SOPAC Miscellaneous Report - MR463

Sponsored by the

South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission
June 2002

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This document is intended for use by potential providers of funding for a Pacific Island Regional Geothermal Assessment and Development Initiative, hereafter referred to as PIRGADI. It includes descriptions of the sponsoring and operating entities, introductory material concerning the nature of geothermal resources in general and in the SOPAC region specifically; rationales for the exploration and development of geothermal resources; descriptions of the power generation and geothermal situations in five selected SOPAC region countries; plans for conduct of PIRGADI activities in each country; the benefits of such work; and a budget and a program/work schedule. The sponsor of PIRGADI is the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC), an independent, inter-governmental organization established in 1972 for the purpose of improving the well being of its 18 member countries through the application of geoscience to the management and sustainable development of their natural resources. U.S. Geothermal Industries Corporation (USGIC) has agreed to use its expertise to complement that of the SOPAC staff so as to expedite exploitation of geothermal resources in the SOPAC region. USGIC is a consortium of 16 American firms, established in 1990 to collaboratively participate in the development of international geothermal projects. USGIC shareholding companies have the capabilities to undertake all activities related to such development. Four major reasons to undertake the PIRGADI are to: • Follow up on the encouraging results of a 1995 regional geothermal survey; • Develop indigenous geothermal energy resources sooner rather than later; • Help the economies of the geothermally-rich countries by reducing their reliance on expensive imported fossil fuels; • Increase local employment and develop human resources through training; and • Optimize use of environmentally benign renewable geothermal resources as fuel. Specifically, some of the advantages to the use of geothermal resources are that: • Fuel purchases are never needed for geothermal power plants; • There is long term (30 year+) potential for utilization of the renewable energy resource; • Geothermal plants have exceptionally high availability; • The operating and maintenance costs of geothermal plants are low; • Geothermal power project sizing can be flexible; • Geothermal power projects can also be sources of fluids for direct geothermal use; • Geothermal power plants emit minimal atmospheric pollutants; • Very little land area is required by geothermal power projects; • Geothermal power projects can be built in modules to allow for expansion; and • Geothermal power plants have few environmental impacts. The earth’s crust comprises many plates that are constantly in motion. The interactions of plates results in the creation of volcanoes and fracture zones along the plate boundaries and geothermal reservoirs are often found at relatively shallow depths in their vicinity.


Many of the SOPAC member island countries are located along crustal plate boundaries and are of volcanic origin. Accordingly, there is significant potential for discovery and/or confirmation of economically viable geothermal resources on these islands to develop. Fiji, Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Samoa are typical and have been selected as the sites for initial PIRGADI activities. PIRGADI work to be conducted in these five countries will include geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies as well as the drilling (in Fiji and Vanuatu only), of slim diameter confirmatory wells. The primary benefits of this work will be greatly improved characterization of the geothermal resources in each country including their chemistry, pressure, depth, areal extent, temperature, productibility and reliably indicate costs and risks that will be associated with their exploitation. The acquisition of all this information should greatly reduce the perceived risk for potential investors and developers who will, as a result of the investigation, be able to be furnished with all of the data, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations resulting from the PIRGADI activities. The estimated cost of the proposed PIRGADI is $US 5,674,000 and the estimated maximum time required to conduct the work is 5.5 years. The annual potential savings that can be realized by replacing diesel-fueled generation with geothermally fueled power have been calculated at $US 2.1-2.8 million per megawatt installed. Accordingly, if only 2.0-2.7 MW of geothermal power is built as a result of the PIRGADI, the entire $US 5.7 million cost of the initiative will be repaid in one year. If a 3 MW geothermal plant were to be run in the SOPAC region for 20 years, the savings would aggregate $US 4 2-56 million (without considering interest earned on invested savings). The conclusion is that investment in the PIRGADI is prudent. It will be very beneficial and cost-effective for the geothermally-rich SOPAC member countries.


..... 12 Solomon Islands.... POTENTIAL FUEL-COST SAVINGS ATTRIBUTABLE TO GEOTHERMAL REPLACEMENT .......... SOME RATIONALES FOR USE OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN THE SOPAC REGION .............Environmental advantages..... 22 iv .................................................................................... THE PROJECT SPONSOR ........................................................ 4 1........ 4 2................................................. 3 SCOPE OF PIRGADI ......... 2 SUMMARY DESCRIPTION OF U......................................................... Economic Advantages........................................................ THE MEANING OF PIRGADI....... PROJECT RATIONALES AND OBJECTIVES ..................................TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................... 18 7........................................................................................ 8 Fiji .................... THE INITIAL GROUP OF ISLAND COUNTRIES TO BE INCLUDED IN PIRGADI................. GEOTHERMAL INDUSTRIES CORPORATION .S.......................... 17 5............................. 6 A..... ................................................................................................................................................... 8 Vanuatu .............................. 14 Samoa................... GEOLOGIC REASONS FOR THE GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL IN SOME S OUTH PACIFIC .............................. 18 6........................................................................................................... BUDGET ESTIMATE FOR PROPOSED PIRGADI ACTIVITIES ..................................................II I.................................. INTRODUCTION ......................... ............................................. 5 3..... 3................................................................................................................................ A SUMMARY OVERVIEW OF SOME GEOTHERMAL PRINCIPLES .................. II........................ PROPOSED ACTIVITY SCHEDULE.......................................... 10 Papua New Guinea .............................. 1 SUMMARY BACKGROUND OF SOPAC........................ 7 4........................... 7 B............................................. 19 APPENDICES APPENDIX A – LIST OF USGIC SHAREHOLDING COMPANIES .............................................. 15 Other SOPAC region countries ......... 1 1....... 2.......... 20 APPENDIX B – CURRICULA VITAE FOR SOPAC AND USGIC PIRGADI GEOSCIENTISTS TO BE INVOLVED WITH THE PIRGADI ................................................................................

including costs. The objectives/modus operandi of the PIRGADI are as follows: 1. demand. Synthesize the resource-related information and the power-related data so that plausible geothermal development/power sales scenarios and financial proformas can be generated. it is very likely that they overlie geothermal reservoirs that can economically be discovered. role players in the fight against climate change and climate variability. and recharge rates and sources. 1. INTRODUCTION The meaning of PIRGADI. 5. 1 . produced and utilized to fuel generation of electric power. Determine the current and projected status. 4. adequacy and economic viability of electric power generation. transmission and distribution on each geothermally prospective island. Initiate or continue geothermal exploration at these sites in order to better quantify resource parameters including reservoir depth. pressures and chemical characteristics of produced fluids. Though these countries are relatively minor contributors to atmospheric pollution via their fossil fuel exhaust emissions.PACIFIC ISLAND REGIONAL GEOTHERMAL ASSESSMENT AND DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE A FUNDING PROPOSAL I. 3. 3. Because the selected Pacific islands are of geologically recent volcanic origin. This name has been selected because it adequately summarizes the location and objective of the project for which the sponsor seeks funding. but notable. reliability. The use of geothermal resources to generate electricity would reduce and possibly eliminate the dependency of these island countries on imported fossil fuels for their power generation. their use of geothermal fuels would reduce or eliminate such power-related contamination making them small. This proposed project would help these island countries take advantage of their indigenous resources. size and permeability. Disseminate all of the information acquired and the conclusions drawn there from to the world’s geothermal development entities to seek expressions of interest and to facilitate early initiation of one or more geothermal power projects in the SOPAC region. project rationales and objectives “PIRGADI” is an acronym for Pacific Island Regional Geothermal Assessment and Development Initiative. temperatures. 2. The three key reasons to conduct the proposed studies are: 1. 2. This would improve their balances of payments and thus help their overall economies. Utilize the results of all geothermal exploration conducted to date to identify specific sites in the region that are the most prospective for the discovery of high temperature geothermal resources that can be economically exploited.

French Polynesia (Associate).SOPAC Anare Matakiviti – Energy Advisor . while the status’ of the electric power industries on each of the islands are being assessed. the same will be done with regard to the opportunities for beneficial use of low enthalpy geothermal fluids.SOPAC The primary SOPAC roles in the PIRGADI will include. Tonga. the project sponsor. Consider the utilization of geothermal energy for non-electric “direct uses” such as crop drying. intergovernmental regional organization established by South Pacific nations in 1972. furniture processing and other light industrial purposes. Its Secretariat is located in Suva. funded by the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade and SOPAC. Niue. This program provided much of the information that has encouraged the submittal for funding of the PIRGADI so as to move to the next stages of geothermal development in the SOPAC countries. water and energy resources and in the latter category. New Caledonia (Associate). database development and management for energy data and technical information. SOPAC management and staff to be involved with the PIRGADI include the following persons. Cook Islands. Project-related communications with government entities in each PIRGADI host country before. SOPAC’s work for its member nations focuses on three key areas: resource development.SOPAC Russel Howorth – Deputy Director . ocean and hydropower). during and following conduct of proposed activities. Guam. Samoa. SOPAC has expertise in policy and planning. 2. SOPAC’s mission is to improve the well being of the peoples of Pacific Island member countries through the application of geoscience to the management and sustainable development of their natural resources. SOPAC is an independent. Summary background of SOPAC. biomass.SOPAC Paul Fairbairn – Energy Manager . New Zealand. solar. Tuvalu and Vanuatu. but may not be limited to: 1. Though the economic benefits of such uses of geothermal resources are different from those reaped from its use for power generation. SOPAC coordinated and managed the 1993-1995 comprehensive regional geothermal resource assessment program.6. small energy project management. Marshall Islands. Fiji where about 60 professional and support staff are domiciled. renewable energy project management. with regard to geothermal. its capabilities and its roles in PIRGADI The sponsor of this PIRGADI funding proposal is the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC). Alfred Simpson – Director . for whom brief C. The 18 SOPAC member Countries are: Australia. 2 . Papua New Guinea. Its primary focus is the provision of geotechnical services to its supporting countries. Nauru. Resource development includes mineral. energy efficiency and conservation management and projects. Fiji Islands. energy resource assessment monitoring and coordination (wind. environmental geoscience and national capacity development in the geosciences. Kiribati. and the monitoring of alternative renewable energy projects including geothermal. Specifically. Federated States of Micronesia. fish processing.V’s are included in Appendix B to this document. Solomon Islands.

they can maximize their strengths as geothermal project investigators. 3. well testing. and because the shareholding member firms of U. geochemical. in each PIRGADI host country. Departments of Justice and Commerce in order to obtain substantial antitrust immunity when collaborating on overseas geothermal projects. permit acquisition. licenses. Colorado. environmental assessment. USA on March 21 1990. Assumption of responsibility for distribution and use of funds.S. Active participation in all procedures required to obtain project-related permits. geochemists. drilling. Geothermal capabilities and its roles in PIRGADI Industries Corporation. Project teams can be selected to maximize the 1 The Certificate of Review (COR) is a document issued by the US Department of Commerce and Justice that assures USGIC shareholding companies that they can "collude and collaborate" on offshore projects without fear of prosecution under the US anti-trust laws. cooperating and collaborating. while its shareholding member firms operate out of their respective headquarters located in the states of Arkansas. management. In light of this situation. for writing of required reports to lenders and for maintenance of accounting records. etc. the geoscientists employed by SOPAC are not professional geothermal geologists. participants and/or developers. USGIC has offered its services to SOPAC with regard to design. 3. its Notwithstanding the fact that SOPAC has had experience with geothermal studies. Review of the list of USGIC shareholding companies (see Appendix A) will reveal that USGIC is able to conduct essential geothermal project development-related activities including: resource exploration (geological. Dissemination of documents describing interim and final PIRGADI results. Texas and Utah. field design. and customized control system installation. USGIC was incorporated in the State of Delaware. The company’s headquarters are in Frisco. reservoir engineering. geophysical). 4. 6. skills and experience. 3 . 5. supervision and/or actual execution of PIRGADI activities. USA. The companies that have joined to create USGIC realize that by pooling talents. Its shareholders comprise 16 companies that have received Certificates of Review (CORs)1 from the U. S. California. New York. conclusions and recommendations within and beyond the SOPAC region.2. Dissemination of PIRGADI work-related information to SOPAC member countries and outside the region as may be appropriate.S. Participation in the conduct of PIRGADI field activities as appropriate with regard to SOPAC staff capabilities. Colorado. gathering system design and construction. USGIC is able to undertake all or parts of any size geothermal power generation project using the capabilities of its member firms. Nevada. USGIC was organized in order to provide a vehicle through which American firms engaged in the sales of goods and services to the geothermal industry within the United States could profitably sell their products and use their expertise internationally. Geothermal Industries Corporation (USGIC) have an interest in development of geothermal projects outside of the United States. Summary description of U. geophysicists or geothermal drilling engineers. under the umbrella of the CORs.

budgets and schedules for the PIRGADI in each country. Below the crust is the mantle. This work has been funded by the US Department of Energy and has been documented in reports concerning the Philippines. 4 . The planet’s interior heat originated during its fiery consolidation from dust and gas over 4 billion years ago and it is continually regenerated via the decay of radioactive elements that exist in most minerals. management. Design. the temperature gradient ranges from 17-30oC per kilometre (50-87oF per mile) of depth. made of highly viscous. Gerald Huttrer Subir Sanyal Martin Booth Eduardo Granados David Mendive Roger Henneberger Chris Klein Anne Robertson-Tait The primary USGIC roles in the PIRGADI will include. Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea. Design of work plans. country-specific final reports submitted to SOPAC. using the best professionally accepted practices. Of specific relevance to the PIRGADI. is 5-56 kilometres (3-35 miles) thick and insulates the surface from the heat of the interior. 4.cost effectiveness of the work while project administration. At the Earth’s core. within budget and time constraints. Fiji.200-12.000-7. all to be documented in comprehensive. licenses and approvals. and the temperature rises with increasing distance from the surface. is the fact that since 1998. but may not be limited to: 1. Provision to SOPAC and/or host country officials. SCOPE OF PIRGADI A summary overview of some geothermal principles The word geothermal comes from the Greek words geo (earth) and therme (heat) and means the heat of the earth. the crust.250oC (1. 2. 3. The outer layer of the planet. Operation of the PIRGADI. 1.600 oF). USGIC management and staff to be involved with the PIRGADI include the following persons. partially molten rock with temperatures between 650 and 1. Interpretation of the results of all PIRGADI field activities in each host country. II. for whom brief CV’s are included in Appendix B to this document.500 kilometres (4. USGIC has been conducting geothermal pre-feasibility studies in selected nations within Asia and the Western Pacific. which consists of a liquid outer zone and a solid inner zone.200-2.000 miles) from the surface to the center of the Earth. plus formulation of conclusions and generation of recommendations regarding follow-on work. of all technical information needed to obtain project-related permits.280oF). supervision and/or conduct of planned PIRGADI field activities. finance and host country contacts can be conducted by USGIC in cooperation with SOPAC. 5. temperatures may reach 4. From the surface down through the crust.000oC (7. It is almost 6.

at temperatures of 120-370oC (250-700oF). crop drying. In some regions having elevated t ermal gradients. forming a geothermal reservoir. This upward flow of heat drives convective. deep drilling begins. Where plates collide. gravity and seismic) and geochemical surveys to indirectly locate underground geothermal reservoirs. the subducting plate reaches conditions of pressure. In a second exploration phase. Shallower r eservoirs with lower temperatures of 20-150oC (68o 300 F) are commonly used directly in health spas. these waters are heated by the surrounding rock after which they convectively rise again towards the surface where they appear as hot springs. geysers or fumaroles. can reach temperatures of more than 350oC (700oF) and therefore constitute very powerful latent sources of energy. bringing with them vast quantities of heat. After this. Typically. Where magma reaches the surface it can build volcanoes. the water remains underground where it fills pores and cracks typically comprising 2 -5% of the volume of the host rock. downward into regions of increasing heat. Plumes of magma then rise convectively and force themselves into (intrude) the crust. one plate is forced beneath the other (a process called subduction).5-2 inches) per year. employing either slim holes (holes with diameters smaller than the typical production well). and for other light industrial purposes. including the Indo-Australian. These movements have resulted in the formation of many island arcs. meteoric waters percolate downward. after which they use geologic. thermal gradient holes may be drilled in order to confirm the reservoir location and extent. geophysical (electrical. cellular motions in the mantle rock. mud pots. they begin their exploration by examining the surface thermal phenomena. including spreading centers. both of which can be considered to be “ancestral geothermal systems”. plate fragments have been colliding with each other. 5 . transform and transcurrent fault systems. which are normally drilled in situations where the degree of confidence in the exploration results is very high. These reservoirs that are generally much hotter than the thermal waters emanating at the surface. to minimize costs. fish farms. h sometimes for several kilometres. 2. Geologic reasons for the geothermal potential in some South Pacific islands The geothermal environment in many South Pacific islands is highly prospective because almost all of the conditions requisite for the formation of geothermal reservoirs. Within these prospective areas.Since heat always moves from hotter to colder regions. all as summarized above. greenhouses. molten rock known as magma rises upward into the rift creating new crust. oceanic trenches and volcanic belts that are the locus for world class porphyry copper-gold and epithermal gold mineral deposits. they are used to generate electricity in geothermal power plants. Where plates move apart. exist in the region. the Earth’s heat flows from its interior towards the surface. Hot waters and/or steam either flow out of the wells naturally or are pumped to the surface where. the Pacific Plate and several unnamed. Crustal plates. magnetic. Eventually. At depth. temperature and water content that cause melting of the plate’s rocks thus creating new magma. which in turn drives “plate tectonics” or the “drift” of the Earth’s crustal plates that occurs at 1-5 centimetres (0. however most magma remains beneath the surface where it creates huge subterranean regions of hot rock.000 to more than 1 million years. plate boundaries. Cooling of such regions can take from 5. along subterranean cracks and faults. rotating and subducting to various degrees for more than 10 million years. Scientists and engineers commonly search for geothermal resources in volcanic areas and in regions where it is known that subduction is occurring. If the ascending hot waters meet an impermeable rock layer. the ground overlying these relatively shallow regions of elevated crustal heat is characterized by anomalously high thermal gradients. or full-scale production wells.

but many others are either dormant or active and in their vicinities exist the hot springs. On several other SOPAC member (or associate member) islands. using diesel-powered generators and/or hydroelectric facilities. but geochemically interesting springs have been identified on Guadalcanal island. a numerous re geothermal phenomena believed likely to overlie prospective geothermal reservoirs. there are active volcanoes. have continued into the present so that the southern islands. three volcanoes on Savai’i have erupted in historic times. These are located in the Tonga. 6 . fumaroles. have risen to the surface. New Caledonia and Loyalty island groups. Operation of the diesel g enerators requires the import of expensive fuel on a regular basis and the replacement of the machinery every 10-15 years. These geothermal occurrences are all related to plate subduction. to subduction currently underway along the New Britain Trench. tremendous volumes of magma. there are more than 28 known thermal systems that appear to be related to movements of the small but regionally important South Bismarck Crustal Plate. and to magma being generated along the Woodlark Spreading Center. magma generation and associated volcanism or other deep. Some rationales for use of geothermal resources in the SOPAC region islands Currently. with the most recent event being that of Mt. Matavanu in 1911. Some of these volcanoes are now extinct. All of these prospective geothermal sites are related to Plio-Pleistocene through Holocene volcanism. High temperature thermal features have been mapped on Vella Lavella and Simbo islands and cooler. Nevertheless. In Samoa. regionally important crustal fractures that facilitate or result from plate movements. generated by lengthy periods of subduction and deep subsurface melting. Savai’i. nitrogen oxides and various sulfur compounds.Also. but they depend on adequate annual rainfall to keep their reservoirs full and the reservoirs themselves commonly occupy land that was once used habitation. especially along the northern coast of New Britain Province.000 year old ashes found on Taveuni and Rotuma islands and more than 16 volcanic centers and fissure zones of Pliocene or younger ages. In Papua New Guinea. including Efate. all of which have deleterious effects on the atmosphere and on the health of citizens with homes or businesses nearby. In Fiji. nearby rifting. was most intense from the Pliocene to the middle Pleistocene and is thought to have been decreasing since then. In Vanuatu. 3. are still being uplifted at significant rates by suboceanic emplacement of new magma. There exist many active volcanoes and associated with them. The Solomon islands lie precisely on the southeastern extension of the New Britain Trench that localizes volcanism in the islands of eastern Papua New Guinea. On the latter islands. volcanism along the Samoan Ridge has created large shield volcanoes and smaller cones. The activity on the westernmost major island. the environs of these volcanoes are judged to be highly prospective for the discovery of one or more geothermal reservoirs. fumaroles and hot springs that strongly suggest the existence of geothermal reservoirs at relatively shallow depths. mud pots and geysers that constitute evidence of powerful geothermal resources at depth nearby. the evidence for geologically recent volcanism comprises the 20. solidified and created entire island groups. for agricultural purposes or on which native forests grew. electricity is generated under the auspices of the governments of most Pacific Island countries. Accordingly. volcanic eruptions that began about 22 million years ago to form the northern islands. Hydroelectric power plants are much cleaner and quieter. The power plants are very noisy and the exhausts of the machines include significant quantities of carbon dioxide. Kermadec. there exist geothermal phenomena that should be further studied. as described previously.

geothermal energy can provide a significant portion of a country’s long term (30-50 years) energy needs. but otherwise. The sulfur emission rate of geothermal plants is about 0.3 pounds.More generally the timely opportunity to pursue the development of geothermal energy resources in the region has been enhanced through the fact that geothermal power generation technology including borehole drilling has now advance significantly. 7 . much like the non-fuel O&M costs associated with fossil fuel power systems. Environmental advantages Geothermal power plants emit minimal atmospheric pollutants.44 pounds per MWh compared to 23 kg per MWh for diesel and nitrogen from geothermal plants is 2. 1. 6. Environmental issues in respect to emissions from fossil fuels used to produce energy are further elaborated on below but is a real concern for the region in particular in relation to climate variability and sea level rise. This combined or cascaded use of geothermal energy results in higher thermal efficiencies and associated cost savings. With optimum development strategies. B. many different applications can be served from a common set of wells and/or by utilizing underflow from the power plant. Diesel plants emit about 880 kg of carbon per megawatt-hour (MWh) while geothermal plants exhaust about 0. Availability of 9599% are typical for modern geothermal plants. There is long term resource potential. all of the money now being spent on the purchase and import of fuel for power plants can be saved and put to better use for the good of the citizens. Geothermal plants have exceptionally high availability.200 megawatts or more (in the USA). Projects sizes have ranged from 200 kilowatts (in China) to complexes capable of producing 1. Depending on the resource temperature and the process temperature required. Thus making previously considered marginal geothermal resources possible for development. The convenience of using geothermal energy for power generation as opposed to fossil based fuels is also attractive from the aspect that geothermal energy is a renewable energy resource and theoretically therefore provides a better and more secure source of supply. Economic Advantages Fuel purchases are never needed for geothermal power plants once a well field has been developed. Geothermal power projects can also supply fluids for direct use. Geothermal power system annual O&M costs are typically about 5-8% of the capital cost. 5. This is particularly important where the greater percentage of the regions fossil fuels are imported which raises questions in regard to accessibility and security of supply. 4. The operating and maintenance (O&M) costs of geothermal plants are low. Geothermal power project sizing can be flexible. However. compared to less than 90% for fossil fueled installations. 3. with the increasing use of automated control systems for the well fields and power plants. geothermal O&M expenditures are decreasing. Several cogent reasons for island countries in the SOPAC region to utilize geothermal energy for power generation are presented and discussed below: A. 1. “Availability” is defined as the percentage of time that a system is capable of producing electricity. Drilling of replacement wells will be required every 10 years or so.

the national power generation status. The next largest island. are: descriptions of the geothermal site locations. the geothermal surface phenomena. has considerable hydroelectric capacity at the 80 MW Wailoa Power Station. new wells can be drilled and plant modules can be added so as to keep pace with demand. The PIRGADI will initially continue the process of developing the geothermal potential in Fiji. Other SOPAC member (or Associated) countries. Geothermal power plants are small. typically covering less than 400 square metres. Presented below. once they have been drilled. Vanuatu. Geothermal power plants are quieter than diesel plants. has a run of river hydroelectric plant that provides a small but important contribution to total generation on the island. All in all. at latitudes of 16o47’ South and 16o 31’ South and longitudes of 179o20’ and 179o23’ East respectively. on a country by country basis. 2. A single good geothermal well can support 3-10 megawatts of power and the power plant can take less than a year to build. Vanua Levu. Samoa. Papua New Guinea. most plants have been insulated so that the noise remains inside the buildings resulting in a quiet and peaceful environment for all those outside the plant walls. 4. yet to be specified. under or around by humans. Installed capacity in the three largest systems. Very little land area is required by a geothermal power project. unlike hydroelectric plants with their associated reservoirs. The island depends on that capacity for most of its power. but diesel engines and bagasse-fired steam cogeneration provide most of the island’s power. b. Location – Investigations previously conducted in Fiji by GENZL and SOPAC have resulted in the identification of two primary geothermal prospect sites: Savusavu and Labasa. The initial group of island countries to be included in PIRGADI 3. animals. can be designed to accommodate passage over. and/or vehicles. both of which are located on Vanua Levu. 4. comprising compact networks of 36 centimetre diameter pipes. Fiji a. When more power is required. Viti Levu. may also be sites for preliminary geothermal investigations.virtually nil. as of 2000. while it is a significant pollutant emitted by diesel plants. The wells themselves. occupy only about 25 square metres each and the gathering and disposal systems. and the Solomon Islands. Power Generation status (i) Generating capacity – The largest and most heavily populated island. geothermal power stations have proven that they can meet and surpass even the most stringent environmental demands all over the world. is given in Table 1 below: 8 . Geothermal power projects can be built-in modules to allow for expansion. proposed PIRGADI activities and the expected benefits to each country of the PIRGADI work. Though geothermal turbines and generators do make noise as they run.

such as the 10 MWe owned by Fiji Sugar Corporation (FSC) or the 30 MWe installed at the Emperor Gold Mine (EGM). If the two grids are joined and extended. and that at some depth they equilibrated with the surrounding rocks at about 170oC (338oF). however.6/US¢kWh). (iii) Generation Cost – The cost of electricity produced by Fiji Electricity Authority (FEA) ranges from a low of 4-5 F¢/kWh (~2 US¢/kWh) for hydro power produced by the Wailoa Power Station. The hottest spring water temperatures. In 1999. (ii) Fuel Types – Currently. Wailoa hydro power subsidizes the diesel power and the amount of this subsidy increases as diesel fuel prices escalate. (v) Estimated Future Demand Growth – FEA October 2000 forecasts are that by the year 2015.33/gallon). to over 30 F¢/kWh (13. FEA reported that the cost of diesel fuel was approximately F$400/tonne (US$0. By late 2000. For instance. There are also some small isolated photovoltaic installations on Vanua Levu but these total only a few kilowatts. making it the largest single power producer on that island.59/gallon). near boiling. the Vanua Levu need could approach 25 MWe.Table 1 Public Sector Power Generation Capacity in Fiji Island Viti Levu →Vanua Levu Ovalau Total Capacity MW 112 12← 2 126 This table does not reflect private generating capacity. have been measured in a group of six orifices located along and slightly inland from the northern peninsula shoreline and extending from a site immediately west of the Savusavu Yacht club to a site slightly west of the town dock. This capacity is an important aspect of the electric sector in Fiji. but which have never actually been found. this cost had more than doubled to F$900/tonne (US$1. Geothermal Surface Phenomena Savusavu – On the Savusavu peninsula there are at least eight thermal springs and perhaps several more whose existence is suggested by thermal infrared imagery. (iv) Power Sales Prices – In Fiji. FSC has a 10 MW bagasse-fired steam unit and a 4 MW diesel generator. The results of aeromagnetic surveys conducted over the Savusavu peninsula suggest that an east-west trending range of low hills rising just south of the hot springs may be underlain at depths of less than 1 9 . the demand in Labasa will be 21 MWe and that in Savusavu will reach 2 MWe. in the town of Labasa on Vanua Levu.6 US¢/kWh) for power produced by the many small diesel engine generators used in the islands. hydroelectricity dominates the overall Fiji fuel mix. as planned. all customers pay 20F¢/kWh (9. very slightly mixed with sea water. on Vanua Levu there is only one small hydroelectric plant at present and the other two fuels are dominant. in effect. followed by diesel and bagasse. c. Chemical analyses of the hot spring waters suggest that they are of meteoric origin. The cost of production from diesel engines is greater than the retail cost of electricity in Fiji so.

The drilling of confirmatory slim holes to at least 800 metres (2. Takara Springs are on the north end of the island at 17o 32’ South and 168o 25’ East while the Teouma Graben springs are just northeast of Port Vila at 17o 48’ South and 168 o23’ East. private or other. if and when a drill is shipped to Vanua Levu to explore the Savusavu resource. 10 . Each spring group has numerous discharge points.280 feet) by an intrusive rock body. This could comprise a heat source for the thermal waters if it is still cooling and radiating heat. It is also believed that they circulate within a network of fractures transecting an oval-shaped depression of possible volcano-tectonic origin.625 feet). just south of the town of Labasa. Location – Because the Vanuatu archipelago has been created as a result of volcanism along a major crustal plate boundary. The drill sites might be those advocated several years ago by GENZL or they might be modified to reflect newer geoscientific theories. it is proposed that the PIRGADI activities in Fiji comprise the drilling of six slim holes to 800 metres (2. Because of the relatively low geothermometric temperatures calculated. and the permeability and other aspects of the geothermal reservoir. There are active volcanoes on several islands and geothermal resources are likely to be associated with each mountain. Labasa – A geothermal belt comprising eight groups of hot springs extends for about 19 kilometres across central-northern Vanua Levu island. for full exploitation of one or both of the Vanua Levu geothermal fields and it will facilitate d esign of optimally costeffective development procedures. it is recommended that three 800 metre (2. Geothermal exploration previously conducted in Vanuatu identified two prospective sites on Efate Island. Proposed PIRGADI project activities – In accordance with the recommendations described above. therefore it is the best place to initiate development of Vanuatu’s geothermal resources. despite undoubted dilution by rainfall aggregating 2000 to 3800 millimetres per year.kilometre (3. Vanuatu a. Three holes would be drilled in and near the Savusavu thermal phenomena and three within the Labasa geothermal belt. thermal spring temperatures are up to boiling. e. flows from rock fractures or as seeps from alluvial river banks. is therefore strongly recommended.625 feet) deep slim holes also be drilled in the Labasa geothermal belt. the thermal regime. Nevertheless.625 feet). it appears unlikely that the Labasa geothermal region will be underlain by a reservoir hot enough to use for generation of electric power. d. all of these conditions strongly suggest the existence of a significant geothermal resource in the area. and the absence of an obvious heat source. Mixture of the thermal waters with seawater appears to be minimal. a great deal more will be learned about the local geology. Expected benefits of PIRGADI work in Fiji – If the recommended slim holes are drilled in the Savusavu and Labasa geothermal areas. This knowledge will significantly reduce the risks of failure when the next development step is taken and production-scale wells are drilled. either as small pools. the bulk of Vanuatu’s population and the greatest power demand are on Efate Island. Geochemical studies of the thermal waters show that they are of meteoric origin and have probably circulated to great depths where they were once heated to as much as 120oC (248oF). However. In summary. As at Savusavu. It should therefore improve the chances of obtaining funds.

reportedly in the 4-6% per annum range. (iv) Power sales prices – The table below is self explanatory.62 x P 0. it is anticipated that no new capacity will be needed for some time. Thus a geothermal power project on Efate should most likely be in the 2-4 MW range.5 MW peak. Geothermal power plants are typically used as base load generation. This plant comprises nine diesel generating units.8426 4.0532 -0-0- Energy Charge US¢/kWh 0.6005 6.00 0. (ii) (iii) Generation cost . but it is likely that there is 9-10% profit built into the above rates and that the generating cost must be around 14 US¢/kWh.b. July-September.59 Vatu/kWh (~24.UNELCO Tariff Rates Tariff (Base Rate P = 24.213 US¢/kWh) Small Domestic (PCD) st 1 60 kWh nd 2 60 kWh all over 120 kWh (penalty) Low Voltage Business (TUP) Low Voltage Other (TU) High Voltage (MT) Sports Field (T) Public Lighting (EP) rd Fixed Charge US$/kVA -0-0-020 x P 19 x P 25 x P 4.162 14.In Vanuatu there are 6 tariffs for electricity sold by UNELCO.213 13.6 MWe. The load on Efate recorded by UNELCO during the fiscal year 98/99 was approximately 7. just outside of Port Vila.975 23. The third of these is scheduled for installation in 2004. The schedule for installation of the next unit at Tagabé (in 2004) is most likely driven by the need to retire older units.96 0. and 2. ranging in size from 630 kW to 2170 kW.6 MWe is more than sufficient to meet the peak load requirements of UNELCO’s territory in Efate.5 MW base. No figures were published for the actual cost of power generation by UNELCO.87 0. at least initially.213 US¢/kWh).01 22. 11 .949 24. this could be deferred if a geothermal field is developed and a geothermal power plant built. Table 2 .5 MW is of significant interest for prospective geothermal development.70 1. A total of four additional units are anticipated in the design of the Tagabé site. Status of power generation (i) Capacity – UNELCO operates a diesel-fueled power plant in Port Vila. At present rates of load growth.54 x x x x x P P P P P 15. The present capacity on Efate therefore now totals 19. the nation’s capital and principal city on the island. The fact that the base load on Efate is in the order of 2.244 16. A second power plant of very modern design was recently constructed at Tagabé.93 x P 1. but according to UNELCO management. This plant has 2 new units both rated at 4100 kW.70 x P 0. 4 MW average. rather than accelerated load growth and it also depends somewhat on the probability of a geothermal plant being built.52 41. in part due to their high initial cost and low-operating cost. All of the tariffs are based on a base rate of 34. (v) Estimated future demand growth – The present capacity of 19. Fuel types – UNELCO currently uses diesel fuel exclusively to generate power on Efate. 3 Quarter 2000.075 Source: UNELCO Electricity Tariffs.

This entity is now called PNG Power Limited and operates 20 12 . The locations of the drill sites will be determined on the bases of the results of electrical resistivity studies conducted by GENZL and also with respect to logistical constraints posed by land ownership and topographic conditions. This preliminary drilling will therefore improve the chances of obtaining funds. Geothermal surface phenomena Takara Springs – The geothermal area comprises about 0. Garbuna.904 feet). These geothermal areas are situated between Latitudes 5o 5’N and 5o 38’N and between Longitudes 150 o 3’E and 151o 20’E. Kasoli-Hoskins. located about one day’s walk upstream from the circum-island road. b. the temperature of the water increases to 78oC (174oF) after the pump is run for 20 minutes or so. Reportedly. Geochemical studies conducted by GENZL in 1975 have revealed geothermometric equilibration temperatures for Teouma waters of >200oC (>93oF). Papua New Guinea a. the thermal gradients and bottom-hole temperatures. private or other. from the Willaumez Peninsula eastward to the Gazelle Peninsula. e. This would be a high enough temperature to allow use of the resource for power generation. Two holes would be drilled in and/or near each of the hot spring regions. At least 5 thermal springs flow from shallow channels within this area and the Beachcomber Resort taps 57oC (134oF) water via a 4” diameter.800 metres( 5.405 hectares at the northeastern end of Efate. Teouma River – Hot springs with surface temperatures ranging from 50-61oC (122142oF) flow from the eastern boundary fault of the Teouma River graben that transects the southern part of Efate. Status of power generation – All aspects of urban electric power generation. Such temperatures would be more than adequate for use in generating electric power. with reference to a specific hot spring said to issue from a “cave”. Thermal water flow rates range from seeps (<0. for full exploitation of one or both of the Efate geothermal fields and it will facilitate design of optimally cost-effective development procedures. Location – Reconnaissance studies of the geothermal potential of Papua New Guinea (PNG) have suggested that the most prospective area for initial pre-development investigations is the northern coast of New Britain Island. PVCcased well drilled to about 6 metres (20 feet). The well produces enough water (19-25 gpm) to fill a 15’ diameter pool 3-4 feet deep in 3-4 hours. In that region. there are at least seven geothermal sites: Bamus.c. These slim holes will therefore provide the basic information required to make a wellinformed decision whether or not to proceed with the drilling and development of production and injection wells. a great deal more will be learned about the local geology to depths well below sea level. The Takara Springs waters have been sampled and the geothermometry suggests equilibrium temperatures of 160-170oC (320-340oF) at some undetermined depth. Proposed PIRGADI project activities – In order to evaluate the geothermal potential at both the Takara Springs and the Teouma River geothermal areas. Pangalu-Talasea and Bola. Expected benefits of PIRGADI work in Vanuatu – If the recommended slim holes are drilled in the Takara Springs and Teouma River geothermal areas. Galloseulo. and the physical and chemical characteristics of the geothermal reservoir rocks and fluids. Walo. transmission and distribution are controlled by what was known as the Papua New Guinea Electricity Commission (ELCOM). d. it is proposed that the PIRGADI activities comprise the drilling of four slim h oles to 1.5 l/sec) to what have been described as “voluminous”.

The cost of power being generated by the Provincial Governments or by the small town generators is between $US 0. all on the north coast of New Britain. This suggests that geothermometric equilibrium temperatures could be in the 300 oC (~572oF) range and that a dry steam geothermal reservoir could underlie the region. sea. These five are the first of 60 such plants reportedly planned by the Petroleum and Energy Department. (i) Capacities – The current total installed capacity of the PNG Power Limited facilities is 272 MWe (1995) in the Papua New Guinea. The PNG Petroleum and Energy Department has focused on power supplies to rural areas and the Provincial Governments are responsible for the “C” centers in their respective provinces. Hagan. the small generators operating in many small towns probably are about 1-2 MWe each and there are in excess of 100 such sites. Geothermal surface phenomena – At Talasea. Primarily mining companies privately own fifty four percent of the national total capacity. Finally. Their acceptance is increasing rapidly. so future power demand growth should conservatively be estimated at 3-5%. wind. and solar energy systems where applicable. c. The fluids in the four geothermal areas to the east of the Willaumez Peninsula have temperatures from 86-100oC (187oF) and are slightly to moderately acidic. with an estimated national total of 595 MWe. geysers. and land transportation.12 per kWh. Pangalu and Kasoli. Diesel generation on Lihir Island (by the Lihir Gold Company) is said to cost the company about $US 0.078 for their power. there is a continuing move to introduce renewable energy resources such as hydropower (micro/mini).000 customers.125 per kWh. Fuel Types – PNG Power Limited uses 80% hydropower and 20% diesel-fueled stations to generate electricity for Port Moresby.independent generating systems in 27 urban centers and serves about 700. fumaroles and mud pools at temperatures that range from 90-101oC (194-214oF) and which are reported to contain significant H2S and CO2.45 per kWh. The geothermal areas comprise numerous hot springs. (v) Estimated future demand growth – It is difficult to determine this figure. The creation of PNG Power Limited was the first step in a plan to make the utility more financially viable and thus more attractive to potential purchasers.5 billion and increasing. The small independent town systems all use diesel fuel. Of special interest is the fact that at these three locations. (ii) (iii) Generation cost – The average cost of power generation by PNG Power Limited. PNG’s GNP is about $US 3. 13 .30 and 0. the thermal fields are associated with a belt of recent volcanic activity. The Provincial Government-owned “Government “C” Center Stations” have an unpublished capacity that can be estimated at between 10 and 350 kW. Wewak and Kokopo. though small diesel generators furnish power in most small rural towns and villages for at least a few hours each day. The cost is dependent on the accessibility of the location by normal air. is $US 0. however. Mt. (iv) Power sales prices – PNG Power Limited customers now pay an average of $US 0. PNG Power Limited is reported to be considering expanded use of renewable energy sources and their indigenous natural gas to expand their fuel mix. Solar heaters are being used extensively for provision of domestic and some process hot water at homes and at light industrial sites all over PNG. Lae. the silica content is very high at 347 ppm while the chloride content is only 2 ppm. using thermal generation. Finally. suggesting near surface volcanic heat sources. while the Petroleum and Energy Department uses mini-hydro generators of 60-300kW to electrify small areas surrounding five rural government stations (“Ccenters”).

has surface temperature up to 99oC (210oF). Status of power generation – Solomon Islands Electricity Authority (SIEA) is responsible for provision of public power in the five largest provincial centers in the Solomons. the power mix does include a 185 kW hydropower facility that has been built in Buala. CSAMT or conventional dipole resistivity techniques as logistically indicated to achieve optimum cost-effectiveness. Forty kilometres to the northwest of Honiara. e. it might be possible that an energy-intensive industry could be attracted. 23. Proposed PIRGADI project activities – Because the most recent chemical analyses were made in 1988. (ii) (iii) 14 .407 MW and the remaining 185 kW is via hydropower. Kunjuku.959 MW. b. Of all the power generation capacity in the country. The capacity provided through diesel engines is 30. waters and gases at all seven thermal sites should be resampled and the geothermometry recalculated using the most modern techniques. This information should materially decrease the perceived resource-related risks for future project developers. (i) Capacities – The current total installed capacity in the Solomons is 30. small diesel generators.d. about five kilometres inland from the sea. The Paraso geothermal resource. considerable outflow and a geothermometrically calculated equilibrium temperature of 160oC (320oF) that would be adequate for power generation use. Another interesting geothermal site is located in Paraso Bay on Vella Lavella Island. Geophysical surveys should be then conducted in the two most chemically promising areas to assess the shallow and deep electrical resistivity regimes. Transmission and distribution systems are old and subject to breakage.000) located on the northeastern side of Guadalcanal island. Fuel Types – Diesel is the only fossil fuel currently used to generate power in the Solomons. Off-grid.6875 per kWh. Though diesel generators of varying ages are their primary electricity producers. There is reported to be interest by SIEA in tapping renewable energy resources such as mini-hydro. These geothermal areas are situated between Latitudes 9o 20’S and 9o 23’S and between Longitudes 150o 2’E and 151o 20’E. leaving only market-related matters as the critical project-viability determinants. If a power plant were to be built near this site.540 MW is in the capital city of Honiara. are four thermal areas called Nggurara. there is no real market for electricity within the archipelago except for the capital city of Honiara. Solomon Islands a. especially during cyclone season. solar and wind to provide more power to rural areas. Expected benefits of PIRGADI in Papua New Guinea – The geochemical survey results should indicate the hottest geothermal sites and the geophysical study results should suggest the probable depths to the geothermal reservoir(s) and the best places in which to drill slim or production-scale wells in the next development phase(s). micro hydropower and/or solar systems furnish power in some small towns and villages for at least a few hours each day and the same is true for several resort complexes. Generation cost – The average generation cost for the whole SIEA system in the country is $US 0. These surveys could utilize E-Scan. at Longitude 156o 37’E and Latitude 7o 39’S. Location – Though there are many warm and hot springs in the Solomon Islands. Saikotulu and Koheka. (population about 40.

Expected benefits of PIRGADI in The Solomon Islands – The geochemical survey results should indicate the hottest geothermal sites and the geophysical study results should suggest the probable depths to the thermal reservoir(s) and the best places in which to drill slim or production-scale wells in the next development phase(s). on the island of Hawaii where very high temperature geothermal reservoirs have been discovered. and prior to the coup of June 2000. Saikotolu and Koheka springs. Kunjuko. thermal springs and bare.7 square kilometres along the Ngokosole and Ulo Rivers which empty into the sea along the northeast coast of the island. d.(iv) Power sales prices – The energy sales prices are: • High voltage bulk supply • Domestic/residential • Industrial/commercial (v) 75.50 cents per kWh 55. generally within the northwestern quadrant of the island. These mountains are aligned along an east-west trending rift zone that resembles the lower East Rift Zone. Geothermal surface phenomena – At Paraso on Vella Lavella Island. Temperatures range from 38-63oC (100-145oF). but the geothermometric equilibrium temperature calculated is 160oC (320oF). These active volcanoes are situated in the vicinity of Latitude 13o 38’S and Longitude 172o 30’E. e. demand for electricity in the Solomon Islands was growing at a steady 6% per annum. This information should materially decrease the perceived resource-related risks for future project developers. Samoa a. E-Scan. Location – Though there are no hot springs described in the Samoa group of island’s geologic or volcanologic literature. In the post-coup era. 15 . CSAMT or conventional dipole resistivity surveys should then be conducted in both areas to assess the shallow and deep electrical resistivity regimes. based on the calculated heat flow from the hot springs. through the end of 2001. leaving market-related matters as the critical project-viability determinants.75 cents per kWh 82. Proposed PIRGADI project activities – At both the Paraso and the Nggurara thermal sites the waters and gases should be resampled and the geothermometry recalculated using the most modern techniques. which is adequate for use in power generation. 1902. This site includes the Nggurara. there are three volcanoes on the island of Savai’i that have erupted within recorded historical times (1760. Previous workers in the area have estimated a potential for generation of 300 MWe. is the Nggurara geothermal area.50 cents per kWh Estimated future demand growth – Until 1999. unvegetated ground cover about 1. near Kiluea. The springs appear to be localized by a well developed north-south trending fault system that transects geologically young andesitic lavas. the demand declined 10%. Temperatures range from 32-96oC (89-205oF) and significant quantities of H S and CO2 2 are emitted. Geologic mapping in the areas should also be accomplished at the same time. On the northwestern corner of Guadalcanal Island. about five kilometres inland. and 1905-1911). c. within steep. difficult-to-access mountainous terrain. Current (2002) forecasts are for demand to increase at about 3% per annum for the next three years.

4 MWe. the geologic mapping and of any geochemical analyses are geothermally encouraging. however it is known that lava was vented from Matavanu volcano between 1905 and 1911 and that a steam vent reportedly diverted the flows away from the grave of a locally venerated nun. If the results of the reconnaissance surveys. Generation cost – No current power generation in Samoa. a thorough search of Savai’i should be made for surface evidence of subsurface heat. Private diesel generators are used as well.5 MWe. (ii) (iii) Fuel Types – Diesel and hydroelectric plants are used to generate power in Samoa. c.9 MWe with a de-rated (available) capacity of 3. On Upolu (the main island of the Samoan group).2 MWe diesel generator was installed on Upolu to increase the installed capacity. This is supported by the fact that Holocene age basic lavas have been mapped in the area. There are reported to be about 50. Samoa is unique in comparison to its Pacific island neighbors as it is considered to be 95% electrified. a new 4. Therefore it is considered likely that there are magma chambers beneath Savai’i and that subsurface heat still exists and can be discovered in the vicinity of one or more of the Savai’i volcanoes. The installed capacities are 12. then one or more geophysical surveys should be conducted to assess the shallow and deep electrical resistivity regimes. In September 2001. The Japanese are currently considering the development of a hydropower scheme for Savai’i.b.4 MWe and 16 MWe respectively. electricity generated from both hydropower and diesel supplies the capital city of Apia and surrounding communities. Any thermal waters or gases found should be sampled and the geothermometric equilibration temperatures should be calculated. The guide-services of any residents familiar with the local geology should be obtained and all prospective sites should be examined and described. with a firm total capacity of 20. Proposed PIRGADI project activities – First. d. Status of power generation – Electric power on the island of Savai’i is diesel generated and provides power to 85% of the island including the town of Salelologa. Geologic mapping in these areas should also be accomplished at the same time. The rest of the island uses kerosene for lighting.000 people living on Savai’i who live in villages spread along the coastal areas where electricity is not generally available. (i) Capacities – The current total installed diesel capacity on Savai’i island is 4. figures are available for the cost of (iv) Power sales prices – The unit retail price for electricity in Samoa is as follows: 50 sene per kWh for 0-50 kWh 60 sene per kWh for 51-200 kWh 72 sene per kWh for 201 plus kWh (v) Estimated future demand growth – It is estimated that the annual growth in power demand will be about 4%. there is contemporary seismicity in the archipelago and the event described above. Geothermal surface phenomena – There are no overt geothermal surface phenomena described in the literature reviewed to date. 16 .

Other SOPAC region countries Several other island countries within the SOPAC region may have geothermal potential and may request reconnaissance investigations during the conduct of the PIRGADI. Expected benefits of PIRGADI in Samoa – A detailed survey of the island will hopefully result in the discovery of “hot spots”. geochemical and initial non-resource-related studies in up to two such additional countries. The geochemical survey results should indicate where the highest geothermometric temperatures are to be found and the geophysical study results should suggest the probable depths to the geothermal reservoir(s) and the best places in which to drill slim or production-scale wells in the next development phase(s). The budget and schedule presented below includes funds and time for undertaking geologic. 17 . This information should materially decrease the perceived resource-related risks for future project developers. leaving only market-related matters as the critical project-viability determinants.e.

5. in these two countries. Budget Estimate for Proposed PIRGADI Activities This budget covers activities described in the specific country sections presented above. Analysis of the bids received. b. deep 24 months Reduce to 2 areas 6 months 2 areas Areas not yet found 4 months Areas not yet found 4 months 5. Indicative Costs: US$’000 Activity Fiji Vanuatu PNG Solomon Samoa Others Total Surface surveys Reconnaissance Geology & Chemistry Geophysics Coord & Reporting Contingency 10% 55 0 0 0 6 61 27 0 0 0 3 30 36 25 600 86 75 822 30 10 200 22 26 288 20 5 100 20 10 155 17 3 0 13 3 36 185 43 850 141 123 1392 Science Totals Deep Drilling Access & Site Mobilization Well Drilling Testing & Evaluation Design & Supervision Contingency 10% 170 150 1181 240 140 188 2069 250 300 1200 180 127 206 2263 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 420 450 2381 420 267 394 4332 Drilling Totals Program Totals Notes 2130 2293 822 288 155 36 5724 6 slim wells 800 m.5 years estimated to complete the PIRGADI. g. f. the recommended drilling programs alone. c. Actual drilling operations and moves between sites.5 years Estimated Schedule 4 months Costs are based on 2001 information sopacbudgetC. Proposed Activity Schedule Despite the fact that no surface geoscientific studies are planned in Fiji or Vanuatu. Preparation of site access and the drilling locations. Negotiation of drilling contracts. h.doc 6. may require 4 of the total 5. i. Transport of the drill(s) and equipment to the sites. Acquisition of the rights of ingress and egress to these sites. d. deep 24 months 4 slim wells 1800 m. k. j. Issuance of “Requests for Bids” to drill. Verification of the locations of the sites to be drilled. e. Acquisition of all the rights and permits needed to drill. Included in the activities to be conducted within the 24 months allocated for Fiji and Vanuatu work are: a. Generation of bidding documents. and Flow testing of wells. 18 .

These could cause delays in progress and increase the time (and cost) needed to finish the PIRGADI. The first two months would be spent examining the seven geothermal sites on the north coast of New Britain. it can be determined that by replacing dieselfueled generation with geothermally generated power. If no overt geothermal phenomena are discovered on Savai’i Island. it should be noted that the times allocated to the various activities described above are considered to be conservative. the $US 5.053/kWh. 7.Six months have been scheduled for PIRGADI work in Papua New Guinea. The proposed schedule described above assumes that PIRGADI work would be conducted serially in several countries.048 and $US 0. the full PIRGADI might be shortened from an estimated 5. The existing generators consume between 0. the whole PIRGADI might be undertaken in as little as 2 years. Obviously.7 million would be paid off in 5 years for an approximate ROI of 20%. that work could be done simultaneously in one or more countries.4 years. If only one 3 MW geothermal project is built. It is possible.42 million (not counting any interest income derived by investment of saved money) and the PIRGADI costs would be repaid 130 %. the savings accrued by eventual development of 15. on the basis of the earlier studies analyzing results and reporting conclusions and recommendations. The conclusion is that expenditure of funds to conduct PIRGADI is prudent. 1 month would be needed to examine and sample the geothermal areas and then 3 months would be spent conducting an electrical resistivity survey in the most prospective area. beneficial and can be costeffective for the geothermally-rich SOPAC region countries. 19 .21 and 0. Nevertheless.000 can be saved annually per megawatt. In this case. cultural. The next four months would be spent conducting electrical resistivity surveys at the two sites deemed to be most prospective. Finally. In each country. If the PIRGADI costs $US 5. religious or other constraints may be expected.7 million.5 years to about 5.0574 per kilowatt hour Using an average price of $US 0. If such a 3 MW plant runs for only 20 years. Samoa and possibly in up to two other countries within the SOPAC region. if more than one geothermal project is built and/or more than 3 MW are installed. it has been assumed that: • • • • Diesel fuel can be bought for $US 30 per 159 litre barrel. however. sampling fluids and calculating geothermometric equilibration temperatures. about $US 371. Potential fuel-cost savings attributable to geothermal replacement of diesel fuel For this calculation. Diesel-fueled generators in SOPAC member countries are now available for service 80% of the time (7008 hours per year). savings and the benefit to cost ratio will increase significantly. and/or if no other SOPAC region countries request geothermal investigations. Samoa.4 MW of geothermal power within the SOPAC region will recover the PIRGADI cost in 1 (one) year. political. the accrued fuel cost savings will be $US 7. Four months of PIRGADI work have been scheduled in the Solomon Islands.25 kilograms of fuel per kilowatt-hour of power produced and The fuel-only current cost to generate electricity is therefore between $US 0. BARBER NICHOLS ENG. WILLIAMS 515 West Greens Road Houston. BAKER HUGHES INTEQ NIC NICKELS 2050 W. TX 77067 Phone: 713/874-0035 Fax: 713/872-5205 DRILL COOL SYSTEMS.. NV 89431-6039 Phone: 775/356-9029 Fax: 775/356-9039 e-mail: ormatintl@ormat. HUTTRER 770 Smithridge 20 . CO 80002 Phone: 303/421-8111 Fax: 303/420-4679 e-mail: e-mail: ghuttrer@colorado. G. INC.. Suite 300 Pasadena. Suite 600 San Francisco. GEOTHERMAL MANAGEMENT CO. Water St. #550 Box 2425. INC. INC. KEN NICHOLS 6325 West 55th St. CA 95426 Phone: 707/987-0837 Fax: 707/987-3921 BIBB and ASSOCIATES. C/O WEATHERFORD UBD JOHN BOYLE 515 Post Oak Blvd. ELWOOD CHAMPNESS 627 Williams Street Bakersfield. NV 89502 Frisco. INC. Box 361 NABORS INDUSTRIES DARRELL W. SUBIR SANYAL 5221 Central DAMES AND MOORE JILL HAIZLIP 221 Main Street. Inc.nv. GARY SHULMAN 1460 W.. DAN SCHOCHET 980 Greg Street Sparks.. Suite C-1 Santa Rosa. Suite 201 ORMAT. TX 77027 Phone: 713/693-4000 Fax: 713/693-4270 e-mail: john.Garg@saic. CA 91101-3094 Phone: 626/795-6866 Fax: 626/584-9210 e-mail: pmesser@bibbla.K. CA 93305-5445 Phone: 805/633-2665 Fax: 805/327-5890 e-mail: Tom@kernSteel.nickels@inteq. Arvada. CA 95403 Phone: 707/523-1751 Fax: 707/523-1398 e-mail: nic.. CO.APPENDIX A – List of USGIC Shareholding Companies AIR DRILLING SERVICE. Suite 600 Houston. Steele Lane. Suite 202 GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOC. INC. CA 94105 Phone: 415/896-5858 Fax: 707/882-9261 BALLEW TOOL COMPANY LEON & DEBRA BALLEW P. CA 94804 Phone: 510/527-9876 Fax: 510/527-8164 e-mail: geothermex@compuserve.MARTIN BOOTH GERALD GEOTHERMAL POWER SAIC SABODH GARG 10260 Campus Point Drive. M/S X1137 San Diego. NY 14905 Phone: 607/733-1027 Fax: 607/734-2709 GEOTHERMEX. CA 92121 Phone: 858/826-1615 Fax: 858/826-1652 e-mail: Sabodh. 720 Granite St. INC.reno. PHILIP MESSER 201 South Lake Ave. CO 80443 Phone: 775/825-5800 Phone: 970/668-3465 Fax: 775/825-4880 Fax: 970/668-3074 e-mail: mbooth@gda.

edu WILLIAMS TOOL CO. Suite 300 Salt Lake City.utah. WILLIAMS Box 6155 Fort Smith AR 72906 Phone: 501/646-8866 Fax: 501/646-3502 21 .ENERGY & GEOSCIENCE INSTITUTE DENNIS NIELSON 423 Wakara Way. UT 84108 Phone: 801/581-5126 Fax: 801/585-3540 e-mail: dnielson@egi. INC. JOHN R.

APPENDIX B – Curricula Vitae for SOPAC and USGIC PIRGADI geoscientists to be involved with the PIRGADI 22 .

2006) Director on the Circum-Pacific Council Chair of the PacificGOOS Steering Committee Member of the SEREAD Steering Committee Member of the Royal Commonwealth Society .Nov 1981: May 1972 . USA 1976 Advanced Management Programme 92.Feb 1998: Nov 1991 . SOPAC Secretariat. QUALIFICATIONS: M. NZ. Fiji MRD. Principal Geologist Mapping-Hydrogeology Senior Hydrogeologist. Suva. Fiji.Nov 1991: Nov 1981 .Nov 1983: Jan 1978 . UK. Colorado State 23 . Phone:(679) 338-1377 Fax: (679) 337-0040 email:russell@sopac. Otago University.SOPAC British / New Zealand Married South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) Private Mail Bag GPO. Dr RUSSELL HOWORTH POSITION: NATIONALITY: MARITAL STATUS WORK ADDRESS: Deputy Director . Australian Management Staff College. Mt Eliza 1986 PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIP & SOCIETIES: Member of the International Marine Minerals Society (IMMS) Member of the ISBA Legal & Technical Commission (1997 .CURRICULUM VITAE FOR SOPAC GEOSCIENTISTS ALFRED THOMAS SIMPSON POSITION: NATIONALITY: MARITAL STATUS: WORK ADDRESS: Director . Director of Mineral Development and Mines. Assistant Director of Mineral Development.Jan 1978: Director SOPAC Deputy Director. Present Jan 1995 . 1981 BSc (Geology).SOPAC Fiji Islander Married South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) Private Mail Bag GPO. University of Birmingham. 1972 Diploma in Groundwater Studies.Fiji Branch EMPLOYMENT HISTORY: Feb 1998 . Fiji.Jan 1995: Nov 1983 . Fiji. Fiji MRD. Phone:(679) 338-1377 Fax: (679) 337-0040 email:alf@sopac. Fiji .Sc (Hydrogeology).

He has carried out geological work for all island countries in the South Pacific. Sixteen years operational and management experience in the pacific region initially in the capacity as a hydropower adviser to a national energy programme. USP and Victoria University of Wellington to offer a unique opportunity for an academic course with a practical focus for technicians previously unavailable in the region.Dr Russell Howorth is the Deputy Director at the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission based in Suva. and in that capacity was involved with the career development and opportunities of many young people in the region. The Certificate brought together SOPAC. Providing 24 .SOPAC New Zealand Married South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) Private Mail Bag GPO. Civil Engineering – New Zealand Certificate in Drafting – New Zealand Certificate in Engineering – University Entrance PROFILE: • • Ten years professional engineering experience with the Ministry of Works and Development (MWD – New Zealand).org QUALIFICATIONS: 1997/8 1996 1980 1980 1978 1977 1976 1972 1971 1968 – Financial Economics (Massey University) – Diploma in Financial Economics (University of London) – Registered Engineer (MIPENZ) – Registered Construction Diver – Qualified Scuba Diving Instructor – NZ Registered Safety Supervisor – B. including design in the electricity / power sector on hydropower and geothermal electricity generating schemes. SOPAC is an intergovernmental regional body with fifteen member. He has written over 60 research and scientific papers and 58 other publications. Suva. Fiji. Subsequently with the regional energy programme formerly under the South Pacific Forum Secretariat and now based at the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC). and two associate member governments. A major achievement was the establishment and teaching of the Certificate in Earth Science and Marine Geology.E. Phone:(679) 338-1377 Fax: (679) 337-0040 email:paul@sopac. Until 1997 he was Training Coordinator at SOPAC. PAUL LEONARD FAIRBAI RN POSITION: NATIONALITY: MARITAL STATUS WORK ADDRESS: Energy Manager . Dr Howorth was appointed Program Manger in 1997 and in 2002 as Deputy Director. Most of these reflect his work in the small island developing states of the region. Fiji. dam surveillance. Dr Howorth is a geologist and has worked in the region for twenty-two years.

and regional and international donors and organisations. Ability to work within a wide range of energy technologies and disciplines. • Highly developed and effective public consultation. organisation and management. cultures and associated energy sector programmes with an understanding of the climate change negotiation and commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. adaptable. • Assisted management in the preparation briefing papers and the documentation for a multimillion-dollar regional project. Motivated. regional and national training and institutional strengthening. state-of-the-art technologies. analytical and problem solving situations including the responsibilities for identification of new financing opportunities. • Provision of advice on programmes and projects regarding technical matters including trends. colleagues and clients. • Managed and coordinated effective national and regional energy programmes. and assisting in directing the development of national energy sectors. management. liaison. monitor and undertake ongoing review of project and programme financial performance targets. database and basic programming. and preparation of tender documents and appointment of consultants. Computer literate and proficient at word processing. Project Management • Established and managed an engineering consultancy in the Solomon Islands including providing the Project Management role for a wharf and township infrastructure at Noro. symposia and technical meetings. • Networking and cooperation between other relevant regional programmes including associated Units within the parent organisation. undertaking planning. diplomatic. • Provision of technical advice on programmes and projects. negotiating. programme promotion. • Establish. communication skills implemented at all levels of government. fiscal management and monitoring an annual budget for work programme and project activities. • Developed and lead an effective team of professional staff. SOPAC. operational requirements. Representation of the Pacific island countries at regional and international conferences. donors and other regional and international organisations. spreadsheets. prioritisation and coordination. culturally sensitive and committed to country requirements. fair. • Project management experience in capital. project management. • Programme and project financial reporting annually to member countries and as required to management. needs identification. • A logical and innovative approach to dealing with conceptual. • Work in a wide and diverse range of energy sector environments including Pacific Island Energy Offices. including financial and economic considerations. demonstration and pilot projects.• • • • technical advice and services to the Pacific island countries / economies at Ministerial and Energy Planner level including the provision of advice to regional donors and organisations. programme and project implementation. 25 . resource allocation and financial performance. Regional and International Organisations. funding for support technical staff. SKILLS AND ACHIEVEMENTS Human Resources and Leadership Skills • Well developed team leadership skills with proven ability to gain confidence and respect of colleagues and staff. Financial and Organisation Management • Capabilities in preparing.

Phone:(679) 338-1377 Fax: (679) 337-0040 email:anare@sopac. Prepared and successfully secured project funding for a range of projects including. focusing on energy and Ministerial briefing papers. • A range of experience in completing needs analysis and feasibility studies for energy sector development projects and proposals. demand side management technical assistance. • Assist in the development of national energy policy statements including developing strategies for the implementation of priority energy activities focusing on the reduction of imported fossil fuels through efficiency and conservation projects and programmes and the introduction of renewable energy technologies. regional wind energy programme. • Provide planning advice on appropriate technology choices to meet national sector requirements. UTS 1999).org QUALIFICATIONS: Qualification: ME (Energy Planning and Policy. Suva. SOPAC Appointed Principal Energy Analyst. Experience in establishing baseline parameters for project monitoring and management including reporting on the effectiveness and impact of projects and programmes. tender documents including consultation and definition of brief with key stakeholders. Department of Energy Appointed Energy Analyst. regional biomass resource assessment.• • • Experienced in the preparation of project profiles and proposals. • Expertise in developing policies and strategies for the energy sector including the development of information and energy database. Strategic Planning • Development of long term strategic plans and programmes through the preparation of logical planning frameworks. terms of reference. Fiji.SOPAC Fiji Islander Married South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) Private Mail Bag GPO. BED (Technology) USP 1988) PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE: 2000 1995 1994 1992 1990 Appointed Energy Adviser. • The preparation of regional position papers in particular for the Ninth Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD9). ANARE MATAKIVITI POSITION: NATIONALITY: MARITAL STATUS WORK ADDRESS: Energy Adviser . Department of Energy Appointed Senior Energy Analyst. memorandum of understanding. Department of Energy Appointed Graduate Trainee. Department of Energy 26 .

Current Responsibilities as Energy Adviser at SOPAC include: § Coordinating regional energy development projects and regional initiatives that are implemented under. seminars and workshops related to the work of the Energy Unit. In 1997 worked with a Forum Secretariat Energy Consultant surveying selected rural villages in Tonga and Fiji to ascertain the impact of rural electrification in electrified villages and at the same time determine what un-electrified villages expectations of electricity. providing technical. wind etc. facilitating and coordinating regional and national training activities. wave. § Evaluating and reviewing the socio-economic and technical merits of activities and initiatives in the energy sectors of member countries and providing technical and policy advice where appropriate. § Appraising project proposals from member countries. energy conservation and efficiency practices and providing the appropriate advice to member countries with the view to transferring the technologies and practices. Participated in an urban energy survey carried out by the Department of Energy in 1993. The result led to the review of the rural electrification policy that eventually led to the adoption of the 1994 Rural Electrification Policy. monitoring their performance and reviewing their consultancy reports. Providing assistance in the drafting of terms of reference and contracts for consultants. coordinating and providing technical assistance on the implementation of their projects under the Small Energy Projects Program. § Appraising member countries’ requests for consultancy assistance. 27 . Appointed in 1994 to head the newly established Rural Electrification Unit in the Department of Energy and to oversee the implementation of the new Rural Electrification Policy. § Conducting. In 1992 carried a survey of diesel rural electrification schemes that were constructed under the 1973 Rural Electrification Policy. Coordinate the constructions of two village based hydropower schemes. solar. biomass. or have an impact on.ENERGY SECTOR EXPERIENCE: Appointed Administrator of the Lome II PV Follow-up Project and coordinated the work undertaken to upgrade about 60 individual solar lighting systems in Namara. Involved in rural energy projects. § Identifying the renewable energy potentials in member countries. implementing. Kadavu. § Monitoring. the Energy Unit’s Work Program or the energy sectors of member countries. appraising and evaluating the technological progress in renewable and conventional energy technologies. Participated in a Participatory Rural Appraisal for Rural Electrification in two villages in Kadavu to test the approach as a tool for planning. policy and economic advice on how these resources should be extracted and utilized. where appropriate. geothermal. hydro. evaluation and monitoring of rural electrification projects.

Huttrer conducts his geothermal energy. an 18 member consortium of American geothermal firms that collaborate to more effectively sell their goods and services outside the USA. Inc. Huttrer is also Certified to train installers of geothermal heat pump ground loops and has been the Rapporteur at the 1990 (Hawaii. has concentrated almost exclusively on geothermal exploration and development. a member of the Board of the Geothermal Energy Association. Mr. design of advanced geothermal drills and land evaluations ranging from a few acres to entire (small) countries. is President of Geothermal Management Company. Vice President-Business Development. Executive Vice President and President. district and space heating. He is a multi-term Director and a past President of the Geothermal Resources Council. Huttrer is investigation of the potential for initiation of small-scale geothermal power and/or direct-use projects in developing countries including Fiji. Geothermal Industries Corporation.A. Mr. high. Italy) and 2000 (Beppu and Morioka. Papua New Guinea. Huttrer's has held positions of significant corporate responsibility within the geothermal industry including those of Chief Geologist. 1995 (Florence. He is also (since 1990) President of U. He has worked in all of the western United States and in 27 foreign countries. (a small Colorado energy development company) and is licensed as a geologist and an engineering geologist in California.SUMMARY RESUMES OF USGIC GEOSCIENTISTS GERALD W. A specialty field for Mr. Huttrer earned his B. Vanuatu. He worked for 8 years on international and domestic engineering geology and mineral exploration projects and. and New Zealand. (GMC) a firm that was established in March 1987 as a vehicle through which Mr. the President of CHS Inc. HUTTRER Gerald W. Mr. Exploration Manager. Japan) “World Geothermal Congresses” responsible for summarizing the status of geothermally generated electric power for all of the nations of the world. Huttrer. 28 . in geology in 1960 from Dartmouth College and an M. heat pump-related and mineral exploration consulting businesses. Huttrer has had consulting roles in numerous public and private sector geothermal projects including some related to electric power generation. S. Mr. i n geology in 1963 from the University of Washington. US). technical analyes of geothermal heat pump heat exchangers. since 1971. medium and low temperature drilling and project development.S.

the total financed being nearly US $7. Greece.C. MacBan. Dr. reservoir engineering. Karaha. and permitting and coordination with government regulatory agencies. Kochani (Yugoslavia). Kokubu. and became President of the company in 1995. Stillwater. Granados. Sanyal has also assisted clients in geothermal power sales and steam sales contract negotiations. Puna (Hawaii). economic analysis. President and Manager of Reservoir Engineering Dr. Patuha. Brawley and Mammoth (California). Italy).000 MW of geothermal power. Sanyal was a Consulting Professor and Manager of the Petroleum Research Institute at Stanford University. Sanyal has worked as a reservoir engineer since 1969. Zugdidi (Republic of Georgia). Brazil and The Philippines. design and supervision of construction for civil works (pads.000.000. and provided advice and due diligence for project financing in numerous countries. power plants have now been installed at most of these sites. Ahuachapán and Berlín (El Salvador). in Petroleum Engineering from Stanford University.000. Wasabizawa. Sanyal joined GeothermEx in 1980 as Vice President and Manager of Reservoir Engineering Services. The Philippines. and so on. Unalaska (Alaska). Mexico. Granados has been active in geothermal exploration. supervision of drilling and workover of geothermal wells. Vice President of Geonomics.. Inc. Takigami and Niseko (Japan). this has enabled the generation of more than 6. Bolivia. Salton Sea. Latera and Mofete (Italy). Costa Rica. Sanyal. and undertaken assessment of geothermal fields in two dozen countries around the world. preparation of drilling specifications and bid documents. he has managed major geothermal projects in the United States. Subir K. specification and design of instrumentation for production wells. Momotombo and San Jacinto (Nicaragua). These fields include: The Geysers. Sanyal has a Ph. To date. Japan. Dieng. roads.) and the International Geothermal Association (Pisa. California). design and supervision of geothermal well tests. Wairakei and Ohaaki (New Zealand). Dixie Valley. and software development. He serves on the Board of Directors of the Geothermal Resources Council (Davis. Senior Staff Specialist for the United States Geological Survey. Before joining GeothermEx in 1980. Geothermal Energy Association (Washington. D. Dr. Consulting Engineer for Scientific Software Corporation. and joined GeothermEx in 1984. East Mesa. Desert Peak and Brady’s (Nevada). Dr. His expertise includes project financing and management. 29 . Miravalles (Costa Rica). Olkaria (Kenya). Dr.D. Beowawe. numerical simulation. Coso. Dr. Nicaragua. and a Senior Petroleum Engineer for Texaco. He has conducted technology transfer programs in Japan. Soda Lake. sumps). Oku Aizu.SUMMARY RESUMES OF GEOTHERMEX PERSONNEL § Dr. He has been author or co-author of more than 100 technical publications. Dr. property appraisals. and a Master's degree in Petroleum Engineering from the University of Birmingham (England). Sanyal has served as an expert witness in numerous litigations. Since 1975. He speaks and reads Spanish and can read Russian. Wayang Windu. Zunil and Amatitlán (Guatemala). property appraisals and market studies. Minami Aizu. Leyete and BacMan (Philippines). His expertise includes geothermal well design and drilling engineering. Indonesia. Hakkoda. Guatemala and Italy. Tiwi. Asal (Djibouti). Uenotai. training of reservoir engineers. Eduardo E. drilling. Inc. Sanyal has led teams of specialists in the assessment of many well known geothermal fields. Steamboat. Palinpinon. Heber. Kamojang and Darajat (Indonesia). Vice President and Manager of Drilling Services Mr. and well testing continuously since 1975.

managed drilling budget. Zunil and Amatitlán in Guatemala. His expertise includes: planning and management of geothermal drilling and well testing programs. Major accomplishments include: planning and managing the drilling and workover of six deep (to 11. and can read and speak German and Portuguese. In the United States. and received an M. Lihir Island in Papua New Guinea. geological. Prior to joining GeothermEx. He also has a B. Granados has given numerous lectures and short courses in the U. technical and financial control of geothermal development and operations. permitting and regulatory compliance. statistical and economic assessment of geothermal resources. Berlin in El Salvador. Momotombo in Nicaragua. chemical analysis. In addition. and geochemical sampling. well control. well testing. detailed petrographic and petrologic analysis (transmitted and reflected light microscopy. He has also been trained at the United Nations Center for Geothermal Research in Pisa. geothermal resource assessment and regulatory issues. well testing and civil engineering at Miravalles geothermal field. Mr. he was responsible for drilling. and Valle de Anton in Panama. He speaks. Gerlach and Bradys in Nevada. Mr. Uenotai in Japan. Coso. Coso and Heber in California. Dieng and Patuha in Indonesia. Roger speaks. which he earned from Stanford University in 1978. Mammoth. East Mesa. wellsite geology and technical monitoring of drilling operations at numerous geothermal fields. fluid inclusion studies). Henneberger was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship to study geothermal energy in New Zealand. development of analytical and financial software.400 feet) steam wells in the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field. assessment of geological hazards. Cerro Prieto in Mexico. Puna in Hawaii. degree in Geology. Mr. Granados has provided drilling or well testing services at the following fields: Wayang Windu. Mr. Miravalles. Granados has a Master's degree in Petroleum Engineering from Stanford University and a Bachelor's degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Costa Rica. data analysis and the construction of surface facilities in numerous geothermal fields around the world. roads and camp facilities. reads and writes Spanish. Steamboat. he has participated in devising appropriate regulations to govern geothermal development in several countries. Ricon de la Vieja and Tenorio in Costa Rica. He designed and supervised the drilling of nine deep full-diameter wells and 46 temperature core holes. Central America and South America on drilling. design. and speaks and reads French and Italian. Rye Patch. downhole measurements and geochemical sampling at Brady's Hot Springs. Mr. reads and writes Spanish. well targeting and design of directional drilling programs.. In addition to his engineering skills. Amatitlán 30 . Italy. Granados has worked on all aspects of geothermal well drilling. instrumentation and downhole measurements in geothermal wells. Manager of Earth Sciences Mr. well testing. During that time. Henneberger has been a geologist with GeothermEx since 1984. clay mineralogy. coordination and implementation of wellsite geology. electron microscopy.Sc. conducted numerous well logging and testing programs. Steamboat.S. x-ray diffraction. design and management of computerized data bases. Henneberger. Overseas. testing. Zugdidi in Georgia. assessment of the technical and financial status of drilling and development operations at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in Mexico.S. and Vail in Oregon. Soda Lake. designed civil works and supervised the construction of well pads. Granados worked for Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE.Mr. Mr. well testing. negotiated with drilling contractors. Granados has provided such services at the following fields: The Geysers. § Roger C. degree in Geology with First Class Honors in 1983. the Costa Rican national utility) from 1975 to 1984.

and planning and supervision of the drilling of more than 10 succes sful steam wells.S. manipulating and interpreting data from geodetic leveling surveys. degree in Geology from Florida Atlantic University in 1981. Cerro Prieto. project management. Her expertise includes: interpretation of downhole data from geothermal wells. evaluated productivity decline trends and assessed injection benefits at The Geysers steam field. This work included the use of geodetic computer programs for coordinate transformation and survey network adjustment. Ms. development of conceptual hydrogeologic models from multi-disciplinary data. § Ann Robertson-Tait. Gerlach. 31 . Indonesia. California. and Puna (Hawaii). geophysical data to develop conceptual models and estimate the recoverable geothermal energy reserves for numerous geothermal fields around the world. Latera. Dieng (Indonesia). Robertson-Tait was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship to study geothermal energy in New Zealand. Nevada and Oregon. Ann has compiled steam production data. Roger estimated ore reserves and developed computer-based systems for ore deposit simulation using modern geostatistical techniques. Roger was a Field Geologist for Noranda Exploration in Reno. California. Fish Lake Valley. preparation of proposals. and can speak and read Spanish and French. Santa Fe (now FPL Energy). Hawaii. Italy. Mammoth (Long Valley). Mammoth (Long Valley). converted and analyzed 25 years of leveling survey data to develop an accessible. Mexico.(Guatemala). Ann was a Research Associate for the Ministry of Works and Development in Taupo. Guatemala. scheduling and budgeting. Uenotai. Ann has specialized in the integration of geological. where he performed geologic mapping and core logging at a molybdenum prospect. Senior Geologist / Business Manager Ms. Wasabizawa. As an Associate Geologist for Fluor Mining and Metals. Steamboat. and Amatitlán. Recent examples include: Karaha . design and supervision of temperature gradient and slim hole drilling programs at several locations in California. Since joining GeothermEx. Unocal. organized database. New Zealand. water sampling and mapping for a salt water intrusion monitoring program. Salton Sea. Dixie Valley. Dixie Valley. Nevada. Japan. Nevada. NCPA and Geothermal Energy Partners (Aidlin). Prior to joining GeothermEx. municipal and industrial users. for areas of the field operated by Calpine Corporation. The Geysers. California. Japan. Patuha. determination of recoverable geothermal energy reserves. economic evaluation and cash flow analysis of existing and proposed geothermal operations in the US and overseas. Indonesia. She received her B. and received a Master's degree in Geology from the University of Auckland in 1984. and compilation and analysis of long term water-use data from agricultural. Geological Survey in Menlo Park. Stillwater and Empire (Nevada). She has also analyzed production data for compliance with bank financing requirements at The Geysers. doing pump test analysis of groundwater wells. Prior to joining GeothermEx. Soda Lake. where she compiled. Geo Operator Company (CCPA).Telaga Bodas. Nevada. and developed a detailed model of the subsurface geology in leases held by NCPA at The Geysers.S. Puna. geochemical. integration of geoscientific and engineering analyses to solve resource development and management problems. Coso and East Mesa (all in California). She also worked as an Associate Hydrogeologist for the South Florida Water Management District. and São Miguel (the Azores). and marketing and public relations. At the U. he developed a comprehensive computer package for storing. risk analysis. Robertson-Tait has been a permanent employee of GeothermEx since 1985. Lihir Island (Papua New Guinea) East Mesa.

interpretation of downhole data from geothermal wells and of chemical data from well tests. Azores. set-up and personnel training. Philippines. Senior Geochemist Dr. Japan. His geological experience includes structural geology. tracer testing. for use by Akita Geothermal Energy Company in its operation of the Uenotai geothermal field. well test monitoring and hydrogeochemical modeling at the Dieng. sampling equipment design and fabrication. He developed chemistry database software and chemical equilibrium thermodynamics software design. integrated with reservoir engineering data. and the relationships of resource evaluation and resource management to geology. Berkeley. brine composition and temperature. sampling and analysis procedures at the Volcan do Fogo geothermal field. Examples of his recent experience include a study of non-condensable gas evolution at the Uenotai geothermal field in Japan. scaling and corrosion studies. Panama. He speaks. Guatemala. He designed a fluorescein tracer test. Klein has a Ph. California. 32 . and writes Spanish. Imperial Valley. Iran and Papua New Guinea. Coso. fluids chemistry thermodynamic modeling software. database management. Indonesia. His geochemical expertise includes the fluid and isotope chemistry of geothermal systems. geology. Klein has been the senior geochemist at GeothermEx since 1974. fluids sampling. well logging and hydrogeologic modeling. did tracer analyses and trained local personnel in tracer injection. lecturing on geothermal chemistry. purchased equipment. Dr. Costa Rica. Sao Miguel. Japan. including the USA (The Geysers. hydrogeology and well drilling.D. He conducted fluid chemistry sampling and analysis. Christopher W. scale inhibition and control. Imperial Valley. well testing. field lab design. field analysis systems and laboratory design. hydrogeologic modeling. sites in Nevada). mineralogy. His expertise includes geochemistry. installation and training. reads. in Geology from Harvard University and a Bachelor's degree in Chemistry from the University of California.Dr. fluids chemistry database and spreadsheet software. He evaluated and quantified Zn concentrations in relation to chemical equilibria. to support a numerical simulation of long-term Zn production and extraction at the Salton Sea geothermal reservoir. Patuha and Wayang Windu geothermal fields in Indonesia. set-up and management. Honduras. He has worked on geothermal geochemistry in nearly every country with geothermal resources around the world. Klein. training in sampling and analysis methods. geochemistry.

Nevada. Nuclear. exploration and mineral property assessment. June 1968 to Present Consulting Geologist. 1110 American Association of Petroleum Geologists– Energy Minerals (Geothermal. 1957 . Ely. and individuals. Inc. Clients: private companies. Geology. 33 . 1590 American Association of Petroleum Geologists– Certified Petroleum Geologist No. well site supervision. Federal and Nevada State government agencies. New Jersey Zinc Company. and California. Minnesota.SUMMARY RESUMES OF GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATES PERSONNEL G. Geothermal Development Associates. Reno. project management and coordination of foreign and domestic petroleum exploration projects. 1965 . in Denver. 192 Association of Professional Geological Scientists– Certified Professional Geologist No. Libya. Responsibilities included oil and gas prospect generation. New Jersey. in petroleum and mineral resources.Mackay School of Mines. Pennsylvania PROFESSIONAL REGISTRATION. oil submittal evaluation. joint venture operations. Ogdensburg. Summer of 1956 Field Geologist. Coal. investment groups. etc. emphasis on the intermountain region of Nevada. Summer of 1957 Underground Miner. Geology. June 1960 to June 1968 Exploration and Project Geologist with The Superior Oil Company and Superior Oil International. and Houston. International Nickel Company. economic evaluations. photogeologic/geomorphic mapping. Reno. MARTIN BOOTH III Geologist/President EDUCATION: M. field mapping. Colorado. Directs and Coordinates the company’s activities. University of Nevada-Reno Reno. utilities. regional geologic studies. Texas.) Geological Society of America Geothermal Resources Council International Geothermal Association PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYMENT: November 1978 to Present President and Director. Nevada B. Tripoli. CERTIFICATION & MEMBERSHIPS: State of California–Registered Geologist No. major areas of work and research are in geothermal resources and geology. Nevada.Franklin & Marshall College Lancaster. Utah.S.S.

This work has included power contract (PPA) development. Geothermal Development Associates. Former Reno Subchapter Chairman U. Nevada. September 1975 to December 1975: Research Assistant. Other experience in this time frame includes part-time teaching of power systems and network analysis courses at the University of Nevada-Reno.S. New Mexico Solar Energy Institute. project start-up supervision. MENDIVE. Reno. July 1973 to August 1974: Electrical Engineer I. entitled Energy in Nevada. Half-time research assignment to Division of Modeling and Analysis. Board of Directors PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYMENT 1978 to Present: Vice President. technical review and support in relation to project financing. 34 . power system design and analysis.S. Responsible for supervision and coordination of all engineering work performed by GDA. Electrical Engineering. Nevada Public Service Commission.Nevada #4851 (Electrical) and California #9117 (Electrical) Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers. Assignment as a half-time research assistant to the joint NMSU-Los Alamos super conducting dc transmission project. New Mexico State University. May 1977 to September 1977 Electrical Engineer II. Former Reno Subchapter Officer Geothermal Resources Council. The study entailed the collection and analysis of historical energy consumption data (electrical. formulation of economic models and development plans. operator training. P. Contract with the State of Nevada to perform the first comprehensive study of energy consumption in Nevada. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. The final report.). petroleum. 1975 B. Electrical Engineer/Vice President EDUCATION M. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. instrumentation and control system design. Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department. Electrical Engineering. New Mexico University of Nevada-Reno Reno. and negotiations. State of Nevada. coal. Nevada Public Service Commission. review. utility interconnection studies and negotiations. project management. and the development of long-range forecasts of consumption for each energy form in the major consumption sectors. transmission. as well as work performed for GDA’s own account as developers of geothermal energy resources. power market evaluation and load projections. April 1976 to May 1977: Consultant. natural gas. State of Nevada. Half-time assignment teaching undergraduate course in electromechanical energy conversion. and distribution facilities. including professional consulting services provided to GDA clients. primarily involved in wind and photovoltaic systems.DAVID L. September 1977 to July 1978: Research Associate. Primary responsibility was to advise and assist the Commission in matters relating to the regulation of electric utilities. Staff Engineer. CERTIFICATION & MEMBERSHIPS Professional Engineer . Performed technical review of several utility applications for construction of generation.S. Nevada PROFESSIONAL REGISTRATION. was printed in June 1977.E. etc. Primary responsibility was to advise and assist the Commission in matters relating to electric utility regulation. 1973 New Mexico State University Las Cruces. New Mexico State University. Geothermal Industries Corporation. electrical engineering. and manufacture of custom controls and instrumentation.