-. 17 PROPOSAL FOR AN INTEGRATED SMALL-SCALE SOLAR SALT AND BRINE SHRIMP PRODUCTION UNIT by F.TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE IN FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT -<PROJECT LIBFISH> LIB/88/009 GCP/LIB/021/IsDB LIBFISH TECHNICAL BRIEFING NOTES.Medina Pizzali.Magsoudi FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Tripoli/Rome. F. Vallet & M. October 1994 . No.

-. They may be modified in the light of further knowledge gained at subsequent stages of the project. FAO. the MBRC. 17 documents further contributions towards the fulfillment of Project terms of reference related to fish technology and aquaculture in Libya.J. Vallet {FAO Senior Aquaculture Advisor) and M. Pilot operations could be carried out to test possibilities for low-cost community units for the production of good quality solar salt (for fish preservation and sale) and Artemia cysts for the aquaculture sector. hatchery. amongst other things.Vallet & M. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this document do not unply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the United Nations or the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country.FOREWORD LIBFISH Technical Briefing Notes (TBN) are intended as preliminary communications about ongoing or recently completed work undertaken through the various Project components. and training activities in a wide array of aquaculture techniques including fry and feed trials. or concerning the delimitation of frontiers .Magsoudi. territory or sea area. and supporting laboratory and production-related facilities. For bibliographic purposes this document should be cited as follows: F. The unit is intended for demonstration and experimental purposes.Eric Reynolds Project Manager This report was prepared during the course of the project identified on the title page. with: assessment of national aquaculture potential and existing capacity and requirements. Dr. Proposal for on integrated small-scale 1994 solar salt and brine shrimp production unit. F. and the Aquaculture Institute (Khoms). to provide training and research opportunities for the technical staff of the Secretariat of Marine Wealth. Medina Pizzali (FAO Fish Technology Advisor). Technical Briefing Notes 17 (En). Tripoli/Rome. The conclusions and recommendations given in the report are those considered appropriate at the time of its preparation. F. The proposal has been prepared jointly by Mr. The Aqua group is concerned. This seventeenth number in the series comprises a proposal for construction and operation of a small-scale integrated solar salt/Artemia production unit.Medina Pizzali. The Project's F/Tech group counts amongst its activities practical work and related training for national personnel on improved fish preservation techniques. Interpretations and/or translations into other languages should be verified against the original. site visits and evaluation. 19 p. The original version of this report is written in English. Fl: DP/LIB/88/009 & Fl: GCP/LIB/021/lsDB. and operation of experimental feed. TBN No. F. Magsoudi (MBRC Research Officer). .

including specification of labour. 3. The cement should comply with the Libyan standards of quality and should be of recent manufacture. . as well as the time it will take to deliver and mobilise these requirements at the site. They shall be chemically inert.and temperatures in evaporation ponds and variations according to climatic conditions.1 MATERIALS Aggregates for Concrete Aggregates should be obtained from sources known to produce aggregates of good quality for concrete. identifying the temperature-salinity tolerances of selected strains. 3. If it has been stored for more than 120 days. hard.2 Programme of Work: The programme to be provided by the contractor should set out all the operations required to complete the works. determination of critical parameters such as the maximum salinity.1 Existing Ground Levels: The contractor. coal and coal residues.2 Cement Sulphate-resistant portland cement suitable for structures in direct contact with sea water and brine solutions shall be used for all the civil engineering works. in close coordination with the MBRC specialist in brine shrimp artemia. should fully survey the existing ground levels on the beach side of MBRC.1. INTRODUCTION: This report presents an applied research proposal for MBRC investigations of a small-scale combined solar salt and brine shrimp (Anemia) production unit The overall purpose of such research is to test possibilities for low-cost community units for the production of good quality solar salt (for fish preservation and sale) and Artemia cysts for the aquaculture sector The proposed integrated unit should provide opportunities to experiment with Artemia introductions in salt production operations involving selection of the most suitable Artemia strains. 3. A detailed time schedule should also be prepared. strong. PROJECT PROPOSAL The proposal calls for general civil engineering works for the construction of small-scale solar salt/Artemia production unit at Tajura. and establish a programme of work 2. durable. clay lumps. and organic matter and other impurities that may cause corrosion of the reinforcement or may have implications for the strength of the concrete. the cement shall be tested for soundness before use on any of the works. and evaluation of the growth and production performances of inoculated strains as well as their reproductive characteristics As a result of this applied research it is expected that a well-designed and field tested technology package for the small-scale solar salt/ Artemia production could be developed and transferred to small-scale fisheries communities and other interested parties 2. materials and equipment to be used. provide technical advice on soil characteristics. within the MBRC premises Technical specifications are provided and should be read in conjunction with the relevant Libyan standard specifications 2. of limited porosity and free from adhering coatings.

3. loose knots and other defects that may affect their strength. staple wire 2×4 (5×10) 2×3 (5×7.8 Concrete Mixes Concrete mixes are suggested as per Table 2 below.5" (38mm) diameter. nails.9 Placing of Reinforcement Reinforcing steel bars shall be bent. Quantity and dimensions shall be as noted below: Table 1. Specifications are provided in Table 3. 3. The sea water inlet piping should be branched to the main seawater pipe coming from the pump house. The concrete tank surfaces shall be smoothed using cement mortar.3 Pipes for Sea Water Supply and Drainage High pressure type PVC pipes suitable for outdoor installations (ultra-violet proof additives included) shall be used. . drainage pipes will be of same diameter.5) Length feet(m) 250 (85) 350(115) 550 (185) 10 kg 3.7 Water Water used for both mixing and curing concrete as well as for making mortar shall be fresh water (not brackish) and free from organic or inorganic matter in solution or suspension in such amounts that may impair the strength and durability of the concrete.3. All inlet pipes will be of 1. well seasoned and free from cracks. The PVC pipes may be supplied with PVC joints and plastic sluice or gate valves for drainage and supply connections.5) 1×3 (2. tied and placed as shown in the drawings.5 Steel Reinforcement Mild steel round bars of 8mm diameter and 6mm diameter shall comply with the requirements of Libyan standards. Timber Requirements Inches (cm) Lath Lath Lath Clamps.4 Paint and Other Protective Coatings for Steel Bars All paints are to be applied first with a quality priming and then an undercoating in order to prevent corrosion. with a wooden float to give a very fine finish. It is very important that the reinforcing bars be securely tied to themselves so that their correct position is maintained during placing of the concrete.6 Timber Timbers for the roofing structure shall be of the best quality. 3. 3. 3. If plastic valves were not available monel valves could also be used. It should be noted that these mix ratios assume that the sand and aggregate are damp.5×7. with internal comers rounded as well as the junctions between walls and floors.

5. and then flows by gravity to the lower ponds (crystallisation ponds) in which salt precipitates. vegetation. Reinforcement specifications* Walls Horizontal and vertical steel BAR DIAMETER (MM) 6 SPACING (CM) 15 Floor Bars each way BAR DIAMETER (MM) 6 SPACING (CM) 20 * Note: Reinforcement for the corners of ponds is with 8mm∅ bars. Each one of the seven ponds has a specific function.5 Table 3.: 60 m2). 5.5 8 8 0. rocks. Table 2: Suggested Concrete Mixture Tank walls &floors: Cement Sand 20mm aggregate Water Plain Concrete: Cement Sand 20mm aggregate Water 300 kg 900 kg 1010 kg 150 lit. and trees.3. brine is transferred to the next pond (Anemia production pond I). Sea water is stocked at the upper part of the unit (two evaporation ponds'). January and February) evaporation is reduced. 4. This activity should be carried out in parallel to the demarcation of the site. The placing of the plastic film should be done carefully to avoid punctures. the average value of evaporation could be considered as 1 cm/day during the nine prime months of operation. Proportions by volume 3 7 8 0. For calculation purposes. in such a way as to obtain a smooth and levelled surface area free of bushes. 2. the system has been divided into seven different pond units (Table 4)..10 Plastic Cover Adequate ultra-violet proof polyethylene transparent film (200u thick or thicker if available) should be used for the roof cover of the production unit (approx.1. SITE CLEARING AND PREPARATION The contractor shall remove all superficial obstructions on the site of the unit. Evaporation occurs all .5 Weight/m3 360 kg 860 kg 1010 kg 130 lit. For proper management. Each time the initial volume has been reduced by half. OPERATION OF PRODUCTION UNIT: Production of Salt: The entire system is protected by a green house type shelter with natural ventilation in order to get maximum evaporation at least 9 months a year. During Winter (December.

it is possible to obtain 28 g/1 of pure sodium chloride.80 x2 = 21.63 m 3 3 Salinity Initial g/1 38 90 130 180 200 308 Final g/1 90 130 180 200 308 Harvest 0.8 5.475 m3 = 475 liters Volume of water evaporated during nine months will be: 4751 x 270 = 128.6 x 0.1.40 0.60M2 21.1.15 0.along the system. using a minimum value calculated from the evaporation in the first two ponds only (21.6 m2). to a maximum value calculated from evaporation considered as constant over the whole system (47.20 0.0 x 1. However a range of production can be indicated.52 1. b) c) Considering the initial salinity of sea water (38 g/1).50 x 0.04 1. the total volume of brine initially received for evaporation at each cycle is: 06.40 0.02 0.250 liters = 128 m3 Given that normal sea water salinity is 38 g/1 (38 kg/m3) the total annual production of raw salt should be around: 128 m3 x 38 kg = 4864 kg/year i) Since sodium chloride represents around 78% of total raw salt.7 3. although not at the same rate due to different concentration of brine in each of the ponds.40 0.7 46.8 × 2 5.20 = 4.01 = 0. Management of brine during salt production cycle Type of Pond Area m2 Depth m Evaporation I & II Production I Production II Production III Pre-crystallisation Crystallisation TOTAL 10.1 Maximum production of salt f) g) h) Quantity of water evaporated every day from the whole system is: 47.2 m 2 Brine Volume m 2.32 m3 = 4320 liters of sea water. without experiment.8 2.028 kg = 120 kg . to calculate the exact production of salt for the system.28 1.16 × 2 2. Table 4. It is not possible.50 m2). the production of edible salt' can be estimated at: 4864 kg x (78/100) = 3794 kg/year maximum 5.2 Minimum production of salt (Cycle method) a) Considering that each cycle starts with the filling of 'evaporation ponds 1 & II'. the quantity of salt after each cycle can be about: 4320 liters x 0. Therefore.45 10.6 6.08 5.

From with phytoplankton flows to 'Production pond I' which has nauplii.5 x 0. At this stage.2 Cycle of Production. the operation. This is a minimum expected production. there is enough brine in the system to harvest salt every 13/14 days. evaporation and harvest of salt.5 m2 The expected range of production in the proposed system should thus be: from: 9. so that: 0. is between 700 g to 2100 g/m2/year. Most of the primary production (phytoplankton) is concentrated within the two evaporation ponds. 5. The initial cycle should last for about 23 to 25 days.100 = 19. Zooplankton multiplies in this pond as salinity is Brine with phytoplankton and zooplankton then flows to 'Production pond II1 where adult Artemia are still multiplying and females are starting to produce cysts. Brine next flows to 'Production pond III'. brine level should be constant: a balance should occur between brine inlet. which could be improved by overlapping cycles. a quantity of 250 g of agricultural N/P/K fertiliser should be added to each cubic meter of sea water injected to the system. Brine from Pond III no longer contains phytoplankton.475m3 of sea water flows inside the circuit. 5. 0. and then.8 m) = 9.) (ii. Every day.5 x 3. After this.3 Production of Artemia biomass (Ponds I & II) According to data published in various countries. concentrated sea water been inoculated with Artemia increasing.5 x 2.7 = 6. . up to: 9.65 kg/year minimum.8 m) + (l x 3.) one initial 24-day cycle. the expected annual production of the system could be estimated as follows: 14 cycles/year x 120 kg NaCl/cycle= 1680 kg high purity salt/year. g) Thus. At the beginning of sp. carrying along cysts which arc collected with 200 \mgr\ mesh scoop net. haloresistant phytoplankton {Dunaliella be inoculated inside the two evaporation ponds.) should there. Adult Artemia are regularly collected with a scoop net (500\mgr\ mesh). zooplankton or fertiliser when it flows to the 'Pre-crystallisation pond' where calcium chloride precipitates. Finally. brine reaches the 'Crystallisation pond' in which sodium chloride is harvested. Therefore. 13 successive cycles. the following cycles can be expected: (i.d) e) f) This salt will be harvested from the crystallisation pond after complete evaporation. The evaporation ponds are never completely drained because it is necessary to keep phytoplankton for the next cycle. production of Artemia biomass in similar conditions.475 x 250g = 11875g of fertiliser are needed. For proper fertilisation. The total productive area of the pilot unit is: (1./Asteromonas sp.95 kg/year maximum.

The area of production in the pilot plant is: (1 x 3.' 1988 FI: TCP/STL/6651. Jaspers.' 1987 Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on the brine shrimp Artemia. 1987.Medina Pizzali. CONCLUSION: The main operational inputs of the system should be: Sea water : 10. University of Antwerpen / ARTEMIAREFERENCE CENTER.7 x 3. the expected range of production should be: from: 2 g x 6.63 + 128 m3 = 138 m3/year NPK fertiliser: 43 kg/year Phytoplankton strains (Dunaliella sp & Asteromonas sp. Wetteren.2.5 g x 6.46= 151. Research and its applications. W.46 = 12.' FAO filmstrip I/R 4933/E/8.8) = 6.8)+ (0. 'Small-scale Solar Salt Production. D.5. 1985 1985 .46 m2 Thus.81 g/year maximum. Field document No. A. F.4 Production of Artemia cysts (Ponds II & HI) According to existing data. February 1988. Editors.) Artemia cysts: 50 g The expected production of the proposed small-scale solar salt/Artemia unit can be summarised as follows: Salt (sodium chloride): from 1440 kg to 3794 kg/year Artemia biomass: from 6 to 20 kg/year Artemia cysts: from 13 to 152 g/year 7 REFERENCES: Sorgeloos. Bentson. 6.85. Universa Press.5 g/m2/year. the production of cysts is between 2 and 23. 'Artemia.92 g/year minimum. Decleir and E. State University of Ghent. P. 'Fisheries Technology in the improvement of fish utilisation and marketing. Oscar do Porto. organised under the patronage of His Majesty the King of Belgium. up to: 23. Belgium.

1 2 3 4 5 . back and front views Construction details of evaporation ponds Construction details of Artemia ponds Construction details of pre-crystallisation and crystallisation ponds No.ANNEX-DRAWINGS Description General layout of a small-scale solar salt cum Artemia production unit Lateral.

11.93 Not to Sc . BACK AND FRONT VIEWS Prepared by m Pizzail 9.SMALL-SCALE SOLAR SALT PRODUCTION UNIT CUM ARTEMIA PRODUCTION DRAWING No. 1 SMALL SCALE SOLAR SALT CUM ARTEMAIA APRODUCTION UNIT LATERAL.

2 SMALL SCALE SOLAR SALT CUM ARTEMAIA APRODUCTION UNIT CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF EVAPORATION PONDS I&II Prepared by m Pizzail 9.93 Not to Sc .DRAWING No.11.

DRAWING No. 3 SMALL SCALE SOLAR SALT CUM ARTEMAIA APRODUCTION UNIT CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF EVAPORATION PONDS I&II Prepared by m Pizzail Not to Sc .

DRAWING No. 4 SMALL SCALE SOLAR SALT CUM ARTEMAIA APRODUCTION UNIT LAYOUT OF CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF EVAPORATION PONDS I&II Prepared by m Pizzail Not to Sc .

DRAWING No. 3 SMALL SCALE SOLAR SALT CUM ARTEMAIA APRODUCTION UNIT CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF EVAPORATION PONDS I&II Prepared by m Pizzail Not to Sc .

5 SMALL SCALE SOLAR SALT CUM ARTEMAIA APRODUCTION UNIT CONSTRUCTION PRE-CRYSTALLISATION OF EVAPORATION PONDS I&II Prepared by m Pizzail Not to Sc .DRAWING No.

(En/Ar .Limited Distribution) Reynolds. June 1994. Nafati. Sutherland. (En) Medina Pizzali. May 1994.' TBN No. 03. Ben Abdallah. 16. 'Background notes and prospects for a Libyan marine fisheries Geographical Information System. Lamboeuf.' TBN No. 5. Lamboeuf.J. 3. 10. Mujahid. 31 January 1994).E. April 1994. May 1994.E.F. 06. Vallet. & J. O. Magsoudi. 13. Lamboeuf. 17. R. 16.' TBN No. Vallet (eds. Lamboeuf. 17.1 TBN No.E. J. 'Proceedings of the joint MBRC/FAO staff workshop on research training programme development (Tajura. M.E. & M. Tajura. Tajura. (En/Ar) Medina Pizzali. Technical evaluation and recommendations for the Sabratah fish cannery. Oct. F. 'Calibration of SIMRAD EK500 scientific sounder .' TBN No. 'Establishing a marine fisheries GIS: the Libyan experience. J.' TBN No. M.' TBN No. Abdulbari. 07. 11.. 10. The fishing fleet of Libya: preliminary results of the 1993 frame survey. & M. 14. & F. A. 12. 'Interim report on the national fish handling & processing facilities survey: Workshop proceedings (MBRC. May 1994. Workshop proceedings' TBN No. A.' TBN No. '1993 Libyan fisheries frame survey planning & preparation workshop. & N.F. (En) Meaden. 1994. May 1994. April 1994. Abukhader. M. Elkebir.E. A. (En/Ar) Magsoudi. M. 'Proposals for MBRC aquaculture facility rehabilitation. M. 4.. (En) Lamboeuf.' TBN No. A..July 1994. F. May 1994. 14. April 1994. Reynolds.'Preliminary findings of the 1993 Libyan marine fisheries frame survey. . 11. (En) Medina Pizzali. 'Libya trawl survey: Preliminary results of the first coverage. (En/Ar) Vallet. 6. J. 05. April 1994.' TBN No. Malta. & A. & M. Ansel. 12. J. July 1994. G. '1993 Libyan fisheries frame survey: Data handling/dBase management workshop. 'Proposal for an integrated smallscale solar salt and brine shrimp production unit. (En) Reynolds. 04. (En) Lamboeuf. 'Drydocking and refit of RV NOUR and voyage of vessel to Valetta.F. M. 'Reconnaissance survey of the artisanal fishing fleet of Libya. J.' TBN No. G. & E. 1994. 1.J. A. 9. M. 'Notes on the marine resources survey planning workshop (MBRC.' TBN No. A.. 7. 09.' TBN No. 8. 13. (En/Ar) Meaden. (En/Ar) Bellec. 15. Oct.RV NOUR ' TBN No. (En) Reynolds. Ben Abdallah.April 1994. 02. & J. 26 March 1994).E. 2. (En) Reynolds.) 'MEDRAP II Artemia Workshop (Libya) & Southern salt lakes mission. (En) 08. (En/Ar) Lamboeuf.' TBN No. 1994.LIBFISH TECHNICAL BRIEFING NOTES 01. July 1994. (En/Ar) Lamboeuf. Sept.' TBN No. Reynolds. 6 January 1994). A. 15.

Ben Abdallah. A. LIBYA International Mail: LIB/88/009 . June 1994 (En) Reynolds.O. A Abukhader. 1. 02. R Abdulbari. 'RV NOUR 1993-1994.J E. LIBFISH Tajura Office: Marine Biology Research Centre P. Nafati. M Lamboeuf.LIBFISH FIELD DOCUMENTS 01. Chief Engineer's report' FD No.) For further information please contact: Project Manager. & A. M.GCP/LIB/021/IsDB UNDP Tripoli Palais des Nations CH-1211 GENEVA 10 SWITZERLAND Tel + Fax: (218–21) 690002 Telex: 20523 .' FD No 2. 'Libyan coastal fisheries: A report on the 1993 baseline survey results. Goanec. Box 30830 Tajura. July 1994 (En--in prep.