Anindya Prima Pangestika 2215091948 Introduction to Research Mid-Term Task

Analysis of Research Journal Title: The Use of Scripted Play in Speech Production for Young Children with Disabilities Author: Renee Chong Year: June, 2007 The purpose of the study: to investigate the effects of the use of scripted play in the language production of young children with developmental delays. Approach: quantitative research, it belongs to intervention research (explaining whether an intervention influences an outcome for one group as opposed to another group) and categorized as experimental studies because in this research, the three participants were trained together for the three scrip scenes then the researcher took the data about utterance and morpheme count in the experiment. Hypothesis: this article used scripted play as a language intervention strategy to increase the mean length of utterance (MLU) for three young children with disabilities. Variable: dependent variable = speech production Independent variable = scripted play Instruments: transcript (by using recorded sound of the experiment during Pre-Intervention, Intervention, and Post-Intervention. The writer compared those three phases to show the development of the speech production) and observation (by observe the participant directly) Participant: the participants were three preschoolers who attended a preschool program in a special school in Singapore. All three children were diagnosed with moderate developmental disabilities.

These served to compare the data for the two phases. These samples were collected through a procedure adapted from Miller (1981. Neeley. Face validity c. Justen. Neeley. . p. Goldstein. The instrument is appropriate with the goal because the use of recording and observing can measure the effects of scripted play and the research can collect the data clearly. Content validity Transcript and observation are the instruments in this research. Wickstrom. Within the result of the two phases. 1992. the research can aware of the condition of the participant before and after observation(training). 14)” It shows that the researcher collected the data by comparing the data from two phases. Research has shown that the use of scripted play has improved social and language behaviors in children with disabilities ( Goldstein & Cisar. from the article. b. while the goal/ purpose of the research to investigate the effects of the use of scripted play in the language production of young children with developmental delays.Reliability : the instrument which is used in this research are transcript and observation. “free-speech samples were collected from each participant during pre and post interventions (total of 10 sessions each). 2001). Analyzing data Data collection The researcher used transcript (by using recorded sound of the experiment during PreIntervention. & Jamieson. we can see that there are previous research with the same topic as this research. Intervention. Hoyson. and Post-Intervention) and observation (by observing the participant directly in the phases of observation). External validity The instrument can be applied in other context because transcript and observation had widely used to investigate the effects of something. 1988. & Tipton-Sumner. such as the use of cripted play in this research. Validity : there are three types of validity that can be explained through the research: a.

Sulzer-Azaroff. Example: “There has been much research in the positive effects of teaching language skills to young children with developmental delays through play (Buttefield. 54). It can be seen from the references The researcher mentioned the identity of the participants clearly as stated in the article. Slater ( six years old). Ethical concern There is no plagiarism in this research. 1994. The children were have different level in speech production. The researcher explained the communication skills of those participants to give the readers clear. This research belongs to secondary sources. 2001. p. and Rachel (five years old). & Cowdey. Quotation : There is no direct quotation in the article. following the computation adapted from Brown (1973. 1993).” “The dependent measure was the mean length utterance (MLU). Lifter.Participants: the participants were three preschoolers who attended a preschool program in a special school in Singapore. All three children were diagnosed with moderate developmental disabilities.” . Carter. Anderson. The researcher paraphrased and adapted from many sources. The three participants were: Josef (five years old). therefore the researcher choose them to investigate their communication skills during the observation.

Cummins points out that in order to perform effectively in mathematics and science.Outline Research Title: Improving English Language Proficiency by Using English in Mathematics The purpose of the study: to investigate the effects of the use of English in Mathematic. Cummins (1986) suggests that there are two levels of language proficiency: the basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS) and academic language proficiency (CALP). It can be classified as experimental research. 1987). where is the writer conducts an experiment to get the data. related to English language proficiency Approach: quantitative research. CALP involves language that is context-reduced and highly demanding cognitively. students would need to develop CALP. related to English language proficiency. the statistical data are given to measure the effectiveness of using English in Mathematics. Hypothesis: Using English in Mathematics can be estimated become an effective way to increase the English language proficiency of the student Literature review: Teaching mathematics and science in English provides a rich context for genuine language use and as such serves as a focal point around which oral language and literacy in English can develop (Kessler & Quinn. Therefore. Participant: 10% of the twelve grade high school’s student in an International-based school. One of the reasons for teaching and learning mathematics was to provide opportunities for students to engage in the use of the language. Language proficiency or linguistic proficiency is the ability of an individual to speak or perform in an acquired language (wikipedia.com). . the purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the use of English in Mathematic. Variable: dependent variable= English language proficiency Independent variable= English in mathematics Instrument: questionnaire (by given the questionnaire to the students who learn Mathematics in English.

Englewood Cliffs. Social Studies. 55-88. J. Harvard Educational Review.1987.References: Cummins. “ESL and Science Learning. NM: Prentice Hall. Ed.wikipedia. Empowering Minority Students: A Framework for Intervention. 56:18-36 Kessler.com . Jo Ann Crandall.” ESL Through Content-area Instruction: Mathematics. and Mary Ellen Quinn. 1986. Science. pp. Carolyn. www.