific parameters and two files are produced for input to AERMOD.

If your on-site station does not have an ID. then we advise you to create a new project. Data Records tab.MET file from the tutorial folder from your installation directory.g. and QA On-Site Variables. OnSite. so you can play around with the on-site data inputs. Step 2 - Select the ONSITE. then you must specify the name and path for the on-site met data file. The station ID must be an integer with a maximum length of eight characters. Additional Parameters tab.met that can be found in the Tutorial\Met folders. Step 1 - Select the Yes option.Chapter 2 – Tutorial A Brief Tutorial for On-Site Data This section is not part of the Aermet Tutorial. If you want to learn a bit more On-Site data.. ♦ Station ID: This is the ID for the On-Site station. We are providing you with an on-site data file. This window contains four tabs: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ On-Site Data tab. Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 2-11 . On-Site Data window is displayed when you press the On-Site menu tool bar button. 00099999). On-Site Data Tab ♦ Include On-Site Data? The on-site met data is optional and you need to indicate if you want to use this option by selecting Yes. ♦ Specify On-Site Data File Name: If you are using the On-Site Data option. you can type a dummy ID (e.

Step 7 - Press the Preview button to preview the on-site met data. Step 6 - Specify the following: Latitude: 41 deg 18 min 0 sec North Longitude: 74 deg 0 min 0 sec West Data Records Tab ♦ No.Chapter 2 – Tutorial Step 3 - Specify 00099999 ♦ Adjustment for Local Time: This is the number of hours required to convert the time of each data record on the on-site met data to local standard time (LST). Step 8 - 2-12 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software . Step 4 - Leave the default value of 0 (No Conversion). of Data Records per Observation Period: This is the number of data records per observation period. Step 5 - Specify the following: Start Date: 1988/03/01 End Date: 1988/03/10 ♦ Latitude/Longitude: This is the location of the on-site station from which upper air data are being used. Note that there are 3 data records per observation period. ♦ Dates to be Retrieved (Start – End): These are the start and end dates (inclusive) of the data to be extracted from the on-site met data file. The 0 value means that the on-site met data was reported in local standard time. AERMET can process up to a maximum of 20 data records per observation period. Using the arrow up button specify 3 as the number of data records per observation.

Using the arrow up button specify 3 as the number of measurement heights. Step 10 - Select the first data record (first row) from the Data Records field. ♦ Current Record: This field displays the data record that is highlighted on the Data Records field. Note that the selected record is displayed on the Current Record field. The current record is the one highlighted in the Data Records field. ♦ Variables to Read for Current Record: You must specify the variables to be read for the current record.Chapter 2 – Tutorial ♦ No. Press the Edit button to display the On-Site Variables dialog box. Step 9 . Step 11 - Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 2-13 . of Measurement Heights in Multi-Level Input Data: This is the number of measurement heights for the multi-level profile data. You specify the variables by clicking on the Edit button. ♦ Data Records: This field will display the first N data records for the first observation period of the on-site met data file. N is the Number of Data Records per Observation Period that you have specified. In this tutorial example N = 3.

horizontal wind at level 1 Std. The single-level variables must be read before multi-level variables. Step 12 - From the Single-Level On-Site Variables – Exclude these Variables list. w-comp. In this example.Chapter 2 – Tutorial ♦ Select Single-Level On-Site Variables: These variables are the ones that do not depend on the level (height) at which observation was taken. you can select a specific variable and drag it to the right position. If the variables are not in the right order. Press the left arrow key to move the selected variables from the Exclude list to the Include list. Step 13 - From the Multi-Level On-Site Variables – Exclude these Variables list. select the following variables: OSDY: OSMO: OSYR: OSHR: Day Month Year Hour Press the Shift key or the Alt+Ctrl keys to make multi selections. the height for the first level (level 1) is being given by the variable HT01 specified above. 2-14 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software . of wind at level 1 Temperature at level 1 Wind direction at level 1 Wind speed at level 1 Level 1 means the level at which the observation was taken. dev. dev. select the following variables: HT01: SA01: SW01: TT01: WD01: WS01: Height at level 1 Std. Note that a description for the selected variable is displayed on the bottom of the Include list.

especially if some data is being skipped. the height for the second level (level 3) is given by the variable HT03 specified above. of wind at level 3 Temperature at level 3 Wind direction at level 3 Wind speed at level 3 Level 3 is the level at which the observation was taken. dev.Chapter 2 – Tutorial Step 14 - After you have selected all the variables for data record one click the OK button. of wind at level 2 Temperature at level 2 Wind direction at level 2 Wind speed at level 2 Level 2 is the level at which the observation was taken. The selection will be automatically posted on the Variable to Read for Current Record field. the height for the second level (level 2) is given by the variable HT02 specified above. In this example. Press the Suggested button to get the suggested format. w-comp. dev. Step 15 - Repeat steps 10 through 14. Dev. Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 2-15 . Please note that the suggested format should be checked to see if it applies to your data record. for data records 2 and 3. ♦ Format for Current Record: Use this field to specify the FORTRAN format for each data record. dev. horizontal wind at level 3 Std. Select the following multi-level variables: Data Record #2: HT02: SA02: SW02: TT02: WD02: WS02: Height at level 2 Std. Data Record #3: HT03: SA03: SW03: TT03: WD03: WS03: Height at level 3 Std. In this example. w-comp. horizontal wind at level 2 Std.

I2 OSDY 1 1X I2 OSMO 3 1X I2 OSYR 8 8 1X I2 OSHR 1 ¤ 4X.2 – WS01) 2-16 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software .1X. Data Record #1: 4(I2.1X.1X.50 0.2. 7 1X ¤ ¤ F7.2 – WD01) + 1 empty space (1X) + floating point variable occupying 7 spaces (numbers and decimal point) with 2 digits after decimal (F7.0 48.Chapter 2 – Tutorial Step 16 - Type in the following Fortran format for each data record.F7.1X.3 – SW01) + 1 empty space (1X) + floating point variable occupying 6 spaces (numbers and decimal point) with 2 digits after decimal (F6.F5.F5.1X.F7.64 317.7 0.2 See below a detailed description of the format for data record #1: Data Record #1: 1 3 88 1 0 10.1X.2.F6.F7.F6.1X.1X.1 SA01 4 8 .F7.1X.2 – TT01) + 1 empty space (1X). 0 1X F5.2.3.F5.F6.1X = floating point variable occupying 7 spaces (numbers and decimal point) with 3 digits after decimal (F7.F7.1X.1. F7.1X.F5.2 = floating point variable occupying 7 spaces (numbers and decimal point) with 2 digits after decimal (F7.1) + 1 empty space (1X) + floating point variable occupying 5 spaces (numbers and decimal point) with 1 digit after decimal (F5.1.1X = 4 empty spaces (4X) + floating point variable occupying 5 spaces (numbers and decimal point) with 1 digit after decimal (F5.1.2.F6.2.F7.1.1X.F6.2.1X.1X.1X).1.F5.2.1X.F5.110 0.1. 4X F5.1 HT01 1 0 .F7.1X) = 4 times an integer number occupying 2 spaces (I2) followed by 1 empty space (1X).1X.3.1.F5.F7.3. See below.2 Data Record #3: 16X.F5.1X.F7.4X.F7.2.F7.2.F5.1X.1X.1X.1.1) + 1 empty space (1X).3.1.F5.1X).2 Data Record #2: 16X.F7.1.4X.1X.F7.2. Remember to highlight the data record first before typing the format.3.1X.2 ¤ 4(I2.80 Format: 4(I2.1X.

Step 17 - Specify 1 as the number of observations per hour. Step 19 - We are not using this option for the tutorial example. every 5 minutes). The heights that define the temperature difference are represented by a lower height and an upper height.Chapter 2 – Tutorial Additional Parameters Tab ♦ No. you must specify the minimum detectable (threshold) wind speed of the on-site anemometer. ♦ Height Levels in Multi-Level Input Data: The measurement heights for the multi-level profile data must be either in the on-site met data file or specified here. AERMET currently allows up to 12 observations periods per hour (i.. of Observations per Hour: On-site data may be reported more frequently than once per hour. if data is reported every half-hour. ♦ Threshold Wind Speed [m/s]: The minimum wind speed required to detect air flow varies according to the anemometer.3 m/s for the threshold wind speed.e. then these measurements should be specified. For on-site data. You can also use this option to override the height variables that are specified in the on-site met data file. For example. For observations more frequent than once per hour. Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 2-17 . the threshold wind speed is assumed to be 1 m/s. For NWS data. The measurements can be either between the levels where the ambient temperature is measured or independent of these levels. Step 18 - Specify 0. Up to three temperatures differences can be specified. you need to specify the number of observations per hour. ♦ Temperature Difference Measurements: If the on-site data measure differences in temperature. specify 2 as the number of observations per hour.

Press the Add button. AERMET automatically tracks (audit) the following variables: temperature. and wind direction. Repeat Step 22 for the following variables: Std. but is recommended to identify any possible problems with the data file. we do not need to specify them here. A button ( ) appear at the right hand side of the cell. Step 21 Step 22 - Check the Perform AUDIT option. QA On-Site Variables Tab The quality assurance process for the on-site data identifies data that are out of range. Missing Indicator. Note that the table becomes available for use. Lower Bound and Upper Bound. Press the button to display the On-Site QA Variables list. An empty row is added to the table. and HT03=100. Select the Temperature (TTnn) variable and press the Select button. Click on the Variable Name cell. QA is on optional process. Note that the QA parameters for this variable are placed on the table. You must specify which variables are to be audited and the value for the following parameters: Boundary Type. HT02=50. wind speed. ♦ Perform AUDIT (QA) on the variables specified below: Check this option if you want to perform quality assurance on the on-site variables. dev.Chapter 2 – Tutorial Step 20 - Since our on-site met data file already contains the measurement heights. The measurement heights in the data file are represented by the variables HT01=10. horizontal wind (SAnn) Wind speed (WSnn) Wind direction (WDnn) Step 23 - 2-18 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software .

Note that WSnn and WDnn are automatically audited by AERMET. Depending of the number of violations. however they were included here because the missing indicator used in the on-site met data file is not the default (999) but –999. Step 25 - Leave the Missing Message boxes checked. this file could become very large. a message is written to the message file (*. The missing message indicates that every time a bound is violated or a value is missing.Chapter 2 – Tutorial Step 24 - Change the QA parameters for each variable to match the values shown below.MSG). Do this by typing directly in the table. Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 2-19 .

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Chapter 3 - Using Aermet View

CHAPTER 3

Using Aermet View

This chapter explains how to use Aermet View.
Contents

To accomplish this we will examine the four main windows that make up Aermet View: the Hourly Surface Data window, the Upper Air Data window, the On-Site Data window, and the Application Site window. The contents of these four windows will be explained in detail in the sections that follow.

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

The Hourly Surface Data Window The Upper Air Data Window The On-Site Data Window The Application Site Window Running the U.S. EPA AERMET Program The AERMET Output Files The QA Procedure

The Hourly Surface Data Window

The Hourly Surface Data window is the first window displayed when you start a new project or open an existing one. This window contains two tabs: the Hourly Surface Data tab and the QA Surface Variables tab.

Hourly Surface Data Tab
In the Hourly Surface Data tab you define the Hourly Surface Data File Name, the Data Format, the Surface Station Information, and the Dates to be Retrieved. This tab also contains a Tip frame which presents you with helpful information on entering Hourly Surface Data. The hourly surface data are hourly observations of surface level parameters such as wind speed, temperature, and cloud cover that are used by AERMET to generate a surface file for use in AERMOD.

Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software

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Chapter 3 – Using Aermet View

Hourly Surface Data tab

The options are described below:
Hourly Surface Data File Name: This is where you specify the name and location for the

hourly surface data file. Press this button to specify the name and location of the hourly surface data file. Press this button to clear the selected file from the filename panel. Press this button to view the selected file in Windows WordPad. Press this button to access WebMET.com where you can find free met data available for downloading. ♦ Data Format: This is where you specify the file format of the Hourly Surface Data File. AERMET can read three main file formats. These are the SCRAM (MET144), CD-144, and SAMSON formats. •
CD-144: This is the traditional format processed by AERMET available from the

(NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina.

Note: If requesting hourly surface data from the NCDC, you must make a specific

request for the CD-144 format because this standard was replaced in the 1980’s by the TD-3280 format. •
SCRAM (MET144): This is a reduced version, fewer weather variables, of the CD-144 data. This data is available from the Support Center for Regulatory Air Models (SCRAM) section on EPA’s Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS)

3-2

Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software

Chapter 3 - Using Aermet View

Technology Transfer Network (TTN) bulletin board system (BBS) or from the SCRAM website: www.epa.gov/scram001. •
SAMSON CD-ROM: This is the data that the NCDC has made available on a set of three

CD-ROMs.

CD144 FORMAT

The CD-144 format refers to the "Card Deck 144 format" available from the NCDC. This is the standard format processed by AERMET. The file is composed of one record per hour, with all weather elements reported in an 80-column card image. The format of these records is described in the Card Deck 144 WBAN Hourly Surface Observations Reference Manual (NOAA, 1970), also available from the NCDC. Data in the CD-144 format file that is checked or used by AERMET includes:
Element Surface Station Number Year Month Day Hour Ceiling Height (Hundreds of Feet) First Sky Cover Layer Second Sky Cover Layer Third Sky Cover Layer Fourth Sky Cover Layer Sign of the Dew Point (° Fahrenheit) 1st Digit of the Wind Speed (Knots) Sign of the Dry Bulb Temperature (° Fahrenheit) Sign of the Wet Bulb Temperature (° Fahrenheit) Total Sky Cover (1st digit of percentage) st Cloud Data by Layer (1 digit of percentage) st Opaque Cloud Cover (1 digit of percentage) Columns 1- 5 6- 7 8- 9 10-11 12-13 14-16 17 18 19 20 36 41 47 50 56 57 79

The data in bold may be used by AERMET, depending on the availability of on-site data. The other fields are decoded, but the weather information contained in them currently are not used by AERMET. The variables used by AERMET from the CD-144 record include the following: ♦ Surface Station Number - The WBAN number identifying the NWS surface observation station for which hourly meteorological data are input to the AERMET program. ♦ Year, Month and Day of Record - Identifies the year, month and day during which the meteorological data were observed. Only the last two digits of the year are reported.

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the last day in the extracted data file will only have 23 hours.9 10-11 12-13 14-16 17-18 19-21 22-24 25-26 27-28 The variables used by AERMET from the SCRAM record include the following: ♦ Surface Station Number . 3-4 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software . since the data for a day ends with hour 23.Identifies the hour of the meteorological data observation. month and day during which the meteorological data were observed. ♦ Year. Times are Local Standard Time (LST) and are adjusted in AERMET to the 01 . '-' = overcast or 100%. SCRAM (MET144) FORMAT This is a reduced version. 36=North.The direction from which the wind is blowing.Identifies the year.g. 09=East. when data are retrieved from an archive file for a specific time period. Both parameters identify the amount of cloud cover measured in tens of percent.Identifies the hour of the meteorological data observation.Chapter 3 – Using Aermet View ♦ Hour . e. Hour is based on the 24hour clock and is recorded as 00 through 23.g.There are two cloud cover parameters.The WBAN number identifying the NWS surface observation station for which hourly meteorological data are input to the AERMET program. of the CD-144 data and is available for download on the SCRAM Website: www. 0 = clear or less than 10%..7 8. ♦ Cloud Cover .The wind speed measured in knots (00=Calm). the first hour is discarded since it is prior to the beginning time. ♦ Hour . Times are Local Standard Time (LST) and are adjusted in AERMET to the 01 . Thus. ♦ Sign of the Dry Bulb Temperature . with fewer weather variables. Only the last two digits of the year are reported.epa. based on the 36 point compass.24 clock in which hour 00 is hour 24 of the previous day. e. 27=West. Element Surface Station Number Year Month Day Hour Ceiling Height (Hundreds of Feet) Wind Direction (Tens of Degrees) Wind Speed (Knots) Dry Bulb Temperature (º Fahrenheit) Total Cloud Cover Opaque Cloud Cover Columns 1. Likewise. Hour is based on the 24hour clock and is recorded as 00 through 23. AERMET reads both fields. 4 = 4049%. 00=Calm. ♦ Wind Direction . ♦ Wind Speed . Month and Day of Record .24 clock in which hour 00 is hour 24 of the previous day.The ambient temperature measured in whole degrees Fahrenheit. opaque cloud cover and total cloud cover in the CD-144 and SCRAM meteorological data files. 18=South.gov/scram001.5 6.

The direction from which the wind is blowing. e.There are two cloud cover parameters. and station pressure should be retrieved. two records are written at the beginning of the file that identify the station (first record) and the variables retrieved (second record). ♦ Cloud Cover . these two records appear before each year in Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 3-5 . when data are retrieved from an archive file for a specific time period. ♦ Wind Speed . referred to as the SAMSON data. the user has the option to specify which variables to retrieve from a list of 21 variables stored for each station. These two records begin with the tilde character (~). since the data for a day ends with hour 23.The height of the cloud base above local terrain which is coded in hundreds of feet. although the file size will vary because precipitation data. 0 = clear or less than 10%. The reason for this restriction is explained below. 27=West. period(s) of time and variables for the site and period to be modeled.. AERMET reads both fields. '-' = overcast or 100%. 36=North. The software used to extract data from the CD-ROMs can retrieve multiple years of data for a single station and save it in the same file. latitude and longitude) and to determine how to process the data that follow. AERMET expects a maximum of one year of data in a data file retrieved from CD-ROM. It is imperative that the user not alter or delete these records. in the last field. When data are retrieved from the CD-ROMs. 00=Calm. AERMET cannot access the data directly from a SAMSON CD-ROM. based on the 36 point compass. the last day in the extracted data file will only have 23 hours. The output files are written in an ASCII file on the user's local drive. ♦ Dry Bulb Temperature . At a minimum. ♦ Ceiling Height . Retrieving data from the CD-ROM is completely under the control of the user. If all of the variables are retrieved.g. then a file size of about 1. 09=East. NCDC has made available solar and meteorological data for the first order stations in the United States for the period 1961-1990 on a set of three CD-ROMs.. ♦ Wind Direction .The wind speed measured in knots (00=Calm). When the data are retrieved from the CD-ROM. If more than one year of data are retrieved from the CD-ROMs. 4 = 4049%. the user must run the software provided with the data to retrieve the station(s). opaque and total cloud cover. Rather.g. The software is a DOS-based.g. is only reported if there was precipitation for the hour.Chapter 3 .Using Aermet View Thus.2 Mb is created. the first hour is discarded since it is prior to the beginning time. AERMET processes the data retrieved from these CD-ROMs.The ambient temperature measured in whole degrees Fahrenheit. Both parameters identify the amount of cloud cover measured in tens of percent. However. the ceiling height. Likewise. wind direction and speed. interactive graphical interface and is user-friendly in its usage. making some records longer than others. These variables result in an ASCII file of about 400 Kb for one year of data. dry bulb temperature. large amounts of data can be stored in small amounts of space. 18=South. AERMET processes both of these records to obtain information about the station (e. e. SAMSON FORMAT With the advent of CD-ROM for the personal computer. opaque cloud cover and total cloud cover in the CD-144 and SCRAM meteorological data files.

1X. then AERMET writes an error message and stops processing.I4) Each variable is represented by a position number. The data are free format. Unlike the CD-144 format which reports the hour on the 00 – 23 clock. The second record contains the list of variables (by a position number) that appear in the data file. E = East Degrees Minutes Elevation of the station in meters above sea level. the variable number appears above the column of data it represents with at least one space (and usually many more) between the position numbers. The format of this record is: Columns 001 002-006 008-029 031-032 033-036 039-044 039 040-041 043-044 047-053 047 048-050 052-053 056-059 Element Indicator WBAN Number City State Time Zone Latitude Definition ~ to indicate a header record Station number identifier City where station is located State where station is located The number of hours by which the local standard time lags or leads Universal Time.. When the second set of headers is encountered. These are followed by the 3-6 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software . The time adjustment that AERMET must go through for CD-144 data is not necessary with SAMSON data.I2.2X.e. the hour is reported on the 01 .1X. The first record in the file retrieved from the SAMSON CD-ROMs contains station data. making sure to retrieve all of the necessary variables to generate the meteorological data output file. The third and subsequent records contain the weather elements retrieved from the SAMSON CD-ROMs. Longitude Elevation The FORTRAN format of this record is: (1X.2X. It is recommended that the user restrict data retrieved from CD-ROM to one station and one year per file.A1. hour and observation indicators always appear on each record. There is no particular format.A2.1X.2X. no matter how many or how few variables are retrieved.A22. The user must either select a different processing option.A1.A5.1X. day.I2. i. AERMET examines the second record to determine if the variables retrieved from the CD-ROM are sufficient to process the entire file according to the user's responses on how the output is expected to be used.1X. month. AERMET will print a warning in the message file and continue processing data. This position number always corresponds to that variable. there is at least one space between each element in the record. If there are insufficient data. The header records are followed by the data records.Chapter 3 – Using Aermet View the file.I3. The year. There is one record for each hour of the time period the user retrieved.24 clock.I3. Station latitude N = North of equator Degrees Minutes Station longitude W = West. or return to the CDROMs and retrieve the data once again.I2.

they would appear in the following order: Position 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Description Year.Using Aermet View variables retrieved by the user. missing value indicators and any special considerations or comments.Chapter 3 . such as Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX computers. including the units. This format is primarily for users who run AERMET on computer platforms that can access magnetic tape drives. Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 3-7 . no attempt is made to read on-site data directly from magnetic tape.S. For more information on how to use the TD-3280 data on magnetic tape. observation indicator Extraterrestrial horizontal radiation Extraterrestrial direct normal radiation Global horizontal radiation Direct normal radiation Diffuse horizontal radiation Total cloud cover Opaque cloud cover Dry bulb temperature Dew point temperature Relative humidity Station pressure Wind direction Wind speed Visibility Ceiling height Present weather Precipitable water Broadband aerosol optical depth Snow depth Days since last snowfall Hourly precipitation amount and flag The online help that accompanies the CD-ROMs contains a complete discussion of these variables. month. TD-3280 FORMAT This is the data that is available from the NCDC on magnetic tape. EPA. hour (LST). The only data that is considered is the NWS data. If all the variables were retrieved. day. please see the AERMET User’s Guide from the U. ♦ Surface Station Information: This is where the surface station information is entered.

Since most formats reporting hourly surface observations use local standard time.Chapter 3 – Using Aermet View Surface Station Information For the location of the hourly surface data measurement station. If you select the Latitude and Longitude from the NWS list.. panels will be blank.. button. was downloaded from the EPA SCRAM Website. 3-8 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software . This information is not used to run EPA's AERMET. Latitude: This is the latitude of the surface station in decimal degrees. Positive for stations NORTH of the equator. click the Search NWS Stations. then Aermet View will place the Station Name. The values for Latitude and Longitude can be automatically set by selecting one of the NWS surface met stations from the NWS Stations list. If data are reported in GMT. Longitude and Time Zone in the text boxes. the options are the following: • Station ID: This is the five digit code that identifies the surface station. To select the time zone. Station State. the conversion is usually 0. If you input the Latitude. provided by Aermet View. Positive for stations WEST of Greenwich. on the panels automatically for your reference. Aermet View supplies a list of all the time zones (-12 to 12). This code will be read directly from the surface data file and be automatically inserted into the Station ID box. then the Station Name. click on the down arrow and select the time zone from the list. Highlight the station where the hourly surface observations were taken and then double-click or press the Select button. • Search NWS Stations…: This tool allows you to search a list of all the NWS Surface Stations from which you can select one closest to you. Station State. To display this dialog box. and Station No. Longitude: This is the longitude of the surface station in decimal degrees. The selected station information will be set up automatically. Adjustment to Local Time: This is the number of hours required to convert the time of • • • each data record on the surface met data to local standard time (LST). and Station No. The list of NWS surface stations. If the hourly surface observations were reported in local standard time than no conversion is necessary and the option 0 (No Conversion) must be selected. then the number of time zones west (positive number) or east (negative number) of Greenwich should be specified. which is the default value.

If you need to model different time periods within the same data file. only one continuous period of time may be specified. you will be able to check the default ranges. Note: The data period to be processed must be continuous.Using Aermet View ♦ Dates to be Retrieved: This is where you specify the time period over which data is to be retrieved. By double clicking on a specific variable. There is also a Tip frame that provides helpful information on completing the QA tab. During the quality assessment (QA) process. Dates to be Retrieved Press the Dates button to open the Dates dialog box in where you can specify the data period to be retrieved. In other words.Chapter 3 . QA Surface Variables tab Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 3-9 . you must make separate projects for each of those periods. audited variables are checked as being missing or outside a range of acceptable values. The QA Surface Variables Tab In the QA Surface Variables tab you may select one or more variables to be audited. description. and missing indicators for all variables. units.

To move more than arrow button ( one variable at once. Then press the or ) to move it into the “include” or “exclude” list. For more information about the QA procedure see the section entitled “The QA Procedure”.Chapter 3 – Using Aermet View To select a variable to include or exclude in the QA. If you want to move all of the variables in one list to the other. but is recommended to identify any potential problems in the data. click on it to highlight it. They are described in the table below: or ). press the double arrow button ( There are 22 QA variables. 3-10 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software . select a number of variables by holding down the CTRL key and clicking each of the variables of interest. Then press the arrow button to move them. Hourly Surface QA Variable Information The QA is an optional process.

Using Aermet View The Upper Air Data Window The Upper Air Data window is where you specify information about the upper air soundings. the Data Format. and the Dates to be Retrieved. Press this button to view the selected upper air file in Windows WordPad. dry bulb temperature. Press this button to clear the selected file from the filename panel. Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 3-11 . Upper Air Data Tab In the Upper Air Data tab you define the Upper Air Data File Name. Press this button to specify the name and location of the upper air file. the Upper Air Station Information. This includes the height. and relative humidity. The upper air data file provides information on the vertical structure of the atmosphere. This tab also contains a Tip frame which presents you with helpful information on entering upper air data. pressure. Upper Air Data tab The options are described below: ♦ Upper Air Data File Name: This is where you specify the name and location of the upper air data file.Chapter 3 . Most countries in the world have an upper air observation program with upper air sounding stations. This window contains two tabs: the Upper Air Data tab and the QA Upper Air Variables tab.

Select the radio button for the appropriate format. ♦ Data Format: The Aermet View upper air data file must be in NCDC TD-6201 format. If there are less than 79 sounding levels. However. Latitude. Note 1: Upper air data stored on NCDC diskettes is of fixed length format and can contain up to 200 levels of sounding spanning three physical records per diskette. Note 2: Currently AERMET does not use information above approximately 5000 meters. then missing data indicators are used to “fill out” the record so that the physical record length is constant for all observation periods. and Adjustment to Local Time. If there are more than 79 sounding levels. AERMET only processes the first physical record (containing up to 79 sounding levels) in an upper air data file because the measurements at the 79th level are generally above 16. Note though. respectively). ♦ Upper Air Station Information and Location: This frame identifies the name and location of the station where the upper air soundings were taken. a minimum of one header record consisting of three asterisks (in columns 1-3) must appear on a separate record before the data (these asterisks inform AERMET that there are no more headers to process). Therefore. you can specify the Station ID.Chapter 3 – Using Aermet View Press this button to access WebMET. Name. Note 3: The upper air data are generally collected twice-daily. The format is explained below: Each physical record for one upper air sounding consists of 2876 characters. It can be defined as Fixed Length or Variable Length. for AERMET to correctly read the file. One physical record is arranged in the following format: Columns 1-32 33-69 70-106 107-143 etc… Element Upper Air Sounding Identifier 36 characters per sounding level 36 characters per sounding level 36 characters per sounding level to a maximum of 79 levels….com where you can find free met data available for downloading. Longitude. at 0000 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and 1200 GMT (these times are also referred to as 00Z and 12Z. then a second record is created for levels 80 to 158. However. AERMET has been designed to accept 24 soundings per day.000 meters. The NCDC TD-6201 format is that provided by the NWS. non-NWS data can be used if the user can reformat it into a format that is ready for Stage 1 QA. 3-12 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software . a third is created for levels 158 to 237 and so on. State.

Positive for stations NORTH of the equator. • • Latitude: This is the latitude of the surface station in decimal degrees. This code will be read directly from the surface data file and be automatically inserted into the Station ID box. Note: The information provided on the NWS Stations list is read from the file MIXSTAT. The selected station information will be set up automatically. ♦ Dates to be Retrieved: This is where you specify the time period over which data is to be retrieved.Chapter 3 . make sure to not change the placement of the elements on the columns since Aermet View reads this file based on the column numbers.Using Aermet View Upper Air Station Information The options for the Upper Air Surface Station properties are the following: • Station ID: This is the eight digit code that identifies the upper air station. Longitude: This is the longitude of the surface station in decimal degrees. • Search NWS Stations…: Displays the Search NWS Stations dialog box with a list of the NWS met stations. Dates to be Retrieved Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 3-13 . If doing so.RV_. More stations can be added to this file. Positive for stations WEST of Greenwich. Highlight the station where the hourly surface observations were taken and then double-click or press the Select button.

press the double arrow button ( There are 10 Upper Air QA variables. audited variables are checked as being missing or outside a range of acceptable values. 3-14 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software . only one continuous period of time may be specified. you will be able to check the default ranges. There is also a Tip frame that provides information to help you complete the QA tab. and missing indicators for all variables. description. Then press the arrow button to move them.Chapter 3 – Using Aermet View Press the Dates button to open the Dates dialog box in where you can specify the data period to be retrieved. QA Upper Air Variables Tab To select a variable to include or exclude in the QA. The QA Upper Air Variables Tab In the QA Upper Air Variables tab you may select one or more variables to be audited. If you need to model different time periods within the same data file. Note 1: The data period to be processed must be continuous. If you want to move all of the variables in one list to the other. They are described in the table below: or ). During the quality assessment (QA) process. you must make separate projects for each of those periods. select a number of variables by holding down the CTRL key and clicking each of the variables of interest. Then press the arrow button ( or ) to move it into the “include” or “exclude” list. To move more than one variable at once. click on it to highlight it. By double clicking on a specific variable. units. In other words.

the On-Site Station Information. the Data Records tab. and the Dates to be Retrieved. This type of data can be used to provide better estimates of the boundary layer parameters. This tab also contains a Tip frame which presents you with helpful information on entering On-Site Data. and possibly with additional near-surface data. The On-Site Data Window On-site data is optional. a remote sensor (e. AERMET will generate a message file (ONSITE. On-site data are assumed to be from one or more levels of an instrumented tower. There is no standard archive format or content for on-site data. sodar) or a combination of the two. and the QA On-Site Variables tab. such as insolation and net radiation. but is recommended to identify any potential problems in the data.Chapter 3 . Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 3-15 . The user can view these files in Windows WordPad by selecting View | Other File from the Aermet View menu and selecting the ONSITE.Using Aermet View Upper Air QA Variable Information The QA is an optional process.MSG) and a summary report file (ONSITE.MSG or ONSITE. The On-Site Data Tab In the On-Site Data tab you define the On-Site Data File Name.RPT). The On-Site Data window consists of four tabs: the On-Site Data tab. Both files will be located in the study folder. the Additional Parameters tab. For more information about the QA procedure see the section entitled “The QA Procedure”.RPT file for the particular study.g. After processing on-site data.

Latitude. all the Station Information is entered by the user. Press this button to view the selected file in Windows WordPad. Name. Note: The station ID must be an integer with a maximum length of eight characters. Upper Air Station Information Because there is no standard format for the on-site data. 00099999). and Adjustment to Local Time relative to Greenwich Mean Time. Longitude.Chapter 3 – Using Aermet View On-Site Data tab The On-Site Data Tab options are described below: ♦ On-Site Data File Name: This is where you specify the name and location of the On-Site Met Data File. Press this button to specify the name and location of the on-site met data file. ♦ On-Site Station Information: The on-site station information includes the Station ID.. ♦ Dates to be Retrieved: This is where you specify the time period over which data is to be retrieved. Press this button to clear the selected file from the filename panel.g. you can type a dummy ID (e. If your on-site station does not have an ID. State. 3-16 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software .

Data Records Tab The options are described below: No.Chapter 3 . and the Format. There can be up to 20 records per observation period Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 3-17 . If you need to model different time periods within the same data file. In other words. Note 1: The data period to be processed must be continuous. you must make separate projects for each of those periods. This includes the Number of Data Records per Observation Period. of Data Records per Observation Period: Select the number of records per observation period by entering the number in the appropriate text box or by using the up and down arrows beside the box. The records will show up in the Data Records dialog box. Each record is one line of data. The Data Records Tab In the Data Records tab you enter information about the format of the on-site data. the Number of Measurement Heights in Multi-Level Input Data. only one continuous period of time may be specified. a list of Variables to Read.Using Aermet View Dates to be Retrieved Press the Dates button to open the Dates dialog box in where you can specify the data period to be retrieved.

♦ Variables to Read for Current Record: This is where you specify which on-site variables you want to include in the data processing. There are 24 single-level variables.Chapter 3 – Using Aermet View Note: Since the maximum length of the FORTRAN statement that describes the format of the variables is limited to 80 characters. On-site observations of mixing heights are also included in the list of single-level measurements even though they may not be near-surface for a highly convective atmosphere. They are described in the table below: Single-level On-Site Variables 3-18 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software . Single-Level Variables Single-level measurements are usually observed near the earth's surface. it is possible to have three data records per observation period and only two levels. There are two types of on-site variables: single-level variables and multi-level variables. ♦ No. Examples of single-level variables are net radiation and sensible heat flux. They are described in the sections below. of Measurement Heights in Multi-Level Input Data: Select the number of measurement heights if you have multi-level data by entering the number in the appropriate text box or by using the up and down arrows beside the box. Press Edit to open a list of onsite variables to choose from. more than one record may be necessary to define all the variables in one observation period at a given level. For example.

or any other meteorological instrumentation that can report data at several levels in the atmosphere (e.. Examples of multi-level variables are temperature and wind speed. sodar or lidar). The complete name of multilevel variables depends on the level at which they are observed. The first two characters identify the meteorological variable and the last two characters are numeric and identify the level from which the data are reported. Each variable is identified by a 4-character name. They are described in the table below: Multi-Level On-Site Variables You can select the variables to be read by pressing the Edit… button beside the Variables to Read in Current Record dialog box.g.g. Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 3-19 .Chapter 3 .. tethered balloon). a remote sensor (e. There are 15 multi-level variables.Using Aermet View Multi-Level Variables The multi-level variables can be reported at multiple heights and can come from an instrumented meteorological tower. This will open the On-Site Variables window where you can select the variables of interest.

If you want to move all of the variables in one list to the other. If the current record should not be included in the data processing. Aermet View will provide a suggested FORTRAN format string based on the current record. enclosed in parentheses. press the double arrow button ( or ). click on it to highlight it. Then press the arrow button to move them. ] 3-20 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software . The format must comply with all the rules of syntax for constructing a FORMAT statement and the parentheses are mandatory. ♦ Format for Current Record: The format of the variables in each data record is specified by a FORTRAN format string. This string will normally need to be edited so that the format of the variables is correctly defined. select a number of variables by holding down the CTRL key and clicking each of the variables of interest. Refer to any introductory text on FORTRAN programming or compiler manual for the FORTRAN syntax rules. Then press the arrow button ( or ) to move it into the “include” or “exclude” list.Chapter 3 – Using Aermet View On-Site Variables Selection Window To select a variable to include or exclude. you can have it skipped by pressing the Skip Record button or entering “/” in the dialog box. To move more than one variable at once. Modifications to the FORTRAN format string can made directly in the dialog box. The suggested format can be selected by pressing the Suggested button.

winds and temperature). If some variables are skipped (using the X and T descriptors) or entire lines of data are skipped (using the “/”). these two types of variables are described below. 2) There can be up to 12 equally-spaced observation periods per hour. refer to this as an "observation group").. Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 3-21 . 6) Single-level variables (e. Once the format of all the data records per observation period has been defined. and must be integer format. these may occur in any order within the first record. 7) The file must be ASCII and it must be in a form that can be read using Fortran FORMAT statements. 9) The list-directed format (specified by an asterisk.Chapter 3 . 3) The same set of variables must appear for all observation periods but not all the same variables must appear on every record in the observation period. Recall that the maximum length of the FORTRAN format statement is limited to 80 characters...S. 1999) Note: There can be a maximum 20 of data records per observation period and a maximum of 20 variables on any one data record.e. i. then the QA output file will contain corresponding blank fields and/or blank lines.g. and the records for the period must be contiguous (for this tutorial.. using the asterisk to define the format) at this time.S.g. 8) Blanks in the format specification must be avoided because AERMET recognizes blanks as field delimiters on keywords.Using Aermet View Note: The same format used to read the original on-site data file is also used to write the QA file. heat flux and observed mixing heights) must be read before any multi-level variables (e. The U. 4) The date and time information for each observation must be contained in the first record of the group. 5) The variables present within each observation should be a subset of those listed in Appendix B. on-site meteorological variables can appear on the first record. (U. as frequent as every 5 minutes (see the keyword OBS/HOUR in Section 4 for a discussion on how to provide AERMET with the frequency of on-site observations). AERMET will process the rest of the data file according to this structure unless it encounters a change in the structure. *) cannot be used to direct AERMET to read the data. Tables B-3a and B-3b (although the user can direct AERMET to skip fields). EPA defines the following rules for the format of on-site data: 1) The data for one observation period can be one or more data records.e. EPA AERMET User’s Guide DRAFT. AERMET does not support free format read (i.

upper and lower bounds. ♦ Temperature Difference Measurements: This frame is used to define the height(s) for temperature difference data. The QA On-Site Variables Tab In the QA On-Site Variables tab you may select one or more variables to be audited. The options in the Additional Parameters tab are described below: Additional Parameters tab The Additional Parameters tab options are described below: ♦ No. During the quality assessment (QA) process. You can change the boundary type. of Observations per Hour: This is the number of observation periods per hour to a maximum of 12. ♦ Threshold Wind Speed: The minimum detectable wind speed is instrument-dependent and anemometer capabilities may vary. Therefore. audited variables are checked as being missing or outside a range of acceptable values. the user is required to enter a threshold wind speed below which AERMET treats any wind speeds in the on-site data that as calm winds. and missing indicator values of the on-site QA variables from the default values. There is also a Tip frame that provides helpful information on completing the QA tab. if it exists in the data file. ♦ Height Levels in Multi-Level Input Data: Enter here the heights of the different levels of on-site measurements if the heights are not included on each of the multi-level data records.Chapter 3 – Using Aermet View The Additional Parameters Tab The Additional Parameters tab allows you to define additional on-site data in order to completely define the on-site variables which are measured. 3-22 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software .

Once you have selected all the on-site variables to be QA’ed. ♦ Variable Name: The variable name can be chosen from the list of QA On-Site Variables. To select a group of variables that are not beside each other on the list. The selected variables will be highlighted. hold down the CTRL key and click on the variables of interest to highlight them. QA On-Site Variables Selection Window Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 3-23 . click in the Variable Name box and press the button or double click in the Variable Name box to open the QA On-Site Variables Selection window. To select a group of consecutive variables. This is the window in which you can select the variable(s) of interest.Using Aermet View QA On-Site Variables tab The options in the QA On-Site Variables tab are described below: ♦ Perform AUDIT (QA) on the variables specified below: Click in this box if you want AERMET to perform a quality assessment on the variables specified in the QA list.Chapter 3 . press the Select button to add them to the list of QA variables in the QA On-Site Variables tab. To select a variable. hold down the SHIFT key and click the variables at the beginning and the end of the group.

click in the box and type in a new value. ♦ Upper Bound: This is the upper limit for the range of the variable of interest. the anemometer height. and other parameters that are required for AERMOD. They are described in the Data Records section above. ♦ Lower Bound: This is the lower limit for the range of the variable of interest. AERMET suppresses the message that data are missing for variables being audited during the QA process. ♦ Boundary Type: Click in the Boundary Type box to change the boundary to Exclude (<) or Include (<==). Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 3-24 . The Application Site Tab The Application Site tab is where you specify the location of the application site. click in the box and type in a new value. ♦ Missing Message: When this box is checked. these data become extremely important. The two types are described below: • • Exclude (<): This means that the upper and lower bounds are not included in the range of the variable. Since the Application Site is likely to be different from either of the meteorological sites where the hourly surface data and the upper air soundings were collected. ♦ Missing Indicator: The missing indicator is set of digits that occur in the data file to indicate a missing value for the particular variable. Click in the Missing Indicator box to make the text available for modifications. Include (<==): This means that the upper and lower bounds are included in the range of the variable. to calculate the elevation of the sun. For more information about the QA procedure see the section entitled “The QA Procedure”. The Application Site Window The Application Site window is where site-specific characteristics about the underlying surface where AERMOD is to be applied are defined. The Application Site window is made up of two tabs: the Application Site tab and the Sectors & Surface Parameters tab. This keyword is useful in reducing the size of the message file if an audited variable is missing most of the time. to calculate sunrise and sunset times. which presents useful information on completing the Application Site tab. This is also where you provide AERMET with information on dealing with missing data in estimating the boundary layer. This tab also contains a Tip frame. These data are used to define the boundary layer. To modify the lower bound. and whether or not to randomize wind directions. To modify the upper bound.Chapter 3 – Using Aermet View There are 24 single-level and 15 multi-level QA variables.

it is very important to specify the latitude and longitude for the application site. Although the site identifier is not used by AERMET. Aermet View supplies a list of all the time zones (12 to 12) with associated cities that are in that time zone. it is common that the latitude and longitude are different. Note 1: The latitude and longitude entered here are used to calculate the elevation of the sun and the times of sunrise and sunset. To select the time zone. ♦ Latitude: This is the latitude of the surface station in decimal degrees. As such. it is required.Using Aermet View Application Site Tab The options are described in detail below: ♦ Site ID: This option identifies the site to which the AERMET runstream is being applied. Positive for ♦ Longitude: This is the longitude of the surface station in decimal degrees. Note 2: Since the application site is often different from the meteorological sites where the hourly surface data and the upper air soundings were measured.Chapter 3 . ♦ Estimate Boundary Layer Parameters Using NWS Data when On-Site Data Missing: This option directs AERMET to use the hourly surface and upper air data to estimate the boundary layer parameters when on-site data are missing or if some of the variables required for the computations are missing. Checking this option also directs AERMET to use the Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 3-25 . The time zone should match the value entered in the Upper Air Data tab. click on the down arrow and select the time zone from the list. while still in the same time zone as the upper air sounding station. Positive for stations WEST of Greenwich. ♦ Time Zone: This is the time zone of the application site. stations NORTH of the equator.

360 and 10 degrees for the north sector). E. If on-site data are present. A bias would occur for the unrandomized wind directions because three 10-degree sectors would contribute to the N. The Sectors and Surface Parameters Tab The Sectors & Surface Parameters tab is where you specify the wind direction sectors and sitespecific surface characteristics about the underlying surface where AERMOD is to be applied. 350. Then the user should make sure that the anemometer height value matches that of the on-site data.Chapter 3 – Using Aermet View hourly surface and upper air data to generate the wind and/or temperature profile(s) if the onsite profiles of wind or temperature are missing.g. and W sector statistics (e. When this box is checked.. while only two 10degree sectors would contribute to the other 22. S. E. They are randomized for each 10 degree sector to one degree increments. • Anemometer Height: Many computations in AERMET require the height at which a variable was measured. The wind directions are randomized to avoid a bias toward the cardinal compass points (N. Estimate Boundary Layer Parameters Frame ♦ NWS Additional Parameters: There are some parameters that are required for AERMET to perform calculations but may not appear in any of the data files. The sectors and surface parameters are discussed below: 3-26 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software . and W). Enter the anemometer height in meters. Two of these parameters are specified in the NWS Additional Parameters tab.5 degree sectors. S. these heights may already be specified. AERMET randomizes these directions. NWS Additional Parameters Frame The two options are described below: • Randomize NWS Wind Directions: NWS wind directions are recorded to the nearest 10 degrees.

the wind direction sectors are divided into even sections as shown in the first two figures below. The wind direction sectors may then be of varying sizes as shown in the figure below. while the ending direction is not.Using Aermet View Sectors & Surface Parameters Tab ♦ Wind Direction Sectors: This parameter defines the number of contiguous. Examples of Wind Direction Sectors with Uniform Wind Direction Sectors If Non-Uniform is selected. The beginning direction is considered part of the sector. The end angle of the last sector is always 360°. non-overlapping wind direction sectors that define unique upwind surface characteristics. Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 3-27 . Uniform / Non-Uniform: If the default.Chapter 3 . is selected. with north at 360°. The following properties of wind sectors must be true: • • • ♦ The sectors are defined clockwise as the direction from which the wind is blowing. The sectors must cover the full circle so that the end value of one sector matches the beginning of the next sector. Uniform. the user can specify the end angles of each sector.

the daytime Bowen ratio. or Monthly. The parameters that must be defined are: the midday albedo.Chapter 3 – Using Aermet View Examples of Wind Direction Sectors with Non-Uniform Wind Direction Sectors ♦ Specify Surface Parameters for Each Sector: For each wind sector. You can choose values from the tip window by clicking on a selection and pressing the Select button. You can also select an albedo value from the Albedo for Natural Ground button appears. July. January. You can type the albedo value into the Albedo text box. and November • Midday Albedo: The albedo is the fraction of total incident solar radiation reflected by the surface back to space without absorption. October. and the surface roughness length. Seasonally. The options are described below: • Time Period: The frequency with which the site parameters may change can be Annually. Typical values range from 0. When you click in the Albedo text box.9 for fresh snow.1 for thick deciduous forests to 0. 3-28 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software . and August Autumn: September. the underlying sitespecific surface characteristics need to be defined. Covers tip window. and May Summer: June. April. the Click on this button to open the Albedo for Natural Ground Covers tip window which provides you with a list of albedo values for various types of natural ground covers for different times of the year. The seasons are defined as: Winter: December. These characteristics may also vary with the time of year. and February Spring: March.

The Bowen ratio is used to determine the planetary boundary layer parameters for convective conditions.1 over water to 10. You can type the Bowen ratio directly into the Bowen Ratio text box.Chapter 3 .0 over desert at midday. During the day. Click on this button to open the Daytime Bowen Ratio text box. the Bowen ratio usually remains fairly constant and ranges from about 0. When you click in the button appears. You can choose values from the tip window by clicking on a selection and pressing the Select button Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 3-29 . You can also select a value from the Daytime Bowen Ratio tip window. the Bowen Ratio tip window which provides you with a list of Bowen ratios for various types of ground covers under different conditions and for different seasons. It is the ratio of the sensible heat flux to the latent heat flux.Using Aermet View Typical Albedo Values of Natural Ground Covers • Bowen Ratio: The Bowen ratio is an indicator of surface moisture.

Click on this button to open the Surface Roughness Length tip window which provides you with a list of surface roughness lengths for various types of ground covers during different seasons. You can type the surface roughness length directly into the Surface Roughness text box.0 meter or more over a forest or urban area. You can also select a value from the Surface Roughness Length tip window.Chapter 3 – Using Aermet View Typical Daytime Bowen Ratios • Surface Roughness: The surface roughness length is the height at which the mean horizontal wind speed is zero. You can choose values from the tip window by clicking on a selection and pressing the Select button. When you click in the Surface Roughness text box.001 meter over a calm water surface to 1. Values range from less than 0. the button appears. Typical Surface Roughness Lengths 3-30 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software .

A flowsheet depicting the Aermet processing stages is shown below.S.S.Chapter 3 .EXE Stage 3 In Stage 3. EPA User’s Guide for AERMET – DRAFT) Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 3-31 . the boundary layer parameters are estimated for use by dispersion models. the Surface File and the Profile File. The executable for Stage 3 is STAGE3. The executable for Stage 1 processing is STAGE1N2. The Aermet View interface prepares the meteorological data so that the three stages are all executed with one statement of the Run command. Stage 1 Stage 1 extracts hourly surface data and upper air soundings from data files and processes the data through quality assessment checks on variables of interest. This section describes the three AERMET processing stages and how to run AERMET using Aermet View. Data extraction is generally a one-time activity. The executable for Stage 2 is also STAGE1N2.EXE. then the meteorological variables for that hour are represented by the appropriate missing value indicator. AERMET Processing Stages (Source: U. Stage 3 creates the two output files for AERMOD.EXE. while the QA may be performed several times if the QA identifies problems with the data. EPA AERMET Program The AERMET program runs in three stages. Stage 2 Stage 2 processing combines the different sources of data into one file composed of blocks of 24hour data. If any input to this stage of processing are physically missing for the hour.Using Aermet View Running the U. The input file to Stage 3 is the merged data collected in Stage 2. The 24-hour blocks begin with hour 1 and ends with hour 24.

or The Project Status dialog box is made up of two tabs. Click the [Run] menu toolbar button 2. a similar message directs you to the Details tab where Aermet View shows you the missing information. 3-32 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software . do the following: 1. The Status Tab displays the name and path of the two output files for the current Aermet View project.Chapter 3 – Using Aermet View The Project Status Dialog Box The Project Status dialog box provides you with a concise way of checking that Aermet View has all the information required to run AERMET. Project Status dialog box . the Status tab and the Details tab. To display the Project Status dialog box.Status Tab If your project is complete the following message will appear at the bottom of the Status tab: If your project is incomplete. Select Run from the menu.

. Runtime Error Messages There are several conditions under which AERMET may write warning and error messages. a window appears on your screen.... Click here to get help on the Project Status dialog box............ Click here to run the U. Click here to close the Project Status dialog box.... Click the Run menu toolbar button ( then click on the Run button. When the execution of AERMET is completed this window automatically closes. After you have clicked the Run button...Using Aermet View Project Status dialog box – Details Tab On the bottom panel of the Project Status dialog box there are a series of buttons... to provide status information about the simulation........ ..... Warning messages are written to the message file (PROJECT..... do the following: 1.... and 2..Chapter 3 .... The function of each one of these buttons is explained below: ........ ..S...... 3. To run EPA’s AERMET. Running AERMET When the data input for your project is complete. ) to display the Project Status dialog box....MSG) and AERMET continues Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 3-33 ....... EPA AERMET program.. you can run EPA’s AERMET. You can review the contents of the AERMET output files by selecting View | Output File > from the menu and then selecting either Surface File… or Profile File….

On the other hand.SFC) and the Profile File (PROJECT.1X. hour.2.1X).. H. PBL...AERMET version date. OS identifier.. month.. although there is a single record at the beginning of the file with the boundary layer parameters that identifies the sites that were used in the processing.. The Surface File The surface file is distinguished by its extension (*. VPTG..0.station identifier for upper air data SF identifier . The profile contains the observations made at each level of an on-site tower.. Julian date H . ' OS_ID: '.Chapter 3 – Using Aermet View processing the data. and a single error message is written to the message file......station identifier for hourly surface observations OS identifier ....latitude specified in Stage 3 longitude . day..1X). F6. B0 .A8. A6 ) where latitude.on-site identifier Version date . see the online help in Aermet View. of hourly boundary layer parameters estimates....1X)... 2(F6. temp..PFL). r... 3(1X... j_day..... Both are required by AERMOD.. u ..3.1.0.....1X... T85. For a detailed description of the warning and error messages generated by AERMET.. I3.1X..1X.. one record per hour. they stop the AERMET processing run... 8X.3. one record per hour.2. The surface file contains observed and calculated surface variables...... zref... 'VERSION:'.A8)....... Ws .sensible heat flux (W/m2) Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 3-34 . z0 .1... 3(F6.. I2... Version date ( 2(2X.. 2(F5....A8.longitude specified in Stage 3 UA identifier .1X........ z temp (3(I2. L. longitude. w .SFC). this date appears in the banner on each page of the summary reports Data records: READ( ) FORMAT year... SF identifier. or the one level observations taken from the hourly surface data and upper air data.. F5... SBL.' UA_ID: '..1)) where: j_day .. Wd .. ' SF_ID: '.1X).. F8.1X.F6. F7.. The AERMET Output Files There are two output files that are generated by AERMET: the Surface File (PROJECT. The format of the two files is discussed below.. There are no processing headers in the surface file. error conditions are fatal...A8. The FORTRTAN format of the surface file is as follows: Header record: READ( ) FORMAT latitude.... F6.... UA identifier.

......1X..surface roughness length (m) B0 ......... I1....1X)...wind direction at the current level (degrees from north) WSnn .wind speed at the current level (m/s) TTnn.. day . Met View toolbar button Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 3-35 ........... As with the surface file..... w-comp of wind (m/s) year. It contains the data taken at different measurement levels or the one level observation taken from the hourly surface data and upper air data..1X.......................Chapter 3 ................. 1X.1X.........standard deviation.....Albedo Ws ................................0......... hour.reference height for Ws and Wd (m) temp .. WSnn...... The profile file does not have a record at the beginning of the file that identifies the sites that were used in the processing..... if this is the last (highest) level for this hour....PFL)..temperature (K) ztemp ............ F5..Using Aermet View u* .......wind speed (m/s) Wd . month..........vertical potential temperature gradient above PBL PBL......1................Monin-Obukhov length (m) Z0 ................. TTnn.. there are no processing headers in the profile.....surface friction velocity (m/s) w* .. or 0 otherwise WDnn .....1X......................F6..height of convectively-generated boundary layer (m) SBL .. 1X.................Bowen ratio r ......... F7.height of mechanically-generated boundary layer (m) L ..... horizontal wind (degrees) SWnn ...standard deviation....wind direction (degrees) Zref .............temperature at the current level (°C) SAnn... measurement height (m) top.................................... SWnn (4(I2.......reference height for temp (m) The Profile File The profile is distinguished by its extension (*...... top..... SAnn....2........2) Note 1: The Met View utility displays the surface file and the profile file in a grid format allowing easy visualization and verification of the pre-processed met files....... height. F6...........1............... F7....F7....... WDnn..convective velocity scale (m/s) VPTG .......1.............1. To access this utility select Utilities | Met View from the menu and then select Surface File or Profile File..... The profile has the following FORTRAN format: READ( ) FORMAT where: height .... You can also press the Met View menu toolbar button.....................

wind speed shear (UASS). Each variable is checked to see if it is missing and if not missing. indicating noncalm conditions.Chapter 3 – Using Aermet View The QA Procedure The main quality assessment procedures are similar for all types of data. a violation does not necessarily indicate an error in the data. It is up to the user to determine if the reported violations constitute errors in the data. ♦ Whether the height levels reported in the met data are within 50 meters of those estimated by AERMET using the hypsometric equation and. or vice versa. For NWS hourly surface observations. but a non-zero wind direction. it could mean the bounds are not reasonable for a particular time of year or location. ♦ A zero wind speed. the value is checked to see if it is between the lower and upper bounds. dew point temperature (UADD). and wind direction shear (UADS) per 100 meters height in the upper air soundings exceeding set bounds. ♦ The gradient in the ambient temperature (UALR). The QA variables for each pathway are listed in tables under the appropriate headings in this user’s guide. 3-36 Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software . In a QA assessment. For example. indicating calm conditions. The information about each type of variable includes their units. NWS surface data are checked for the following: ♦ The dew-point temperature exceeding dry-bulb temperature. several additional checks between variables are performed. default bounds and missing value codes. ♦ The number of occurrences of calm wind conditions.

User’s Guide for the AERMOD METEOROLOGICAL PREPROCESSOR (AERMET). S. NC. Research Triangle Park. S. Aermet View • Lakes Environmental Software 4-1 .References References U. 1998. Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental Protection Agency. U.