( With Special Reference To……..)
A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for……….. in Management


Name………………….. Enrolment No-…………………… (In BBA)

Under the Supervision of Guide Name……………… Department Of Management ………………………. Ip University

imperative suggestions and personal attention at each stage of the Work. cooperation. valuable and scholarly guidance. I am most grateful to my parents for their moral support and blessings and for being an immense source of inspiration for me all through my life. Finally. constructive suggestion and well wishes of many people.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This project work has been a great experience SUMITThis work would not have been possible without the help. exemplary devotion and trust towards me has been unique and is the prime key behind the success of this project. and express my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness for Their inspirations. her personality has been instrumental in blending an exciting spirit and atmosphere for research. Their gamut of knowledge. . as I will forever cherish the deep interaction I had with her. It has been a great opportunity and experience to work with her. I owe my profound respect to ………………….. my project guide . dedication towards research. as I mention a few here. I would like to thank all of them.

Statement 2 This project is the result of my own independent work/investigation. Signed: …………………….. except where otherwise stated. Signed: …………………….DECLARATION This work has not previously been accepted in substance for any degree and is not being concurrently submitted in candidature for any degree / diploma . Other sources are acknowledged by giving explicit references. A bibliography is appended... Date: ………………………. Date: ……………………… .

further .Customer satisfaction Customer satisfaction. Brodeur between 1990 and 1998 defined ten 'Quality Values' which influence satisfaction behavior. Customer satisfaction is an ambiguous and abstract concept and the actual manifestation of the state of satisfaction will vary from person to person and product/service to product/service. a business term. It is seen as a key performance indicator within business and is part of the four perspectives of a Balanced Scorecard. Work done by Berry. Measuring customer satisfaction provides an indication of how successful the organization is at providing products and/or services to the marketplace. is a measure of how products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. although a large quantity of research in this area has recently been developed. The state of satisfaction depends on a number of both psychological and physical variables which correlate with satisfaction behaviors such as return and recommend rate. Because satisfaction is basically a psychological state. customer satisfaction is seen as a key differentiator and increasingly has become a key element of business strategy Measuring customer satisfaction Organizations are increasingly interested in retaining existing customers while targeting non-customers. In a competitive marketplace where businesses compete for customers. care should be taken in the effort of quantitative measurement. The level of satisfaction can also vary depending on other options the customer may have and other products against which the customer can compare the organization's products.

These ten domains of satisfaction include: Quality. Commitment to the Customer and Innovation. Zeithaml and Berry between 1985 and 1988 provides the basis for the measurement of customer satisfaction with a service by using the gap between the customer's expectation of performance and their perceived experience of performance. . According to Garbrand. This provides the measurer with a satisfaction "gap" which is objective and quantitative in nature.expanded by Berry in 2002 and known as the ten domains of satisfaction. These factors are emphasized for continuous improvement and organizational change measurement and are most often utilized to develop the architecture for satisfaction measurement as an integrated model. Interdepartmental Teamwork. Efficiency. Work done by Cronin and Taylor propose the "confirmation/disconfirmation" theory of combining the "gap" described by Parasuraman. Value. Zeithaml and Berry as two different measures (perception and expectation of performance) into a single measurement of performance according to expectation. Ease of Access. Environment. Front line Service Behaviors. Work done by Parasuraman. Timeliness. customer satisfaction equals perception of performance divided by expectation of performance.

If you're not used to this sort of thing it can be a pretty nerve-wracking experience. My experience has shown that a client finds it easier to relate to and work with someone they've actually met in person. Because it's critical that you form a close working relationship with your client. It's important to meet your customers face to face at least once or even twice during the course of a project. In the business of Website design. you're well on your way to a sale. . 1. it does get easier over time. When you do meet them. it's important to work closely with your customers to make sure the site or system you create for them is as close to their requirements as you can manage. customer service is of vital importance.Customer Satisfaction in 7 Steps It's a well known fact that no business can exist without customers. confident and above all. be calm. What follows are a selection of tips that will make your clients feel valued. wanted and loved. Encourage Face-to-Face Dealings This is the most daunting and downright scary part of interacting with a customer. though. I believe that if a potential client spends over half the meeting doing the talking. rather than a voice on the phone or someone typing into an email or messenger program. Rest assured. take time to ask them what they need.

It's vital that you keep a clear head. and I at least knew they were doing something about the problems. let the customer know you're working on it.2. why things were going wrong. and how long it would be before they were working again. . It's very important to be friendly. At every step along the way I was emailed and told exactly what was going on. They also apologized repeatedly. It might not always be practical to deal with all customers' queries within the space of a few hours. We all know how annoying it is to wait days for a response to an email or phone call. Be Friendly and Approachable A polite and courteous fellow Site Pointer once told me that you can hear a smile through the phone. There will be times when you want to beat your clients over the head repeatedly with a blunt object it happens to all of us. and at all times remain. This is very true. That to me is a prime example of customer service. it didn't seem so bad. They've had some trouble with server hardware which has caused a fair bit of downtime lately. Even if you're not able to solve a problem right away. 3. which was nice. Now if they server had just gone down with no explanation I think I'd have been pretty annoyed and may have moved my business elsewhere. courteous and to make your clients feel like you're their friend and you're there to help them out. A good example of this is my Web host. but at least email or call them back and let them know you've received their message and you'll contact them about it as soon as possible. Respond to Messages Promptly & Keep Your Clients Informed This goes without saying really. respond to your clients' wishes as best you can. But because they took time to keep me informed.

but remember to do them. or not knowing who to turn to. If a customer has a problem. Making sure they know exactly what to do at each stage of their enquiry should be of utmost importance. it makes the customer feel welcomed. wanted and valued.4. it shows there are real people on the other end of that screen or telephone. what should they do? If the first option doesn't work. So make sure your customer service policy is present on your site -and anywhere else it may be useful. Attention to Detail (also known as 'The Little Niceties') Have you ever received a Happy Birthday email or card from a company you were a client of? Have you ever had a personalized sign-up confirmation email for a service that you could tell was typed from scratch? These little niceties can be time consuming and aren't always cost effective. 5. . it's something. Have a Clearly-Defined Customer Service Policy This may not be too important when you're just starting out. but a clearly defined customer service policy is going to save you a lot of time and effort in the long run. who should they tell? There's nothing more annoying for a client than being passed from person to person. It shows you care. and most importantly. Even if it's as small as sending a Happy Holidays email to all your customers. then what? Should they contact different people for billing and technical enquiries? If they're not satisfied with any aspect of your customer service.

in your office. safe in the knowledge this happy customer will send several referrals your way. During a meeting with your client he/she happens to mention a hard-copy brochure their internal marketing people are developing. a couple of weeks later a CDROM arrives on their doorstep complete with high resolution versions of all the images you've used on the site. deliver. Hopefully you'll be able to make use of some in your brochure. achieving this supreme level of understanding with your clients will do wonders for your working relationship. The simple message: when you promise something. . you mentioned a hard-copy brochure you were working on and I wanted to provide you with large-scale copies of the graphics I've used on the site. originals and files backed up on your desktop computer and the site is going really well. you lay back in your chair drinking your 7th cup of coffee that morning. As if by magic." Your client is heartily impressed. Take this as an example: you're working on the front-end for your client's exciting new ecommerce Endeavour. 7. You have all the images. The most common example here is project delivery dates. Honour Your Promises It's possible this is the most important point in this article. and remarks to his colleagues and friends how very helpful and considerate his Web designers are.6. A note accompanies it which reads: "Hi. Anticipate Your Client's Needs & Go Out Of Your Way to Help Them Out Sometimes this is easier said than done! However. Meanwhile.

or you might miss a deadline through no fault of your own.Clients don't like to be disappointed. Projects can be late. All you need to do to achieve this is to stop and switch roles with the customer. What would you want from your business if you were the client? How would you want to be treated? Treat your customers like your friends and they'll always come back. Conclusion Customer service. . Sometimes. is a practiced art that takes time and effort to master. In this case a quick apology and assurance it’ll be ready ASAP wouldn't go amiss. technology can fail and sub-contractors don't always deliver on time. something may not get done. like any aspect of business.

Luzar and Cosse 1998). 6) Post-purchase alternative re-evaluation . . Blackwell et al. both from Internal sources (one's memory) and/or external for data relevant for the purchasing decision. The process can be depicted in the following steps (Engel. 5) Consumption .acquirement of the chosen option of product or service.assessment of whether or not and to what degree the consumption of the alternative produced satisfaction. 3)Pre-purchase alternative evaluation .utilization of the procured option. Ronis.CONSUMER SATISFACTION PROCESS The paramount goal of marketing is to understand the consumer and to influence buying behaviour. It is consumer attitudes that are usually named as the major factor in shaping consumer behaviour and a wealth of studies is available on the topic of how Attitudes can predict behaviour. customer decision-making process comprises a need-Satisfying behaviour and a wide range of motivating and influencing factors. 7) Divestment . Yates ET al. One of the main perspectives of the consumer behaviour research analyses buying Behaviour from the so-called “information processing perspective" (Holbrook and Hirschman 1982). 1995): 1) Need recognition – realization of the difference between desired situation and the current situation that serves as a trigger for the entire consumption process. marketing analyses consumer behaviour by employing a psychologically grounded concept of attitudes (Balderjahn 1988. Besides the information processing perspective. 2) Search for information .disposal of the unconsumed product or its remnants. 4) Purchase . According to the model.assessment of available choices that can fulfill the Realized need by evaluating benefits they may deliver and reduction of the number of options to the one (or several) preferred. 1989.

Today consumer behaviour is increasingly dynamic as the choice of alternatives increases with the growth of global markets. Further efforts are required in order to understand relations between the functional and emotional needs of customers. Many interdisciplinary concepts and factors are of interest for research on consumer satisfaction with eco-efficient services and PSS. market response. Contrary to the suggestions from many traditional neoclassical theories. they naturally employ different research approaches. we see that many research topics and methods overlap. However. Many consumptionrelated issues are being increasingly addressed from interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary perspectives. and that there is no clear-cut line between different domains of consumer research. . despite that seemingly insurmountable abyss between disciplines. etc. which requires coordination at individual and societal level. Therefore. consumption patterns are very flexible and prone to various influences. The complexity of the decision-making process and a large number of influencing factors suggest that changing consumer behaviour towards more sustainable consumption is a challenging process. factors influencing consumer behaviour.INTER-DISCIPLINARITY OF CONSUMER RESEARCH Different research disciplines diverge in their presuppositions about human nature. The area of PSS and eco-efficient services is still developing.

in the PSS context. The study has discussed the following frameworks: Kano model of customer satisfaction. an evaluation of all four PSS components becomes relevant: Product evaluation is conducted by assessment of products or technologies. Here the part of the system. In the service context. and networks). Person-based or other types of services (technical. and SERVQUAL model by Parasuraman. though observable. Infrastructure can be evaluated when the customer comes into contact with enabling Supporting technology. rendering the evaluation process of consumer satisfaction even more complex (Mont 2000). These included surveys. the service quality model of Grönsroos. but in some cases may be evaluated When they come into contact with customers. customers initially assess tangible features of the product. or by evaluation of ambient conditions. are considerably less tangible and are thus more difficult to assess. The study has also surveyed a range of tools used for evaluating and measuring consumer satisfaction. In addition. In the case of PSS or eco-services. the Innovation diffusion of Rogers. is larger than in the case of a pure product or service. customers can even become exposed to infrastructure and networks that support PSS delivery. A product service system comprises four components (products. due to closer relations with the service provider.DIFFERENT LEVELS OF COMPLEXITY When evaluating satisfaction with a product. information and knowledge services) That are included into PSS may be evaluated. are not usually exposed to the customer. in-depth . infrastructures. with which the customer comes into direct contact. Therefore. the features. spatial layout or by evaluating signs and artifacts of the PSS. which has implications for customer evaluation process. RESEARCH FRAMEWORKS AND METHODS A great variety of methods and frameworks for understanding and evaluating consumer acceptance and satisfaction are used in different disciplines. customers are exposed to both dimensions: product and service. Networks. services.

but rather products are complex combinations of various attributes. focus group interviews. However. Changing human behaviour and existing lifestyles contribute to the vision of sustainable development. influenced or changed. also bring status. mystery shopping.interviews. The concept proved to be viable in the business-to-business context. and much-much more. the consumer decision-making process is much more complex and intricate than just a simple decision about shifting from owning a product towards paying per use of it. Throughout this study we demonstrated that products are not seen purely for their functional features. which. One of the concepts suggested as a potential solution to reduce consumption levels is the concept of productservice systems (PSS). Alternatively. Changing system design requires understanding how consumer acceptance of more sustainable solutions is formed. were found to be useful for application in the PSS research area. . serve as a key to a certain social class. Both the Research models and the tools. what are the influencing factors and what are the leverage Points for the best results with lowest costs. either behavioural or service system design changes are needed. CONCLUSIONS The environmental impacts of ever increasing consumption throughout the world have been recently recognized. To address this problem. it has been less successful. Understanding consumer perceptions and behaviour in this context is crucial. while diverse to a different extent. in the private Consumer markets. together with functionality. However. A number of drawbacks and benefits pertaining to the tools have been pointed out and discussed. but it proves to be an insurmountable task over a short period of time. observations. User behaviour has been named as the primary reason for this situation. both in terms of economic viability and environmental impact reduction. reinforce self-esteem. Many solutions have been proposed to combat the rising levels of consumption. and psychographic portrait of customers. changing the design of product-service system to reduce the behavioural pitfalls could be a potentially easier way towards sustainable development.

. All disciplines we looked at addressed consumption from some perspective. which could prove useful in understanding the consumer decision-making process in the context of ownerless consumption. We did that by looking at how different disciplines perceive the consumption process in general and the consumer decisionMaking process in particular. Some important lessons were learned from this study: The consumer is a moody creature – swinging between rationality and emotional behaviour. We also found some useful tools. Identified frameworks and tools were then evaluated for suitability in the PSS context. which can be employed for collecting information about and from consumers.Therefore. We then looked closer at the potentially most promising models. We also provided some suggestions and examples for how several presented models could be operationalised in the PSS context. We saw the wealth of theories and frameworks being developed trying to solve this puzzle. the goal of this study was to take a step towards a better understanding of the complexity of the phenomena we are aiming to change.