2-1

Sequencing Power Supplies in
Multiple Voltage Rail Environments
David Daniels
Dirk Gehrke
Mike Segal
ABSTRACT
Designers must consider timing and voltage differences during power up and power down in systems
where multiple power rails are involved. A simple example would be a single DSP with its core and I/O
voltages, requiring power supply sequencing. The possibility for a latch-up failure or excessive current
draw exists when power supply sequencing is not designed properly. The trigger for latch-up may occur
if power supplies are applied at different potentials of the core and I/O interfaces. This paper addresses
some of the more common sequencing requirements of digital signal processing (DSPs), field
programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and
microprocessors, and proposes a variety of practical solutions implemented with power management
devices. These techniques take advantage of the reset, power good, enable and soft-start features
available on many types of power management devices ranging from low drop out (LDO) regulators to
plug-in power modules.

I. INTRODUCTION
High-performance signal processing devices,
such as FPGAs, ASICs, PLDs and DSPs require
multiple power supplies that generate different
voltages for the core and I/O voltages. The order
in which these voltages power up and power
down can prove critical to device operation and
long term reliability. This paper addresses some
of the reasons devices require the different types
of power supply sequencing and offers examples
of practical supply sequencing solutions.
II. WHY SEQUENCE POWER SUPPLIES?
Designing a system without proper power
supply sequencing may introduce potential risks,
including compromised reliability and immediate
faults. Long term reliability is sacrificed when an
out-of-bounds condition persists on a multi-
supply device for extended periods of time. The
risk comes when there is an active power supply
rail and an inactive supply on a device for long
time periods. This condition can stress
electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and
other internal circuits that interface between the
different voltages. The amount of time the device
can be stressed before potential damage occurs
under these conditions may be measured in
months, but it is the cumulative exposure to these
conditions that determines the usable life of the
product. While a few poorly controlled power-up
and power-down cycles are unlikely to damage a
device, a system that is power cycled time after
time without proper power supply sequencing
can eventually fall victim to this failure mode.
2-2
Another risk of improper power supply
sequencing in a system can cause immediate
damage to a device. This failure is often a result
of excessive current flow into a pin or excessive
voltage differential across pins that stress internal
components. The causes of these immediate
failures are similar to those of the reliability
failures. The difference is how the device is
affected by the stresses.
A. Latch-Up
Since most multi-supply devices are
fabricated in CMOS technology, the devices are
susceptible to an electrical failure mode called
latch-up. Latch-up can occur when voltage and
current levels beyond the normal operating level
stress pins of a powered device. When latch-up
occurs, the device draws unusually high supply
current which may render the device inoperable
and/or cause permanent damage to the device.
Fig. 1 depicts a cross section of a CMOS
inverter with the parasitic bipolar transistors
overlaying the illustration.[1][2] The source of
the N-channel MOS device serves as emitter, the
N-well as collector, and substrate as base of the
parasitic bipolar NPN transistor. Similarly, the
source of the P-channel MOS device serves as
emitter, the N-well as base, and the substrate as
collector of the parasitic bipolar PNP. These
parasitic bipolar transistors comprise a PNPN
structure commonly known as a silicon-
controlled rectifier (SCR). The PN junctions of
the parasitic transistors are normally reverse-
biased. However, a PN junction of the parasitic
SCR may become forward-biased due to
electrical disturbances resulting in SCR
conduction which may result in device failure.
Among electrical disturbances which may cause
latch-up are voltages on pins beyond the supply
voltage rails, large DC currents in the substrate or
N-well, and displacement currents in the
substrate or N-well resulting from fast-
transitioning internal nodes.
.
GND
VIO
OUT
N-Well
P-Substrate
IN
OUT
VIO GND
Latch Up Current
P+ N+
N+ P+ N+ P+

Fig. 1. Cross-section of CMOS inverter.
2-3
Fig. 2 represents the architecture of a multi-
voltage device, such as a programmable logic
device (PLD), interfacing to an external
driver.[3] To illustrate some of the problems with
sequencing power supplies, the system consists
of three power supplies: V
CORE
, V
IO
, and V
EXT
at
5 V, 3.3 V and 3.3 V, respectively.
Consider the following scenario: V
IO
supply is
active, V
CORE
is inactive, and the driver input is
not initialized. Since the driver is not in a known
state, Q1 could be biased on, sourcing current
through ESD diode D1. The magnitude of the
current depends on the impedance of Q1, D1 and
the inactive supply. Latch-up may occur as
current flows through the ESD diode when the
core supply ramps up. Whether this current
causes a catastrophic latch-up failure, latent
reliability issue, or neither, depends on
robustness of the device design. In other words,
damage may not occur if magnitude of the
current is sufficiently low that the silicon can
conduct the current without compromising
reliability.
A potential latch-up issue arises when
peripheral devices, such as data converters and
memory, are coupled to the I/O pins of a multi-
supply device and powered from a different
supply that is ramping. Fig. 2 shows an external
driver coupled to the I/O pin that has a “sneak
path” through the anti-parallel body diode of Q3
when the V
EXT
pin voltage is lower than V
IO
.
This issue can easily be resolved by connecting
the V
EXT
and V
IO
pins to the same power supply.
When V
EXT
is active and the external driver
sources current into the pin when V
CORE
or V
IO
is
ramping, the potential for latch-up in the multi-
supply device exists.
Trends in the semiconductor industry include
increasing device speed, including more features,
reducing power consumption, and reducing
device size, all the while shortening product
development cycle times. To meet these goals,
design teams pack more components into a
smaller area by using smaller device geometries,
thinner well structures, and lighter substrate and
well concentrations. Unfortunately, these design
techniques increase the ohmic resistance and gain
(or “beta”) of the parasitic PNP and NPN
transistors which, in turn, increases the likelihood
of latch-up. Design techniques to prevent latch-
up include using protection circuits and “guard
rings”. Protection circuits are used on input and
output pads to safely shunt current and guard
rings are used around wells to provide low-
resistance. Both these prevention techniques
come at the penalty of device size and cost.
The device’s core voltage, susceptibility to
latch-up, and supply sequencing order are, all too
often, determined after pre-production silicon is
available and device characterization and
qualification are performed. With the emphasis
on meeting cost and customer timetables for the
latest product, if only minor issues are found with
a device (such as a preference for supply
sequencing), the issues are documented and the
device released to market.
Receiver
V
CORE
Q1 Q3
Core
Logic
Driver
External
Driver
Pin
ESD
D2
ESD
D1
V
CORE
= 0 V
V
EXT
= 0 V
VIO = 3.3 V
V
CORE
= 0 V
Q2 Q4

Fig. 2. Close-up of a multi-voltage device.
2-4
B. System-Level Bus Contention
Power supply sequencing may be required to
prevent system-level bus contention, in which the
bidirectional I/O pins of a DSP and external
peripheral device oppose each other. Since the
bus control logic originates in the core section of
the DSP, powering I/O prior to the core may
result in both the DSP and peripheral
simultaneously configured as outputs. If the data
values on each side are opposing, then the output
drivers contend for control, as shown in Fig. 3.
Excessive current flows in one of the paths
shown, depending on the opposing data-out
patterns. The outputs contend for control and
excessive current flows when the data values are
opposing. This excessive current may damage the
bidirectional I/O ports. Following the
recommendation to power the core at the same
time or before the I/O prevents undefined logic
states on the bus control signals. [4]
III. SEQUENCING SCHEMES
There are three distinct schemes to power-up
and power-down multi-rail power supplies:
sequential, ratio-metric, and simultaneous [5].
The appropriate sequencing scheme is dependent
on device requirements. The manufacturer's data
sheet does not explicitly name which power
sequencing scheme to implement, but rather
outlines voltage and timing conditions that
cannot be exceeded on power supply pins. Note
that some devices allow out-of-bounds conditions
for a short period of time. Using the pin
conditions and the waveforms in the following
section, a sequencing methodology can be chosen
to meet the processor requirements.
Data In
DV
DD
DV
DD
Data Out
Output Enable
Data In
Output Enable
Data Out
External Bus Control
I/O Core
R/W
D0-D15
Indeterminate During
CV
DD
Power Up
Core Supply CV
DD
I/O Supply DV
DD
Dual Supply Voltage DSP Peripheral

Fig. 3. System-level bus contention.
2-5
A. Sequential Sequencing
The sequential scheme of power supply
sequencing is best described as one power supply
ramping and settling to its final regulation
voltage and then the second power supply
ramping after a time delay. This method is used
to initialize certain circuitry to a known state
before activating another supply rail. An example
applying the core supply rail prior to the I/O
supply starting is shown in Fig. 4a.
t - Time - ms
(a)
V
O

-

O
u
t
p
u
t

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

-

V
V
I/O
V
CORE

t - Time - ms
(b)
V
O

-

O
u
t
p
u
t

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

-

V
V
I/O
V
CORE

Fig. 4. Sequential sequencing schemes.
The following is an excerpt from a footnote
in a device specification with recommendations
best suited to using sequential power supply
sequencing:
“System-level concerns such as bus
contention may require supply sequencing to be
implemented. In this case, the core supply should
be powered up at the same time as or prior to the
I/O buffers and then powered down after the I/O
buffers.” [6]
An alternative power supply sequence order
would call for the I/O supply to power up first
and the core supply to start after the I/O power
supply reaches regulation, see Fig. 4b. In the
particular example [7], this method meets the
recommended power sequencing for the device
as long as the delay time for the start up of the
core supply is less than 100 ms. As presented
later in this topic, a typical hardware
implementation employs an output voltage
monitor to develop a power good (PG) signal for
the first power supply, which then connects to the
enable (EN) function of the second power supply.
B. Ratio-Metric Sequencing
For a dual power supply implementing ratio-
metric sequencing, both power supply outputs
ramp at the same time and in proportion until
regulation is reached. Fig. 5a illustrates ratio-
metric power sequencing where the core and I/O
supply reach regulation at approximately the
same instant. During power-up the core supply is
a percentage of the I/O supply until regulation is
reached. Similarly, during power-down the core
is a specific percentage of the I/O supply voltage.
Another example of ratio-metric sequencing may
find the core supply voltage slightly greater than
the I/O supply during the power-up and down,
see Fig. 5b. In this particular case, to ensure the
I/O buffers have valid inputs, the core rail is
powered slightly before the I/O rail to eliminate
problems with bus contention. [8]
t - Time - ms
(a)
V
O

-

O
u
t
p
u
t

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

-

V
V
I/O
V
CORE

t - Time - ms
(b)
V
O

-

O
u
t
p
u
t

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

-

V
V
I/O
V
CORE

Fig. 5. Ratio-metric sequencing.
2-6
C. Simultaneous Sequencing
The simultaneous power sequencing method
is similar to ratio-metric sequencing in that both
power supply outputs ramp at the same time.
However, in simultaneous sequencing, the
objective is to minimize the voltage difference
between the two supply rails during power up
and down, as shown in Fig. 6, until regulation is
reached for the core supply. This sequencing
method is useful for devices that have “sneak
paths” between supply pins or draw excessive
current during startup if internal logic has not
transitioned to a stable state. Reference [9]
recommends simultaneous sequencing to
minimize transient start-up currents.
t - Time - ms
V
O

-

O
u
t
p
u
t

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

-

V
V
I/O
V
CORE

Fig. 6. Simultaneous sequencing.
The following sections show many examples
of power sequencing implemented with:
• Diodes
• Low-dropout (LDO) linear regulators
• Supply voltage supervisors (SVS)
• Power distribution switches
• Hot-swap controllers
• Microcontrollers
• Switch-mode controllers
(power FETs external)
• Switch-mode converters
(power FETs internal)
• Plug-in power modules
IV. SEQUENCING IMPLEMENTATIONS
ILLUSTRATED WITH LDOS
A. Diodes
Diodes are often used to facilitate sequencing
requirements. Though diodes alone cannot
achieve true sequential, ratio-metric or
simultaneous sequencing, they can help maintain
proper relation between various supply voltages.
Fig. 7 illustrates use of a Schottky diode to
limit voltage differential between the core and
I/O rail. The Schottky diode further reduces
potential stress on devices by bootstrapping the
I/O supply and shortening the delay between
supply ramps. [5]
I/O Voltage
Regulator
Core Voltage
Regulator
I/O
DV
DD
Core
CV
DD
DC Input

Fig. 7. Schottky diode limits voltage differential.
Fig. 8 shows rectifiers in combination to help
meet these microprocessor requirements:
• “V
IN
must not exceed V
DDH
by more than
2.5 V at any time, including during power-on
reset.
• V
DDH
must not exceed V
DD
/V
CCSYN
by more
than 1.6 V at any time, including during
power-on reset.
• V
DD
/V
CCSYN
must not exceed V
DDH
by more
than 0.4 V at any time, including during
power-on reset.” [17]
I/O Power
Core/PLL
Power
2.5 V
(VDD/VCCSYN)
3.3 V
(VDDH)
DC Input

Fig. 8. Combination of diodes limits voltage
differential.
2-7
“Note: There are internal diodes connected
serially between VDDH and VDD, and vice-versa
for ESD protection. If one of the voltages (VDD
or VDDH) is applied and the other power pins
are not driven, then the internal diodes pull up
these pins. However, a problem could occur if
one of the voltages (VDD or VDDH) is applied
and the other voltage is forced to GND. In this
case, the ESD diodes might be destroyed.” [17]
To achieve true sequential, ratio-metric or
simultaneous sequencing, enlist the capabilities
of a wide range of active devices, as discussed in
the following sections.
B. LDO Enable Via Supply Voltage Supervisor
(SVS)
Sequential Sequencing
Fig. 9 shows an implementation of a supply
voltage supervisor (SVS) to realize a sequential
sequencing scenario. The load of this power
supply is an FPGA which requires sequential
sequencing. The power solution shown employs a
5-V input supply voltage rail. The core voltage is
powered up first and, once the core voltage has
ramped, the I/O voltage rail is enabled.
Advantages of a linear regulator over a switch-
mode approach typically include lower noise,
reduced board space and cost. A key
disadvantage is lower efficiency and, as a result,
increased power dissipation.

VIN
EN BYP
VOUT
GND
IC1
TPS79618
C1
C3
R5 R1
LDO
1 A
VDD
RSTVDD
SENSE
RSTSENSE
GND
IC3
TPS3106K33
VIN = 5 V
VIN
EN BYP
VOUT
GND
IC2
TPS78633
LDO
1.5 A C2 C6
C4
R2
C5
Q1
R3
R4
Core
1.8 V
I/O
3.3 V
R6

Fig. 9. Sequential sequencing using SVS.
2-8
This solution is based on two LDOs, IC1 to
supply core voltage and IC2 for the I/O voltage
rail, along with an SVS, IC3. The dual SVS, with
trip point threshold voltage of 2.941 V (typical),
monitors the input voltage rail. Once the input
voltage rail has reached the threshold of 2.941 V,
the SVS reset output transitions from low to high
impedance state after a delay of 130 ms, enabling
LDO IC1. Once LDO IC1 is enabled, the core
voltage ramps up towards its final value of 1.8 V.
To ensure that the input voltage rail does not drop
due to the high inrush current demand of the
capacitor bank and the FPGA, a current-limiting
circuit has been implemented. Without this
current-limit circuit, the input voltage could
potentially droop during the switch-on cycle.
This current-limit circuitry, consisting of Q1, C4,
R2, R6 and C5, provides smooth charging of the
load during power-up.
Core voltage is monitored via a comparator
incorporated in SVS IC3. Voltage divider R3 and
R4 adjusts the threshold voltage to the particular
needs of the application. In this case, it has been
adjusted to a threshold voltage of 1.7 V. Once the
core voltage reaches the threshold voltage, IC3
enables LDO IC2, which provides the I/O voltage
to the system, and the I/O voltage ramps to its
final value of 3.3 V.
The power-up and power-down waveforms of
this implementation appear in Fig. 10.

t - Time - 50 ms/div
(a)
t - Time - 20 ms/div
(b)
0.50 V/div 0.50 V/div
V
I/O
V
CORE
V
I/O
V
CORE

Fig. 10. Ramp-up (a) and ramp-down (b) waveforms for circuit of Fig. 9.
2-9
Simultaneous Sequencing
Some applications require either a specific
slew rate or a maximum inrush current during
power-up and power-down, which can be
realized with the circuit in Fig. 11.
The power-up and power-down sequencing
circuit employs network R3 and C2 to generate a
ramp-up slope. This network is the slew rate
reference for the output of the LDO during
power-up and power-down. The operational
amplifier compares the output voltage at its non-
inverting input with the voltage applied to its
inverting input. It then adjusts the output voltage
to match the slew rate determined by the RC
network. When ENABLE transitions low, Q1 is
switched off, and R3 starts to charge C2 to the
input voltage rail level. When V
OUT
reaches
2.5 V, set by R1 and R2, the voltage at the
operational amplifier inverting input continues to
rise, causing the operational amplifier output to
decrease. This reverse-biases D1, thereby
removing the power-up and power-down
sequencing circuit from the feedback loop. R4
and C1 ensure a smooth voltage rise during
power-up.
In this example, the output voltage set point
can be calculated as follows:


|
|
.
|

\
|
× = 1 2 1
REF
OUT
V
V
R R
where V
REF
= 1.224 V for the LDO shown.
Fig. 12 features simultaneous sequencing
circuitry that programs a required slew rate
during power-up and power-down using IC2 as a
tracking LDO.
The power-up and power-down sequencing
circuit is using the same basic circuit as described
above with programmable slope. In this example,
the core voltage must track the I/O voltage during
power-up and power-down. Additionally, the I/O
voltage must be within 600 mV of the core
voltage during power-up and power-down. If
these conditions are violated, the processor could
be damage due to forward-biasing of the
substrate diode.
During power-up and power-down, IC4
provides active tracking to ensure that the voltage
difference between I/O and core voltage is far
less than the required 600 mV. Schottky diode
D3 provides an additional level of protection.
During power-up, IC1’s output voltage
increases with the applied slope ramp at the
inverting node of IC3. Operational amplifier IC4
derives the ramp-up and ramp-down slope from
the 2.5-V I/O output voltage rail. During power-
up, the I/O voltage slowly increases, and this
voltage is applied to the inverting node of IC4.
The non-inverting node detects the core voltage,
which is the output of linear regulator IC2. When
the core voltage reaches 1.5 V, set by R5 and R6,
the inverting input of operational amplifier IC4
continues to rise, causing the operational
amplifier output to decrease. This reverse biases
D2, removing the tracking circuit from the
feedback loop. Fig. 13 displays power-up and
power-down waveforms, respectively.
IC1
TPS79601
(1 A LDO)
EN
VIN
FB
VOUT
GND
C
IN
D
1
1N4148
+
C
1
C
3
R1
R2
C
OUT
3.3 V
R
4
C
2
R
3
IC
3
I/O
2.5 V
Q
1
BSS138
ENABLE
OFF
ON
TLV2770

Fig. 11. Capacitor-programmable slew rate circuit.
2-10
IC1
TPS79601
EN
VIN
FB
VOUT
GND
CIN1
D1
1N4148
+
C1
C3
R1
R2
COUT1
IC2
TPS79601
EN
VIN
FB
VOUT
GND
CIN2
D2
1N4148
+
R5
R6
COUT2
3.3 V
R4
C2
R3
IC3
C4
C5
R7
D3
Core
1.5 V
I/O
2.5 V
Q1
BSS138
ENABLE
OFF
ON
TLV2770
1 A
LDO
1 A
LDO
IC4

Fig. 12. Simultaneous sequencing with capacitor-programmable slew rate circuit.
t - Time - 50 ms/div
(a)
t - Time - 50 ms/div
(b)
0.50 V/div 0.50 V/div
V
I/O
V
CORE
V
I/O
V
CORE

Fig. 13. Power-up (a) and power-down (b) waveforms for circuit of Fig. 12.

2-11
C. LDO and Power Distribution Switch
Sequential Sequencing
Some applications challenge the designer to
apply core voltage prior to I/O voltage, even
though the input source voltage is already at the
I/O voltage level. A high-side power distribution
switch can be used to disable the I/O supply until
the core voltage is powered up and stable. Fig. 14
shows a sequential power supply sequencing
implementation using the TPS2150, which
integrates a high-side power switch with an LDO.
The TPS2150 uses the power good function
of the LDO to enable the power switch, resulting
in the power-up waveforms of Fig. 15a. The
power switch and LDO feature pull down
MOSFETs to discharge the bulk capacitance
when the devices are disabled (Fig. 15b).

250 mA
LDO
Driver Charge Pump
10 µF 10 µF
3.3 V
10 kΩ
4.7 kΩ
10 µF
2.5 V
3.3 V
TPS2150
SW_PLDN
SW_OUT
LDO_PG
LDO_PLDN
ADJ
LDO_OUT
SW_IN
LDO_IN 3.3 V
SW_EN
LDO_EN
REF

Fig. 14. Sequencing with combination LDO/high-side switch (core then I/O).
t - Time - 200 µs/div
(a)
t - Time - 1 ms/div
(b)
PG
V
I/O
V
CORE
PG
V
I/O
V
CORE
PG 2 V/div
V
CORE
1 V/div
V
I/O
1 V/div
PG 2 V/div
V
CORE
1 V/div
V
I/O
1 V/div

Fig. 15. Power-up (a) and power-down (b) of circuit in Fig. 14.
2-12
Fig. 16 implements the opposite
configuration, in which the I/O voltage is applied
before the core at turn-on. Corresponding
waveforms are shown in Fig. 17.




250 mA
LDO
Driver Charge Pump
10 µF 10 µF
3.3 V
10 kΩ
4.7 kΩ
10 µF
2.5 V
3.3 V
3.3 V
TPS2150
SW_PLDN
SW_OUT
SW_PG
LDO_PLDN
ADJ
LDO_OUT
LDO_EN
SW_IN
SW_EN
LDO_IN

Fig. 16. Sequential sequencing (I/O then core).
t - Time - 500 µs/div
(a)
t - Time - 1 ms/div
(b)
PG
V
I/O
V
CORE
PG
V
I/O
V
CORE
PG 2 V/div
V
CORE
1 V/div
V
I/O
1 V/div
PG 2 V/div
V
CORE
1 V/div
V
I/O
1 V/div

Fig. 17. Power-up (a) and power-down (b) waveforms for circuit of Fig. 16.

2-13
D. Hot-Swap Control
Simultaneous Sequencing
Another method to power-up and power-
down with minimum voltage difference between
the power supply rails is to use MOSFETs
between the supply and load. Fig. 18 shows a
simplified schematic using two MOSFETs and a
TPS2331 hot swap controller to provide
simultaneous start-up sequencing. By driving the
gates of the MOSFETs with the same gate driver,
the power supply rails effectively ramp together
(Fig. 19a). The TPS2331 features an integrated
pull-down transistor to discharge the bulk output
capacitors, see Fig. 19b. The Schottky diode
clamps the core supply during power-down.
Logic
UVLO
Charge
Pump
Clamp
EN
IN GATE
DISCH
GND
1 kΩ
1 kΩ
10 µF
3.3 V
150 µF
150 µF
10 µF
2.5 V Core
I/O
SI4410
SI4410
6800 pF
TPS2331

Fig. 18. Simultaneous sequencing with hot-swap
controller.
t - Time - 500 µs/div
(a)
1.0 V/div
V
IO
V
CORE

t - Time - 20 ms/div
(b)
1.0 V/div
V
IO
V
CORE

Fig. 19. Power-up (a) and power-down (b)
waveforms for circuit of Fig. 18.
2-14
E. Microcontroller
Microcontrollers are among the most versatile
devices available for sequencing. If the power
supplies to be controlled feature enable pins, then
controlling them is a simple matter of using
general purpose input and output (GPIO) lines. If
the enable function is not available, an in-line
MOSFET or power distribution switch can be
used to control the power supply, either with a
GPIO or PWM signal.
Use of a microcontroller is illustrated with the
MSP430, a 16-bit RISC processor featuring
several analog peripherals and a JTAG interface.
The circuit of Fig. 20 uses the TPS725xx family
of LDOs to provide 3.3 V, 2.5 V and 1.8 V from
an input DC source. These LDOs have an enable
pin and reset function. This circuit can easily be
expanded to any number of voltage rails. The
MSP430 monitors a control variable to determine
when each rail should be activated. For power
sequencing applications, the two most commonly
controlled variables are time and voltage.

3 1
2 4
5
TPS72518
GND EN
VIN VOUT
RESET
100 kΩ
100 kΩ
1 µF
3 1
2 4
5
TPS72525
GND EN
VIN VOUT
RESET
100 kΩ
100 kΩ
1 µF
3 1
2 4
5
TPS725xx
GND EN
VIN VOUT
RESET
100 kΩ
1 µF
To Pin 61
To Pin 60
To Pin 59
To Pin 17
To Pin 18
To Pin 19
To Pin 13
To Pin 15
To Pin 14
13
14
15
17
18
19
59
60
61
12
16
MSP430F149
100 kΩ
P 6.2
P 6.1
P 6.0
P 1.7
P 1.6
P 1.5
P 1.3
P 1.2
P 1.1
P 1.0
P 1.4
100 kΩ
System Reset
Shut down for
external host
3 "D" Cells
4.5 V
+V
3.3 V
2.5 V
1.8 V

Fig. 20. Sequencing implemented with the MSP430 microcontroller.
2-15
Sequential Sequencing
When time is the control variable the first rail
is enabled then, at a specific time thereafter, the
next rail is enabled. Some time after that the next
rail is enabled and so on, until all rails have been
enabled. The MSP430 provides the timing
sequence and the control signals to turn on the
power supplies (Fig. 21).
If voltage is the control variable, then the first
voltage rail is activated and its rise is monitored
via an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). When
the first voltage rail has reached a specific
voltage level, the next voltage rail is enabled and
its rise is monitored until it has reached a
specified voltage level, at which point the next
voltage rail is enabled and monitored. This
continues until all voltage rails have been enabled
(Fig. 22). When using voltage as the control
variable, either a GPIO or PWM signal can be
used as the enable signal, depending on whether
rail tracking is required. Of course, a combination
of voltage and timing control can also be used.
V
OUT1
EN1
V
OUT2
EN2
V
OUT3
EN3
V
OUT4
EN4
J
T
A
G
MSP430
V
IN
GND
1N5226
V
Z
= 3.3 V

V
OUT
Time
Adjustable
V
OUT1
V
OUT2
V
OUT3
V
OUT4

Fig. 21. Sequential sequencing with microcontroller (time as the control variable).
2-16
Once the MSP430 has turned on all the
voltage rails and applied the system reset, it
enters the monitor mode. It continually checks
the output voltages, via the reset or output pins,
depending on whether time or voltage is the
control variable. If a fault occurs, the MSP430
enters an error routine. The most obvious fault
would be the loss of a voltage rail, but other
faults such as over- or under-voltage could also
be monitored. The actions taken in the error
routine are completely application-dependent.
The simplest action is to power down all rails,
but programmability offers the user complete
control.
Power-down sequencing can be just the
opposite of the power up sequence, or any
sequence required to meet system demands. One
addition to the power-down sequence could be
turning on dummy loads to discharge the output
filter capacitors. [16]
V
OUT1
EN1
V
OUT2
EN2
V
OUT3
EN3
V
OUT4
EN4
ADC3
ADC2
ADC1
ADC0
V
OUT3
V
OUT4
V
OUT2
V
OUT1
VCC
V
IN
GND
1N5226
V
Z
= 3.3 V
J
T
A
G

V
OUT
Time
Adjustable Adjustable
V
OUT1
V
OUT2
V
OUT3
V
OUT4

Fig. 22. Sequential sequencing with microcontroller with voltage as the control variable.
2-17
V. SEQUENCING WITH SWITCH-MODE
CONTROLLERS, CONVERTERS AND MODULES
A. Pre-Bias Start-Up and Synchronous
Rectifier
Many switch-mode power stages employ
synchronous rectification to improve efficiency,
as illustrated by the simplified synchronous buck
converter shown in Fig. 23. In this example, VIO
comes up first, and applies core voltage through
the series diodes before the core’s converter is
enabled. Defining this as a pre-bias condition, in
which voltage is applied at the converter output
before the converter is enabled. When the
converter’s PWM controller is enabled, it soft-
starts the high-side FET, and its duty cycle (D)
ramps gradually from zero to that required for
regulation. However, if during soft-start the
synchronous rectifier (SR) FET is on when the
high-side FET is off (SR FET duty cycle = 1-D),
the SR sinks current from the output (through the
inductor), tending to cause both the core and I/O
voltages to drop. It is for this reason that PWM
controllers with pre-bias start-up have been
introduced, which disable SR drive during start-
up. Until drive to the SR is enabled, inductor
current flows through the parasitic body diode of
the SR FET rather than through the channel.
Once the soft-start time is complete, drive to the
SR is enabled.
V
CORE V
IO
PWM

Fig. 23. Example of pre-bias condition.
The need for synchronous converters with
pre-bias start-up also arises when using a
sequential power-up technique with some ASICs,
in which a leakage path within the device causes
some I/O voltage to appear on the core voltage
before the core converter is enabled. Fig. 24 uses
a PTH series power module for illustration. The
PTH power modules incorporate synchronous
rectification, so can sink current under normal
operating conditions, but the 3.3-V and 5-V input
versions do not do so during power-up, or
whenever the module is turned off via the Inhibit
pin. In Fig. 24, module U1 (PTH05020W)
produces 2.5 V for the core.
1,7 3
8 5
2
10 9
6
4
PTH05020W
R2
2.21 kΩ
C
OUT
330 µF
C
IN
330 µF
VCORE VCCIO
V
IN
= 3.3 V
I
O
ASIC
V
O
= 2.5 V
+
+
GND INHIBIT
VIN
TRACK
VO
VADJ
SENSE
+

Fig. 24. Pre-bias example with PTH power module.
2-18
Fig. 25 shows the waveforms of the circuit
after input power is applied. It shows V
O
rising
along with VIN once VIN forward-biases the
leakage path within the ASIC. Note that output
current (I
O
) is negligible until V
O
rises above the
pre-bias voltage (point A). From hereon, the
waveform of I
O
exhibits a positive output current.
[19]
t - Time - 5 ms/div
I
O
(5 A/div)
V
O
(1 V/div)
V
IN
(1 V/div)
A

Fig. 25. Power-up waveforms with pre-bias.
B. DC-DC Controllers
Ratio-Metric Sequencing
In ratio-metric sequencing, multiple output
power rails start ramping at the same time and in
proportion. This function can be accomplished
with multiple controllers sharing a common soft-
start capacitor. The solution in Fig. 26
(waveforms in Fig. 27) is based on two
TPS40051 synchronous buck controllers with a
wide input voltage range of 8 V to 40 V. These
controllers drive synchronous rectifiers and
feature feed-forward voltage-mode control. In
this example, I/O voltage is 3.3 V and core
voltage is 1.8 V.
Soft-start is programmed by charging external
capacitor C2 via an incorporated current source
of 2.3 µA. The voltage rise on C2 is then fed into
a separate non-inverting input to the error
amplifier (in addition to the feedback voltage and
the 700-mV reference voltage). Once voltage on
C2 exceeds 700 mV, the internal reference
voltage is used to establish regulation. To ensure
a controlled ramp of the output voltage, the soft-
start time should be greater than the output
inductor and output capacitor time constant.
So, in this example,
C13 L1 2 t
START
× ≥ π (seconds)
and the soft-start capacitance calculates as:
START
t
V
A
C ×
|
|
.
|

\
|
× =
7 . 0
3 . 2
2 2
µ
(Farads),
since the current feeding the soft-start capacitor is
2.3 µA per controller. [20]
2-19
IC1
TPS40051
SYNC
SGND
SS/SD
VFB
COMP
HDRV
BP10
LDRV
PGND
BOOST
SW
VIN
ILIM
BPS
RT
KFF
R13 C10
R9
C8
R8
C17
C9
D1
C12
R10
L1
C13 C14
Q1a
Q1b
C7
R5
R12
C16
C6 C11
R2
C1
R1
R4
C4
C3
R7
C5
R6
R3
D2
3.3 V
IC2
TPS40051
SYNC
SGND
SS/SD
VFB
COMP
HDRV
BP10
LDRV
PGND
BOOST
SW
VIN
ILIM
BPS
RT
KFF
R13b C10b
R9b
C8b
R8b
C17b
C9b
D1b
C12b
R10b
L2b
C13b C14b
Q2a
Q2b
C7b
R5b
R12b
C16b
C6b C11b
R2b
C1b R1b
R4b
C4b
C3b
R7b
C5b
R6b
R3b
D2b
1.8 V
C2

Fig. 26. Ratio-metric sequencing with common soft-start capacitor.
t - Time -200 µs/div
(a)
t - Time - 0.2 s/div
(b)
0.50 V/div 0.50 V/div
V
I/O
V
CORE
V
I/O
V
CORE

Fig. 27. Power-up (a) and power-down (b) waveforms for Fig. 26.
2-20
C. DC-DC Converters
Simultaneous Sequencing
As previously mentioned, the objective of
simultaneous sequencing is to minimize the
potential difference between voltage rails as they
ramp. Fig. 28 illustrates such an implementation
using switcher with integrated FET (SWIFT)
converters that integrate both high-side and
synchronous rectifier FETs. IC1 provides I/O
voltage of 3.3 V, while IC2 provides core voltage
of 1.5 V. The converters share one soft-start
capacitor (C14) to ensure the outputs ramp at the
same slope. Note that these are voltage-mode
controlled converters. IC2 acts as master
controller. Its output voltage is programmed at
1.5 V via voltage divider R14 and R12.
Additionally, its power-good (PGOOD)
comparator is used as a master flag to release the
voltage divider of IC1.
During power up (Fig. 29a), both converter
output voltages rise with the ramp of the soft-
start capacitor to an output voltage of 1.5 V. This
is due to voltage dividers R14 and R12 at IC2,
and R8 and R3 at IC1. During power-up, the
power good (PGOOD) pin of IC2 is active low,
holding Q1 off so that the output voltages track
during power up until IC2 reaches 90% of its
final value. Once IC2 detects an output voltage
level of 90% or greater, PGOOD goes high
impedance, and pull-up resistor R4 drives the
gate of Q1 on via RC network R5 and C11. Once
the gate threshold voltage of Q1 reaches 1.6V
(typical), it starts to conduct and switches R6 in
parallel to R3. This parallel combination changes
the output voltage set point of IC1 to program
3.3-V output.
IC2
TPS54610
VIN
PGOOD
RT
VBIAS
SS
PH
BOOT
VSENSE
COMP
GND
IC1
TPS54310
VIN
RT
VBIAS
SYNC
SS
PH
BOOT
VSENSE
COMP
GND
R1
C5
R9 D1
C13
R4
R10
C15
C14
C2
C1
VIN 5 V
R2
C10
C9
R8
C12
R7
R3
R6
C11
R5
C7 C8
L1
C6
R11
C17
C16
R14
C18
R13
R12
C20 C21
L2
C19
V
IO
3.3 V
I
MAX
3 A
Core 1.5 V
I
MAX
6 A
Q1

Fig. 28. SWIFT converters configured for simultaneous sequencing.
2-21
t - Time - 2.0 ms/div
(a)
t - Time - 0.1 s/div
(b)
0.50 V/div 0.50 V/div
V
I/O V
I/O
V
CORE
V
CORE

Fig. 29. Power-up (a) and power-down (b) waveforms for Fig. 28.
In this implementation, a general purpose
BSS138 FET is used with a typical threshold
voltage of V
GSth
= 1.6 V. This FET features
R
DS(on)
< 10 Ω (negligible compared to the values
of R3 and R6), so does not affect the calculated
output voltage set point value.
The set point resistor values can be calculated
as follows:
A. Equation for V
CORE
REF CORE
REF
V V
R V
R

×
=
8
3
V
CORE
= 1.5 V, V
REF
= 0.891 V
Choose R8

= 27.4 kΩ
then R3 = 40.2 kΩ
B. Equation for V
I/O
REF O I
REF
X
V V
R V
R

×
=
/
8

where R
X
is R
3
|| R
6

V
I/O
= 3.3 V
so R
X
= 10.22 kΩ
C. Equation for R6
1/R
X
= 1/ R3

+ 1/ R6
so,
3 / 1 / 1
1
6
R R
R
X

=
R6

= 13.7 kΩ
PGOOD of IC2 transitions low when V
CORE

falls under 90% of its initial value during power-
down (Fig. 29b). This discharges C11 and the
gate of Q1 via R5. Once the gate of Q1 falls
below its threshold voltage level (1.6 V typical),
R6 is removed from the feedback divider. Thus
IC1’s output voltage set point drops to 1.5 V and
the I/O voltage ramps down along with the core
voltage. Note during power-down the voltages do
not track each other due to differing output
capacitor energy storage and load levels. The
tracking version of the SWIFT converters can be
used to address this issue.
A noteworthy feature of this implementation
is that the converters are running at the same
switching frequency. IC2 is the master device
programmed to a switching frequency of
700 kHz. IC1 starts at a lower initial switching
frequency of roughly 630 kHz, 10% below the
switching frequency of IC2. Once IC2 begins to
operate, it synchronizes IC1 via the SYNC pin.
Diode D1 limits negative voltage spike amplitude
at the SYNC input.
2-22
Sequential Sequencing
Fig. 30 shows a dual power supply design
with sequential power-up using the TPS54350
dc/dc converter. The circuit uses the power good
function of the I/O supply to activate the enable
of the core supply. Once the I/O supply is up and
stable, the power good pin (PWRGD) transitions
from active low to high impedance (see Fig. 31).
The TPS54350 has an internal pull-up current
source on the enable (ENA) pin, so an external
pull-up resistor is not required to enable the core
supply. As discussed in the last section, the
challenge with using this power good and enable
technique is the power-down sequence. It is
preferred to power down the supply rails in the
reverse order of power up. Because of supply
loading and the disabling of the I/O supply and
core supply at the same time, this order is not
guaranteed.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
U1
TPS54350PWP
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
VIN
VIN
UVLO
PWRGD
RT
SYNC
ENA
COMP
BOOT
PH
PH
LSG
VBIAS
PGND
AGND
VSENSE
PWRPD
R3
768 Ω
C7
1800 pF
R1
180 kΩ
C8
33 nF
R9
0 Ω
C4
1.0 µF
C3
0.1 µF
2 3 8 7 1
6 5
4
FDR6674A
Q1
R10
4.7 Ω
C11
3300 pF
L1
10 µH
2 1
C2
100 µF
+
1
2
C10
0.1 µF
V
OUT
3.3 V
R3
768 Ω
R13
768 Ω
C9
10 µF
C1
47 µF
+
V
IN
6 V to 13 V
C6
82 nF
R5
137 Ω
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
U2
TPS54350PWP
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
VIN
VIN
UVLO
PWRGD
RT
SYNC
ENA
COMP
BOOT
PH
PH
LSG
VBIAS
PGND
AGND
VSENSE
PWRPD
R6
768 Ω
C17
1800 pF
R12
1.8 kΩ
C12
33 nF
R14
0 Ω
C16
1.0 µF
C5
0.1 µF
2 3 8 7 1
6 5
4
FDR6674A
Q2
R15
4.7 Ω
C20
3300 pF
L2
10 µH
2 1
C18
100 µF
+
1
2
C13
0.1 µF
V
OUT
1.8 V
C15
10 µF
C14
47 µF
+
C19
82 nF
R11
137 Ω
R16
374 kΩ
Pull Up
3.3 V or 5 V
Power Good
3.3 V
Power Good
1.5 V
R2
374 Ω
R7
976 Ω

Fig. 30. Sequential sequencing with TPS54350 converters.
2-23
t - Time - 2.0 ms/div
V
OUT2
2.0 V/div
PWRGD
2.0 V/div
V
OUT1
2.0 V/div
V
IN
10.0 V/div

Fig. 31. Power-up waveforms of Fig. 30.
Another technique to implement sequential
sequencing is implemented by connecting the
power good function to the TRACKIN pin of a
TPS54680 Sequencing SWIFT converter using
resistors and a capacitor (Fig. 32) [10]. The
TPS54680 was designed for applications that
have critical power supply sequencing
requirements. The device has a TRACKIN pin to
facilitate the various sequencing methods. The
TRACKIN pin is the input to an analog
multiplexer that compares a 0.891-V internal
voltage reference to the voltage on the
TRACKIN pin, and connects the lower of the
voltages to the non-inverting node of the error
amplifier. When the TRACKIN pin voltage is
lower than the internal voltage reference, the
TRACKIN pin voltage is effectively the
reference for the power supply. The power-up
and power-down waveforms are shown Fig. 33.

+
Analog
Multiplexer
6.04 kΩ
Error Amp
COMP VSENSE
0.891 V
Reference
TRACKIN
Input
Supply
Core Supply
TPS54680
PWRGD
TPS54610
10 kΩ
0.1 µF

Fig. 32. Sequential sequencing with TPS54680 track input.
2-24
t - Time - 1.0 ms/div
V
CORE
1.0 V/div
V
IO
1.0 V/div
V
IO
R
L
= 1 kΩ
V
CORE
R
L
= 1 kΩ

t - Time - 20.0 ms/div
V
CORE
1.0 V/div
V
IO
1.0 V/div
V
IO
R
L
= 1 kΩ
V
CORE
R
L
= 1 kΩ

Fig. 33. Power-up (a) and power-down (b)
waveforms of Fig. 32.
As shown in Fig. 33a, the 3.3-V I/O supply
ramps first. When the I/O supply reaches its final
3.3-V steady state value, the open drain output of
the PWRGD pin releases the TRACKIN pin, and
the core supply rises at the rate of the RC time
constant. The 0.1-µF capacitor is used to
minimize the inrush current during startup of the
core supply. The PWRGD pin asserts, pulling the
TRACKIN pin low, when the SSENA pin is
pulled low on the TPS54610 or when the I/O
voltage is below 90% of the desired regulated
voltage. Ideally, the I/O and core supplies power
down in opposite order of power-up. If there is
no load or a light load on the core when the I/O
rail powers down, the TPS54680 device has the
ability to sink current and transfers the energy
stored in the output capacitor to the input
capacitor. Fig. 33b shows power-down with 1-kΩ
loads on both outputs.
Ratio-Metric Sequencing
120 pF
4.22 kΩ
2200 pF
+
Analog
Multiplexer
9.76 kΩ
3.74 kΩ
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
820 pF
511 Ω
Error Amp
COMP VSENSE
0.891 V
Reference
TRACKIN
I/O Supply
Core Supply
TPS54680

Fig. 34 Ratio-metric sequencing with TPS54680
track input.
2-25
The analog multiplexer on the TPS54680 can
also provide ratio-metric power sequencing by
setting the divider ratio on the TRACKIN pin to a
different value than that of the feedback
compensation. Fig. 34 shows a simplified
schematic with the TRACKIN voltage divider set
to program lower voltage than the feedback
divider, resulting in the core powering-up and
down in proportion to the I/O voltage. The
waveforms for the core and I/O supplies are
shown in Fig. 35a and 35b.
t - Time - 1.0 ms/div
(a)
V
CORE
1.0 V/div
V
I/O
1.0 V/div
V
I/O
R
L
= 1 kΩ
V
CORE
R
L
= 1 kΩ

t - Time - 50.0 ms/div
(b)
V
CORE
1.0 V/div
V
I/O
1.0 V/div
V
I/O
R
L
= 1 kΩ
V
CORE
R
L
= 1 kΩ

Fig. 35. Power-up (a) and power-down (b)
waveforms of Fig. 34.
If the core supply must power up slightly
before the I/O supply, the TRACKIN voltage
divider ratio should be set to program higher
voltage than that of the feedback divider (sample
schematic and waveforms in Fig. 36 and 37). For
an equation on the selection of the TRACKIN
resistors see reference [10].
120 pF
4.22 kΩ
2200 pF
+
Analog
Multiplexer
9.76 kΩ
26.1 kΩ
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
820 pF
511 Ω
Error Amp
COMP VSENSE
0.891 V
Reference
TRACKIN
I/O Supply
Core Supply
TPS54680

Fig. 36. Ratio-metric sequencing (core up first).
2-26
t - Time - 1.0 ms/div
(a)
V
CORE
1.0 V/div
V
I/O
1.0 V/div
V
I/O
R
L
= 1 kΩ
V
CORE
R
L
= 1 kΩ

t - Time - 50.0 ms/div
(b)
V
CORE
1.0 V/div
V
I/O
1.0 V/div
V
I/O
R
L
= 1 kΩ
V
CORE
R
L
= 1 kΩ

Fig. 37. Power-up (a) and power-down (b)
waveforms of Fig. 36.
Simultaneous Sequencing
To minimize voltage differences between
supply rails during power-up and down, the
TPS54680 can be configured for simultaneous
sequencing as shown in Fig. 38. By selecting the
TRACKIN voltage divider to have the same ratio
as the voltage divider in the feedback
compensation loop, the core and I/O supplies
power up and down with waveforms similar to
Fig. 39. As before, the outputs of the regulators
are loaded with 1-kΩ resistors. It can be observed
from the waveforms that the voltage difference
between the rails is minimal during power down.
If the I/O supply is heavily loaded and the core
supply is lightly loaded during power down, there
may be a voltage difference between the rails.
This is because the core supply cannot sink
current as fast as the I/O supply is falling. This
can be countered by adding more bulk
capacitance on the I/O output.
120 pF
4.22 kΩ
2200 pF
+
Analog
Multiplexer
9.76 kΩ
9.76 kΩ
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
820 pF
511 Ω
Error Amp
COMP VSENSE
0.891 V
Reference
TRACKIN
I/O Supply
Core Supply
TPS54680

Fig. 38. Simultaneous sequencing with TPS54680
track input.
2-27
t - Time - 1.0 ms/div
(a)
V
CORE
1.0 V/div
V
I/O
1.0 V/div
V
I/O
R
L
= 1 kΩ
V
CORE
R
L
= 1 kΩ

t - Time - 50.0 ms/div
(b)
V
CORE
1.0 V/div
V
I/O
1.0 V/div
V
I/O
R
L
= 1 kΩ
V
CORE
R
L
= 1 kΩ

Fig. 39. Power-up (a) and power-down (b)
waveforms of Fig. 38.
VI. SUMMARY
Design of a multi-rail power system often
involves much more than simply converting input
voltages to output voltages and currents. As has
been discussed, the power-up and power-down
sequencing of these voltages can significantly
impact proper system operation and reliability.
Three distinct power sequencing schemes have
been defined (sequential, ratio-metric and
simultaneous) and implementations have been
illustrated with a breadth of power devices,
ranging from LDOs to PWM controllers and
converters to power modules. We’ve also enlisted
control and monitoring devices including supply
voltage supervisors and a microcontroller. Of
course, these devices can be applied in
combination as needed to meet the power
sequencing requirements of any given system.
VII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors wish to thank Joe DiBartolomeo
and Chris Thornton for their generous
contributions to this work.
2-28
REFERENCES
[1] Gray, Paul and Meyer, Robert Analysis and
Design of Analog Integrated Circuits third
edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New
York, 1993, Chapter 2
[2] O’Connor, Chris and Weiss, Gary, Looking
for Latch-up?, Test & Measurement World,
pages 31-34, September 2003
[3] XC9500 CPLD Power Sequencing,
Application Note, (XAPP110) Version 1.0,
February 16, 1998 Xilinx
[4] Power Supply Sequencing Solutions for
Dual Supply Voltage DSPs, (SLVA073A),
Texas Instruments
[5] Rush, Brian, Power Supply Sequencing for
Low Voltage Processors, EDN, September
1, 2000, pp. 115-118
[6] TMS320VC5402 Data Sheet, (SPRS079E),
Texas Instruments
[7] MPC8260EC/D (HiP3) Hardware
Specification, Motorola, page 5, May 5,
2002
[8] TMS320VC6203B Data Sheet,
(SPRS086K), Texas Instruments
[9] Power Up Behavior of ProASIC 500 kΩ
Devices, Application Note, Actel
Corporation
[10] Sequencing with TPS54x80 and TPS54x73
DC/DC Converters, (SLVA007), Texas
Instruments

[11] TPS2140 Data Sheet, Texas Instruments
(SLVS399)
[12] C.S. Mittlere, Active Inrush Current
Limiting Using MOSFETs, Application
Note, (AN1542), Motorola
[13] Power Management Reference Guide for
Xilinx
®
, Texas Instruments (SLPB008)
[14] Wide Range Input TPS40051 Converter
Delivers 5 V at 2 Amps, Application Note,
(SLUU163), Texas Instruments
[15] Circuit Manages Power-Up Sequencing,
Martin Galinski, Micrel Semiconductor,
EDN October 2002
[16] DiBartolomeo, Joe, Microcontroller Directs
Supply Sequencing and Control, EDN, May
29, 2003, pp. 73-74
[17] Minimum MPC8260 PowerQUICC II
System Configuration, (AN1819), Motorola.
[18] Chris Thornton, Auto-Track
TM
Voltage
Sequencing Simplifies Power-Up and
Power-Down, Analog Applications Journal,
(SLYT047A), Texas Instruments
[19] Chris Thornton, New Power Modules
Include Supply Voltage Sequencing and
Margin Test Capabilities, ChipCenter's
Analog Avenue September 1, 2003
[20] TPS40051 Data Sheet, (SLUS540), Texas
Instruments
2-29
APPENDIX A
LIST OF MATERIALS FOR FIG. 9.
Reference Count Description Manufacturer Part Number
IC1 1 LDO, 1.80 V, 1.0 A TI TPS79618KTT
IC2 1 LDO, 3.3 V, 1.5 A TI TPS78633KTT
IC3 1 SVS TI TPS3106K33
C1, C2 2
Capacitor, POSCAP, 100 µF, 10 V, 55 mΩ, 20%,
7343
Sanyo 10TPB100M
C3, C6 2 Capacitor, ceramic, 10 µF, 6.3 V, X5R, 20%, 1210 MuRata GRM31CR60J106KC01
C4 1 Capacitor, ceramic, 100 nF Std Std
C5 1 Capacitor, ceramic, 0.47 µF Std Std
R1, R5 2 Resistor, chip, 100 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
R2 1 Resistor, chip, 7.5 Ω, 1/16 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
R3 1 Resistor, chip, 23.2 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
R4 1 Resistor, chip, 11 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
R6 1 Resistor, chip, 100 Ω, 1/16 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
Q1 1 P-channel, FET, -12 V, -3 A, SOT-23. Vishay Si2333DS
APPENDIX B
LIST OF MATERIALS FOR FIG. 12.
Reference Count Description Manufacturer Part Number
IC1, IC2 2
IC, LDO Regulator, Available in 1.80-V, 2.5-V,
2.8-V, 3-V, 3.3-V and Adjustable , 1 A, ultralow
noise, high PSRR, T0-263
TI TPS79601KTT
IC3, IC4 2
Single 2.7-V High-Slew-Rate Rail-to-Rail Output
Operational Amplifier w/Shutdown , SOT-23
TI TLV2770CDGKR
CIN1, CIN2 2
Capacitor, POSCAP, 100 µF, 10 V, 55 mΩ, 20%,
805
Murata GRM21BR60J225KC01
COUT1,
COUT2
2 Capacitor, ceramic, 10 µF, 6.3 V, X5R, 20%, 805 Murata GRM21BR60J225KC01
Q1 1 BSS 138, N-channel enhancement, SOT-23
Fairchild
Semiconductor
BSS128
D2 2 Small signal diode, LL-34
Fairchild
Semiconductor
1N4148
D3 1 Shottky barrier rectifiers, DPAK
On Semi-
conductor
MBRD320-D
C1, C2, C3,
C4, C5
5 Capacitor, ceramic, 100 nF, X7R, 10% Std Std
R1, R5 2 Resistor, chip, 31.6 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
R2 1 Resistor, chip, 30.1 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
R3 1 Resistor, chip, 300 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
R4, R7 2 Resistor, chip, 4.99 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
R6 1 Resistor, chip, 140 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
2-30
APPENDIX C
LIST OF MATERIALS FOR FIG. 26.
Reference Count Description Manufacturer Part Number
C1, C7, C10, C1b, C7b,
C10b
6 Capacitor, ceramic, 0.1 µF, 25 V, X7R, 10%, 805 Vishay VJ0805Y104KXXAT
C11, C11b 2 Capacitor, aluminum, 100 µF, 63 V, 20% Panasonic EEVFK1J101P
C13, C13b 2
Capacitor, POSCAP, 330 µF, 6.3 V, 10 mΩ, 20%,
7343D
Sanyo 6TPD330M
C14, C14b 2 Capacitor, ceramic, 1 µF, 16 V, X5R, 20%, 805 TDK C2012X5R1C105KT
C16, C16b 2 Capacitor, ceramic, 470 pF, 50 V, X5R, 20%, 805 Vishay VJ0805Y471KXAAT
C2, C12, C17, C2b,
C12b, C17b
6 Capacitor, ceramic, 2.2 nF, 50 V, X7R, 10%, 805 Vishay VJ0805Y222KXAAT
C3, C3b 2 Capacitor, ceramic, 82 pF, 50 V, NPO, 5%, 805 Panasonic VJ0805A820KXAAT
C4, C4b 2 Capacitor, ceramic, 2.7 nF, 50 V, X7R, 10%, 805 Vishay VJ0805Y272KXAAT
C5, C5b 2 Capacitor, ceramic, 10 nF, 50 V, X7R, 10%, 805 Vishay VJ0805Y103KXAAT
C6, C6b 2 Capacitor, ceramic, 1.5 µF, 50 V, X7R, 10%, 1210 TDK C3225X7R1H155KT
C8, C8b 2 Capacitor, ceramic, 100 pF, 50 V, X7R, 10%, 805 Vishay VJ0805A101KXAAT
C9, C9b 2 Capacitor, ceramic, 1 µF, 16 V, X7R, 10%, 805 Vishay C2012X5R1C105KT
D1, D1b 2 Diode, schottky, 1 A, 60 V, 45600 IR 10BQ060
D2, D2b 2 Diode, switching, 10 mA, 85 V, 350 mW, SOT-23 Vishay-Liteon BAS16
L1, L2b 2 Inductor, SMT, 22 µH, 4.5 A, 34 mΩ, 0.85 ξ 0.59 Coiltronics UP4B-220
Q1, Q2 2
MOSFET, dual N-channel, 60 V, 3.8 A, 55
mΩ, SO-8
Siliconix Si946EY
R1, R1b 2 Resistor, chip, 1 kΩ, 1/10 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
R10, R10b 2 Resistor, chip, 4.7 Ω, 1 W, 5%, 2512 Std Std
R11, R11b 2 Resistor, chip, 20 Ω, 1/10 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
R12, R12b 2 Resistor, chip, 243 kΩ, 1/10 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
R13, R13b 2 Resistor, chip, 8.2 Ω, 1/10 W, 5%, 805 Std Std
R2, R2b 2 Resistor, chip, 165 kΩ, 1/10 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
R3 1 Resistor, chip, 2.1 kΩ, 1/10 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
R3b 1 Resistor, chip, 4.99 kΩ, 1/10 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
R4, R4b 2 Resistor, chip, 30.1 kΩ, 1/10 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
R5, R5b 2 Resistor, chip, 71.5 kΩ, 1/10 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
R6, R6b 2 Resistor, chip, 7.87 kΩ, 1/10 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
R7, R7b 2 Resistor, chip, 100 Ω, 1/10 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
R8, R8b 2 Resistor, chip, 3.3 Ω, 1/10 W, 5%, 805 Std Std
R9, R9b 2 Resistor, chip, 20 kΩ, 1/10 W, 1%, 805 Std Std
IC1, IC2 2 Wide Input Synchronous Buck Controller TI TPS40051PWP
2-31
APPENDIX D
LIST OF MATERIALS FOR FIG. 28
References Count Description Manufacturer Part Number
C1 1
Capacitor, aluminum, 470 µF, 6.3 V, 20%, 140CLH
series, 1010
BC Components 2222 140 95301
C2, C4 2 Capacitor, ceramic, 10 µF, 6.3 V, X5R, 20%, 1206 muRata GRM319 R6 0J 106K
C7, C8,
C20, C21
4 Capacitor, ceramic, 47 µF, 6.3 V, X5R, 20%, 1210 muRata GRM42-2 X5R 476K
C3, C14 2 Capacitor, ceramic, 39 nF, X7R, 10%, 603 Std Std
C6, C19 2 Capacitor, ceramic, 47 nF, X7R, 10%, 603 Std Std
C9, C11 2 Capacitor, ceramic, 470 pF, X7R, 10%, 603 Std Std
C10 1 Capacitor, ceramic, 6.8 nF, X7R, 10%, 603 Std Std
C12 1 Capacitor, ceramic, 1.8 nF, X7R, 10%, 603 Std Std
C13 1 Capacitor, ceramic, 56 pF, X7R, 10%, 603 Std Std
C5, C15 2 Capacitor, ceramic, 100 nF, X7R, 10%, 603 Std Std
C16 1 Capacitor, ceramic, 1.5 nF, X7R, 10%, 603 Std Std
C17 1 Capacitor, ceramic, 18 nF, X7R, 10%, 603 Std Std
C18 1 Capacitor, ceramic, 5.6 nF, X7R, 10%, 603 Std Std
R1 1 Resistor, chip, 76.8 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%, 603 Std Std
R2 1 Resistor, chip, 3.83 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%, 603 Std Std
R3 1 Resistor, chip, 40.2 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%, 603 Std Std
R4, R5 2 Resistor, chip, 330 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%, 603 Std Std
R6 1 Resistor, chip, 13.7 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%, 603 Std Std
R7 1 Resistor, chip, 105 Ω, 1/16 W, 1%, 603 Std Std
R8 1 Resistor, chip, 27.4 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%, 603 Std Std
R9 1 Resistor, chip, 1 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%, 603 Std Std
R10 1 Resistor, chip, 71.5 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%, 603 Std Std
R11 1 Resistor, chip, 1.43 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%, 603 Std Std
R12 1 Resistor, chip, 14.7 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%, 603 Std Std
R13 1 Resistor, chip, 33.2 Ω, 1/16 W, 1%, 603 Std Std
R14 1 Resistor, chip, 10 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%, 603 Std Std
IC1 1 Low Input Voltage 3-A Buck Converter, PWP TI TPS54310PWP
IC2 1 Low Input Voltage 6-A Buck Converter, PWP TI TPS54610PWP
Q1 1
Bipolar Small Signal, NPN, 50 V, 22 mA, 3.5 Ω, SOT-
23
Infineon BSS138
D1 1 Diode, 100 V, 200 mA, SOT-23 Fairchild MMBD4148
L1, L2 2
Inductor, CEP125, 7.2 µH, 7.8 A, 14 mΩ, 12.5x12.5
mm
Sumida CEP125-H-7R2

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Another risk of improper power supply sequencing in a system can cause immediate damage to a device. This failure is often a result of excessive current flow into a pin or excessive voltage differential across pins that stress internal components. The causes of these immediate failures are similar to those of the reliability failures. The difference is how the device is affected by the stresses. A. Latch-Up Since most multi-supply devices are fabricated in CMOS technology, the devices are susceptible to an electrical failure mode called latch-up. Latch-up can occur when voltage and current levels beyond the normal operating level stress pins of a powered device. When latch-up occurs, the device draws unusually high supply current which may render the device inoperable and/or cause permanent damage to the device.

Fig. 1 depicts a cross section of a CMOS inverter with the parasitic bipolar transistors overlaying the illustration.[1][2] The source of the N-channel MOS device serves as emitter, the N-well as collector, and substrate as base of the parasitic bipolar NPN transistor. Similarly, the source of the P-channel MOS device serves as emitter, the N-well as base, and the substrate as collector of the parasitic bipolar PNP. These parasitic bipolar transistors comprise a PNPN structure commonly known as a siliconcontrolled rectifier (SCR). The PN junctions of the parasitic transistors are normally reversebiased. However, a PN junction of the parasitic SCR may become forward-biased due to electrical disturbances resulting in SCR conduction which may result in device failure. Among electrical disturbances which may cause latch-up are voltages on pins beyond the supply voltage rails, large DC currents in the substrate or N-well, and displacement currents in the substrate or N-well resulting from fasttransitioning internal nodes. .
IN

GND

OUT

VIO

P+

N+

N+

P+ Latch Up Current

P+

N+

N-Well P-Substrate

GND

VIO

OUT

Fig. 1. Cross-section of CMOS inverter. 2-2

Fig. 2 represents the architecture of a multivoltage device, such as a programmable logic device (PLD), interfacing to an external driver.[3] To illustrate some of the problems with sequencing power supplies, the system consists of three power supplies: VCORE, VIO, and VEXT at 5 V, 3.3 V and 3.3 V, respectively. Consider the following scenario: VIO supply is active, VCORE is inactive, and the driver input is not initialized. Since the driver is not in a known state, Q1 could be biased on, sourcing current through ESD diode D1. The magnitude of the current depends on the impedance of Q1, D1 and the inactive supply. Latch-up may occur as current flows through the ESD diode when the core supply ramps up. Whether this current causes a catastrophic latch-up failure, latent reliability issue, or neither, depends on robustness of the device design. In other words, damage may not occur if magnitude of the current is sufficiently low that the silicon can conduct the current without compromising reliability. A potential latch-up issue arises when peripheral devices, such as data converters and memory, are coupled to the I/O pins of a multisupply device and powered from a different supply that is ramping. Fig. 2 shows an external driver coupled to the I/O pin that has a “sneak path” through the anti-parallel body diode of Q3 when the VEXT pin voltage is lower than VIO. This issue can easily be resolved by connecting the VEXT and VIO pins to the same power supply.
VCORE = 0 V VIO = 3.3 V Driver Q1

When VEXT is active and the external driver sources current into the pin when VCORE or VIO is ramping, the potential for latch-up in the multisupply device exists. Trends in the semiconductor industry include increasing device speed, including more features, reducing power consumption, and reducing device size, all the while shortening product development cycle times. To meet these goals, design teams pack more components into a smaller area by using smaller device geometries, thinner well structures, and lighter substrate and well concentrations. Unfortunately, these design techniques increase the ohmic resistance and gain (or “beta”) of the parasitic PNP and NPN transistors which, in turn, increases the likelihood of latch-up. Design techniques to prevent latchup include using protection circuits and “guard rings”. Protection circuits are used on input and output pads to safely shunt current and guard rings are used around wells to provide lowresistance. Both these prevention techniques come at the penalty of device size and cost. The device’s core voltage, susceptibility to latch-up, and supply sequencing order are, all too often, determined after pre-production silicon is available and device characterization and qualification are performed. With the emphasis on meeting cost and customer timetables for the latest product, if only minor issues are found with a device (such as a preference for supply sequencing), the issues are documented and the device released to market.
VCORE = 0 V VEXT = 0 V ESD D1 Pin External Driver Q3

Core Logic

Q2

VCORE Receiver

ESD D2

Q4

Fig. 2. Close-up of a multi-voltage device. 2-3

3. a sequencing methodology can be chosen to meet the processor requirements. SEQUENCING SCHEMES There are three distinct schemes to power-up and power-down multi-rail power supplies: sequential. then the output drivers contend for control. This excessive current may damage the bidirectional I/O ports. If the data values on each side are opposing. Using the pin conditions and the waveforms in the following section. ratio-metric. The outputs contend for control and excessive current flows when the data values are opposing. Excessive current flows in one of the paths shown. but rather outlines voltage and timing conditions that cannot be exceeded on power supply pins. I/O Supply DVDD Data In DVDD Output Enable D0-D15 Indeterminate During CVDD Power Up DVDD Data Out Output Enable Data Out Data In External Bus Control R/W Core I/O Dual Supply Voltage DSP Peripheral Fig. in which the bidirectional I/O pins of a DSP and external peripheral device oppose each other. Note that some devices allow out-of-bounds conditions for a short period of time. Since the bus control logic originates in the core section of the DSP. 2-4 . Following the recommendation to power the core at the same time or before the I/O prevents undefined logic states on the bus control signals. The manufacturer's data sheet does not explicitly name which power sequencing scheme to implement. powering I/O prior to the core may result in both the DSP and peripheral simultaneously configured as outputs.B. System-level bus contention. as shown in Fig. System-Level Bus Contention Power supply sequencing may be required to prevent system-level bus contention. depending on the opposing data-out patterns. The appropriate sequencing scheme is dependent on device requirements. [4] Core Supply CVDD III. 3. and simultaneous [5].

Output Voltage . see Fig.V VI/O VCORE core supply is less than 100 ms. In this particular case. This method is used to initialize certain circuitry to a known state before activating another supply rail. Another example of ratio-metric sequencing may find the core supply voltage slightly greater than the I/O supply during the power-up and down. Ratio-Metric Sequencing For a dual power supply implementing ratiometric sequencing.Time . VO . to ensure the I/O buffers have valid inputs. In the particular example [7]. 5b. this method meets the recommended power sequencing for the device as long as the delay time for the start up of the 2-5 t . The following is an excerpt from a footnote in a device specification with recommendations best suited to using sequential power supply sequencing: “System-level concerns such as bus contention may require supply sequencing to be implemented. 4b. In this case.V VI/O VCORE t . An example applying the core supply rail prior to the I/O supply starting is shown in Fig.Time . 4. B.ms (b) Fig.ms (a) VI/O VCORE VO . both power supply outputs ramp at the same time and in proportion until regulation is reached.ms (b) Fig. 5a illustrates ratiometric power sequencing where the core and I/O supply reach regulation at approximately the same instant.Time .Output Voltage .Time . .A. Fig.” [6] An alternative power supply sequence order would call for the I/O supply to power up first and the core supply to start after the I/O power supply reaches regulation. the core rail is powered slightly before the I/O rail to eliminate problems with bus contention. 4a. which then connects to the enable (EN) function of the second power supply. the core supply should be powered up at the same time as or prior to the I/O buffers and then powered down after the I/O buffers. Similarly. see Fig. a typical hardware implementation employs an output voltage monitor to develop a power good (PG) signal for the first power supply.ms (a) VO . during power-down the core is a specific percentage of the I/O supply voltage.V t . Ratio-metric sequencing. As presented later in this topic.V VI/O VCORE t . Sequential sequencing schemes. 5.Output Voltage . Sequential Sequencing The sequential scheme of power supply sequencing is best described as one power supply ramping and settling to its final regulation voltage and then the second power supply ramping after a time delay.Output Voltage . During power-up the core supply is a percentage of the I/O supply until regulation is reached. [8] VO .

Fig. However. Simultaneous Sequencing The simultaneous power sequencing method is similar to ratio-metric sequencing in that both power supply outputs ramp at the same time. Simultaneous sequencing. 8. Reference [9] recommends simultaneous sequencing to minimize transient start-up currents. including during power-on reset. 7. 2-6 . until regulation is reached for the core supply.ms Core CVDD Fig. ratio-metric or simultaneous sequencing.3 V (VDDH) I/O Power Core/PLL Power 2. [5] DC Input I/O Voltage Regulator I/O DVDD VCORE Core Voltage Regulator t .Time . SEQUENCING IMPLEMENTATIONS ILLUSTRATED WITH LDOS A. Combination of diodes limits voltage differential. The following sections show many examples of power sequencing implemented with: • Diodes • Low-dropout (LDO) linear regulators • Supply voltage supervisors (SVS) • Power distribution switches • Hot-swap controllers • Microcontrollers • Switch-mode controllers (power FETs external) • Switch-mode converters (power FETs internal) • Plug-in power modules Fig. Fig. as shown in Fig. they can help maintain proper relation between various supply voltages.6 V at any time. VO . in simultaneous sequencing. The Schottky diode further reduces potential stress on devices by bootstrapping the I/O supply and shortening the delay between supply ramps. including during power-on reset.Output Voltage . Schottky diode limits voltage differential. • VDDH must not exceed VDD/VCCSYN by more than 1. Diodes Diodes are often used to facilitate sequencing requirements.” [17] DC Input 3.5 V at any time.4 V at any time. including during power-on reset. 6. 7 illustrates use of a Schottky diode to limit voltage differential between the core and I/O rail. the objective is to minimize the voltage difference between the two supply rails during power up and down. • VDD/VCCSYN must not exceed VDDH by more than 0.C. 6.V VI/O IV. This sequencing method is useful for devices that have “sneak paths” between supply pins or draw excessive current during startup if internal logic has not transitioned to a stable state. 8 shows rectifiers in combination to help meet these microprocessor requirements: • “VIN must not exceed VDDH by more than 2. Though diodes alone cannot achieve true sequential.5 V (VDD/VCCSYN) Fig.

LDO Enable Via Supply Voltage Supervisor (SVS) Sequential Sequencing Fig. B. ratio-metric or simultaneous sequencing. IC1 TPS79618 VIN = 5 V VIN R1 R5 C1 EN VOUT LDO 1A GND BYP C3 C4 Q1 C5 R6 R2 Core 1. and vice-versa for ESD protection. However. 2-7 . 9 shows an implementation of a supply voltage supervisor (SVS) to realize a sequential sequencing scenario.8 V IC3 TPS3106K33 RSTVDD VDD SENSE RSTSENSE GND R3 R4 IC2 TPS78633 VIN C2 EN LDO 1.” [17] To achieve true sequential.3 V Fig. the ESD diodes might be destroyed. as a result. then the internal diodes pull up these pins. the I/O voltage rail is enabled.“Note: There are internal diodes connected serially between VDDH and VDD. The core voltage is powered up first and. In this case. The load of this power supply is an FPGA which requires sequential sequencing. once the core voltage has ramped. increased power dissipation.5 A GND BYP VOUT C6 I/O 3. A key disadvantage is lower efficiency and. Sequential sequencing using SVS. If one of the voltages (VDD or VDDH) is applied and the other power pins are not driven. 9. The power solution shown employs a 5-V input supply voltage rail. as discussed in the following sections. enlist the capabilities of a wide range of active devices. reduced board space and cost. a problem could occur if one of the voltages (VDD or VDDH) is applied and the other voltage is forced to GND. Advantages of a linear regulator over a switchmode approach typically include lower noise.

The power-up and power-down waveforms of this implementation appear in Fig. 0. with trip point threshold voltage of 2. IC1 to supply core voltage and IC2 for the I/O voltage rail. the SVS reset output transitions from low to high impedance state after a delay of 130 ms. monitors the input voltage rail. The dual SVS. 10.Time . a current-limiting circuit has been implemented.50 V/div VI/O Core voltage is monitored via a comparator incorporated in SVS IC3. Once the core voltage reaches the threshold voltage.3 V. enabling LDO IC1.50 V/div VCORE VCORE t . IC3. it has been adjusted to a threshold voltage of 1. This current-limit circuitry. IC3 enables LDO IC2. along with an SVS.50 ms/div (a) t .This solution is based on two LDOs.Time .20 ms/div (b) Fig. In this case. Voltage divider R3 and R4 adjusts the threshold voltage to the particular needs of the application.941 V. 2-8 . VI/O 0. consisting of Q1.7 V. the core voltage ramps up towards its final value of 1. Once LDO IC1 is enabled. which provides the I/O voltage to the system. 10. To ensure that the input voltage rail does not drop due to the high inrush current demand of the capacitor bank and the FPGA. C4. 9. Without this current-limit circuit.941 V (typical). the input voltage could potentially droop during the switch-on cycle.8 V. Ramp-up (a) and ramp-down (b) waveforms for circuit of Fig. Once the input voltage rail has reached the threshold of 2. provides smooth charging of the load during power-up. R6 and C5. R2. and the I/O voltage ramps to its final value of 3.

5 V. 12 features simultaneous sequencing circuitry that programs a required slew rate during power-up and power-down using IC2 as a tracking LDO. IC1’s output voltage increases with the applied slope ramp at the inverting node of IC3.224 V for the LDO shown. the I/O voltage slowly increases. the output voltage set point can be calculated as follows:  V R1 = R 2 ×  OUT   VREF     −1     where VREF = 1. thereby removing the power-up and power-down sequencing circuit from the feedback loop. which is the output of linear regulator IC2. Additionally. In this example. The power-up and power-down sequencing circuit is using the same basic circuit as described above with programmable slope. The operational amplifier compares the output voltage at its noninverting input with the voltage applied to its inverting input. I/O 2. set by R1 and R2. If these conditions are violated. 13 displays power-up and power-down waveforms. and R3 starts to charge C2 to the input voltage rail level. During power-up and power-down.5 V R1 3.Simultaneous Sequencing Some applications require either a specific slew rate or a maximum inrush current during power-up and power-down. IC4 provides active tracking to ensure that the voltage difference between I/O and core voltage is far less than the required 600 mV. This reverse-biases D1.5 V. R4 and C1 ensure a smooth voltage rise during power-up. Q1 is switched off.3 V CIN IC1 TPS79601 (1 A LDO) VIN EN GND D1 1N4148 OFF ON Q1 BSS138 ENABLE R3 R 4 VOUT FB R2 COUT IC3 C1 + C3 C2 TLV2770 Fig. When ENABLE transitions low. When the core voltage reaches 1. 11. The non-inverting node detects the core voltage. 11. Fig. respectively. which can be realized with the circuit in Fig. causing the operational amplifier output to decrease. The power-up and power-down sequencing circuit employs network R3 and C2 to generate a ramp-up slope. During powerup. the core voltage must track the I/O voltage during power-up and power-down. Fig. During power-up. Capacitor-programmable slew rate circuit. 2-9 . the processor could be damage due to forward-biasing of the substrate diode. This network is the slew rate reference for the output of the LDO during power-up and power-down. removing the tracking circuit from the feedback loop. It then adjusts the output voltage to match the slew rate determined by the RC network.5-V I/O output voltage rail. In this example. Operational amplifier IC4 derives the ramp-up and ramp-down slope from the 2. causing the operational amplifier output to decrease. Schottky diode D3 provides an additional level of protection. and this voltage is applied to the inverting node of IC4. set by R5 and R6. the inverting input of operational amplifier IC4 continues to rise. the I/O voltage must be within 600 mV of the core voltage during power-up and power-down. the voltage at the operational amplifier inverting input continues to rise. When VOUT reaches 2. This reverse biases D2.

50 ms/div (b) Fig. Simultaneous sequencing with capacitor-programmable slew rate circuit. 2-10 . 12.Time .5 V COUT2 + IC4 R7 C5 Fig.3. Power-up (a) and power-down (b) waveforms for circuit of Fig.50 V/div VCORE VCORE t . 12.5 V COUT1 R4 IC3 + C3 C2 C1 TLV2770 IC2 TPS79601 VIN CIN2 EN 1A LDO GND D2 1N4148 C4 VOUT R5 FB R6 D3 Core 1.50 V/div VI/O VI/O 0. 13.Time .50 ms/div (a) t .3 V CIN1 IC1 TPS79601 VIN EN GND D1 1N4148 OFF ON Q1 BSS138 ENABLE R3 1A LDO VOUT R1 FB R2 I/O 2. 0.

14. A high-side power distribution switch can be used to disable the I/O supply until the core voltage is powered up and stable.C. 15b). Sequencing with combination LDO/high-side switch (core then I/O). LDO and Power Distribution Switch Sequential Sequencing Some applications challenge the designer to apply core voltage prior to I/O voltage. 2-11 . 14. The TPS2150 uses the power good function of the LDO to enable the power switch. 15a. 3. 15. resulting in the power-up waveforms of Fig.3 V 10 µF SW_EN Fig.3 V LDO_IN TPS2150 250 mA LDO LDO_OUT 10 kΩ ADJ LDO_PLDN 3. Fig.1 ms/div (b) Fig. Power-up (a) and power-down (b) of circuit in Fig. 14 shows a sequential power supply sequencing implementation using the TPS2150. even though the input source voltage is already at the I/O voltage level.Time .200 µs/div (a) t . which integrates a high-side power switch with an LDO.7 kΩ 2. The power switch and LDO feature pull down MOSFETs to discharge the bulk capacitance when the devices are disabled (Fig.Time . PG 2 V/div VCORE 1 V/div VI/O 1 V/div PG VI/O VI/O VCORE VCORE PG 2 V/div VCORE 1 V/div VI/O 1 V/div PG t .3 V 4.5 V 10 µF LDO_EN LDO_PG REF SW_IN 10 µF Charge Pump Driver SW_OUT SW_PLDN 3.

16. Corresponding waveforms are shown in Fig.3 V LDO_IN 250 mA LDO LDO_OUT LDO_EN ADJ LDO_PLDN 3. PG 2 V/div VCORE 1 V/div VI/O 1 V/div PG 2 V/div VCORE 1 V/div VI/O 1 V/div PG PG VI/O VI/O VCORE VCORE t . 16 implements the opposite configuration.Fig. in which the I/O voltage is applied before the core at turn-on. 2-12 . TPS2150 3.Time .Time . 17.5 V 10 µF 10 kΩ SW_PG SW_EN SW_IN 10 µF Charge Pump Driver SW_OUT SW_PLDN 10 µF 3. 16. Power-up (a) and power-down (b) waveforms for circuit of Fig.500 µs/div (a) t .3 V Fig.1 ms/div (b) Fig.7 kΩ 2. Sequential sequencing (I/O then core).3 V 4. 17.

Hot-Swap Control Simultaneous Sequencing Another method to power-up and powerdown with minimum voltage difference between the power supply rails is to use MOSFETs between the supply and load. 18 shows a simplified schematic using two MOSFETs and a TPS2331 hot swap controller to provide simultaneous start-up sequencing. 2-13 .Time . 18. 19b. Power-up (a) and power-down (b) waveforms for circuit of Fig. By driving the gates of the MOSFETs with the same gate driver.3 V 10 µF 1 kΩ 6800 pF SI4410 I/O 150 µF SI4410 150 µF Core 1. 19.500 µs/div (a) 1. Simultaneous sequencing with hot-swap controller.5 V 10 µF 1 kΩ 3.D. Fig.20 ms/div (b) Fig.0 V/div VIO IN GATE DISCH UVLO Clamp VCORE Charge Pump EN Logic TPS2331 GND t .Time . The Schottky diode clamps the core supply during power-down. Fig. see Fig. The TPS2331 features an integrated pull-down transistor to discharge the bulk output capacitors. 18. 19a). 2. the power supply rails effectively ramp together (Fig.0 V/div VIO VCORE t .

The MSP430 monitors a control variable to determine when each rail should be activated. This circuit can easily be expanded to any number of voltage rails. If the enable function is not available. If the power supplies to be controlled feature enable pins.5 V To Pin 14 100 kΩ To Pin 17 To Pin 60 MSP430F149 13 14 15 17 18 19 59 60 61 12 16 P 1.1 P 1. a 16-bit RISC processor featuring several analog peripherals and a JTAG interface. Sequencing implemented with the MSP430 microcontroller. Microcontroller Microcontrollers are among the most versatile devices available for sequencing. To Pin 59 2 3 "D" Cells 4.2 P 1.0 P 1. The circuit of Fig.5 V and 1.6 P 1.5 P 1. an in-line MOSFET or power distribution switch can be used to control the power supply.8 V from an input DC source.3 V.3 P 1. then controlling them is a simple matter of using general purpose input and output (GPIO) lines.E.7 P 6. the two most commonly controlled variables are time and voltage. 20 uses the TPS725xx family of LDOs to provide 3.2 P 1.8 V 100 kΩ 100 kΩ Fig. either with a GPIO or PWM signal. For power sequencing applications.4 100 kΩ TPS725xx GND 3 To Pin 15 100 kΩ To Pin 18 To Pin 61 2 VIN EN +V 100 kΩ To Pin 13 Shut down for external host System Reset 100 kΩ To Pin 19 1 VOUT RESET 5 4 1 µF 3. These LDOs have an enable pin and reset function. Use of a microcontroller is illustrated with the MSP430.1 P 6. 20.0 P 6.5 V VIN EN 1 TPS72518 GND 3 VOUT RESET 5 4 1 µF 1. 2.3 V 2 VIN EN 1 TPS72525 GND 3 VOUT RESET 5 4 1 µF 2. 2-14 .

Sequential sequencing with microcontroller (time as the control variable). When the first voltage rail has reached a specific voltage level. a combination of voltage and timing control can also be used. The MSP430 provides the timing sequence and the control signals to turn on the power supplies (Fig. 21. the next voltage rail is enabled and its rise is monitored until it has reached a specified voltage level.3 V EN3 JTAG VOUT3 GND EN4 VOUT4 VOUT VOUT3 VOUT2 VOUT1 Adjustable VOUT4 Time Fig. 21). depending on whether rail tracking is required. VIN EN1 MSP430 VOUT1 EN2 VOUT2 1N5226 VZ = 3. until all rails have been enabled.Sequential Sequencing When time is the control variable the first rail is enabled then. Some time after that the next rail is enabled and so on. When using voltage as the control variable. 2-15 . 22). at which point the next voltage rail is enabled and monitored. at a specific time thereafter. Of course. either a GPIO or PWM signal can be used as the enable signal. then the first voltage rail is activated and its rise is monitored via an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This continues until all voltage rails have been enabled (Fig. If voltage is the control variable. the next rail is enabled.

but other faults such as over. One addition to the power-down sequence could be turning on dummy loads to discharge the output filter capacitors. 22. [16] VCC EN1 VOUT1 VOUT3 VOUT1 VOUT2 ADC0 EN2 ADC1 ADC2 VOUT2 1N5226 VZ = 3.Once the MSP430 has turned on all the voltage rails and applied the system reset. 2-16 . depending on whether time or voltage is the control variable. Power-down sequencing can be just the opposite of the power up sequence.3 V VOUT4 ADC3 EN3 VOUT3 JTAG EN4 GND VOUT4 VOUT VOUT3 VOUT2 VOUT1 Adjustable Adjustable VOUT4 Time Fig.or under-voltage could also be monitored. It continually checks the output voltages. it enters the monitor mode. The simplest action is to power down all rails. Sequential sequencing with microcontroller with voltage as the control variable. The most obvious fault would be the loss of a voltage rail. the MSP430 enters an error routine. but programmability offers the user complete control. via the reset or output pins. The actions taken in the error VIN routine are completely application-dependent. If a fault occurs. or any sequence required to meet system demands.

When the converter’s PWM controller is enabled.3 V VIO VCORE PWM Fig. Fig. so can sink current under normal operating conditions. if during soft-start the synchronous rectifier (SR) FET is on when the high-side FET is off (SR FET duty cycle = 1-D).21 kΩ COUT 330 µF VCORE VCCIO TRACK SENSE 2 VIN PTH05020W VADJ 4 VO 6 INHIBIT GND + CIN 330 µF 3 1. In Fig. Example of pre-bias condition. and its duty cycle (D) ramps gradually from zero to that required for regulation. VIO comes up first.7 ASIC Fig. The PTH power modules incorporate synchronous rectification. module U1 (PTH05020W) produces 2. drive to the SR is enabled. CONVERTERS AND MODULES A. but the 3. Until drive to the SR is enabled. in which voltage is applied at the converter output before the converter is enabled.5 V for the core. or whenever the module is turned off via the Inhibit pin. 24 uses a PTH series power module for illustration. VIN = 3. the SR sinks current from the output (through the inductor). 23. SEQUENCING WITH SWITCH-MODE CONTROLLERS. Defining this as a pre-bias condition. as illustrated by the simplified synchronous buck converter shown in Fig.V. In this example. inductor current flows through the parasitic body diode of the SR FET rather than through the channel. 24. It is for this reason that PWM controllers with pre-bias start-up have been introduced. However. which disable SR drive during startup. and applies core voltage through the series diodes before the core’s converter is enabled.5 V IO + R2 2. 2-17 . Pre-bias example with PTH power module. 10 9 8 5 + VO = 2. The need for synchronous converters with pre-bias start-up also arises when using a sequential power-up technique with some ASICs. 23. tending to cause both the core and I/O voltages to drop. Pre-Bias Start-Up and Synchronous Rectifier Many switch-mode power stages employ synchronous rectification to improve efficiency. 24. Once the soft-start time is complete. in which a leakage path within the device causes some I/O voltage to appear on the core voltage before the core converter is enabled.3-V and 5-V input versions do not do so during power-up. it softstarts the high-side FET.

3 V and core voltage is 1. To ensure a controlled ramp of the output voltage. the softstart time should be greater than the output inductor and output capacitor time constant. DC-DC Controllers Ratio-Metric Sequencing In ratio-metric sequencing.3 µA.3 µA  C2 = 2 ×    0.Time . From hereon. Note that output current (IO) is negligible until VO rises above the pre-bias voltage (point A). I/O voltage is 3. 27) is based on two TPS40051 synchronous buck controllers with a wide input voltage range of 8 V to 40 V. This function can be accomplished with multiple controllers sharing a common softstart capacitor. 25 shows the waveforms of the circuit after input power is applied.   since the current feeding the soft-start capacitor is 2. in this example. [19] B. multiple output power rails start ramping at the same time and in proportion. The solution in Fig. So. [20] 2-18 . 25. In this example. the waveform of IO exhibits a positive output current. Once voltage on C2 exceeds 700 mV. These controllers drive synchronous rectifiers and feature feed-forward voltage-mode control. It shows VO rising along with VIN once VIN forward-biases the leakage path within the ASIC. 26 (waveforms in Fig. t START ≥ 2 π L1× C13 (seconds) and the soft-start capacitance calculates as: VIN (1 V/div) VO (1 V/div) IO (5 A/div) A t . The voltage rise on C2 is then fed into a separate non-inverting input to the error amplifier (in addition to the feedback voltage and the 700-mV reference voltage).3 µA per controller.5 ms/div Fig.  2. the internal reference voltage is used to establish regulation. Power-up waveforms with pre-bias.7 V  × t START (Farads). Soft-start is programmed by charging external capacitor C2 via an incorporated current source of 2.8 V.Fig.

3 V D1 SW C9 BP10 LDRV PGND C17 R10 Q1b C12 C13 C14 R4 C4 C11b C6b R5b R12b C16b R2b RT BPS C1b D2b R1b SYNC SGND SS/SD C2 R4b C3b C5b R7b VFB C4b COMP PGND HDRV VIN IC2 TPS40051 KFF ILIM C7b C8b R9b R13b BOOST C10b Q2a L2b R8b SW C9b BP10 LDRV C17b R10b Q2b D1b C12b C13b C14b 1.2 s/div (b) Fig. Power-up (a) and power-down (b) waveforms for Fig.8 V R6b R3b Fig.Time .50 V/div VI/O VI/O 0. 2-19 .Time -200 µs/div (a) t .50 V/div VCORE VCORE t . Ratio-metric sequencing with common soft-start capacitor. 26. 26. 0.0.C11 C6 R5 R12 C16 R2 RT BPS C1 D2 R1 SYNC SGND SS/SD VFB COMP C3 C5 R6 R3 R7 HDRV VIN IC1 TPS40051 KFF ILIM C7 C8 R9 R13 BOOST C10 Q1a L1 R8 3. 27.

5 V. 2-20 . IC1 provides I/O voltage of 3. Note that these are voltage-mode controlled converters.3 V. 28 illustrates such an implementation using switcher with integrated FET (SWIFT) converters that integrate both high-side and synchronous rectifier FETs. The converters share one soft-start capacitor (C14) to ensure the outputs ramp at the same slope. During power-up. the power good (PGOOD) pin of IC2 is active low. SWIFT converters configured for simultaneous sequencing. both converter output voltages rise with the ramp of the softstart capacitor to an output voltage of 1. Once the gate threshold voltage of Q1 reaches 1. while IC2 provides core voltage of 1.6V (typical).C. This is due to voltage dividers R14 and R12 at IC2. Once IC2 detects an output voltage level of 90% or greater. the objective of simultaneous sequencing is to minimize the potential difference between voltage rails as they ramp. and pull-up resistor R4 drives the gate of Q1 on via RC network R5 and C11. holding Q1 off so that the output voltages track during power up until IC2 reaches 90% of its final value. IC2 acts as master controller.3-V output. it starts to conduct and switches R6 in parallel to R3. Additionally. This parallel combination changes the output voltage set point of IC1 to program 3.5 V.5 V IMAX 6 A C20 C18 R13 C21 R14 VSENSE R11 COMP GND C17 C16 R12 Fig. L1 PH C6 C7 C12 R8 R7 C8 VIO 3.3 V IMAX 3 A BOOT VSENSE R2 COMP GND C9 C10 R6 Q1 R3 C11 R5 IC2 TPS54610 VIN R4 PGOOD RT VBIAS R10 C15 C14 SS BOOT C19 PH L2 Core 1. DC-DC Converters Simultaneous Sequencing As previously mentioned.5 V via voltage divider R14 and R12. VIN 5 V VIN C1 C2 VBIAS SYNC R1 C13 D1 R9 C5 SS RT IC1 TPS54310 During power up (Fig. and R8 and R3 at IC1. Its output voltage is programmed at 1. 28. Fig. 29a). its power-good (PGOOD) comparator is used as a master flag to release the voltage divider of IC1. PGOOD goes high impedance.

it synchronizes IC1 via the SYNC pin.50 V/div VI/O VI/O 0.0.0 ms/div (a) t .0. A noteworthy feature of this implementation is that the converters are running at the same switching frequency.3 V so RX = 10.1 s/div (b) Fig.Time . Once IC2 begins to operate. IC2 is the master device programmed to a switching frequency of 700 kHz. This FET features RDS(on) < 10 Ω (negligible compared to the values of R3 and R6). VREF = 0.6 V. The set point resistor values can be calculated as follows: A.2. so does not affect the calculated output voltage set point value. 29. Thus IC1’s output voltage set point drops to 1. R6 is removed from the feedback divider. Note during power-down the voltages do not track each other due to differing output capacitor energy storage and load levels.22 kΩ RX = C. 29b).4 kΩ then R3 = 40. a general purpose BSS138 FET is used with a typical threshold voltage of VGSth = 1.50 V/div VCORE VCORE t . IC1 starts at a lower initial switching frequency of roughly 630 kHz. This discharges C11 and the gate of Q1 via R5. Equation for VCORE R3 = VREF × R8 VCORE − VREF VCORE = 1. Equation for R6 1/RX = 1/ R3 + 1/ R6 1 so.2 kΩ VREF × R8 VI / O − VREF where RX is R3 || R6 VI/O = 3. Diode D1 limits negative voltage spike amplitude at the SYNC input. B. 28. 10% below the switching frequency of IC2. Once the gate of Q1 falls below its threshold voltage level (1. The tracking version of the SWIFT converters can be used to address this issue.Time .891 V Choose R8 = 27.5 V and the I/O voltage ramps down along with the core voltage.7 kΩ PGOOD of IC2 transitions low when VCORE falls under 90% of its initial value during powerdown (Fig.5 V. Power-up (a) and power-down (b) waveforms for Fig.6 V typical). In this implementation. R 6 = 1 / RX − 1 / R 3 R6 = 13. Equation for VI/O 2-21 .

The circuit uses the power good function of the I/O supply to activate the enable of the core supply. 30. The TPS54350 has an internal pull-up current source on the enable (ENA) pin.7 Ω 5 6 1 + C18 100 µF C13 0.1 µF L2 10 µH 1 1 2 3 8 7 FDR6674A Q2 R15 4.7 Ω 5 6 1 + C2 100 µF C10 0.1 µF 2 VOUT 3. this order is not guaranteed.0 µF C20 3300 pF 4 C5 0. 31).0 µF C11 3300 pF COMP VSENSE PWRPD C6 82 nF C7 1800 pF R3 768 Ω R1 180 kΩ R5 137 Ω R2 374 Ω C8 33 nF R9 0Ω Power Good 1. 30 shows a dual power supply design with sequential power-up using the TPS54350 dc/dc converter. As discussed in the last section.1 µF L1 10 µH 1 1 2 3 8 7 FDR6674A Q1 4 R10 4.8 kΩ R11 137 Ω R7 976 Ω C12 33 nF R14 0Ω Fig. the challenge with using this power good and enable technique is the power-down sequence.3 V or 5 V VIN 6 V to 13 V + C1 47 µF C9 10 µF R3 768 Ω Power Good 3. C3 0. It is preferred to power down the supply rails in the reverse order of power up.Sequential Sequencing Fig.8 V 1 + C14 47 µF C15 10 µF 2 3 4 5 6 R16 374 kΩ 7 8 COMP VSENSE PWRPD C19 82 nF C17 1800 pF R6 768 Ω R12 1. Because of supply loading and the disabling of the I/O supply and core supply at the same time.1 µF 2 VOUT 1.5 V U2 TPS54350PWP VIN BOOT 16 VIN UVLO PWRGD RT SYNC ENA PH 15 PH 14 LSG 13 VBIAS 12 PGND 11 AGND 10 9 2 C16 1. Once the I/O supply is up and stable. 2-22 .3 V 2 C4 1. the power good pin (PWRGD) transitions from active low to high impedance (see Fig. Sequential sequencing with TPS54350 converters. so an external Pull Up 3.3 V 1 2 3 4 5 6 R13 768 Ω 7 8 U1 TPS54350PWP VIN VIN UVLO PWRGD RT SYNC ENA BOOT 16 PH 15 PH 14 LSG 13 VBIAS 12 PGND 11 AGND 10 9 pull-up resistor is not required to enable the core supply.

The TPS54680 was designed for applications that have critical power supply sequencing requirements.0 ms/div Fig.VIN 10.1 µF TPS54680 Analog Multiplexer Error Amp COMP + 0. 32.Time . 32) [10]. and connects the lower of the voltages to the non-inverting node of the error amplifier. The TRACKIN pin is the input to an analog multiplexer that compares a 0. Power-up waveforms of Fig.891 V Reference Fig. Another technique to implement sequential sequencing is implemented by connecting the power good function to the TRACKIN pin of a TPS54680 Sequencing SWIFT converter using resistors and a capacitor (Fig.0 V/div VOUT1 2.0 V/div PWRGD 2.04 kΩ TRACKIN 0. 30. the TRACKIN pin voltage is effectively the reference for the power supply. When the TRACKIN pin voltage is lower than the internal voltage reference. 2-23 . Sequential sequencing with TPS54680 track input. 33.891-V internal voltage reference to the voltage on the TRACKIN pin. 31. The power-up and power-down waveforms are shown Fig.2.0 V/div t . Core Supply Input Supply TPS54610 PWRGD 10 kΩ VSENSE 6.0 V/div VOUT2 2. The device has a TRACKIN pin to facilitate the various sequencing methods.

74 kΩ 9. the open drain output of the PWRGD pin releases the TRACKIN pin. When the I/O supply reaches its final 3. Power-up (a) and power-down (b) waveforms of Fig. the 3.1. 34 Ratio-metric sequencing with TPS54680 track input.VIO RL = 1 kΩ VCORE RL = 1 kΩ VIO 1. If there is no load or a light load on the core when the I/O rail powers down. the TPS54680 device has the ability to sink current and transfers the energy stored in the output capacitor to the input capacitor.1-µF capacitor is used to minimize the inrush current during startup of the core supply.0 ms/div VIO RL = 1 kΩ VCORE RL = 1 kΩ As shown in Fig. when the SSENA pin is pulled low on the TPS54610 or when the I/O voltage is below 90% of the desired regulated voltage. pulling the TRACKIN pin low. 33a. Fig. Ideally.0 ms/div 0.20.0 V/div VCORE 1.0 V/div t .3-V I/O supply ramps first.Time .0 V/div 10 kΩ TRACKIN 3. The PWRGD pin asserts. 32.0 V/div 10 kΩ 511 Ω 120 pF 820 pF 4. 33b shows power-down with 1-kΩ loads on both outputs. Fig. 33. the I/O and core supplies power down in opposite order of power-up.Time . 2-24 . and the core supply rises at the rate of the RC time constant.76 kΩ TPS54680 Analog Multiplexer VSENSE Error Amp COMP + t . Ratio-Metric Sequencing Core Supply VIO 1.3-V steady state value.22 kΩ I/O Supply 2200 pF VCORE 1.891 V Reference Fig. The 0.

resulting in the core powering-up and down in proportion to the I/O voltage.Time . For an equation on the selection of the TRACKIN resistors see reference [10]. The waveforms for the core and I/O supplies are shown in Fig. 35.891 V Reference Fig.22 kΩ I/O Supply 9. 2-25 .Time . the TRACKIN voltage divider ratio should be set to program higher voltage than that of the feedback divider (sample schematic and waveforms in Fig.0 V/div VCORE 1. Fig. 34 shows a simplified schematic with the TRACKIN voltage divider set to program lower voltage than the feedback divider.The analog multiplexer on the TPS54680 can also provide ratio-metric power sequencing by setting the divider ratio on the TRACKIN pin to a different value than that of the feedback compensation.0 ms/div (a) VI/O RL = 1 kΩ VCORE RL = 1 kΩ VI/O 1. Power-up (a) and power-down (b) waveforms of Fig. Ratio-metric sequencing (core up first). 36 and 37).0 ms/div (b) Fig. 36.0 V/div 10 kΩ TRACKIN 26. Core Supply 511 Ω 120 pF 10 kΩ 820 pF 4.0 V/div t .76 kΩ VSENSE Error Amp COMP 2200 pF VI/O 1.50.0 V/div VCORE 1. 34. 35a and 35b. VI/O RL = 1 kΩ VCORE RL = 1 kΩ If the core supply must power up slightly before the I/O supply.1 kΩ TPS54680 Analog Multiplexer + 0. t .1.

50. 36.891 V Reference Fig. As before. Simultaneous sequencing with TPS54680 track input. Core Supply VI/O 1. Fig.76 kΩ + t . If the I/O supply is heavily loaded and the core supply is lightly loaded during power down.0 V/div VCORE 1. there may be a voltage difference between the rails. Power-up (a) and power-down (b) waveforms of Fig.Time .22 kΩ I/O Supply 9.0 V/div VCORE 1. 2-26 . It can be observed from the waveforms that the voltage difference between the rails is minimal during power down.1. the core and I/O supplies power up and down with waveforms similar to Fig. By selecting the TRACKIN voltage divider to have the same ratio as the voltage divider in the feedback compensation loop. 38. the outputs of the regulators are loaded with 1-kΩ resistors. 37.Time .0 V/div t .76 kΩ TPS54680 Analog Multiplexer VSENSE Error Amp COMP 2200 pF 10 kΩ TRACKIN 9.0 V/div 511 Ω 120 pF 10 kΩ 820 pF 4.0 ms/div (a) VI/O RL = 1 kΩ VCORE RL = 1 kΩ Simultaneous Sequencing To minimize voltage differences between supply rails during power-up and down. 38. This is because the core supply cannot sink current as fast as the I/O supply is falling.0 ms/div (b) 0.VI/O RL = 1 kΩ VCORE RL = 1 kΩ VI/O 1. the TPS54680 can be configured for simultaneous sequencing as shown in Fig. This can be countered by adding more bulk capacitance on the I/O output. 39.

1. 2-27 . VI/O 1. these devices can be applied in combination as needed to meet the power sequencing requirements of any given system. VI/O 1.0 ms/div (a) VI/O RL = 1 kΩ VCORE RL = 1 kΩ VII. Of course.Time . the power-up and power-down sequencing of these voltages can significantly impact proper system operation and reliability.50.0 V/div VCORE 1. 38. ratio-metric and simultaneous) and implementations have been illustrated with a breadth of power devices. Three distinct power sequencing schemes have been defined (sequential.0 V/div t .0 ms/div (b) Fig. We’ve also enlisted control and monitoring devices including supply voltage supervisors and a microcontroller. SUMMARY Design of a multi-rail power system often involves much more than simply converting input voltages to output voltages and currents. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to thank Joe DiBartolomeo and Chris Thornton for their generous contributions to this work. Power-up (a) and power-down (b) waveforms of Fig. 39.Time . ranging from LDOs to PWM controllers and converters to power modules.VI/O RL = 1 kΩ VCORE RL = 1 kΩ VI. As has been discussed.0 V/div t .0 V/div VCORE 1.

Texas Instruments [9] Power Up Behavior of ProASIC 500 kΩ Devices. (AN1542). February 16. 73-74 [17] Minimum MPC8260 PowerQUICC II System Configuration. New Power Modules Include Supply Voltage Sequencing and Margin Test Capabilities. Test & Measurement World. Texas Instruments (SLVS399) [12] C. Analog Applications Journal. EDN October 2002 [16] DiBartolomeo. Application Note. pp. Active Inrush Current Limiting Using MOSFETs. Paul and Meyer. 2003 [20] TPS40051 Data Sheet. (XAPP110) Version 1. EDN. Texas Instruments [5] Rush. Power Supply Sequencing for Low Voltage Processors. May 5. pages 31-34. Texas Instruments [19] Chris Thornton. September 2003 [3] XC9500 CPLD Power Sequencing. Texas Instruments [15] Circuit Manages Power-Up Sequencing. pp. Mittlere. Microcontroller Directs Supply Sequencing and Control. Texas Instruments (SLPB008) [14] Wide Range Input TPS40051 Converter Delivers 5 V at 2 Amps. Gary. Texas Instruments 2-28 . EDN.S. (SPRS079E). Martin Galinski. Inc. 1998 Xilinx [4] Power Supply Sequencing Solutions for Dual Supply Voltage DSPs. John Wiley & Sons. Joe. [18] Chris Thornton.0. Application Note. New York. Robert Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits third edition. (SLVA073A). (SLYT047A). Motorola. (SLVA007). (SLUU163). Brian. page 5. [11] TPS2140 Data Sheet. 1993. (AN1819). Texas Instruments [7] MPC8260EC/D (HiP3) Hardware Specification. Chris and Weiss..REFERENCES [1] Gray. Auto-TrackTM Voltage Sequencing Simplifies Power-Up and Power-Down. 2003. Motorola [13] Power Management Reference Guide for Xilinx®. ChipCenter's Analog Avenue September 1. Micrel Semiconductor. 2002 [8] TMS320VC6203B Data (SPRS086K). Texas Instruments Sheet. Looking for Latch-up?. (SLUS540). Application Note. Motorola. 115-118 [6] TMS320VC5402 Data Sheet. Application Note. May 29. September 1. 2000. Actel Corporation [10] Sequencing with TPS54x80 and TPS54x73 DC/DC Converters. Chapter 2 [2] O’Connor.

chip. 55 mΩ. 805 Resistor. R7 R6 Count 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 5 2 1 1 2 1 Description IC. 20%. 100 Ω. 1 A. 1/16 W.APPENDIX A LIST OF MATERIALS FOR FIG. 1%. 805 Capacitor. 1%. 9. 1/16 W. R5 R2 R3 R4 R6 Q1 Count 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 LDO. chip. 100 kΩ. DPAK Capacitor. C2. R5 R2 R3 R4. 805 BSS 138. 10 V. Available in 1. C2 C3. LL-34 Shottky barrier rectifiers. 10% Resistor. 20%. SOT-23. 55 mΩ. C5 R1. 7343 Capacitor. 1%. 805 Resistor. X7R. 1/16 W. 6. 805 Resistor. 1%.5-V. 1/16 W. POSCAP. chip.1 kΩ. 1. 140 kΩ. SOT-23 Small signal diode. 100 nF Capacitor. 1. IC2 IC3. IC4 CIN1. 20%.2 kΩ. POSCAP. chip. 1/16 W. chip. 300 kΩ. 3. 2.8-V. 7. 10 µF.47 µF Resistor. Description LDO.7-V High-Slew-Rate Rail-to-Rail Output Operational Amplifier w/Shutdown . FET. 100 µF. 805 Resistor.0 A Manufacturer TI TI TI Sanyo MuRata Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Vishay Part Number TPS79618KTT TPS78633KTT TPS3106K33 10TPB100M GRM31CR60J106KC01 Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Si2333DS APPENDIX B LIST OF MATERIALS FOR FIG. 1%. chip. 1. 1210 Capacitor. 2. 6.5 A SVS Capacitor. 1%. -12 V. C6 C4 C5 R1. X5R. ceramic. high PSRR. 100 nF. 1/16 W. 1%. ceramic. ceramic. 20%.3-V and Adjustable . 1/16 W. 10 µF. 10 V. 805 Resistor. 1/16 W. 1%. C4.5 Ω. 30. ceramic. 805 Manufacturer TI TI Murata Murata Fairchild Semiconductor Fairchild Semiconductor On Semiconductor Std Std Std Std Std Std Part Number TPS79601KTT TLV2770CDGKR GRM21BR60J225KC01 GRM21BR60J225KC01 BSS128 1N4148 MBRD320-D Std Std Std Std Std Std 2-29 . ceramic. X5R.3 V. Reference IC1.3 V. 805 P-channel. COUT2 Q1 D2 D3 C1. chip. Reference IC1 IC2 IC3 C1. chip. 0. chip.3 V. 1/16 W. 1%. 805 Resistor. 12.99 kΩ. SOT-23 Capacitor. 100 µF. 23. 805 Resistor. CIN2 COUT1. T0-263 Single 2. -3 A. 3-V. 4.6 kΩ. chip. LDO Regulator. ultralow noise. 1/16 W. 1%.80 V. 11 kΩ.80-V. C3. 805 Resistor. N-channel enhancement. 31. 3.

1/10 W. 1%.8 A. chip. 20%. chip. 10 nF. C10b C11.7 nF. 3. 16 V.1 kΩ. 10%. 10%. 16 V. Q2 R1. 805 Resistor. C8b C9. 805 Resistor. X5R. C11b C13. chip. X5R. 1 A. 805 Capacitor. 25 V. C10. 8. 805 Capacitor. X7R. 1%. 10%. R10b R11. 4. C17. 45600 Diode. 26. 1/10 W. 1/10 W. chip. 50 V. C1b. switching. 2512 Resistor. SO-8 Resistor. 1/10 W. 10%. 1%. R9b IC1. 805 Resistor. 805 Resistor. 805 Capacitor. ceramic. 2. 1%. 5%. 1/10 W. D1b D2. 1%. 1 µF.5 kΩ. chip. ceramic. C17b C3.5 A. 3. ceramic. 805 Resistor. 20%. C7. R2b R3 R3b R4. chip. 5%. 1%. X7R.2 Ω. chip. 1/10 W. 63 V. 50 V. C3b C4. 805 Diode. L2b Q1. 1/10 W. 470 pF. X7R. 805 Resistor. C5b C6. 1 W. 10 mA.3 V. NPO. 805 Wide Input Synchronous Buck Controller Manufacturer Vishay Panasonic Sanyo TDK Vishay Vishay Panasonic Vishay Vishay TDK Vishay Vishay IR Vishay-Liteon Coiltronics Siliconix Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std TI Part Number VJ0805Y104KXXAT EEVFK1J101P 6TPD330M C2012X5R1C105KT VJ0805Y471KXAAT VJ0805Y222KXAAT VJ0805A820KXAAT VJ0805Y272KXAAT VJ0805Y103KXAAT C3225X7R1H155KT VJ0805A101KXAAT C2012X5R1C105KT 10BQ060 BAS16 UP4B-220 Si946EY Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std TPS40051PWP 2-30 . R1b R10. 7343D Capacitor. 7. IC2 Count 6 2 2 2 2 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Description Capacitor. 20 Ω. 1. 1%. chip. 20%.APPENDIX C LIST OF MATERIALS FOR FIG.1 µF. 4. 10%. 50 V. C2b. 805 Resistor.85 ξ 0. dual N-channel. aluminum. SMT. C12. ceramic. 5%. chip. 50 V. 1%. 2. C9b D1. ceramic. 805 Resistor. C12b. chip. 5%. 1/10 W. ceramic. R13b R2. 1%. 330 µF. 805 Capacitor. 1210 Capacitor. 34 mΩ. 10 mΩ. 1%. 60 V. SOT-23 Inductor. 10%.99 kΩ. X7R. C13b C14. ceramic. chip. C16b C2. 30. 71. C4b C5. 22 µH. C6b C8. 805 Capacitor. 805 Resistor. R12b R13. 1/10 W. 805 Resistor. 165 kΩ. 0. 10%. Reference C1. chip. 1/10 W. X7R. 100 pF. 805 Capacitor. R6b R7. 50 V.1 kΩ. 85 V. X7R. 1/10 W. D2b L1. 1/10 W. 0. 50 V. ceramic. 20 kΩ. POSCAP. 1%. R4b R5.2 nF. 1 µF. 60 V. ceramic. C7b. R11b R12. 6. R5b R6. 805 Capacitor. 4. 1/10 W. 20% Capacitor.7 Ω. 805 Resistor. 805 Resistor. R7b R8. 1 kΩ. 2. schottky.3 Ω.87 kΩ. R8b R9. 805 Capacitor. ceramic. 82 pF. chip. 50 V. 350 mW. 100 µF. chip.5 µF. 243 kΩ. 100 Ω. 55 mΩ. X7R. C14b C16.59 MOSFET.

39 nF. C15 C16 C17 C18 R1 R2 R3 R4. chip. L2 Count 1 2 4 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Description Capacitor.5x12. 10%. 1/16 W. chip. 7. 50 V.3 V. X5R. 76. chip.8 nF. 1%. ceramic. 47 nF. 3.5 Ω. X7R. C14 C6.3 V. 603 Resistor. SOT23 Diode. 100 V.7 kΩ. 1/16 W. 13.4 kΩ. 1. chip. C21 C3. 40. ceramic. X5R. 603 Capacitor. 603 Low Input Voltage 3-A Buck Converter. ceramic. 470 pF.5 nF. 1 kΩ. 7. X7R.2 kΩ. 140CLH series. 603 Capacitor.7 kΩ. 603 Capacitor. 603 Resistor. C4 C7. chip. 10%. 1%. 603 Capacitor. C11 C10 C12 C13 C5. NPN. 603 Resistor. 14 mΩ. 1%. 20%. 603 Capacitor. 28 References C1 C2. 603 Resistor. 1. 10%. 1/16 W. 1/16 W. 1/16 W.6 nF. 10%. 603 Resistor. CEP125. 10 µF. R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 IC1 IC2 Q1 D1 L1. 330 kΩ. chip. 10%. 1%. 603 Resistor. 1%.2 µH. 5. 1206 Capacitor. 1/16 W. X7R. 6. X7R. 18 nF. X7R. chip. 3. 10%. 47 µF. chip. 20%. 1/16 W. chip. aluminum. 33. 603 Resistor. 603 Capacitor.APPENDIX D LIST OF MATERIALS FOR FIG. 100 nF. 1%. chip. ceramic. 1%. PWP Low Input Voltage 6-A Buck Converter. 1%. 1. X7R. C20. 603 Resistor. 71. 603 Resistor. 22 mA. 603 Resistor. 14. 1%. X7R. ceramic. 20%. 1%. 1/16 W. PWP Bipolar Small Signal. 1%. 56 pF.83 kΩ. 105 Ω.2 Ω. 10%. 6. 603 Capacitor. C8.3 V. ceramic. 12. X7R. 10%. 1%. 1/16 W.43 kΩ. ceramic. chip.8 A. 1/16 W. ceramic. X7R. 6. SOT-23 Inductor. ceramic.8 kΩ. 1%. ceramic. 603 Capacitor. 603 Resistor. 1010 Capacitor. ceramic.5 kΩ. ceramic.5 mm Manufacturer BC Components muRata muRata Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std TI TI Infineon Fairchild Sumida Part Number 2222 140 95301 GRM319 R6 0J 106K GRM42-2 X5R 476K Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std Std TPS54310PWP TPS54610PWP BSS138 MMBD4148 CEP125-H-7R2 2-31 . 1/16 W. 1/16 W. 603 Resistor. 10 kΩ. 603 Resistor. 603 Capacitor. 10%. 470 µF. 27. 1/16 W. 1210 Capacitor.8 nF. X7R. C19 C9. 10%. 200 mA. 6. chip. chip.

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