ABSTRACT

Rainwater harvesting is the collection of water volume from raindrops. A rainwater harvesting system consists of components of various stages - transporting rainwater through pipes or drains, filtration, and storage in tanks for reuse or recharge. This system has been the main source of water supply for potable and non-potable uses in the old days where the methods used were simple and primary. Drinking, bathing and cooking are the examples of potable uses. The rainwater used for this purposes are best to be treated first. Non-potable uses include flushing toilets, watering garden and washing floor where treatment of rainwater is not required for this purpose.

For potable purposes, rainwater treatment has to be implemented before the water is safely used. Treatment is done to eliminate any suspended solid and chemicals and pathogens that could harm one’s health.

The main advantages of rainwater harvesting systems are conserving water resources and environment, help to control flooding, and reduction of impact of weather change. The available water resources are limited and/or seasonal, which made the searching for solutions for water shortage important. Many countries around the world are facing water shortages. Optimization of water usage and the conservation of water as a natural resource can help to overcome water shortage. Rainwater can be used for potable and non-potable uses.

A. [1] High number of world’s population could lead to water shortage problem. Nanyang Technological University. it minimizes the amount of rainfall hitting the earth thus makes the probability of creek damages and slope failure smaller. . Division of Environmental Engineering and Water Resources. The population growth has direct influence on the water supply demand rates.PROBLEM STATEMENT World’s population has been persistently increasing and so has the water demand. Landslides and creeks failure are not something alien in Malaysia. These catastrophes could happen due to the impact of rainfall to the bare surface of land. These chemicals could be hazardous to health in long term. Singapore. [1] Appan. It was a major problem in Selangor when the municipal supplied to houses was highly contaminated with ammonia. (2000) Trends in Water Demands and the Role of Rainwater Catchment Systems in the Next Millennium. The municipal water that is being supplied for domestic usage may be contaminated with chemicals that are being used to treat the water. By collecting rainwater. This is proven when worldwide water demand has increased six folds between 1990 and 1995 while the population was only doubled. School of Civil and Structural Engineering. Optimization of water usage and the conservation of water as a natural resource can help to overcome this problem.

provided certain safety precautions are taken as part of water capture. treatment and distribution. and these actions can reduce main water requirements of a typical household by 70%. The rainwater treatment system will be designed for the cleansed rainwater will achieve the quality of drinking water.OBJECTIVE The main objective of this project is to develop a range of patented products that can be used in conjunction with rainwater catchments. and maintain. storage and distribution. laundry and garden use alone. Rainwater is as safe as any source of water. operate. The benefits of implementing rainwater harvesting widely can be categorized to economical and environmental. It is also beneficial economically from these aspects:   Rainwater falls for free. Reduces the dependency on municipal water thus reducing water bills.[2] This shows how rainwater recycling can be lucrative economically.  Rooftop rainwater harvesting systems are easy to construct. In fact some also claim that . Reduces the need for and simultaneously the cost of pumping groundwater. Rainwater can be reused for toilet flushing.  Rooftop rainwater harvesting is usually less expensive than other water sources. The rainwater catchments will be designed to collect the maximum amount of water by using the minimum space. The distribution system will be designed to transport the water from the catchments to the existing home pipe system.

the society will have higher awareness of environment and the importance of conserving it.  It can contribute to the mitigation of urban flooding and. reduces soil erosion in urban areas.rainwater is safer than water supplied through mains or reticulated water systems. It can protect our supplies as the water supplies are falling and water restrictions are in place in many communities to reduce the overall water usage.asp . With the listed benefits of rainwater recycling.   It provides high-quality soft water that is low in mineral content.rainharvesting. as a result. [2] http://www. water habitats and organisms caused by stormwater runoff. Proving that it is not impossible.au/ideal_uses_for_rainwater. Our mains water is typically stored in dams and reservoirs. it is an obligation for our group to propagate awareness and consciousness to the society especially Malaysian and Malaysian’s authorized bodies of how important and valuable rainwater recycling is. Environmentally.com. treated with chemicals such as chlorine to kill of bacteria and make it safe. and then pumped through a network of pipes throughout the community. rainwater harvesting brings positive affects because: It helps reducing the significant damages to the creeks. The project will help to bring this idea up to realization by making the visual more solid to the society.

maintaining the quality and quantity of water is a top priority. As water covers approximately three-fourth of the earth’s surface. and automobile emissions. or the most excellent. From a community level many water saving tactics can be implemented to conserve this most precious natural resource and one of them is rainwater harvesting. it is already rising that the earth lacks of fresh water substitutes. . edible. The rainwater nowadays could be contaminated due to the exposure to air pollution caused by industries such as cement kilns. As water demand keeps increasing with population. Rainwater treatment is to be implemented so the contaminants will be removed from the rainwater for it to safely be reused. Rainwater treatment was not crucial at those times as it was not as contaminated as it is now. gravel quarries. only 3% of that figure is fresh water. parallel to the growth of industries. Below shows the record of average rainfall in Ipoh in December 2006 together with the water consumed by Malaysian in a year. Asia and the Middle East. Rainwater collection is not new to the world.BACKGROUND Fresh water is one of the most important natural resources which are the essence for survival. It also includes the average cost of water in a household in Malaysia. Evidence shows that rainwater has been collected dating back to 4000 BC in countries such as India. Therefore.

33 /m3 15.7 7. 130. RM 0.html [4]kjc. 5 person / house Total cost 250 mm 100 mm 526 litres/person/day.my/English/service/climate/climateupd.85 /m3 RM 1.1 – 40 m3 > 40m3 Water used per month.9 4.55 /m3 RM 0.gov.78 x 5 = 78.9 m3 RM 74.7 litres/person/day.Monthly average rainfall for Ipoh for December 2007 Normal monthly average rainfall Average urban Malaysian water used Average Rural Malaysia Water Use Cost for city water / m3 0-15m3 15.3 188 3 2 Total Dissolved Solids 315 Table 2 : City Water Quality[4] [3] waterwatchpenang.7 46 9.05 Table 1 : Average Water Usage[3] Table 2 shows the quality of city water which is the requirement of the end product of out CTD system Typical Analysis Potassium Calcium Sodium Magnesium pH Bicarbonate Sulphate Chloride mg/L 2.html .org/the-3rconceptinwater.

DESIGN APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY The proposed rainwater harvesting system would involve using rainfall that would otherwise be collected as surface runoff and channeled through a storage tank. This system will also include the treatment and distribution system. while Figure 2 illustrates the schematic diagram of the system. Figure 1 shows a conventional piping system in Malaysia before CTD system is being installed. The treatment system will produce an end product of water that qualifies the criteria for drinking water. Figure 3 shows the initial design of CTD system after it is installed. Figure 1: Conventional piping system in Malaysia . The project will also include a design of piping system that will transport the treated water from the filter to the storage tank.

Collector Tank with Filter Pump Home Water Tank Pipe Figure 2: Schematic of system Figure 3: Initial design of piping system .

Below is the list of important dates:       4th of February 2008 25th of February 2008 24th of March 2008 9th of April 2008 30th of April 2008 : Proposal submission : Progress report submission : Expenditure form submission : Evaluation on fabrication : Final report submission Pre-EDX and EDX’s date has not been confirmed .PROJECT MANAGEMENT Timeline of the Project To ensure that the project will be according to the dateline that have been issued by the University. Figure 4: The timeline for the project Besides the Gantt chart. there are also a few important dates that our team needs to keep in mind that requires us to submit reports. project evaluation. pre-EDX and etc. The chart below shows the timeline for every process of the project. we have made a Gantt chart to marks the time period and dateline that we have for every steps of the project.

Task Distribution TASK Testing the composition of the rain water collected. The final report will be done continuously. From the test results. After finding all the suitable filtering system. Finding a suitable filtering system for the rain water that will filter out all the unwanted material from the rain water Finding the suitable pump system to pump the water to the main water tank Find a suitable tank that will save space and hold a large volume of rain water. pump system and water tank. after the submission of the proposal to the 14th week of the semester. we will determine all the materials inside the rain water that need eliminate to make the quality of the rain water equal to the tap water. Building a down-scale model of the whole system for our presentation during pre-EDX and EDX. Table 3 : Task Distribution Group Hierrachy ACTION Nurhakimah Mohd Nor Suhaila Khai Logen Farhana All group members All group members All group members All group members Director Logenthiran -Conduct all meeting -Distributing task to group members -Planning weekly agenda -Monitor progress of the project Secretary Suhaila -Prepare minutes of meeting -Keep record all the data and document Technical and Finance Siti Farhana -Prepare budget for the project -Manage account Design and Analysis Khairulddin -Design the prototype of the project -Analyze the data Research and Development Mohd Nor Nurhakimah -Research on composition of the material -Determine the suitable material for the project . all the system will undergoes a quality test to ensure all the system are according to the specification of our design.