Strategy for IAS Preparation

Updated strategy for General Studies for 2008
In the latest notification by the UPSC for the ICS 2008, Changes have made in the syllabi of Mains GS Three main alterations which have been made are: (a) GS has become more current events oriented. (b) GS has also been related with comparable international events. (c) All the topics have become more analytical. (d) The optional subjects have also become more current-oriented, and analitical. (e) At many places, the language of the content of the syllabus has been changed. The final outcome of this is that all those topics on which questions were aasked earlier also, and which were assumed to be part of syallabus as implied topics, have been clearily mentioned. Some tips (a) In section 1 of Paper II, earlier the topic was: Nuclear Policy, issues, and conflicts. This clearly makes the topics current events oriented, as questions might be asked on the latest or the rationale and ways to deal with any nuclear conflicts in future. (b) The heading of section 2 of Paper II has clearly changed to : 'India's Economic Interaction with the World'. Here, Clearly the latest economic changes in policy and the changed economic relations, Positions, Scenario and the perspective have been highlighted. (c) The section 2 of Paper II mentions - the role and functions if I,M,F., World Bank, W.T.O., WIPO etc. Which influence India's economic interaction with other countries and international institutions. It requires an analytical mindset and matter personally prepared which will not be found in the conventional books easily. (d) A major portion of Section 3 and 4 of Paper I has been changed in language. Though mostly the meaning remains the same, the topics have been clearly mentioned in the new syllabus. Questions have been asked earlier on thesse newly addes topics. Thus, the changes by the UPSC in the syllabus, more or less, point toward a change in strategy, change in the nature of questions asked, and the change in tools of preparation.

Strategy for Prelims
Looking at the pattern in which questions have been framed in General Studies (GS) from 1985 onwards, one is tempted to say that possibly the principle design of the examiners is to eliminate candidates rather than test their mental calibre. Moreover, examiners have not correctly followed in all the years the pattern of allotting specific number of marks for specified for each syllabus expect for the area on Mental Ability. Such being the current trend of setting the GS paper in the Preliminary Exam, candidates have no option but to bank upon chosen optional subjects while making reasonable amount of preparation for all areas of GS. Besides, it is wise to prepare these areas from the view-point of the Main Examination. The areas to be taken care of are Modern India, Polity, Indian Economy, Geography, Current Events and General Science. Considering the general nature of the examination the tactics must be to focus on greater rather than intensive coverage. One is expected to know history, science, polity, geography, economy and other such disciplines, all at the same time. However, only basics of each of the disciplines is needed. Hence one must concentrate on basics and acquire as much facts about basics as possible but avoiding the element of over-kill in preparations. While preparation for the Prelims large coverage is the key word. By going through large source of information it is expected that an image is built in the mind which will reflect the details. Do remember that human memory skills work better when there are less emotional in-puts or anxiety about inability to recall on account of exam-related stress. Here is a brief dos and don'ts: • Final preparation must start by testing self with the revision-type Model Test Papers.

The World Development Report of World Bank deals in different aspects of economic geography like safe drinking water. Current National issues and topics of social relevance: Students should go through major happenings at the national level during the last one calendar year. Make a mental note of areas you have covered and what remains to be covered. Keep testing yourself at a regular interval. France. unanswered. Move on from question to question and attempt the difficult ones at the end. A calm mental state is most important. The part relating to Indian culture will cover all aspects from ancient to modern times. do without preparing portions which appeared last year in the main stage of the examination. China. journals and periodicals are good source of information to prepare topics related to national issues. Geography of India: Students should concentrate on human and economic geography. space cooperation and education will be important in this year's examination. The stress should be on preparing cultural and economic geography and issues related to it. Human section includes issues related to population. Be analytical in response. Attempt only the answers which you are sure of. Immediate neighbours like Nepal. but once in a while students could be in for a surprise. Since there is negative marking in the exam now. Issues of social relevance which affect the lives of people should always be dealt in detail. Myanmar too play an important role in India's foreign policy. National newspapers. Russia. Students thus need to ensure that the entire syllabus is covered in detail while revising history. Strategy for Mains Paper I History of Modern India and Indian Culture: The subject is like a story and there could be linkages between two questions. At macro level. Emphasis on your weak-spots.• • • • • • • • • • • Do not get discouraged by initial low score. Do not overstretch yourself area of coverage-wise. it is suggested to leave any questions that you are not sure of. Paper-II India and the World: Indian's relations with major world powers like US. Sri Lanka. significance of Bommai Judgment while implementing the same are important. The recent positive developments in Indo-US relations particularly in areas like civilian nuclear energy deal. The general trend is that there are no repetitions from last year's papers. Disputes with Pakistan and China on the one hand and Bangladesh and Nepal on the other have come to play an important role in India's tryst to create a space in world politics. why it was imposed and under what circumstances. news magazines.They can. There will be questions based on the Human Development Report prepared by United Nations Development Programme. Indian Polity: Different aspects of the Constitution like Supreme Court judgment during the past one year are important. Do not get stuck at any question. Revise your stuff a number of times. Pakistan. students need to know in detail issues like imposition of President's Rule in Bihar. There should be focus on India's role in her neighbour's internal politics like maoist insurgency and return of . UK and European Union should be covered in detail. Students should emphasise less on classical geography like types of soil and rocks. Bangladesh. however.

India started giving emphasis to 'economic diplomacy'. with equal ease during the Cold war. India's relationship with major economies of the world like USA. India and Pakistan continue to have a relationship that can be summed up as that of 'blow hot . graphical or diagrammatical form and to point out deficiencies therein.his job becomes easier. Writing the paper: Students should be focussed in terms of language. manufacturing of military goods should continue to remain in the public sector but the government should not own enterprises. The role of government in our public life like running utility services too has become a matter of debate during the last few years. But in recent years. There is more emphasis on the social sector. Repetitive and elaborate replies should be strictly avoided. Queries related to disinvestment of government entities in a transparent manner too have come to play an important role during the past one year. Strategy for Mains . winding up of Ministry of Disinvestment. Geological disasters like earthquakes are still not being predicted inspite of technological advancements. territorial integrity and sovereignty. As he had no ideological baggage to carry when he entered politics. His principles of 'Panchsheel' and non-alignment remained the guiding principles for successive prime ministers. realising the significance of India's foreign policy. stem cell research. Consequently. E U. a growing assertiveness was quite evident in the Indian Foreign Policy.communications and space: Scientific development during the last one year. it has been segmented as a separate area and with focus on India's interaction with rest of the world. ASEAN improved considerably. Students should focus on providing their side of justification in a jiffy. Issues related to illegal immigrants from Bangladesh too are important in this year's paper. graphs and diagrammes: This section tests the candidates' ability to draw conclusions from information presented in statistical. Word limit should be adhered to. International Affairs and Institutions: Reforms in United Nations Security Council (UNSC) and formation of G-4 to bid for permanent seats in the Security Council and US' role during the entire process will be important this year. Indian Economy: The change of guard at the Centre has brought an ideological shift in how we manage our economy and issues related to taxation and spending pattern.blow cold'. focus on development of AIDS vaccine. the first Prime Minister of India is regarded as the architect of our foreign policy. Pandit Nehru.India and the world. During the time of Indira Gandhi. he could interact with both superpowers . focus on non-renewable sources of energy and manned space are must during the revision.USA and USSR. The answers should not be lengthy and written in a precise manner.India and the world Paper two of General Studies in the Main Examination starts with the segment . but the two countries finally seem to agree on a . issues related to privatisation or profit earning and lossmaking PSU entities. and they should ensure that the answers are as close as possible. Is it then justified to spend heavily on space research? Statistical analysis. He used foreign policy as an instrument to defend and strengthen India's newly-won independence.democracy in Nepal. Her son Rajiv Gandhi believed in 'travel diplomacy'. The end of Cold War heralded a new era for India too. Earlier this was part of a wider segment called issues of national and international importance. The role of the government should be limited to budgetary support and providing direction on different policy matters like social work. Areas like atomic energy. Developments in the fields of S&T. With the beginning of economic reform. The examiner is usually in a hurry and if provided with facts and coherent replies. wherever mentioned. Kashmir remains the most contentious issue. be it victory in the Bangladesh war of 1971 or merger of Sikkim in 1975 inspite of the Chinese protest. It accounts for around 50 marks out of 300 in this paper.

among others. all the attributes that are wanted by UPSC in an aspirant. SAARC is an exclusive organisation of seven South Asia Countries. At the same time. Still efforts are being made to save it and the latest 'Islamabad Summit' has ignited that process. Bhutan. World Wide Fund for Nature and Greenpeace. alongwith specialised agencies like WHO. India's involvement in these organisations should be emphasised while preparing this segment for General Studies Paper II of Main Exam. This doctrine. Needless to say. values. its nuclear weapons are more as a deterrent or an insurance against extreme threats than weapons usable during war. which does not have a reservoir of definitive information as in the case of general studies. one can expect questions on leading international non-governmental agencies like Amnesty International. Post-Cold War period has witnessed a change in India's foreign policy on West Asia. There are organisations too which focus on certain other subjects like OPEC. Sri Lanka and Bangladesh without expecting any gains in reciprocity. One must know the outcome of their latest summits or meets. In 1993. It is formed of six main organs. this is fundamental to essay writing. An essay is expected to be a topical text that is self-explanatory and comprehensive. orientation and communication (written) abilities. . NAM. The conventional design of looking at essay writing in terms of the introduction. which became as famous as its propounder enjoined upon India to give unilateral concessions to the smaller neighbouring countries like Nepal. informative and logical.ideas. International Court of Justice (ICJ) and Secretariat. The United Nations is the world's largest and most-vital organisation. which are the General Assembly. India established diplomatic ties with the state of Israel keeping in view our security concerns. It is vital to understand that an essay is a reflection of the personality . All this constitutes a challenge. At the same time. composite and unambiguous. On the other hand. substance). the concept of an essay is quite intricate. among others. It remains our biggest defence partner followed by Israel. UNICEF. Strategy The essay paper (200 marks) in the civil services main examination is crucial in determining the final outcome/ selection and ranking. Finally. common threats from international terrorism and common views on international security.'composite dialogue' within the sphere of bilateral ties. Finally. there are various other international organisations like G-8 or a group of world's most industrialised nations. Finally. there has been more emphasis on enhancing the bilateral economic ties. For India. Security Council. A significant change seen in the recent times is the thrust given to normalising the relationship with China. G-77 or a group of world's developing countries and G-15 or a more compact version of G-77. an essay is a paper. India's nuclear policy is an integrated part of our foreign policy. views. It is decisive because there is no specialisation in an essay and so no aspirant can not claim expertise. attitude. and logic (analysis and information). Red Cross. India's relationship with other smaller neighbouring countries of South Asia improved considerably in the mid 1990s largely because of the 'Gujral Doctrine'. OIC. One can see that it has become a victim of political rivalry between India and Pakistan. An essay is considered a complete composition. language (expression. India continues to have cordial ties with her time-tested friend Russia. concise. body and conclusion is only the format. NATO. Although. assessments and inferences. Trusteeship Council. analysis. Economic and Social Council (ELDSOC). unlike optional subjects. its two biggest members. information (content. It is critical because it is a compulsory paper and its score is incorporated in computing the total. The General Studies (Main) Paper II includes international organisations too. Our relationship with the USA is the hallmark of Indian foreign policy after the Cold War. Though we have outstanding border disputes but they have been kept on the backburner for the time being. UNESCO. Then. aptitude. India has not abandoned the cause of Palestinian Arabs. UNHRC and others. The essentials of essay writing would be the format (framework. Maldives. structure). presentation). The two countries have found 'natural allies' in each other mainly because of their common economic interests. The European Union is perhaps the world's most successful regional bloc alongwith ASEAN and NAFTA.

and definitional criteria. ideas. basic or core concepts. The introduction is the opening part of the essay and should be confined to a paragraph. Proficiency in applying this principle. The introduction should arouse interest and generate curiosity in the mind of the reader. analysis and systematic interconnectivity An overall impressive synoptic presentation or an effective conclusion or a final inference. At every critical juncture. they are useful and often overlooked. an in-depth. support and explain the main ideas stated in your introduction or thesis paragraph. It should not contain any fresh evidence. explain the central theme or idea. e. English Qualifying Paper >> Mains Syllabus The aim of the paper is to test the candidate's prose. The text of the composition must develop. where. and to express his ideas clearly and The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows :(i) Comprehension of given passages.g. i. will come with extensive practise. the question cues that are recommended at this point may appear archaic. a summary. The conclusion. (ii) Precis Writing (iii) Usage and Vocabulary (iv) Short Essay Note 1 : The Papers on English will be of Matriculation or equivalent standard and will be of qualifying nature only. ability to read and understand serious discursive correctly in English/Indian language concerned. while writing a topical text all applicable queries must be asked to oneself about the issue in question. periodic evaluation and critical analysis. after the introductory part is over. the essay should have reached the stage of 'critical mass'. the central idea. As the text draws close to the conclusion. how? These questions would obtain answers that would make the text organised and accurate and also ensure that no aspect has been omitted. views. essentially is a systematic organisation of information based on a consistent methodology. a sort of a climax. facts or figures. The introductory paragraph is expected to introduce the topic. It's best that this principle be applied to essay writing. as well as making (if it is required) plausible projections and providing with (if necessary) viable solutions. the introduction of an essay is not captioned. who. etc. the correlation of facts. the defining criteria. The main text of an essay. Note 2 : The candidates will have to answer the English papers in English language (except where translation is involved). systematic.For every effective composition one should ideally begin with clarifying the purpose of the composition to oneself. Although. should express the essence of the essay. and wherever necessary. concepts. It deals with the topic and related issues to be addressed.They are listed below. coherent analysis based on the topic leading to logical inferences. A series of paragraphs containing arguments based on information. This is true about all written and spoken communication. Indian Languages There are two qualifying papers. The format comprises: • • • An impact-oriented thematic introduction containing the core conceptual scheme. why. be it an examiner. The marks obtained in these papers will not be counted for ranking. figures.e. unlike a book. especially since. the appropriate choice of questions. . when. what.

Gauss and Stokes' theorems. Sentence formation. surface and volumes and centre of gravity. hyperboloid of one and two sheets and their properties. The candidates must practise a lot on the indicated sections and they should take care to give derivation in all the cases if the result is a subsidiary one. orthogonal. . congruences and similarity. Precis writing. indefinite integrals. reduction to canonical form. Modern Indian Language 2. Double and triple integrals (evaluation techniques only). Finite dimensional vector spaces. ellipsoid. Section B Ordinary Differential Equations: Clariaut's equation. subspaces. General English Marks scored in these papers are not counted for ranking. linear dependance and independance. determination of complete solution when one solution is known. Paper I Section A Linear Algebra: Vector. eqivalence. dimensions. skew-hermitian formstheir eigenvalues. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors. These resources on Indian Languages also includes IAS Question Papers of Indian Languages. Your efforts should be aimed at developing quality of approach rather than a broad coverage of the course. Jacobian. method of variation of parameters. We try our best to provide as many resources for your prepration as possible. skew symmetrical. Translation. Euler-Cauchy equation. if you have prepared other sections well. curvature and torision. there is no need to give derivation of an equation. Analytic Geometry: Sphere. Green's identities. rank. but if you can add to this list please feel free to send us links or matter. bases. In case of standard results. Minimum Scoring is 35%. We wish you to adopt the best strategy and become successful.1. yet completely safe. Mathematics >> Strategy The beauty of mathematics as a subject in the main examination is that you can be very selective. vector identities and vector equations. hermitian. cylinder. Riemann's definition of definite integrals. infinite and improper integrals. general solution. Statics and Hydrostatics: You can skip this entire section. space. Areas. paraboloid. symmetrical. The right strategy is to answer all the questions in the examination without over confidence. with constant coefficients. Higher order linear equations. singular solution. Application to Geometry: Curves in space. Here are some help tools for tackling Indian Languages in the UPSC exams. The paper consist of an Essay. idioms / proverbs and their meaning etc. Vector Analysis: Triple products. unitary. ranging from the syllabus to reading list and other tips. cone. complementary function and particular integral. Second order linear equations with variable coefficients. Dynamics. The following sections are especially important for the aspirants taking IAS Main 2005 with mathematics as an optional subject. Calculus: Lagrange's method of multipliers. beta and gamma functions. Serret-Frenet's formulae. until specifically asked to.

Field extensions. Linear Programming: Basic solution. Section B Partial differential equations: Solutions of equations of type dx/p=dy/q=dz/r. implicit function theorem. continuity. linear partial differential equations of the second order with constant coefficients. a well-thought out strategy makes the difference between success and failure. Char-pit's method of solutions. Arithmetic and logical operations on numbers. motion of rigid bodies in two dimensions. tranpesodial rule. heat equation. Multiple integrals. Travelling salesman problems. absolute and conditional convergence of series of real and complex terms. solution by Cauchy's method of characteristics. if you have prepared other sections well. orthogonal trajectories. Public Administration >> Strategy Given the time constraint. partial differential equations of the first order. Simplex method of solutions. pfaffian differential equations. moment of intertia. rearrangement of series. maxima and minima. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations: Euler and Runge Kutta-methods. Sylow's group. Complex Analysis: You can skip this entire section. improper integrals. Gaussian quardrature formula. differentiability and integrability for sequences and series of functions. Intensive and focused approach built on analysis needs to be scrupulously adhered to. Uniform convergence. Hamilton equations. unique factorisation domains and Euclidean domains. basic feasible solution and optimal solution. Octal and Hexadecimal Systems. RegulaFalsi and Newton-Raphson methods Numerical integration: Simpson's one-third rule. Differentiation of functions of several variables. Convers-ion to and from decimal Systems. finite fields.Paper II Section A Algebra: Normal subgroups. Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics: D'Alembert's principle and Lagrange' equations. homomorphism of groups quotient groups basic isomorophism theorems. change in the order of partial derivatives. Transportation and assignment problems. Real Analysis: Riemann integral. equations of vibrating string. Numerical Analysis and Computer programming: Numerical methods. Bitwise operations. Computer Programming: Binary system. Duality. principal ideal domains. Some ingredients of a 'smart strategy' are: • • • • Building a general overview Perusal of question papers of previous years Identification of 'thrust areas' for concentrated pursuit Examination-bias . laplace equation.

Paper I Administrative theory : Section . public sector enterprises are neither public nor enterprises. Candidates should be able to identify 'core areas' which cannot be avoided in the context of the mains examination and consolidate. and synchronise conventional with the current. introduction should be appealing and effective. apt illustrations add value. the office of the Prime Minister was given and some took it for Prime Minister's Office. ability to correlate theory and practice.'' Or. For instance. logical build up and balanced conclusion send the right signals to the evaluator. Sequencing should be done in such a manner that one paragraph logically follows from another. right to information and participative development.. For example. the questions are general in nature and not direct. study and writing practice should reinforce each other. second generation reforms and the social infrastructure. Several times. the concept of welfare needs to be supplemented with the initiatives undertaken by the government highlighting the different types of programmes. Structure of Public Organisations: In GS. citizen-administration interface and e-governance. Amassing information is a big 'don't'. For example. It's equally important that the student should be conversant with the contemporary and the current developments of socio-political and economic nature that have a close bearing on the functioning of the administration. Your reply could begin with:''Public sector still fulfil nation's goal of welfare. `Welfare obligation of public sector has been abandoned in the era of liberalisation''.This question will never come in GS. Elaboration of the theme should be properly prioritised. the coverage and the resource profile.. Every question needs to be studied carefully to understand the exact requirements. economic reforms with a human face. time management and adherence to word limit.These are all essential theories and students need to focus on critical aspects.. Writing practice holds the key to success. Depending upon the paper I or II. Few years ago. a question in the main stage in the Public Administration paper was.• • • Adequate writing practice for time management and evolving right content Continuous review of performance and appropriate corrections At least two weeks before the examination. In a long essay. direct grants to panchayats. budget as an instrument of socio-economic transformation. Students need to be exhaustive with their preparation. While answering a question on welfare administration. recruitment of recruiters needs to be streamlined and planning in India needs to be depoliticised.A Theories of Administration: Scientific Management. in the mains examination. public administration requires interpretative skills. Every candidate appearing for the mains examination should be conversant with the fundamentals of the structure. development and delivery models. For short questions. a general approach to public sector is required whereas in Public Administration. Effective introduction. some years ago. which should be based on 3Cs comprehensive. It ensures legibility. there might be a . Human Relations' School. regulation and development. Bureaucratic Theory and Systems Approach . writing exercises should be stopped and the entire attention should be on revision. which is not there in General Studies (GS). answers should be direct and precise. process.The nature of this question is provocative and you need to respond with a positive attitude. behaviour and environment of the administrative system. criminalisation of politics and politicisation of crime. For example. the approach to this is actually amplification of government policy. changing governors. Unlike general studies. presidential activism in India. clarity and critical approach. Most importantly. globalisation and administration.

empowerment. Federal system in context of coalition government. ''Since 1967.question which says. They need to be thorough with atleast three thinkers which include Maslow. Comparative Public Administration: You need to read thinkers like Riggs. Students need to be thorough with legislations like Right to Information. privatisation and human rights in Brazil. position of governor has been politicised''. President's rule. Development Administration: Students need to approach this topic with an open mind and with some amount of reading. Questions are generally twisted and they need to muster facts while giving right . retraining and administration machinery. Concepts like social auditing and participatory governance need to be studied in detail. The year preceding. It has a dimension of administration where you deal with various aspects like poverty alleviation. Constitutional framework: President.There is premium on latest knowledge like the PM's and finance minister's recent speeches as well. rural development. rendering administration through people-centric institutions like panchayats and nagar palikas. Public Policy: It's a challenging topic and students need to be aware about Dror who spoke maximum on issues related to public policy. Parliament and judiciary: These are important but students should not follow the conventional mode while preparing for main paper. Earlier. fiscal and monetary policy. You have issues like Parliament and Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) and how do they function but students have to be absolutely clear on these issues. public administration was centred around Western concepts whereas the focus is now on third world countries like India. Students need to be aware of anti-poverty programmes and how employment-generation schemes have evolved all these years. Accountability and Control: We are in a parliamentary system and students need to be clear about Parliament and its functions.A Evolution of Indian Administration: Areas which are crucial include criminalisation of politics and politicisation of crime. They need to follow international trends on how technology is impacting administration across third world and elsewhere. Administrative Behaviour: This topic is a real challenge and students need to be thorough with a concept like motivation. They need to make a comparative account of all three of them. China and South Africa. Paper II Indian Administration : Section . Students are expected to be familiar with issues like governance. Financial Administration: This topic is routed in Indian practices. Section B Administrative Reforms: This is a dynamic area as the emphasis is on technology. This is relevant for India as there is a political dimension to the whole concept as it deals in issues like federalism and decentralisation. They should read books on governance by Arun Shourie and Bimal Jalan. Students need to be aware of how the country is developing particularly on issues related to disinvestments. a quotation from Macgregor's original book of quotation was given. Herzberg and Macgregor. They also must be conversant on how Parliament functions in all aspects.

In Public Administration. State Public Service Commissions and how ''recruiters should be properly recruited''. Control of Public Expenditure: Sections like Parliament and CAG have already been dealt in paper I. judicial activism which includes extra ordinary intervention by Supreme Court and High Courts in order to restore dwindling public faith in system because of declining public morality at highest level. State Government and Administration: Students need to be thorough with the Sarkaria Commission's report on Centre-State relations and National Commission to Review the Working of Constitution report which was submitted in 2002 District Administration and Local Government: The changing role of collector vis-avis technology. Voluntary R e t i re m e n t Schemes are part of the administrative reforms. . Avoid jargon and abbreviation. Union Government and Administration: The focus is on Prime Minister's Office (PMO) and Cabinet Secretariat.interpretation. social audit. Students need to go through annual report of Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. panchayati raj. Section B Public Services: There should be focus on UPSC. Similarly in GS. periodical and journals. they might ask. They need to find out that whether Planning Commission should be merged with Finance Commission in the context of liberalisation. There should focus on on issues like Right to Information. structure of panchayats and nagar palikas. District Development Authority. the questions will deal with discretionary power of Governor (Article 116) whereas for public Administration. The constitutional aspect and functions of these institutions need to be studied. The PMO has acquired enormous importance during the last three to four decade. the question might be based on Panchayati Raj System based on 73rd amendment. Premium is on accuracy. Newspapers and journals should be good source of information on this issue. be precise. they are an independent tier of governance in true Gandhian spirit''. ''Panchayats are not development delivery vehicle. insightfulness and application. Administration of Law and Order: The role of central and state agencies in the maintenance of law and order and articles published on these issues should be given top priority Welfare Administration: This is an evolving area and there is no specific reading material available on this issue. Students need to read national dailies to prepare for these kind of topics. Students can gather information from national newspapers. They need to further focus on Public Interest Litigation. Students should focus on how the relationship between PMO and Cabinet Secretariat has evolved under these c i rc u m s t a n ce s. Writing: Application is the key while writing this paper. ''Governor is an agent of centre''. Cyber Governance. Like in GS. Administrative Reforms: Queries on Right to Information. they might ask. District Rural Development Authority. Machinery for Planning: Student need to focus on Planning Commission and how the role has changed during all these years.