Introduction Overview Dominance Theory The Mind and Body Connection Objectified Social Hierarchy The Cognitive Quadrant

Calming Signals Framing the Psychology of the Owner Fixed Action Patterns – Instinctive Behavior – Prey Drive Behavior The Science Delusion

Learning Theory The Starting Point The Study The Cognitive Model Temperament of Dog Breed Specific Legislation The Academic Divide Studies Commands A Belief System The Final Layer Afterword References About the Author


Scientific principles and laws do not lie on the surface of nature. They are hidden, and must be wrested from nature by an active and elaborate technique of inquiry. ~John Dewey, Reconstruction in Philosophy, 1920

This insightful guide lifts the curtain on the special connection dogs share with us through nature and the pack relationship. It runs head on towards the perfect storm that is gathering and raging against nature. It confronts and challenges the intent and motives of those who exploit behavioral science while separating fact from fiction regarding the central issue of dominance. It shows that when it comes to nature there are no accidents or coincidences. It connects the final pieces of this unique and complex relationship while offering hope for all dogs and owners.


It is better to be divided by truth than to be united in error.— Adrian Rodgers

This guide connects the final dots for those who are seeking answers. It goes into the enemy camp of behavioral science and takes the legs out of the self organizing, self validating and self fueling agenda whose mission statements are disconnected from reality. It is guaranteed to become original source for those who want to go beyond the surface and to the depth of this interwoven and interconnected relationship.

Dominance Theory

Nature, to be commanded, must be obeyed. ~Francis Bacon - 1620

Dominance has become the core issue, rallying position, and stumbling stone for many when it comes to creating harmony and balance within the dog and human relationship. This critical issue has been ignored and dismissed by many even while nature has been providing us with many clues and warnings that something is wrong with how we are connecting with our dogs. Behaviorists have exploited conditioning by giving it a free pass and using it as a bridge to meet the needs of the dog owner rather than the nature needs of the dog. This exploitation of conditioning happens by those who use behavioral science instead of nature as their foundation. How a dog's mind is influenced ,as it aligns with conditioning, is not questioned by many beyond what is seen from the surface. Goodness of fit has taken priority over unanswered questions, inconsistent results, conflict, unresolved behavior issues and failure. The answer to what dominance really represents, as it connects to strength or weakness, is not found on the surface of the relationship. It is discovered with the unveiling of the intertwined connection dogs share with us through Nature and the pack relationship. Insight into the depth of this mind and body connection comes through intense and direct interaction between dog and owner. Only when the dog owner or trainer begins to challenge, confront and face off on the issues associated

with conditioning and what is seen from the surface does nature fully reveal itself. It is exposed through the willingness to allow ones own agenda and beliefs to implode. Only by surrendering fully to nature, both mind and body, is truth revealed. For me this happened by pushing beyond what was seen and connecting the dots with what was not seen. As I took on case after case of what were labeled as hopeless failures within conditioning focused models of training I began to look at how owners connected with their dogs at the psychological level for the answers. The same patterns began to appear over and over again with how owners thought about and connected with their dogs. Strength and weakness took on new depth and meaning within this shared mind and body connection. Devices and conditioning began to fade into the background as this cognitive interplay and dynamic began to firm up towards connecting the final dots between dog and owner. While many are starting to make the connection from behavioral science to ongoing issues between dogs and owners the psychology itself, as it links to the mind and body connection, is the real issue and problem. By seeing dogs as either sophisticated lab rats or as 4-legged mini-me's (or both), the behavioral science approach to dog training seems to be failing our furry friends. (Lee -2009) To better understand what is really causing conflict and issues for dogs and owners one has to look a little closer at the type of psychology that behaviorists align with. Those who lean heavily on behavioral science also humanize dogs at a level which follows a path of weakness via emotional psychology and connection through nature and the pack relationship. Without qualifying the type of influence happening between dogs and owners through conditioning many behaviorists fail to connect any dots beyond the positive at all costs agenda. This critical dot established between meaningful influence and the diminishing of unwanted behavior is lost on those who do not understand what dominance represents as it connects to both mind and body. Behaviorist ideas and concepts, terms and conditions hold back and restrain the mind from expanding to understand what dominance represents as

it connects to nature. This restrictive way of thinking is contaminated further with the merging of an agenda which is fueled by feelings and emotions. This owner focused agenda aligns with the type of emotion and connection which is perceived as weakness. When unwanted behaviors fail to diminish than meaningful influence has failed to take hold. This is the true standard and litmus test which behaviorists continue to dismiss and ignore. While many behaviorists express concern regarding the recent re-emergence of dominance theory the same concern has not been shown regarding the many serious issues linked to the behaviorist model of training. Continuing questions remain unanswered regarding the consistency of this model of training as well as a objective audit of the actual failure rates. While some behaviorists admit to owners becoming frustrated with lack of success and so, seek help elsewhere they appear unwilling to seek out the underlying issues and causation (Dunbar 2010). The voices calling out to look beyond behavioral science has come up against stiff resistance from an aggressive campaign to sell this model of training “as is” onto the public. The reasons behind this resistance by behaviorists is directly connected to the positions they have taken regarding dominance. The “pack” and “dominance” theory of domestic dogs is a harmful meme. It prevents many owners understanding their dogs, causes untold misery for both and is perpetuated by well-meaning but uninformed dog trainers around the world. It is proving extremely resistant to extinction. (Ryan 2010) This ongoing and aggressive push for unconditional validation by many does not meet even the minimum standard one would expect from the academic community. While misrepresenting what dominance represents this issue is colored up and used as fuel by many to appeal to the emotions and feelings of dog owners. People who rely on dominance theory to train their pets may need to regularly threaten them with aggressive displays or repeatedly use physical force. Conversely, pets subjected to threats or force may not offer submissive behaviors. Instead, they may react with aggression, not because they are trying to be dominant but because the human threatening them makes them afraid. (AVSAB – 2008)

This emotional hijacking crosses over to reveal another agenda at work which plays off the feelings of dog owners. Behaviorists have become the dealer of choice for those seeking to keep this emotional high going as long as possible. They have aligned with the type of psychological connection which feeds this emotional addiction. The mission statements of those who align with these views use the anti dominance message to propel this emotional agenda beyond the reach of ongoing issues and questions which will not go away. The American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior is concerned with the recent re-emergence of dominance theory and forcing dogs and other animals into submission as a means of preventing and correcting behavior problems. For decades, some traditional animal training has relied on dominance theory and has assumed that animals misbehave primarily because they are striving for higher rank. This idea often leads trainers to believe that force or coercion must be used to modify these undesirable behaviors. (AVSAB – 2008) By ignoring, dismissing or denying the already established forces of nature it changes nothing except our ability to direct, control and influence the path we take and role we adopt within the pack relationship. The type of psychology the model and method of training aligns itself with matters more than people realize. While the owner may be really happy based on first impressions and what is seen from the surface they may ultimately fail based on the amount of psychological change needed to break them out of the follower role.

The Mind and Body Connection

When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it is tied to everything else in the universe.

John Muir (1838-1914) U. S. naturalist, explorer.

Dogs are pack animals. The depth of this pack connection goes further than most people comprehend or understand as it links with mind, body and nature. How dogs communicate with each other through this mind and body connection provides the snapshot for assessing strength and weakness. Dogs know the overall path, intent and characteristics of the owner' mind within this strength and weakness, body and mind connection and framework. This connection is both a proximity one and main influencing agent based on who spends the most time with the dog. This connection begins to take hold and intensify with any dog or human within a few feet. The interplay and reactions are based on the psychological path of the human and level of influence and role of the dog within its pack. Just like how nature is intertwined so are both mind and body. This is where physical strength blends into the will and strength of the mind. It is this intent, character and seriousness of the mind which represents strength. Physical responses which are aggressive may not create meaningful influence based on how the overall mind is framed. Often a dog owner reacts from a buildup of frustration through an emotional response. This is where a disconnect happens from how the owner perceives their own psychology and how the dog perceives it based on nature's standard. Through this interwoven mind and body connection a dog knows the mind of the owner, its current path and intent. A dog quickly creates a personality assessment based on these characteristics. To see the unseen and the depth of this pack connection it is only revealed by direct interaction without

separation from this pack influence. Recent studies which focus on this intertwined relationship and connection confirm that more is happening than what is seen from the surface. Taken together, the current results show that dogs were highly sensitive to the experimenter’s attentional state. There are still many unanswered questions, and future research on animal social cognition should thus be explicitly comparative and should attempt to establish the full range of social–cognitive skills for a wide range of animal species. Only recently it has been discovered that dogs are interesting to science for another reason. It appears that dogs have evolved specialized skills for reading human social and communicative behavior. (Hare 2005) It is conceivable that dogs may have evolved some special predisposition for interacting with and communicating with humans (Lorenz, 1964; Miklo´si, Polga´rdi, Topa´l, & Csa´nyi, 1998; Mitchell & Thompson, 1986). While recent scientific studies of dog and human interactions hint that a more complex level of communication is happening between dogs and humans the break through moment remains in doubt based on this behaviorist way of thinking being deeply embedded into our scientific studies and academic institutions. (Lee 2009) Modern researchers in animal cognition are in most cases firmly behaviorist in methodology, even though they differ sharply from the behaviorist philosophy. (Hare 2005) While many have been indoctrinated to this behaviorist way of thinking others are starting to question if behavioral science can provide the answers and resolve the discourse happening within the dog training world. Many non-experts in the field, and a small minority of experts, find the scientific approach too