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A FUNDING PROPOSAL
SOPAC Miscellaneous Report - MR463
Sponsored by the
South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission
PACIFIC ISLAND REGIONAL GEOTHERMAL ASSESSMENT AND DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE
A FUNDING PROPOSAL
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This document is intended for use by potential providers of funding for a Pacific Island Regional Geothermal Assessment and Development Initiative, hereafter referred to as PIRGADI. It includes descriptions of the sponsoring and operating entities, introductory material concerning the nature of geothermal resources in general and in the SOPAC region specifically; rationales for the exploration and development of geothermal resources; descriptions of the power generation and geothermal situations in five selected SOPAC region countries; plans for conduct of PIRGADI activities in each country; the benefits of such work; and a budget and a program/work schedule. The sponsor of PIRGADI is the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC), an independent, inter-governmental organization established in 1972 for the purpose of improving the well being of its 18 member countries through the application of geoscience to the management and sustainable development of their natural resources. U.S. Geothermal Industries Corporation (USGIC) has agreed to use its expertise to complement that of the SOPAC staff so as to expedite exploitation of geothermal resources in the SOPAC region. USGIC is a consortium of 16 American firms, established in 1990 to collaboratively participate in the development of international geothermal projects. USGIC shareholding companies have the capabilities to undertake all activities related to such development. Four major reasons to undertake the PIRGADI are to: • Follow up on the encouraging results of a 1995 regional geothermal survey; • Develop indigenous geothermal energy resources sooner rather than later; • Help the economies of the geothermally-rich countries by reducing their reliance on expensive imported fossil fuels; • Increase local employment and develop human resources through training; and • Optimize use of environmentally benign renewable geothermal resources as fuel. Specifically, some of the advantages to the use of geothermal resources are that: • Fuel purchases are never needed for geothermal power plants; • There is long term (30 year+) potential for utilization of the renewable energy resource; • Geothermal plants have exceptionally high availability; • The operating and maintenance costs of geothermal plants are low; • Geothermal power project sizing can be flexible; • Geothermal power projects can also be sources of fluids for direct geothermal use; • Geothermal power plants emit minimal atmospheric pollutants; • Very little land area is required by geothermal power projects; • Geothermal power projects can be built in modules to allow for expansion; and • Geothermal power plants have few environmental impacts. The earth’s crust comprises many plates that are constantly in motion. The interactions of plates results in the creation of volcanoes and fracture zones along the plate boundaries and geothermal reservoirs are often found at relatively shallow depths in their vicinity.
Many of the SOPAC member island countries are located along crustal plate boundaries and are of volcanic origin. Accordingly, there is significant potential for discovery and/or confirmation of economically viable geothermal resources on these islands to develop. Fiji, Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Samoa are typical and have been selected as the sites for initial PIRGADI activities. PIRGADI work to be conducted in these five countries will include geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies as well as the drilling (in Fiji and Vanuatu only), of slim diameter confirmatory wells. The primary benefits of this work will be greatly improved characterization of the geothermal resources in each country including their chemistry, pressure, depth, areal extent, temperature, productibility and reliably indicate costs and risks that will be associated with their exploitation. The acquisition of all this information should greatly reduce the perceived risk for potential investors and developers who will, as a result of the investigation, be able to be furnished with all of the data, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations resulting from the PIRGADI activities. The estimated cost of the proposed PIRGADI is $US 5,674,000 and the estimated maximum time required to conduct the work is 5.5 years. The annual potential savings that can be realized by replacing diesel-fueled generation with geothermally fueled power have been calculated at $US 2.1-2.8 million per megawatt installed. Accordingly, if only 2.0-2.7 MW of geothermal power is built as a result of the PIRGADI, the entire $US 5.7 million cost of the initiative will be repaid in one year. If a 3 MW geothermal plant were to be run in the SOPAC region for 20 years, the savings would aggregate $US 4 2-56 million (without considering interest earned on invested savings). The conclusion is that investment in the PIRGADI is prudent. It will be very beneficial and cost-effective for the geothermally-rich SOPAC member countries.
................. ..... BUDGET ESTIMATE FOR PROPOSED PIRGADI ACTIVITIES ............ GEOTHERMAL INDUSTRIES CORPORATION ......... THE MEANING OF PIRGADI............ 4 1.......................... GEOLOGIC REASONS FOR THE GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL IN SOME S OUTH PACIFIC .... PROJECT RATIONALES AND OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................................................................... 8 Vanuatu .................. THE PROJECT SPONSOR .................. 10 Papua New Guinea ....................... 19 APPENDICES APPENDIX A – LIST OF USGIC SHAREHOLDING COMPANIES ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4 2......................S........................................................... 18 7...................... 3 SCOPE OF PIRGADI .........................................TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................ 22 iv ....... 7 4........ POTENTIAL FUEL-COST SAVINGS ATTRIBUTABLE TO GEOTHERMAL REPLACEMENT ............................................................. 8 Fiji .. 5 3.... THE INITIAL GROUP OF ISLAND COUNTRIES TO BE INCLUDED IN PIRGADI............................................................................................ 20 APPENDIX B – CURRICULA VITAE FOR SOPAC AND USGIC PIRGADI GEOSCIENTISTS TO BE INVOLVED WITH THE PIRGADI ....................................................................................................................................... Economic Advantages............... II...Environmental advantages......... 7 B........................ 2 SUMMARY DESCRIPTION OF U................................................................... A SUMMARY OVERVIEW OF SOME GEOTHERMAL PRINCIPLES ................................................................ 1 1.. 15 Other SOPAC region countries ......................................................... 18 6.................. PROPOSED ACTIVITY SCHEDULE................................ 3....... 6 A.....................................II I.............. 2................................................ 17 5....................................................................................................... INTRODUCTION ...................... 14 Samoa...... SOME RATIONALES FOR USE OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN THE SOPAC REGION ...... 12 Solomon Islands.................................................... ................ 1 SUMMARY BACKGROUND OF SOPAC........
PACIFIC ISLAND REGIONAL GEOTHERMAL ASSESSMENT AND DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE A FUNDING PROPOSAL I. 4. Initiate or continue geothermal exploration at these sites in order to better quantify resource parameters including reservoir depth. Determine the current and projected status. 3. and recharge rates and sources. temperatures. This proposed project would help these island countries take advantage of their indigenous resources. 5. The use of geothermal resources to generate electricity would reduce and possibly eliminate the dependency of these island countries on imported fossil fuels for their power generation. This would improve their balances of payments and thus help their overall economies. 1 . The three key reasons to conduct the proposed studies are: 1. Utilize the results of all geothermal exploration conducted to date to identify specific sites in the region that are the most prospective for the discovery of high temperature geothermal resources that can be economically exploited. INTRODUCTION The meaning of PIRGADI. their use of geothermal fuels would reduce or eliminate such power-related contamination making them small. demand. 2. role players in the fight against climate change and climate variability. 1. adequacy and economic viability of electric power generation. The objectives/modus operandi of the PIRGADI are as follows: 1. Because the selected Pacific islands are of geologically recent volcanic origin. 2. Disseminate all of the information acquired and the conclusions drawn there from to the world’s geothermal development entities to seek expressions of interest and to facilitate early initiation of one or more geothermal power projects in the SOPAC region. Synthesize the resource-related information and the power-related data so that plausible geothermal development/power sales scenarios and financial proformas can be generated. This name has been selected because it adequately summarizes the location and objective of the project for which the sponsor seeks funding. but notable. project rationales and objectives “PIRGADI” is an acronym for Pacific Island Regional Geothermal Assessment and Development Initiative. including costs. pressures and chemical characteristics of produced fluids. Though these countries are relatively minor contributors to atmospheric pollution via their fossil fuel exhaust emissions. it is very likely that they overlie geothermal reservoirs that can economically be discovered. reliability. size and permeability. produced and utilized to fuel generation of electric power. 3. transmission and distribution on each geothermally prospective island.
with regard to geothermal.SOPAC The primary SOPAC roles in the PIRGADI will include. but may not be limited to: 1. Cook Islands. funded by the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade and SOPAC. Niue. intergovernmental regional organization established by South Pacific nations in 1972. Project-related communications with government entities in each PIRGADI host country before. and the monitoring of alternative renewable energy projects including geothermal. 2 . Fiji where about 60 professional and support staff are domiciled. Kiribati. Specifically. Fiji Islands. SOPAC’s mission is to improve the well being of the peoples of Pacific Island member countries through the application of geoscience to the management and sustainable development of their natural resources. New Caledonia (Associate). during and following conduct of proposed activities. Summary background of SOPAC. environmental geoscience and national capacity development in the geosciences.6.SOPAC Paul Fairbairn – Energy Manager . the project sponsor. the same will be done with regard to the opportunities for beneficial use of low enthalpy geothermal fluids. Nauru. renewable energy project management. ocean and hydropower). Its Secretariat is located in Suva.V’s are included in Appendix B to this document. New Zealand. This program provided much of the information that has encouraged the submittal for funding of the PIRGADI so as to move to the next stages of geothermal development in the SOPAC countries. small energy project management. SOPAC coordinated and managed the 1993-1995 comprehensive regional geothermal resource assessment program. Samoa.SOPAC Russel Howorth – Deputy Director . Resource development includes mineral. while the status’ of the electric power industries on each of the islands are being assessed. solar. Tonga. Its primary focus is the provision of geotechnical services to its supporting countries.SOPAC Anare Matakiviti – Energy Advisor . Tuvalu and Vanuatu. furniture processing and other light industrial purposes. French Polynesia (Associate). Though the economic benefits of such uses of geothermal resources are different from those reaped from its use for power generation. The 18 SOPAC member Countries are: Australia. Federated States of Micronesia. its capabilities and its roles in PIRGADI The sponsor of this PIRGADI funding proposal is the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC). Papua New Guinea. water and energy resources and in the latter category. Marshall Islands. Consider the utilization of geothermal energy for non-electric “direct uses” such as crop drying. 2. SOPAC has expertise in policy and planning. SOPAC is an independent. energy efficiency and conservation management and projects. SOPAC’s work for its member nations focuses on three key areas: resource development. database development and management for energy data and technical information. fish processing. energy resource assessment monitoring and coordination (wind. SOPAC management and staff to be involved with the PIRGADI include the following persons. Alfred Simpson – Director . Guam. Solomon Islands. biomass. for whom brief C.
gathering system design and construction. its Notwithstanding the fact that SOPAC has had experience with geothermal studies. etc. 4. skills and experience. USGIC is able to undertake all or parts of any size geothermal power generation project using the capabilities of its member firms. In light of this situation. Departments of Justice and Commerce in order to obtain substantial antitrust immunity when collaborating on overseas geothermal projects. the geoscientists employed by SOPAC are not professional geothermal geologists. 6. 5. they can maximize their strengths as geothermal project investigators. Assumption of responsibility for distribution and use of funds. geophysical). geochemical. conclusions and recommendations within and beyond the SOPAC region. USA on March 21 1990. for writing of required reports to lenders and for maintenance of accounting records. Nevada. Active participation in all procedures required to obtain project-related permits. The company’s headquarters are in Frisco.2. USGIC has offered its services to SOPAC with regard to design. reservoir engineering. Project teams can be selected to maximize the 1 The Certificate of Review (COR) is a document issued by the US Department of Commerce and Justice that assures USGIC shareholding companies that they can "collude and collaborate" on offshore projects without fear of prosecution under the US anti-trust laws. Colorado. environmental assessment. and customized control system installation. licenses. 3. Summary description of U. Dissemination of PIRGADI work-related information to SOPAC member countries and outside the region as may be appropriate. geochemists.S. Its shareholders comprise 16 companies that have received Certificates of Review (CORs)1 from the U. Geothermal capabilities and its roles in PIRGADI Industries Corporation. participants and/or developers. New York. well testing. supervision and/or actual execution of PIRGADI activities. permit acquisition. and because the shareholding member firms of U. cooperating and collaborating.S. 3. Geothermal Industries Corporation (USGIC) have an interest in development of geothermal projects outside of the United States. Colorado. management. S. under the umbrella of the CORs. Review of the list of USGIC shareholding companies (see Appendix A) will reveal that USGIC is able to conduct essential geothermal project development-related activities including: resource exploration (geological. The companies that have joined to create USGIC realize that by pooling talents. USGIC was incorporated in the State of Delaware. geophysicists or geothermal drilling engineers. USGIC was organized in order to provide a vehicle through which American firms engaged in the sales of goods and services to the geothermal industry within the United States could profitably sell their products and use their expertise internationally. Texas and Utah. Dissemination of documents describing interim and final PIRGADI results. California. field design. while its shareholding member firms operate out of their respective headquarters located in the states of Arkansas. USA. drilling. in each PIRGADI host country. 3 . Participation in the conduct of PIRGADI field activities as appropriate with regard to SOPAC staff capabilities.
The planet’s interior heat originated during its fiery consolidation from dust and gas over 4 billion years ago and it is continually regenerated via the decay of radioactive elements that exist in most minerals.000oC (7.250oC (1. which consists of a liquid outer zone and a solid inner zone.600 oF). country-specific final reports submitted to SOPAC. USGIC has been conducting geothermal pre-feasibility studies in selected nations within Asia and the Western Pacific. Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea. This work has been funded by the US Department of Energy and has been documented in reports concerning the Philippines. Interpretation of the results of all PIRGADI field activities in each host country. 1. temperatures may reach 4. 4. At the Earth’s core. and the temperature rises with increasing distance from the surface. using the best professionally accepted practices. is the fact that since 1998. Below the crust is the mantle. all to be documented in comprehensive. 2. Provision to SOPAC and/or host country officials. The outer layer of the planet.000 miles) from the surface to the center of the Earth. Operation of the PIRGADI. Design.cost effectiveness of the work while project administration. Of specific relevance to the PIRGADI. management. plus formulation of conclusions and generation of recommendations regarding follow-on work. budgets and schedules for the PIRGADI in each country. finance and host country contacts can be conducted by USGIC in cooperation with SOPAC.000-7. USGIC management and staff to be involved with the PIRGADI include the following persons. within budget and time constraints. Gerald Huttrer Subir Sanyal Martin Booth Eduardo Granados David Mendive Roger Henneberger Chris Klein Anne Robertson-Tait The primary USGIC roles in the PIRGADI will include. of all technical information needed to obtain project-related permits. for whom brief CV’s are included in Appendix B to this document.200-12. II. made of highly viscous. the temperature gradient ranges from 17-30oC per kilometre (50-87oF per mile) of depth. From the surface down through the crust. is 5-56 kilometres (3-35 miles) thick and insulates the surface from the heat of the interior. Design of work plans. licenses and approvals. but may not be limited to: 1.500 kilometres (4. the crust. SCOPE OF PIRGADI A summary overview of some geothermal principles The word geothermal comes from the Greek words geo (earth) and therme (heat) and means the heat of the earth. 3.200-2. It is almost 6. Fiji.280oF). partially molten rock with temperatures between 650 and 1. 5. supervision and/or conduct of planned PIRGADI field activities. 4 .
Scientists and engineers commonly search for geothermal resources in volcanic areas and in regions where it is known that subduction is occurring. at temperatures of 120-370oC (250-700oF). transform and transcurrent fault systems. Typically. to minimize costs. Cooling of such regions can take from 5. deep drilling begins. Crustal plates. fish farms. the Earth’s heat flows from its interior towards the surface. 5 . the Pacific Plate and several unnamed. forming a geothermal reservoir. Where plates move apart. all as summarized above. plate fragments have been colliding with each other. These movements have resulted in the formation of many island arcs. Where plates collide. thermal gradient holes may be drilled in order to confirm the reservoir location and extent. they are used to generate electricity in geothermal power plants. Hot waters and/or steam either flow out of the wells naturally or are pumped to the surface where. these waters are heated by the surrounding rock after which they convectively rise again towards the surface where they appear as hot springs. oceanic trenches and volcanic belts that are the locus for world class porphyry copper-gold and epithermal gold mineral deposits. the water remains underground where it fills pores and cracks typically comprising 2 -5% of the volume of the host rock.5-2 inches) per year. Shallower r eservoirs with lower temperatures of 20-150oC (68o 300 F) are commonly used directly in health spas. Within these prospective areas. which in turn drives “plate tectonics” or the “drift” of the Earth’s crustal plates that occurs at 1-5 centimetres (0. or full-scale production wells. which are normally drilled in situations where the degree of confidence in the exploration results is very high. molten rock known as magma rises upward into the rift creating new crust. greenhouses. including the Indo-Australian. bringing with them vast quantities of heat. This upward flow of heat drives convective. can reach temperatures of more than 350oC (700oF) and therefore constitute very powerful latent sources of energy.000 to more than 1 million years. In a second exploration phase.Since heat always moves from hotter to colder regions. after which they use geologic. Plumes of magma then rise convectively and force themselves into (intrude) the crust. exist in the region. however most magma remains beneath the surface where it creates huge subterranean regions of hot rock. crop drying. 2. and for other light industrial purposes. gravity and seismic) and geochemical surveys to indirectly locate underground geothermal reservoirs. including spreading centers. the subducting plate reaches conditions of pressure. geysers or fumaroles. downward into regions of increasing heat. geophysical (electrical. At depth. rotating and subducting to various degrees for more than 10 million years. mud pots. temperature and water content that cause melting of the plate’s rocks thus creating new magma. employing either slim holes (holes with diameters smaller than the typical production well). plate boundaries. they begin their exploration by examining the surface thermal phenomena. along subterranean cracks and faults. the ground overlying these relatively shallow regions of elevated crustal heat is characterized by anomalously high thermal gradients. Geologic reasons for the geothermal potential in some South Pacific islands The geothermal environment in many South Pacific islands is highly prospective because almost all of the conditions requisite for the formation of geothermal reservoirs. If the ascending hot waters meet an impermeable rock layer. meteoric waters percolate downward. In some regions having elevated t ermal gradients. After this. These reservoirs that are generally much hotter than the thermal waters emanating at the surface. cellular motions in the mantle rock. both of which can be considered to be “ancestral geothermal systems”. magnetic. Eventually. Where magma reaches the surface it can build volcanoes. one plate is forced beneath the other (a process called subduction). h sometimes for several kilometres.
a numerous re geothermal phenomena believed likely to overlie prospective geothermal reservoirs. especially along the northern coast of New Britain Province. for agricultural purposes or on which native forests grew. Matavanu in 1911. tremendous volumes of magma. magma generation and associated volcanism or other deep. fumaroles. In Papua New Guinea. have continued into the present so that the southern islands. In Vanuatu. there are active volcanoes. There exist many active volcanoes and associated with them. The activity on the westernmost major island. These geothermal occurrences are all related to plate subduction. Kermadec. On several other SOPAC member (or associate member) islands. with the most recent event being that of Mt. Some rationales for use of geothermal resources in the SOPAC region islands Currently. In Samoa. Some of these volcanoes are now extinct. there exist geothermal phenomena that should be further studied. are still being uplifted at significant rates by suboceanic emplacement of new magma. nitrogen oxides and various sulfur compounds. three volcanoes on Savai’i have erupted in historic times. 3. 6 . but many others are either dormant or active and in their vicinities exist the hot springs. using diesel-powered generators and/or hydroelectric facilities. volcanic eruptions that began about 22 million years ago to form the northern islands. The Solomon islands lie precisely on the southeastern extension of the New Britain Trench that localizes volcanism in the islands of eastern Papua New Guinea. volcanism along the Samoan Ridge has created large shield volcanoes and smaller cones. generated by lengthy periods of subduction and deep subsurface melting. Accordingly. the evidence for geologically recent volcanism comprises the 20. the environs of these volcanoes are judged to be highly prospective for the discovery of one or more geothermal reservoirs. nearby rifting. Nevertheless. solidified and created entire island groups. These are located in the Tonga. fumaroles and hot springs that strongly suggest the existence of geothermal reservoirs at relatively shallow depths. On the latter islands. High temperature thermal features have been mapped on Vella Lavella and Simbo islands and cooler. Savai’i. All of these prospective geothermal sites are related to Plio-Pleistocene through Holocene volcanism. but they depend on adequate annual rainfall to keep their reservoirs full and the reservoirs themselves commonly occupy land that was once used habitation. have risen to the surface. In Fiji. and to magma being generated along the Woodlark Spreading Center. was most intense from the Pliocene to the middle Pleistocene and is thought to have been decreasing since then. Operation of the diesel g enerators requires the import of expensive fuel on a regular basis and the replacement of the machinery every 10-15 years. The power plants are very noisy and the exhausts of the machines include significant quantities of carbon dioxide. Hydroelectric power plants are much cleaner and quieter. there are more than 28 known thermal systems that appear to be related to movements of the small but regionally important South Bismarck Crustal Plate. mud pots and geysers that constitute evidence of powerful geothermal resources at depth nearby. electricity is generated under the auspices of the governments of most Pacific Island countries. but geochemically interesting springs have been identified on Guadalcanal island. as described previously. New Caledonia and Loyalty island groups. to subduction currently underway along the New Britain Trench. regionally important crustal fractures that facilitate or result from plate movements. including Efate.000 year old ashes found on Taveuni and Rotuma islands and more than 16 volcanic centers and fissure zones of Pliocene or younger ages.Also. all of which have deleterious effects on the atmosphere and on the health of citizens with homes or businesses nearby.
but otherwise. 4. Economic Advantages Fuel purchases are never needed for geothermal power plants once a well field has been developed. 1. 1. Geothermal power system annual O&M costs are typically about 5-8% of the capital cost. compared to less than 90% for fossil fueled installations. This combined or cascaded use of geothermal energy results in higher thermal efficiencies and associated cost savings. Availability of 9599% are typical for modern geothermal plants. geothermal O&M expenditures are decreasing. 6. The sulfur emission rate of geothermal plants is about 0.More generally the timely opportunity to pursue the development of geothermal energy resources in the region has been enhanced through the fact that geothermal power generation technology including borehole drilling has now advance significantly. “Availability” is defined as the percentage of time that a system is capable of producing electricity. many different applications can be served from a common set of wells and/or by utilizing underflow from the power plant. Geothermal power project sizing can be flexible.44 pounds per MWh compared to 23 kg per MWh for diesel and nitrogen from geothermal plants is 2. 5. all of the money now being spent on the purchase and import of fuel for power plants can be saved and put to better use for the good of the citizens. much like the non-fuel O&M costs associated with fossil fuel power systems. Environmental advantages Geothermal power plants emit minimal atmospheric pollutants. Drilling of replacement wells will be required every 10 years or so. Diesel plants emit about 880 kg of carbon per megawatt-hour (MWh) while geothermal plants exhaust about 0. 3. Thus making previously considered marginal geothermal resources possible for development. 7 . This is particularly important where the greater percentage of the regions fossil fuels are imported which raises questions in regard to accessibility and security of supply. Geothermal plants have exceptionally high availability.3 pounds. The convenience of using geothermal energy for power generation as opposed to fossil based fuels is also attractive from the aspect that geothermal energy is a renewable energy resource and theoretically therefore provides a better and more secure source of supply. with the increasing use of automated control systems for the well fields and power plants. Geothermal power projects can also supply fluids for direct use. B. Several cogent reasons for island countries in the SOPAC region to utilize geothermal energy for power generation are presented and discussed below: A. There is long term resource potential. Environmental issues in respect to emissions from fossil fuels used to produce energy are further elaborated on below but is a real concern for the region in particular in relation to climate variability and sea level rise.200 megawatts or more (in the USA). The operating and maintenance (O&M) costs of geothermal plants are low. geothermal energy can provide a significant portion of a country’s long term (30-50 years) energy needs. Depending on the resource temperature and the process temperature required. Projects sizes have ranged from 200 kilowatts (in China) to complexes capable of producing 1. However. With optimum development strategies.
Power Generation status (i) Generating capacity – The largest and most heavily populated island. may also be sites for preliminary geothermal investigations. The initial group of island countries to be included in PIRGADI 3. typically covering less than 400 square metres. Samoa. unlike hydroelectric plants with their associated reservoirs.virtually nil. Installed capacity in the three largest systems. comprising compact networks of 36 centimetre diameter pipes. the geothermal surface phenomena. Vanuatu. has considerable hydroelectric capacity at the 80 MW Wailoa Power Station. Viti Levu. All in all. but diesel engines and bagasse-fired steam cogeneration provide most of the island’s power. A single good geothermal well can support 3-10 megawatts of power and the power plant can take less than a year to build. The island depends on that capacity for most of its power. Other SOPAC member (or Associated) countries. Location – Investigations previously conducted in Fiji by GENZL and SOPAC have resulted in the identification of two primary geothermal prospect sites: Savusavu and Labasa. and the Solomon Islands. Very little land area is required by a geothermal power project. b. while it is a significant pollutant emitted by diesel plants. once they have been drilled. most plants have been insulated so that the noise remains inside the buildings resulting in a quiet and peaceful environment for all those outside the plant walls. The wells themselves. proposed PIRGADI activities and the expected benefits to each country of the PIRGADI work. on a country by country basis. at latitudes of 16o47’ South and 16o 31’ South and longitudes of 179o20’ and 179o23’ East respectively. are: descriptions of the geothermal site locations. the national power generation status. Though geothermal turbines and generators do make noise as they run. new wells can be drilled and plant modules can be added so as to keep pace with demand. can be designed to accommodate passage over. Geothermal power projects can be built-in modules to allow for expansion. has a run of river hydroelectric plant that provides a small but important contribution to total generation on the island. geothermal power stations have proven that they can meet and surpass even the most stringent environmental demands all over the world. The PIRGADI will initially continue the process of developing the geothermal potential in Fiji. animals. both of which are located on Vanua Levu. Presented below. When more power is required. Papua New Guinea. yet to be specified. 4. Geothermal power plants are quieter than diesel plants. as of 2000. occupy only about 25 square metres each and the gathering and disposal systems. Vanua Levu. and/or vehicles. Fiji a. 4. under or around by humans. 2. is given in Table 1 below: 8 . Geothermal power plants are small. The next largest island.
The results of aeromagnetic surveys conducted over the Savusavu peninsula suggest that an east-west trending range of low hills rising just south of the hot springs may be underlain at depths of less than 1 9 . In 1999. The hottest spring water temperatures. The cost of production from diesel engines is greater than the retail cost of electricity in Fiji so. to over 30 F¢/kWh (13. If the two grids are joined and extended.33/gallon). (ii) Fuel Types – Currently. c. the Vanua Levu need could approach 25 MWe. hydroelectricity dominates the overall Fiji fuel mix. this cost had more than doubled to F$900/tonne (US$1. making it the largest single power producer on that island.Table 1 Public Sector Power Generation Capacity in Fiji Island Viti Levu →Vanua Levu Ovalau Total Capacity MW 112 12← 2 126 This table does not reflect private generating capacity.6/US¢kWh). (v) Estimated Future Demand Growth – FEA October 2000 forecasts are that by the year 2015. (iv) Power Sales Prices – In Fiji. as planned. but which have never actually been found.6 US¢/kWh) for power produced by the many small diesel engine generators used in the islands. the demand in Labasa will be 21 MWe and that in Savusavu will reach 2 MWe. in effect. followed by diesel and bagasse. such as the 10 MWe owned by Fiji Sugar Corporation (FSC) or the 30 MWe installed at the Emperor Gold Mine (EGM). FSC has a 10 MW bagasse-fired steam unit and a 4 MW diesel generator. Wailoa hydro power subsidizes the diesel power and the amount of this subsidy increases as diesel fuel prices escalate. in the town of Labasa on Vanua Levu.59/gallon). have been measured in a group of six orifices located along and slightly inland from the northern peninsula shoreline and extending from a site immediately west of the Savusavu Yacht club to a site slightly west of the town dock. Chemical analyses of the hot spring waters suggest that they are of meteoric origin. (iii) Generation Cost – The cost of electricity produced by Fiji Electricity Authority (FEA) ranges from a low of 4-5 F¢/kWh (~2 US¢/kWh) for hydro power produced by the Wailoa Power Station. all customers pay 20F¢/kWh (9. on Vanua Levu there is only one small hydroelectric plant at present and the other two fuels are dominant. FEA reported that the cost of diesel fuel was approximately F$400/tonne (US$0. near boiling. There are also some small isolated photovoltaic installations on Vanua Levu but these total only a few kilowatts. This capacity is an important aspect of the electric sector in Fiji. and that at some depth they equilibrated with the surrounding rocks at about 170oC (338oF). By late 2000. however. Geothermal Surface Phenomena Savusavu – On the Savusavu peninsula there are at least eight thermal springs and perhaps several more whose existence is suggested by thermal infrared imagery. very slightly mixed with sea water. For instance.
As at Savusavu. This could comprise a heat source for the thermal waters if it is still cooling and radiating heat. 10 . for full exploitation of one or both of the Vanua Levu geothermal fields and it will facilitate d esign of optimally costeffective development procedures. it is proposed that the PIRGADI activities in Fiji comprise the drilling of six slim holes to 800 metres (2. a great deal more will be learned about the local geology.625 feet). Mixture of the thermal waters with seawater appears to be minimal. Vanuatu a. Expected benefits of PIRGADI work in Fiji – If the recommended slim holes are drilled in the Savusavu and Labasa geothermal areas. Labasa – A geothermal belt comprising eight groups of hot springs extends for about 19 kilometres across central-northern Vanua Levu island. if and when a drill is shipped to Vanua Levu to explore the Savusavu resource. it is recommended that three 800 metre (2. it appears unlikely that the Labasa geothermal region will be underlain by a reservoir hot enough to use for generation of electric power. and the permeability and other aspects of the geothermal reservoir. Proposed PIRGADI project activities – In accordance with the recommendations described above. despite undoubted dilution by rainfall aggregating 2000 to 3800 millimetres per year. Nevertheless. Each spring group has numerous discharge points. either as small pools. Takara Springs are on the north end of the island at 17o 32’ South and 168o 25’ East while the Teouma Graben springs are just northeast of Port Vila at 17o 48’ South and 168 o23’ East. The drilling of confirmatory slim holes to at least 800 metres (2. the bulk of Vanuatu’s population and the greatest power demand are on Efate Island. There are active volcanoes on several islands and geothermal resources are likely to be associated with each mountain.280 feet) by an intrusive rock body. and the absence of an obvious heat source. thermal spring temperatures are up to boiling. just south of the town of Labasa. Geothermal exploration previously conducted in Vanuatu identified two prospective sites on Efate Island. e. Three holes would be drilled in and near the Savusavu thermal phenomena and three within the Labasa geothermal belt. all of these conditions strongly suggest the existence of a significant geothermal resource in the area. In summary. therefore it is the best place to initiate development of Vanuatu’s geothermal resources.625 feet). private or other. Because of the relatively low geothermometric temperatures calculated. Geochemical studies of the thermal waters show that they are of meteoric origin and have probably circulated to great depths where they were once heated to as much as 120oC (248oF). the thermal regime.625 feet) deep slim holes also be drilled in the Labasa geothermal belt. The drill sites might be those advocated several years ago by GENZL or they might be modified to reflect newer geoscientific theories. This knowledge will significantly reduce the risks of failure when the next development step is taken and production-scale wells are drilled. However. is therefore strongly recommended. Location – Because the Vanuatu archipelago has been created as a result of volcanism along a major crustal plate boundary. It is also believed that they circulate within a network of fractures transecting an oval-shaped depression of possible volcano-tectonic origin. flows from rock fractures or as seeps from alluvial river banks. It should therefore improve the chances of obtaining funds.kilometre (3. d.
5 MW base. but according to UNELCO management.949 24. 11 . This plant has 2 new units both rated at 4100 kW. All of the tariffs are based on a base rate of 34.162 14. just outside of Port Vila. ranging in size from 630 kW to 2170 kW. reportedly in the 4-6% per annum range.52 41.213 US¢/kWh) Small Domestic (PCD) st 1 60 kWh nd 2 60 kWh all over 120 kWh (penalty) Low Voltage Business (TUP) Low Voltage Other (TU) High Voltage (MT) Sports Field (T) Public Lighting (EP) rd Fixed Charge US$/kVA -0-0-020 x P 19 x P 25 x P 4. A total of four additional units are anticipated in the design of the Tagabé site.In Vanuatu there are 6 tariffs for electricity sold by UNELCO. The schedule for installation of the next unit at Tagabé (in 2004) is most likely driven by the need to retire older units. Thus a geothermal power project on Efate should most likely be in the 2-4 MW range. July-September.6 MWe.6005 6.975 23. rather than accelerated load growth and it also depends somewhat on the probability of a geothermal plant being built.87 0.6 MWe is more than sufficient to meet the peak load requirements of UNELCO’s territory in Efate.UNELCO Tariff Rates Tariff (Base Rate P = 24. 3 Quarter 2000. (v) Estimated future demand growth – The present capacity of 19.93 x P 1. This plant comprises nine diesel generating units. in part due to their high initial cost and low-operating cost.70 x P 0.075 Source: UNELCO Electricity Tariffs.213 13. Fuel types – UNELCO currently uses diesel fuel exclusively to generate power on Efate. 4 MW average.b. (iv) Power sales prices – The table below is self explanatory. The fact that the base load on Efate is in the order of 2. A second power plant of very modern design was recently constructed at Tagabé. The present capacity on Efate therefore now totals 19. the nation’s capital and principal city on the island.62 x P 0.70 1. this could be deferred if a geothermal field is developed and a geothermal power plant built.213 US¢/kWh).96 0. but it is likely that there is 9-10% profit built into the above rates and that the generating cost must be around 14 US¢/kWh. at least initially. (ii) (iii) Generation cost . At present rates of load growth.0532 -0-0- Energy Charge US¢/kWh 0. Geothermal power plants are typically used as base load generation.00 0.5 MW is of significant interest for prospective geothermal development. and 2.01 22.54 x x x x x P P P P P 15. No figures were published for the actual cost of power generation by UNELCO. Status of power generation (i) Capacity – UNELCO operates a diesel-fueled power plant in Port Vila.5 MW peak. The third of these is scheduled for installation in 2004.244 16. it is anticipated that no new capacity will be needed for some time.8426 4.59 Vatu/kWh (~24. Table 2 . The load on Efate recorded by UNELCO during the fiscal year 98/99 was approximately 7.
Geothermal surface phenomena Takara Springs – The geothermal area comprises about 0.904 feet). Location – Reconnaissance studies of the geothermal potential of Papua New Guinea (PNG) have suggested that the most prospective area for initial pre-development investigations is the northern coast of New Britain Island. transmission and distribution are controlled by what was known as the Papua New Guinea Electricity Commission (ELCOM). Kasoli-Hoskins. e. there are at least seven geothermal sites: Bamus. the temperature of the water increases to 78oC (174oF) after the pump is run for 20 minutes or so. Reportedly. The Takara Springs waters have been sampled and the geothermometry suggests equilibrium temperatures of 160-170oC (320-340oF) at some undetermined depth.c. These slim holes will therefore provide the basic information required to make a wellinformed decision whether or not to proceed with the drilling and development of production and injection wells. and the physical and chemical characteristics of the geothermal reservoir rocks and fluids. At least 5 thermal springs flow from shallow channels within this area and the Beachcomber Resort taps 57oC (134oF) water via a 4” diameter. the thermal gradients and bottom-hole temperatures. Papua New Guinea a.405 hectares at the northeastern end of Efate. private or other. d. The locations of the drill sites will be determined on the bases of the results of electrical resistivity studies conducted by GENZL and also with respect to logistical constraints posed by land ownership and topographic conditions. Teouma River – Hot springs with surface temperatures ranging from 50-61oC (122142oF) flow from the eastern boundary fault of the Teouma River graben that transects the southern part of Efate. Galloseulo. Such temperatures would be more than adequate for use in generating electric power. a great deal more will be learned about the local geology to depths well below sea level. These geothermal areas are situated between Latitudes 5o 5’N and 5o 38’N and between Longitudes 150 o 3’E and 151o 20’E. The well produces enough water (19-25 gpm) to fill a 15’ diameter pool 3-4 feet deep in 3-4 hours. Geochemical studies conducted by GENZL in 1975 have revealed geothermometric equilibration temperatures for Teouma waters of >200oC (>93oF). This entity is now called PNG Power Limited and operates 20 12 . In that region. from the Willaumez Peninsula eastward to the Gazelle Peninsula. it is proposed that the PIRGADI activities comprise the drilling of four slim h oles to 1. Thermal water flow rates range from seeps (<0. located about one day’s walk upstream from the circum-island road. Status of power generation – All aspects of urban electric power generation. PVCcased well drilled to about 6 metres (20 feet). Garbuna. Pangalu-Talasea and Bola.800 metres( 5. Expected benefits of PIRGADI work in Vanuatu – If the recommended slim holes are drilled in the Takara Springs and Teouma River geothermal areas. with reference to a specific hot spring said to issue from a “cave”. Two holes would be drilled in and/or near each of the hot spring regions. This would be a high enough temperature to allow use of the resource for power generation. Proposed PIRGADI project activities – In order to evaluate the geothermal potential at both the Takara Springs and the Teouma River geothermal areas. Walo.5 l/sec) to what have been described as “voluminous”. This preliminary drilling will therefore improve the chances of obtaining funds. b. for full exploitation of one or both of the Efate geothermal fields and it will facilitate design of optimally cost-effective development procedures.
45 per kWh. and land transportation. Their acceptance is increasing rapidly.30 and 0. Primarily mining companies privately own fifty four percent of the national total capacity. suggesting near surface volcanic heat sources. Hagan. Solar heaters are being used extensively for provision of domestic and some process hot water at homes and at light industrial sites all over PNG. The fluids in the four geothermal areas to the east of the Willaumez Peninsula have temperatures from 86-100oC (187oF) and are slightly to moderately acidic. (v) Estimated future demand growth – It is difficult to determine this figure. and solar energy systems where applicable.078 for their power. Mt.12 per kWh.independent generating systems in 27 urban centers and serves about 700. Of special interest is the fact that at these three locations. sea. Lae. geysers. The small independent town systems all use diesel fuel. so future power demand growth should conservatively be estimated at 3-5%. is $US 0. The creation of PNG Power Limited was the first step in a plan to make the utility more financially viable and thus more attractive to potential purchasers. there is a continuing move to introduce renewable energy resources such as hydropower (micro/mini). the silica content is very high at 347 ppm while the chloride content is only 2 ppm.125 per kWh. using thermal generation. Fuel Types – PNG Power Limited uses 80% hydropower and 20% diesel-fueled stations to generate electricity for Port Moresby. Diesel generation on Lihir Island (by the Lihir Gold Company) is said to cost the company about $US 0. The cost is dependent on the accessibility of the location by normal air. Finally.000 customers. wind. PNG Power Limited is reported to be considering expanded use of renewable energy sources and their indigenous natural gas to expand their fuel mix. (iv) Power sales prices – PNG Power Limited customers now pay an average of $US 0. The PNG Petroleum and Energy Department has focused on power supplies to rural areas and the Provincial Governments are responsible for the “C” centers in their respective provinces. fumaroles and mud pools at temperatures that range from 90-101oC (194-214oF) and which are reported to contain significant H2S and CO2. Geothermal surface phenomena – At Talasea. (i) Capacities – The current total installed capacity of the PNG Power Limited facilities is 272 MWe (1995) in the Papua New Guinea. These five are the first of 60 such plants reportedly planned by the Petroleum and Energy Department. The geothermal areas comprise numerous hot springs. Wewak and Kokopo. 13 . though small diesel generators furnish power in most small rural towns and villages for at least a few hours each day. PNG’s GNP is about $US 3. the thermal fields are associated with a belt of recent volcanic activity. This suggests that geothermometric equilibrium temperatures could be in the 300 oC (~572oF) range and that a dry steam geothermal reservoir could underlie the region. Finally. The cost of power being generated by the Provincial Governments or by the small town generators is between $US 0. with an estimated national total of 595 MWe. the small generators operating in many small towns probably are about 1-2 MWe each and there are in excess of 100 such sites. Pangalu and Kasoli. however. while the Petroleum and Energy Department uses mini-hydro generators of 60-300kW to electrify small areas surrounding five rural government stations (“Ccenters”). (ii) (iii) Generation cost – The average cost of power generation by PNG Power Limited. all on the north coast of New Britain. c. The Provincial Government-owned “Government “C” Center Stations” have an unpublished capacity that can be estimated at between 10 and 350 kW.5 billion and increasing.
(ii) (iii) 14 . Geophysical surveys should be then conducted in the two most chemically promising areas to assess the shallow and deep electrical resistivity regimes. Off-grid. Proposed PIRGADI project activities – Because the most recent chemical analyses were made in 1988. micro hydropower and/or solar systems furnish power in some small towns and villages for at least a few hours each day and the same is true for several resort complexes.407 MW and the remaining 185 kW is via hydropower. 23. about five kilometres inland from the sea. These surveys could utilize E-Scan. e. considerable outflow and a geothermometrically calculated equilibrium temperature of 160oC (320oF) that would be adequate for power generation use. Status of power generation – Solomon Islands Electricity Authority (SIEA) is responsible for provision of public power in the five largest provincial centers in the Solomons. If a power plant were to be built near this site. Kunjuku. (population about 40. Location – Though there are many warm and hot springs in the Solomon Islands. Expected benefits of PIRGADI in Papua New Guinea – The geochemical survey results should indicate the hottest geothermal sites and the geophysical study results should suggest the probable depths to the geothermal reservoir(s) and the best places in which to drill slim or production-scale wells in the next development phase(s). CSAMT or conventional dipole resistivity techniques as logistically indicated to achieve optimum cost-effectiveness.d. Saikotulu and Koheka. b. The capacity provided through diesel engines is 30.000) located on the northeastern side of Guadalcanal island. Solomon Islands a.540 MW is in the capital city of Honiara.959 MW. Transmission and distribution systems are old and subject to breakage.6875 per kWh. (i) Capacities – The current total installed capacity in the Solomons is 30. especially during cyclone season. solar and wind to provide more power to rural areas. it might be possible that an energy-intensive industry could be attracted. Generation cost – The average generation cost for the whole SIEA system in the country is $US 0. leaving only market-related matters as the critical project-viability determinants. Another interesting geothermal site is located in Paraso Bay on Vella Lavella Island. small diesel generators. Forty kilometres to the northwest of Honiara. Fuel Types – Diesel is the only fossil fuel currently used to generate power in the Solomons. waters and gases at all seven thermal sites should be resampled and the geothermometry recalculated using the most modern techniques. there is no real market for electricity within the archipelago except for the capital city of Honiara. Though diesel generators of varying ages are their primary electricity producers. Of all the power generation capacity in the country. at Longitude 156o 37’E and Latitude 7o 39’S. has surface temperature up to 99oC (210oF). The Paraso geothermal resource. are four thermal areas called Nggurara. the power mix does include a 185 kW hydropower facility that has been built in Buala. This information should materially decrease the perceived resource-related risks for future project developers. There is reported to be interest by SIEA in tapping renewable energy resources such as mini-hydro. These geothermal areas are situated between Latitudes 9o 20’S and 9o 23’S and between Longitudes 150o 2’E and 151o 20’E.
e. Proposed PIRGADI project activities – At both the Paraso and the Nggurara thermal sites the waters and gases should be resampled and the geothermometry recalculated using the most modern techniques. difficult-to-access mountainous terrain. and 1905-1911). leaving market-related matters as the critical project-viability determinants. near Kiluea. unvegetated ground cover about 1. E-Scan. Previous workers in the area have estimated a potential for generation of 300 MWe.50 cents per kWh 55. Saikotolu and Koheka springs. Geologic mapping in the areas should also be accomplished at the same time.(iv) Power sales prices – The energy sales prices are: • High voltage bulk supply • Domestic/residential • Industrial/commercial (v) 75. which is adequate for use in power generation. On the northwestern corner of Guadalcanal Island. 15 . Expected benefits of PIRGADI in The Solomon Islands – The geochemical survey results should indicate the hottest geothermal sites and the geophysical study results should suggest the probable depths to the thermal reservoir(s) and the best places in which to drill slim or production-scale wells in the next development phase(s). based on the calculated heat flow from the hot springs. These mountains are aligned along an east-west trending rift zone that resembles the lower East Rift Zone. Location – Though there are no hot springs described in the Samoa group of island’s geologic or volcanologic literature. but the geothermometric equilibrium temperature calculated is 160oC (320oF). on the island of Hawaii where very high temperature geothermal reservoirs have been discovered. This site includes the Nggurara. CSAMT or conventional dipole resistivity surveys should then be conducted in both areas to assess the shallow and deep electrical resistivity regimes. through the end of 2001. 1902. Kunjuko. is the Nggurara geothermal area.50 cents per kWh Estimated future demand growth – Until 1999. These active volcanoes are situated in the vicinity of Latitude 13o 38’S and Longitude 172o 30’E. In the post-coup era. This information should materially decrease the perceived resource-related risks for future project developers.75 cents per kWh 82. Geothermal surface phenomena – At Paraso on Vella Lavella Island.7 square kilometres along the Ngokosole and Ulo Rivers which empty into the sea along the northeast coast of the island. Temperatures range from 32-96oC (89-205oF) and significant quantities of H S and CO2 2 are emitted. thermal springs and bare. about five kilometres inland. The springs appear to be localized by a well developed north-south trending fault system that transects geologically young andesitic lavas. Samoa a. generally within the northwestern quadrant of the island. the demand declined 10%. Current (2002) forecasts are for demand to increase at about 3% per annum for the next three years. there are three volcanoes on the island of Savai’i that have erupted within recorded historical times (1760. within steep. c. and prior to the coup of June 2000. demand for electricity in the Solomon Islands was growing at a steady 6% per annum. d. Temperatures range from 38-63oC (100-145oF).
Any thermal waters or gases found should be sampled and the geothermometric equilibration temperatures should be calculated. Therefore it is considered likely that there are magma chambers beneath Savai’i and that subsurface heat still exists and can be discovered in the vicinity of one or more of the Savai’i volcanoes. Geothermal surface phenomena – There are no overt geothermal surface phenomena described in the literature reviewed to date.5 MWe. a thorough search of Savai’i should be made for surface evidence of subsurface heat. If the results of the reconnaissance surveys.000 people living on Savai’i who live in villages spread along the coastal areas where electricity is not generally available. This is supported by the fact that Holocene age basic lavas have been mapped in the area. (i) Capacities – The current total installed diesel capacity on Savai’i island is 4. electricity generated from both hydropower and diesel supplies the capital city of Apia and surrounding communities. the geologic mapping and of any geochemical analyses are geothermally encouraging. In September 2001. with a firm total capacity of 20. Generation cost – No current power generation in Samoa. d.4 MWe and 16 MWe respectively. The installed capacities are 12. c. The Japanese are currently considering the development of a hydropower scheme for Savai’i. The rest of the island uses kerosene for lighting. Samoa is unique in comparison to its Pacific island neighbors as it is considered to be 95% electrified. There are reported to be about 50.2 MWe diesel generator was installed on Upolu to increase the installed capacity. Geologic mapping in these areas should also be accomplished at the same time.b. The guide-services of any residents familiar with the local geology should be obtained and all prospective sites should be examined and described. there is contemporary seismicity in the archipelago and the event described above. Private diesel generators are used as well. Proposed PIRGADI project activities – First. however it is known that lava was vented from Matavanu volcano between 1905 and 1911 and that a steam vent reportedly diverted the flows away from the grave of a locally venerated nun. 16 . On Upolu (the main island of the Samoan group).9 MWe with a de-rated (available) capacity of 3. (ii) (iii) Fuel Types – Diesel and hydroelectric plants are used to generate power in Samoa. a new 4. Status of power generation – Electric power on the island of Savai’i is diesel generated and provides power to 85% of the island including the town of Salelologa.4 MWe. then one or more geophysical surveys should be conducted to assess the shallow and deep electrical resistivity regimes. figures are available for the cost of (iv) Power sales prices – The unit retail price for electricity in Samoa is as follows: 50 sene per kWh for 0-50 kWh 60 sene per kWh for 51-200 kWh 72 sene per kWh for 201 plus kWh (v) Estimated future demand growth – It is estimated that the annual growth in power demand will be about 4%.
Other SOPAC region countries Several other island countries within the SOPAC region may have geothermal potential and may request reconnaissance investigations during the conduct of the PIRGADI. The budget and schedule presented below includes funds and time for undertaking geologic.e. Expected benefits of PIRGADI in Samoa – A detailed survey of the island will hopefully result in the discovery of “hot spots”. The geochemical survey results should indicate where the highest geothermometric temperatures are to be found and the geophysical study results should suggest the probable depths to the geothermal reservoir(s) and the best places in which to drill slim or production-scale wells in the next development phase(s). geochemical and initial non-resource-related studies in up to two such additional countries. leaving only market-related matters as the critical project-viability determinants. This information should materially decrease the perceived resource-related risks for future project developers. 17 .
f. 18 . h. Transport of the drill(s) and equipment to the sites. the recommended drilling programs alone.5 years Estimated Schedule 4 months Costs are based on 2001 information sopacbudgetC. and Flow testing of wells. Proposed Activity Schedule Despite the fact that no surface geoscientific studies are planned in Fiji or Vanuatu. Included in the activities to be conducted within the 24 months allocated for Fiji and Vanuatu work are: a. may require 4 of the total 5.5 years estimated to complete the PIRGADI. i. in these two countries. deep 24 months 4 slim wells 1800 m. Negotiation of drilling contracts. c. Acquisition of all the rights and permits needed to drill. Analysis of the bids received. Issuance of “Requests for Bids” to drill. deep 24 months Reduce to 2 areas 6 months 2 areas Areas not yet found 4 months Areas not yet found 4 months 5. k. d.5. Preparation of site access and the drilling locations. Budget Estimate for Proposed PIRGADI Activities This budget covers activities described in the specific country sections presented above. g. Generation of bidding documents.doc 6. Verification of the locations of the sites to be drilled. Acquisition of the rights of ingress and egress to these sites. j. Actual drilling operations and moves between sites. b. Indicative Costs: US$’000 Activity Fiji Vanuatu PNG Solomon Samoa Others Total Surface surveys Reconnaissance Geology & Chemistry Geophysics Coord & Reporting Contingency 10% 55 0 0 0 6 61 27 0 0 0 3 30 36 25 600 86 75 822 30 10 200 22 26 288 20 5 100 20 10 155 17 3 0 13 3 36 185 43 850 141 123 1392 Science Totals Deep Drilling Access & Site Mobilization Well Drilling Testing & Evaluation Design & Supervision Contingency 10% 170 150 1181 240 140 188 2069 250 300 1200 180 127 206 2263 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 420 450 2381 420 267 394 4332 Drilling Totals Program Totals Notes 2130 2293 822 288 155 36 5724 6 slim wells 800 m. e.
Obviously. the full PIRGADI might be shortened from an estimated 5.0574 per kilowatt hour Using an average price of $US 0.5 years to about 5. it can be determined that by replacing dieselfueled generation with geothermally generated power. if more than one geothermal project is built and/or more than 3 MW are installed. 1 month would be needed to examine and sample the geothermal areas and then 3 months would be spent conducting an electrical resistivity survey in the most prospective area. religious or other constraints may be expected. In this case. 7. it should be noted that the times allocated to the various activities described above are considered to be conservative. the $US 5.000 can be saved annually per megawatt. Finally. The next four months would be spent conducting electrical resistivity surveys at the two sites deemed to be most prospective. In each country. Four months of PIRGADI work have been scheduled in the Solomon Islands. If such a 3 MW plant runs for only 20 years. 19 . Diesel-fueled generators in SOPAC member countries are now available for service 80% of the time (7008 hours per year). the whole PIRGADI might be undertaken in as little as 2 years.4 MW of geothermal power within the SOPAC region will recover the PIRGADI cost in 1 (one) year. If only one 3 MW geothermal project is built. The existing generators consume between 0.4 years. Samoa.7 million would be paid off in 5 years for an approximate ROI of 20%. If no overt geothermal phenomena are discovered on Savai’i Island. The first two months would be spent examining the seven geothermal sites on the north coast of New Britain.Six months have been scheduled for PIRGADI work in Papua New Guinea. and/or if no other SOPAC region countries request geothermal investigations. on the basis of the earlier studies analyzing results and reporting conclusions and recommendations.21 and 0. beneficial and can be costeffective for the geothermally-rich SOPAC region countries. it has been assumed that: • • • • Diesel fuel can be bought for $US 30 per 159 litre barrel.053/kWh. savings and the benefit to cost ratio will increase significantly. These could cause delays in progress and increase the time (and cost) needed to finish the PIRGADI. the accrued fuel cost savings will be $US 7. Samoa and possibly in up to two other countries within the SOPAC region. sampling fluids and calculating geothermometric equilibration temperatures. Nevertheless. however. It is possible. The conclusion is that expenditure of funds to conduct PIRGADI is prudent.048 and $US 0. that work could be done simultaneously in one or more countries. about $US 371. If the PIRGADI costs $US 5. the savings accrued by eventual development of 15. political.42 million (not counting any interest income derived by investment of saved money) and the PIRGADI costs would be repaid 130 %. The proposed schedule described above assumes that PIRGADI work would be conducted serially in several countries.7 million.25 kilograms of fuel per kilowatt-hour of power produced and The fuel-only current cost to generate electricity is therefore between $US 0. Potential fuel-cost savings attributable to geothermal replacement of diesel fuel For this calculation. cultural.
com NABORS INDUSTRIES DARRELL W. PHILIP MESSER 201 South Lake Ave.O.. CA 94804 Phone: 510/527-9876 Fax: 510/527-8164 e-mail: geothermex@compuserve. Suite 201 Richmond. M/S X1137 San Diego. #550 Box 2425. NY 14905 Phone: 607/733-1027 Fax: 607/734-2709 GEOTHERMEX. G. Suite 600 Houston. CO.com BARBER NICHOLS ENG.us e-mail: email@example.com. INC.com GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOC. CA 92121 Phone: 858/826-1615 Fax: 858/826-1652 e-mail: Sabodh. CO 80002 Phone: 303/421-8111 Fax: 303/420-4679 e-mail: cbni@aol. Suite 600 San Francisco. Box 361 Cobb. 720 Granite St.firstname.lastname@example.org SAIC SABODH GARG 10260 Campus Point Drive. C/O WEATHERFORD UBD JOHN BOYLE 515 Post Oak Blvd. TX 77067 Phone: 713/874-0035 Fax: 713/872-5205 DRILL COOL SYSTEMS. GARY SHULMAN 1460 W. CA 95426 Phone: 707/987-0837 Fax: 707/987-3921 BIBB and ASSOCIATES. SUBIR SANYAL 5221 Central Ave. NV 89502 Frisco. Elmira.com 20 .Garg@saic.net GEOTHERMAL POWER COMPANY. CA 95403 Phone: 707/523-1751 Fax: 707/523-1398 e-mail: nic.com BAKER HUGHES INTEQ NIC NICKELS 2050 W. HUTTRER 770 Smithridge Dr.MARTIN BOOTH GERALD W. Suite 300 Pasadena.. Inc. CA 93305-5445 Phone: 805/633-2665 Fax: 805/327-5890 e-mail: Tom@kernSteel. INC. CO 80443 Phone: 775/825-5800 Phone: 970/668-3465 Fax: 775/825-4880 Fax: 970/668-3074 e-mail: email@example.com ORMAT. CA 94105 Phone: 415/896-5858 Fax: 707/882-9261 BALLEW TOOL COMPANY LEON & DEBRA BALLEW P..nv. INC. Suite C-1 Santa Rosa. Steele Lane. INC.nickels@inteq.APPENDIX A – List of USGIC Shareholding Companies AIR DRILLING SERVICE. DAN SCHOCHET 980 Greg Street Sparks.. INC. CA 91101-3094 Phone: 626/795-6866 Fax: 626/584-9210 e-mail: pmesser@bibbla. Water St. Arvada. GEOTHERMAL MANAGEMENT CO. INC.. TX 77027 Phone: 713/693-4000 Fax: 713/693-4270 e-mail: john. ELWOOD CHAMPNESS 627 Williams Street Bakersfield.com DAMES AND MOORE JILL HAIZLIP 221 Main Street. WILLIAMS 515 West Greens Road Houston. KEN NICHOLS 6325 West 55th St.K. Suite 202 Reno. NV 89431-6039 Phone: 775/356-9029 Fax: 775/356-9039 e-mail: ormatintl@ormat.
edu WILLIAMS TOOL CO. Suite 300 Salt Lake City.utah. JOHN R. INC. WILLIAMS Box 6155 Fort Smith AR 72906 Phone: 501/646-8866 Fax: 501/646-3502 21 .ENERGY & GEOSCIENCE INSTITUTE DENNIS NIELSON 423 Wakara Way. UT 84108 Phone: 801/581-5126 Fax: 801/585-3540 e-mail: dnielson@egi.
APPENDIX B – Curricula Vitae for SOPAC and USGIC PIRGADI geoscientists to be involved with the PIRGADI 22 .
org QUALIFICATIONS: M. Fiji MRD.Jan 1995: Nov 1983 .Jan 1978: Director SOPAC Deputy Director. Fiji. Director of Mineral Development and Mines.org 23 . 1981 BSc (Geology).Feb 1998: Nov 1991 .CURRICULUM VITAE FOR SOPAC GEOSCIENTISTS ALFRED THOMAS SIMPSON POSITION: NATIONALITY: MARITAL STATUS: WORK ADDRESS: Director . Fiji. Australian Management Staff College. SOPAC Secretariat. Fiji.to Present Jan 1995 .SOPAC British / New Zealand Married South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) Private Mail Bag GPO. Suva. Phone:(679) 338-1377 Fax: (679) 337-0040 email:russell@sopac. NZ. Phone:(679) 338-1377 Fax: (679) 337-0040 email:alf@sopac.Fiji Branch EMPLOYMENT HISTORY: Feb 1998 . Mt Eliza 1986 PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIP & SOCIETIES: Member of the International Marine Minerals Society (IMMS) Member of the ISBA Legal & Technical Commission (1997 .2006) Director on the Circum-Pacific Council Chair of the PacificGOOS Steering Committee Member of the SEREAD Steering Committee Member of the Royal Commonwealth Society .Sc (Hydrogeology). Geologist.Nov 1983: Jan 1978 . Suva. Assistant Director of Mineral Development. 1972 Diploma in Groundwater Studies. USA 1976 Advanced Management Programme 92. Fiji . University of Birmingham. Dr RUSSELL HOWORTH POSITION: NATIONALITY: MARITAL STATUS WORK ADDRESS: Deputy Director . Colorado State University. Principal Geologist Mapping-Hydrogeology Senior Hydrogeologist.Nov 1981: May 1972 . Fiji MRD.SOPAC Fiji Islander Married South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) Private Mail Bag GPO.Nov 1991: Nov 1981 . UK. Otago University.
The Certificate brought together SOPAC. and two associate member governments. Sixteen years operational and management experience in the pacific region initially in the capacity as a hydropower adviser to a national energy programme.E. SOPAC is an intergovernmental regional body with fifteen member. Fiji. Most of these reflect his work in the small island developing states of the region. Providing 24 . including design in the electricity / power sector on hydropower and geothermal electricity generating schemes.org QUALIFICATIONS: 1997/8 1996 1980 1980 1978 1977 1976 1972 1971 1968 – Financial Economics (Massey University) – Diploma in Financial Economics (University of London) – Registered Engineer (MIPENZ) – Registered Construction Diver – Qualified Scuba Diving Instructor – NZ Registered Safety Supervisor – B.Dr Russell Howorth is the Deputy Director at the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission based in Suva. He has carried out geological work for all island countries in the South Pacific. dam surveillance. Until 1997 he was Training Coordinator at SOPAC. Suva. Fiji. Phone:(679) 338-1377 Fax: (679) 337-0040 email:paul@sopac. Civil Engineering – New Zealand Certificate in Drafting – New Zealand Certificate in Engineering – University Entrance PROFILE: • • Ten years professional engineering experience with the Ministry of Works and Development (MWD – New Zealand). He has written over 60 research and scientific papers and 58 other publications. A major achievement was the establishment and teaching of the Certificate in Earth Science and Marine Geology. and in that capacity was involved with the career development and opportunities of many young people in the region. Dr Howorth is a geologist and has worked in the region for twenty-two years. USP and Victoria University of Wellington to offer a unique opportunity for an academic course with a practical focus for technicians previously unavailable in the region.SOPAC New Zealand Married South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) Private Mail Bag GPO. Subsequently with the regional energy programme formerly under the South Pacific Forum Secretariat and now based at the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC). Dr Howorth was appointed Program Manger in 1997 and in 2002 as Deputy Director. PAUL LEONARD FAIRBAI RN POSITION: NATIONALITY: MARITAL STATUS WORK ADDRESS: Energy Manager .
programme and project implementation. spreadsheets. project management. • Assisted management in the preparation briefing papers and the documentation for a multimillion-dollar regional project. diplomatic.• • • • technical advice and services to the Pacific island countries / economies at Ministerial and Energy Planner level including the provision of advice to regional donors and organisations. donors and other regional and international organisations. analytical and problem solving situations including the responsibilities for identification of new financing opportunities. Project Management • Established and managed an engineering consultancy in the Solomon Islands including providing the Project Management role for a wharf and township infrastructure at Noro. fair. Ability to work within a wide range of energy technologies and disciplines. monitor and undertake ongoing review of project and programme financial performance targets. fiscal management and monitoring an annual budget for work programme and project activities. negotiating. • Provision of technical advice on programmes and projects. Financial and Organisation Management • Capabilities in preparing. including financial and economic considerations. database and basic programming. cultures and associated energy sector programmes with an understanding of the climate change negotiation and commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. • Provision of advice on programmes and projects regarding technical matters including trends. SOPAC. adaptable. Computer literate and proficient at word processing. undertaking planning. • Project management experience in capital. • Networking and cooperation between other relevant regional programmes including associated Units within the parent organisation. Motivated. funding for support technical staff. state-of-the-art technologies. resource allocation and financial performance. • Work in a wide and diverse range of energy sector environments including Pacific Island Energy Offices. liaison. and regional and international donors and organisations. management. programme promotion. operational requirements. prioritisation and coordination. and preparation of tender documents and appointment of consultants. culturally sensitive and committed to country requirements. demonstration and pilot projects. needs identification. Representation of the Pacific island countries at regional and international conferences. colleagues and clients. • A logical and innovative approach to dealing with conceptual. 25 . and assisting in directing the development of national energy sectors. • Highly developed and effective public consultation. SKILLS AND ACHIEVEMENTS Human Resources and Leadership Skills • Well developed team leadership skills with proven ability to gain confidence and respect of colleagues and staff. • Programme and project financial reporting annually to member countries and as required to management. regional and national training and institutional strengthening. • Developed and lead an effective team of professional staff. • Managed and coordinated effective national and regional energy programmes. organisation and management. • Establish. communication skills implemented at all levels of government. symposia and technical meetings. Regional and International Organisations.
Department of Energy Appointed Energy Analyst. Suva. demand side management technical assistance. Department of Energy Appointed Graduate Trainee. Experience in establishing baseline parameters for project monitoring and management including reporting on the effectiveness and impact of projects and programmes.• • • Experienced in the preparation of project profiles and proposals. • Provide planning advice on appropriate technology choices to meet national sector requirements. Prepared and successfully secured project funding for a range of projects including. Department of Energy 26 . regional biomass resource assessment. • Assist in the development of national energy policy statements including developing strategies for the implementation of priority energy activities focusing on the reduction of imported fossil fuels through efficiency and conservation projects and programmes and the introduction of renewable energy technologies.SOPAC Fiji Islander Married South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) Private Mail Bag GPO. focusing on energy and Ministerial briefing papers. Department of Energy Appointed Senior Energy Analyst. Strategic Planning • Development of long term strategic plans and programmes through the preparation of logical planning frameworks. regional wind energy programme. memorandum of understanding. • The preparation of regional position papers in particular for the Ninth Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD9). ANARE MATAKIVITI POSITION: NATIONALITY: MARITAL STATUS WORK ADDRESS: Energy Adviser . Fiji. UTS 1999). tender documents including consultation and definition of brief with key stakeholders. terms of reference. Phone:(679) 338-1377 Fax: (679) 337-0040 email:anare@sopac. BED (Technology) USP 1988) PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE: 2000 1995 1994 1992 1990 Appointed Energy Adviser.org QUALIFICATIONS: Qualification: ME (Energy Planning and Policy. SOPAC Appointed Principal Energy Analyst. • Expertise in developing policies and strategies for the energy sector including the development of information and energy database. • A range of experience in completing needs analysis and feasibility studies for energy sector development projects and proposals.
wave. where appropriate. § Monitoring. Involved in rural energy projects. coordinating and providing technical assistance on the implementation of their projects under the Small Energy Projects Program. evaluation and monitoring of rural electrification projects. biomass. providing technical. Kadavu. § Identifying the renewable energy potentials in member countries. appraising and evaluating the technological progress in renewable and conventional energy technologies. § Evaluating and reviewing the socio-economic and technical merits of activities and initiatives in the energy sectors of member countries and providing technical and policy advice where appropriate. Providing assistance in the drafting of terms of reference and contracts for consultants. In 1997 worked with a Forum Secretariat Energy Consultant surveying selected rural villages in Tonga and Fiji to ascertain the impact of rural electrification in electrified villages and at the same time determine what un-electrified villages expectations of electricity. hydro. the Energy Unit’s Work Program or the energy sectors of member countries. energy conservation and efficiency practices and providing the appropriate advice to member countries with the view to transferring the technologies and practices. geothermal. implementing. seminars and workshops related to the work of the Energy Unit. § Conducting. policy and economic advice on how these resources should be extracted and utilized. § Appraising member countries’ requests for consultancy assistance. Coordinate the constructions of two village based hydropower schemes. 27 . Participated in a Participatory Rural Appraisal for Rural Electrification in two villages in Kadavu to test the approach as a tool for planning. or have an impact on. Participated in an urban energy survey carried out by the Department of Energy in 1993. In 1992 carried a survey of diesel rural electrification schemes that were constructed under the 1973 Rural Electrification Policy. The result led to the review of the rural electrification policy that eventually led to the adoption of the 1994 Rural Electrification Policy. solar. Current Responsibilities as Energy Adviser at SOPAC include: § Coordinating regional energy development projects and regional initiatives that are implemented under. wind etc. facilitating and coordinating regional and national training activities. § Appraising project proposals from member countries. monitoring their performance and reviewing their consultancy reports.ENERGY SECTOR EXPERIENCE: Appointed Administrator of the Lome II PV Follow-up Project and coordinated the work undertaken to upgrade about 60 individual solar lighting systems in Namara. Appointed in 1994 to head the newly established Rural Electrification Unit in the Department of Energy and to oversee the implementation of the new Rural Electrification Policy.
He worked for 8 years on international and domestic engineering geology and mineral exploration projects and. Mr. in geology in 1960 from Dartmouth College and an M. heat pump-related and mineral exploration consulting businesses. HUTTRER Gerald W. i n geology in 1963 from the University of Washington. Geothermal Industries Corporation. the President of CHS Inc. a member of the Board of the Geothermal Energy Association. Mr. He is a multi-term Director and a past President of the Geothermal Resources Council. Italy) and 2000 (Beppu and Morioka. and New Zealand. 28 . Papua New Guinea. design of advanced geothermal drills and land evaluations ranging from a few acres to entire (small) countries. Vanuatu. Huttrer is investigation of the potential for initiation of small-scale geothermal power and/or direct-use projects in developing countries including Fiji. A specialty field for Mr. since 1971. an 18 member consortium of American geothermal firms that collaborate to more effectively sell their goods and services outside the USA. Huttrer's has held positions of significant corporate responsibility within the geothermal industry including those of Chief Geologist. Japan) “World Geothermal Congresses” responsible for summarizing the status of geothermally generated electric power for all of the nations of the world. Mr. district and space heating. He is also (since 1990) President of U. Huttrer has had consulting roles in numerous public and private sector geothermal projects including some related to electric power generation. has concentrated almost exclusively on geothermal exploration and development. high. Mr. Huttrer earned his B. 1995 (Florence. medium and low temperature drilling and project development. He has worked in all of the western United States and in 27 foreign countries. US).SUMMARY RESUMES OF USGIC GEOSCIENTISTS GERALD W. Inc. (a small Colorado energy development company) and is licensed as a geologist and an engineering geologist in California. Huttrer is also Certified to train installers of geothermal heat pump ground loops and has been the Rapporteur at the 1990 (Hawaii.A. (GMC) a firm that was established in March 1987 as a vehicle through which Mr. Huttrer. is President of Geothermal Management Company. Vice President-Business Development. S. Executive Vice President and President. Huttrer conducts his geothermal energy. Exploration Manager. technical analyes of geothermal heat pump heat exchangers.S.
Tiwi. preparation of drilling specifications and bid documents. and permitting and coordination with government regulatory agencies. Ahuachapán and Berlín (El Salvador). Steamboat. Senior Staff Specialist for the United States Geological Survey. He has conducted technology transfer programs in Japan. Momotombo and San Jacinto (Nicaragua). roads. Salton Sea. The Philippines.000. Heber. Hakkoda. Dr. He has been author or co-author of more than 100 technical publications.SUMMARY RESUMES OF GEOTHERMEX PERSONNEL § Dr. economic analysis. Kochani (Yugoslavia). D. Before joining GeothermEx in 1980. and a Senior Petroleum Engineer for Texaco. Wasabizawa. numerical simulation.000. Guatemala and Italy. Sanyal has served as an expert witness in numerous litigations. Mexico. Zugdidi (Republic of Georgia). Subir K. Nicaragua. Wayang Windu. Geothermal Energy Association (Washington. Granados has been active in geothermal exploration. and software development. Stillwater. Dr. Dieng. Italy). design and supervision of construction for civil works (pads. property appraisals. Sanyal has a Ph. Greece. Unalaska (Alaska). Dr. design and supervision of geothermal well tests. and provided advice and due diligence for project financing in numerous countries. Latera and Mofete (Italy). Dr. specification and design of instrumentation for production wells. Vice President and Manager of Drilling Services Mr. Brawley and Mammoth (California). Dr. Takigami and Niseko (Japan). reservoir engineering. These fields include: The Geysers. Puna (Hawaii). in Petroleum Engineering from Stanford University. Leyete and BacMan (Philippines). Sanyal joined GeothermEx in 1980 as Vice President and Manager of Reservoir Engineering Services. and a Master's degree in Petroleum Engineering from the University of Birmingham (England). East Mesa. drilling. the total financed being nearly US $7. Dr. Brazil and The Philippines. and so on. property appraisals and market studies. California).C. Zunil and Amatitlán (Guatemala). Coso. and well testing continuously since 1975.) and the International Geothermal Association (Pisa. this has enabled the generation of more than 6. To date. Kamojang and Darajat (Indonesia). He serves on the Board of Directors of the Geothermal Resources Council (Davis. Inc. he has managed major geothermal projects in the United States. and joined GeothermEx in 1984. Since 1975. Japan. and became President of the company in 1995. Vice President of Geonomics. Minami Aizu. Patuha. Sanyal has also assisted clients in geothermal power sales and steam sales contract negotiations. Desert Peak and Brady’s (Nevada). Palinpinon. Miravalles (Costa Rica). and undertaken assessment of geothermal fields in two dozen countries around the world. Eduardo E. Soda Lake. sumps). Sanyal was a Consulting Professor and Manager of the Petroleum Research Institute at Stanford University. Consulting Engineer for Scientific Software Corporation.000 MW of geothermal power. Wairakei and Ohaaki (New Zealand).. MacBan. Granados. Sanyal has led teams of specialists in the assessment of many well known geothermal fields. Karaha. Costa Rica. Oku Aizu. Sanyal has worked as a reservoir engineer since 1969. Olkaria (Kenya). Uenotai. supervision of drilling and workover of geothermal wells. Inc. training of reservoir engineers. His expertise includes project financing and management.D. Indonesia. Asal (Djibouti).000. Bolivia. He speaks and reads Spanish and can read Russian. Kokubu. Dixie Valley. His expertise includes geothermal well design and drilling engineering. Sanyal. 29 . power plants have now been installed at most of these sites. Beowawe. President and Manager of Reservoir Engineering Dr.
Henneberger. Manager of Earth Sciences Mr. and can read and speak German and Portuguese. Coso. Mr. East Mesa. data analysis and the construction of surface facilities in numerous geothermal fields around the world. Momotombo in Nicaragua. Henneberger was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship to study geothermal energy in New Zealand. which he earned from Stanford University in 1978. development of analytical and financial software. permitting and regulatory compliance. x-ray diffraction. Zunil and Amatitlán in Guatemala. Henneberger has been a geologist with GeothermEx since 1984. During that time. he has participated in devising appropriate regulations to govern geothermal development in several countries. chemical analysis. Rye Patch. Major accomplishments include: planning and managing the drilling and workover of six deep (to 11.S. well testing. roads and camp facilities. well testing. Uenotai in Japan. Zugdidi in Georgia.400 feet) steam wells in the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field. Amatitlán 30 . geological. downhole measurements and geochemical sampling at Brady's Hot Springs. He also has a B. Miravalles. In addition to his engineering skills. instrumentation and downhole measurements in geothermal wells. Prior to joining GeothermEx. Granados has provided such services at the following fields: The Geysers. Berlin in El Salvador.S. Coso and Heber in California. Granados has worked on all aspects of geothermal well drilling. He has also been trained at the United Nations Center for Geothermal Research in Pisa.. Mr. the Costa Rican national utility) from 1975 to 1984. Mr. Mr. geothermal resource assessment and regulatory issues. and received an M. Soda Lake. well testing and civil engineering at Miravalles geothermal field.Sc. reads and writes Spanish.Mr. Ricon de la Vieja and Tenorio in Costa Rica. degree in Geology with First Class Honors in 1983. electron microscopy. Puna in Hawaii. wellsite geology and technical monitoring of drilling operations at numerous geothermal fields. Lihir Island in Papua New Guinea. He designed and supervised the drilling of nine deep full-diameter wells and 46 temperature core holes. well targeting and design of directional drilling programs. statistical and economic assessment of geothermal resources. Steamboat. clay mineralogy. Steamboat. Roger speaks. coordination and implementation of wellsite geology. conducted numerous well logging and testing programs. Gerlach and Bradys in Nevada. Mr. § Roger C. Granados has given numerous lectures and short courses in the U. Cerro Prieto in Mexico. designed civil works and supervised the construction of well pads. technical and financial control of geothermal development and operations. design and management of computerized data bases. reads and writes Spanish. and Valle de Anton in Panama. degree in Geology. and geochemical sampling. Granados worked for Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE. fluid inclusion studies). testing. he was responsible for drilling. negotiated with drilling contractors. and Vail in Oregon. He speaks. Mammoth. detailed petrographic and petrologic analysis (transmitted and reflected light microscopy. well testing. Granados has a Master's degree in Petroleum Engineering from Stanford University and a Bachelor's degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Costa Rica. well control. Granados has provided drilling or well testing services at the following fields: Wayang Windu. Overseas. His expertise includes: planning and management of geothermal drilling and well testing programs. Mr. managed drilling budget. Central America and South America on drilling. Italy. and speaks and reads French and Italian. Dieng and Patuha in Indonesia. assessment of geological hazards. assessment of the technical and financial status of drilling and development operations at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in Mexico. design. In addition. In the United States.
for areas of the field operated by Calpine Corporation. New Zealand. geochemical. The Geysers. She has also analyzed production data for compliance with bank financing requirements at The Geysers. and marketing and public relations. Japan. She received her B. Wasabizawa. Dieng (Indonesia). Dixie Valley. Robertson-Tait has been a permanent employee of GeothermEx since 1985. Ann was a Research Associate for the Ministry of Works and Development in Taupo.Telaga Bodas. Prior to joining GeothermEx. § Ann Robertson-Tait. Her expertise includes: interpretation of downhole data from geothermal wells. development of conceptual hydrogeologic models from multi-disciplinary data. Steamboat. Geological Survey in Menlo Park. and can speak and read Spanish and French. NCPA and Geothermal Energy Partners (Aidlin). Hawaii. She also worked as an Associate Hydrogeologist for the South Florida Water Management District. Santa Fe (now FPL Energy). Roger was a Field Geologist for Noranda Exploration in Reno. Lihir Island (Papua New Guinea) East Mesa. Patuha. Latera. Fish Lake Valley. Soda Lake. Gerlach. Prior to joining GeothermEx. risk analysis. converted and analyzed 25 years of leveling survey data to develop an accessible. and Puna (Hawaii). Mammoth (Long Valley). Japan. municipal and industrial users. As an Associate Geologist for Fluor Mining and Metals. economic evaluation and cash flow analysis of existing and proposed geothermal operations in the US and overseas. Mammoth (Long Valley). and received a Master's degree in Geology from the University of Auckland in 1984. This work included the use of geodetic computer programs for coordinate transformation and survey network adjustment. Dixie Valley. degree in Geology from Florida Atlantic University in 1981. Mexico. Salton Sea. Indonesia. Ann has compiled steam production data. Guatemala.S. Robertson-Tait was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship to study geothermal energy in New Zealand. scheduling and budgeting. Ann has specialized in the integration of geological. Coso and East Mesa (all in California). California. Ms. where he performed geologic mapping and core logging at a molybdenum prospect. Senior Geologist / Business Manager Ms. California. Uenotai. manipulating and interpreting data from geodetic leveling surveys. Recent examples include: Karaha . Nevada. Nevada. integration of geoscientific and engineering analyses to solve resource development and management problems. where she compiled. and Amatitlán. Puna. organized database. and planning and supervision of the drilling of more than 10 succes sful steam wells. project management. and developed a detailed model of the subsurface geology in leases held by NCPA at The Geysers. preparation of proposals. evaluated productivity decline trends and assessed injection benefits at The Geysers steam field. California. geophysical data to develop conceptual models and estimate the recoverable geothermal energy reserves for numerous geothermal fields around the world. Unocal. Nevada. and São Miguel (the Azores). Nevada and Oregon. 31 . design and supervision of temperature gradient and slim hole drilling programs at several locations in California.(Guatemala). determination of recoverable geothermal energy reserves. Roger estimated ore reserves and developed computer-based systems for ore deposit simulation using modern geostatistical techniques. Italy. water sampling and mapping for a salt water intrusion monitoring program. and compilation and analysis of long term water-use data from agricultural. doing pump test analysis of groundwater wells. Indonesia. Geo Operator Company (CCPA). Since joining GeothermEx. At the U. Stillwater and Empire (Nevada). he developed a comprehensive computer package for storing. Cerro Prieto.S.
installation and training. hydrogeology and well drilling. He designed a fluorescein tracer test. Japan. well logging and hydrogeologic modeling. hydrogeologic modeling.D. His expertise includes geochemistry. sites in Nevada). geochemistry. Sao Miguel. Patuha and Wayang Windu geothermal fields in Indonesia. field lab design. He has worked on geothermal geochemistry in nearly every country with geothermal resources around the world. 32 . including the USA (The Geysers. scale inhibition and control. Indonesia. reads. fluids chemistry database and spreadsheet software. Senior Geochemist Dr. Klein. lecturing on geothermal chemistry. He conducted fluid chemistry sampling and analysis. Imperial Valley. Imperial Valley. He speaks. sampling and analysis procedures at the Volcan do Fogo geothermal field. for use by Akita Geothermal Energy Company in its operation of the Uenotai geothermal field. and the relationships of resource evaluation and resource management to geology. Klein has been the senior geochemist at GeothermEx since 1974. interpretation of downhole data from geothermal wells and of chemical data from well tests. database management. set-up and management. fluids sampling. well testing. in Geology from Harvard University and a Bachelor's degree in Chemistry from the University of California. well test monitoring and hydrogeochemical modeling at the Dieng. His geological experience includes structural geology. to support a numerical simulation of long-term Zn production and extraction at the Salton Sea geothermal reservoir. and writes Spanish. did tracer analyses and trained local personnel in tracer injection. Coso. tracer testing. Panama. Guatemala. Japan. field analysis systems and laboratory design. fluids chemistry thermodynamic modeling software. Honduras. Philippines. Examples of his recent experience include a study of non-condensable gas evolution at the Uenotai geothermal field in Japan. California.Dr. He evaluated and quantified Zn concentrations in relation to chemical equilibria. Dr. mineralogy. Azores. Iran and Papua New Guinea. geology. He developed chemistry database software and chemical equilibrium thermodynamics software design. Christopher W. scaling and corrosion studies. training in sampling and analysis methods. set-up and personnel training. Costa Rica. sampling equipment design and fabrication. His geochemical expertise includes the fluid and isotope chemistry of geothermal systems. Berkeley. integrated with reservoir engineering data. brine composition and temperature. purchased equipment. Klein has a Ph.
emphasis on the intermountain region of Nevada. Ogdensburg. project management and coordination of foreign and domestic petroleum exploration projects. Nevada B. Geology. CERTIFICATION & MEMBERSHIPS: State of California–Registered Geologist No. and California. utilities. 1957 .S. Directs and Coordinates the company’s activities. Summer of 1956 Field Geologist. Ely. Reno. investment groups. Texas. Nevada. exploration and mineral property assessment.S. Geothermal Development Associates. 33 . Geology.Mackay School of Mines. Responsibilities included oil and gas prospect generation.SUMMARY RESUMES OF GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATES PERSONNEL G. June 1960 to June 1968 Exploration and Project Geologist with The Superior Oil Company and Superior Oil International. New Jersey Zinc Company. Nevada. Pennsylvania PROFESSIONAL REGISTRATION. in petroleum and mineral resources. 1965 . joint venture operations. 1590 American Association of Petroleum Geologists– Certified Petroleum Geologist No. Federal and Nevada State government agencies. etc. Reno. oil submittal evaluation. Tripoli. photogeologic/geomorphic mapping.) Geological Society of America Geothermal Resources Council International Geothermal Association PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYMENT: November 1978 to Present President and Director. and Houston. Inc. Nuclear. 1110 American Association of Petroleum Geologists– Energy Minerals (Geothermal. in Denver. Colorado. June 1968 to Present Consulting Geologist. Libya. Minnesota. New Jersey. field mapping. University of Nevada-Reno Reno. major areas of work and research are in geothermal resources and geology. Summer of 1957 Underground Miner. 192 Association of Professional Geological Scientists– Certified Professional Geologist No.Franklin & Marshall College Lancaster. economic evaluations. Coal. Utah. Clients: private companies. and individuals. well site supervision. regional geologic studies. MARTIN BOOTH III Geologist/President EDUCATION: M. International Nickel Company.
primarily involved in wind and photovoltaic systems. was printed in June 1977. Geothermal Industries Corporation.S. and negotiations. Half-time research assignment to Division of Modeling and Analysis. and manufacture of custom controls and instrumentation. April 1976 to May 1977: Consultant. Former Reno Subchapter Chairman U. including professional consulting services provided to GDA clients. New Mexico University of Nevada-Reno Reno. September 1977 to July 1978: Research Associate. Electrical Engineering.Nevada #4851 (Electrical) and California #9117 (Electrical) Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers. Primary responsibility was to advise and assist the Commission in matters relating to electric utility regulation. Electrical Engineer/Vice President EDUCATION M. Former Reno Subchapter Officer Geothermal Resources Council. as well as work performed for GDA’s own account as developers of geothermal energy resources. Nevada Public Service Commission. project management. Geothermal Development Associates.DAVID L. power system design and analysis.S. Nevada. transmission.).S. 1975 B. P. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. September 1975 to December 1975: Research Assistant. 1973 New Mexico State University Las Cruces.E. The final report. formulation of economic models and development plans. entitled Energy in Nevada. Half-time assignment teaching undergraduate course in electromechanical energy conversion. Responsible for supervision and coordination of all engineering work performed by GDA. This work has included power contract (PPA) development. MENDIVE. Assignment as a half-time research assistant to the joint NMSU-Los Alamos super conducting dc transmission project. State of Nevada. Performed technical review of several utility applications for construction of generation. New Mexico State University. technical review and support in relation to project financing. Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department. Board of Directors PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYMENT 1978 to Present: Vice President. Electrical Engineering. project start-up supervision. and distribution facilities. utility interconnection studies and negotiations. New Mexico Solar Energy Institute. Nevada Public Service Commission. electrical engineering. Nevada PROFESSIONAL REGISTRATION. Staff Engineer. coal. Primary responsibility was to advise and assist the Commission in matters relating to the regulation of electric utilities. Contract with the State of Nevada to perform the first comprehensive study of energy consumption in Nevada. petroleum. operator training. power market evaluation and load projections. natural gas. CERTIFICATION & MEMBERSHIPS Professional Engineer . 34 . New Mexico State University. and the development of long-range forecasts of consumption for each energy form in the major consumption sectors. May 1977 to September 1977 Electrical Engineer II. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Other experience in this time frame includes part-time teaching of power systems and network analysis courses at the University of Nevada-Reno. July 1973 to August 1974: Electrical Engineer I. etc. Reno. State of Nevada. review. The study entailed the collection and analysis of historical energy consumption data (electrical. instrumentation and control system design.