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Intro to ROV: what is an ROV? Components of an ROVs Steps to an ROV survey Duties of an ROV pilot The ROV market in West Africa ROVs in the Oil & Gas industry References Appendix 1 – blah blah safety rules

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What is an ROV?
A remotely operated vehicle (ROV) is a tethered underwater vehicle; it is a sort of underwater robot that allows the controller to be located above the water. ROVs are common in deepwater industries such as offshore hydrocarbon extraction. An ROV may sometimes be called a remotely operated underwater vehicle to distinguish it from remote control vehicles operating on land or in the air. ROVs are unoccupied, highly maneuverable and operated by a person aboard a vessel. They are linked to the ship by a tether or umbilical link. This is a group of cables that carry energy/electrical power, video/communications and data/information signals back and forth between the operator and the vehicle. High power applications will often use hydraulics in addition to electrical cabling. Most ROVs are equipped with at least a video camera and lights. Additional equipment is commonly added to expand the vehicle’s capabilities. These may include sonars, magnetometers, a still camera, a manipulator or cutting arm, water samplers, and instruments that measure water clarity, light penetration and temperature.

Components of an ROV
Conventional ROVs are built with a large floatation pack on top of an aluminium chassis, to provide the necessary buoyancy. Syntactic foam is often used for the flotation. A tool sled may be fitted at the bottom of the system and can accommodate a variety of sensors. By placing the light

All ROVs contain some sort of visual device. each geared towards its own task. Cameras. magnetometers. Used primarily for observation and inspection operations. Types of ROVs ROVs can vary in size from that of a bread box to a large van. Basically the major components that may be found on ROVs include.components on the top and the heavy components on the bottom. the smaller ROVs can have very different designs. soil/water samplers. etc. Small Electric Vehicles are the tiniest version of ROVs. however. the offshore oil and gas industry has come to rely on ROVs for drilling support and subsea construction services to enable deepwater exploration and development projects worldwide. to see under the water. These robots simply carry a single . and additional tools vary according to what type of ROV is being used. Electrical cables may be run inside oil-filled tubing to protect them from corrosion in seawater. Specifically. lights and manipulators are on the front of the ROV or occasionally in the rear to help in maneuvering. this is not the only style in ROV building. Thrusters are usually in all three axes to provide full control. For example. such as a camera.000 feet. As ROV technologies and capabilities have improved.g. The functions ROVs perform can range from simply carrying a camera to observe subsea environments to housing multiple agile arms to perform numerous functions subsea. DVL) manipulators/cutters Additional sensors such as sonars. the overall system has a large separation between the center of buoyancy and the center of gravity: this provides stability and the stiffness to do work underwater. The majority of the work class ROVs are built as described above. some ROVs have multiple manipulators to carry out myriad operational functions at water depths up to 10. but are not restricted to these: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) floatation/buoyancy pack camera and light systems depth sensor heading sensor velocity sensor (e.

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are the next step in ROV technology. Most of this class of ROV is deployed in the drilling and construction support sector. ROV interventions specifically require Work Class ROVs with good manipulators. but they are still only equipped with video cameras and are unable to perform many other tasks because their electricity supply limits them.025 pounds. the Work Class Vehicle ROV does generally include a seven-function manipulator and a five-function grabber. Additionally. the Heavy Work Class Vehicle boasts horsepower ranging from 100 to 250 and has lift capabilities up to 11. these ROVs house multiple manipulators and grabbers capable of performing subsea tie-ins and deepwater installations. In fact. while ROV intervention services focus more on subsea installation repairs and fittings. . enabling some more serious work subsea. with less umbilicals needed to connect the subsea robot to its above-water controller. development and repair offshore. ROVs will become an even more important tool in drilling. The next iteration of ROV.000 meters) deep. as well. Although payload and lift capabilities are restricted. In this case. ensuring that all tasks at hand can be managed by the ROV. the Work Class Vehicle is powered electrically and hydraulically. These ROVs are able to dive to depths up to 20. some ROVs are being built to work on specific subsea developments. An ROV Survey ROV surveys are usually conducted with the aim of providing a visual inspection of a designated area or structure.camera and are deployed in waters no greater than 984 feet (300 meters) deep. As the oil and gas industry moves to a more subsea environment. The most advanced version of ROV is the Heavy Work Class Vehicle ROV.000 feet (3. This kind of ROV is capable of working in waters measuring up to 10.000 feet (6. It is most likely the next commercial ROV technology will be a hybrid between the AUV and ROV. High Capability Electric ROVs are larger versions of their Small Electric Vehicle cousins. the ROV that will handle the subsea work is taken into account. Aptly named.096 meters). payload and lift capabilities. with manipulators and tools designed for work on equipment in a precise field. as well as pipeline inspection. High Capability Electric ROVs are unable to perform any heavy tasks typically required by the oil and gas industry. as the subsea architecture is being designed. Primarily used by the science and military industries.

The ROV Pilot must remove. electronic and mechanics. in addition to testing and operating the light systems. Many ROV Pilots have a Technical Degree in Electronics. maintenance. An ROV Pilot adheres to the security rules of the company and works with a team to carry out operations involving the recovery and launching of remotely operated vehicles. In addition. A video recording is made of the site. It is the ROV Pilot's job to test the equipment. Camera shots and sonar images are also attached. The ROV Pilot The ROV Pilot works with security by operating the remotely operated vehicles from the drill rigs or vessels. These are then checked by the Party Chief and the base project surveyor. Skilled ROV Pilots have abundant knowledge of hydraulics.Basically the scope of work usually details what is required of the survey. the ROV Pilot also has the responsibility of identifying and solving any equipment problems. inspect. After approval the reports are then issued to the client. soil samples are also collected and analyzed. The positions of noteworthy defects in the case of structural inspections are noted on camera shots. test and replace electric engines. hydraulic engines. It is the ROV Pilot's responsibility to keep components working in perfect operational and technical order in order to allow underwater and operations inspections. Others have college degrees with additional courses in electric or hydraulic fields. in addition to having completed ROV related training. For a site survey. and sonar images are also recorded. Mechanical or Electrical fields. Most times this comprises of a visual examination of a designated area (or structure) by an expert while the ROV pilot maneuvers the vessel. cables and video systems. hydraulic valves. Field reports are usually a written based on a qualitative evaluation of the ROV video by either the Reports Coordinator or the Online Surveyor. . hydraulic pumps and electric pumps.

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