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by

Abdullatif Abdulhadi Gari

A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Mechanical Engineering College of Engineering University of South Florida

Major Professor: Muhammad M. Rahman, Ph.D. Roger Crane, Ph.D. Yehia Hammad, Ph.D. Autar Kaw, Ph.D. Stanley Kranc, Ph.D. Date of Approval: June 22, 2006

Keywords: microchannels, magnetic refrigerators, electronic cooling, nanofluids, snow melting © Copyright 2006, Abdullatif Abdulhadi Gari

Dedication To Dad for his guidance (1944-2003) and To Mom for her patience.

Acknowledgements I would like to thank Dr. Rahman for his guidance, support, and patience. I also would like to thank the committee members and faculty members of the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of South Florida for their teaching and support. I also would like to thank my colleagues who worked with me under Dr. Rahman’s supervision for their cooperation and help.

Table of Contents List of Figures List of Nomenclature Abstract Chapter 1 – Introduction and Literature Review 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Literature Review 1.2.1 Steady State Heat Transfer in Rectangular and Trapezoidal Microchannels 1.2.2 Steady State Heat Transfer in Circular Microchannels 1.2.3 Transient Heat Transfer in Microchannels 1.2.4 Heat Transfer Using Nanofluids 1.2.5 Hydronic Snow Melting System 1.3 Objectives Chapter 2 – Steady State Heat Transfer in Circular Microchannels During Magnetic Heating or Cooling 2.1 Mathematical Model 2.2 Numerical Simulation and Parametric Study 2.3 Results and Discussion 2.4 Conclusions Chapter 3 – Transient Heat Transfer in Circular Microchannels Under Time Varying Heat Source 3.1 Mathematical Model 3.2 Numerical Simulation and Parametric Study 3.3 Results and Discussion 3.4 Conclusions Chapter 4 – Transient Heat Transfer in Trapezoidal Microchannels During Activation of Magnetic Heating 4.1 Mathematical Model 4.2 Numerical Simulation and Parametric Study 4.3 Results and Discussion 4.4 Conclusions i iv xvii xix 1 1 4 4 7 10 11 14 16 19 19 22 23 40 41 41 44 44 52 55 55 58 59 86

2 Numerical Simulation and Parametric Study 6.4 Conclusions Chapter 6 – Steady State Heat Transfer Using Nanofluids in Circular Microchannels 6.2 Recommendations for Future Research References Appendices Appendix A: FIDAP Program for Steady State Heat Transfer in Circular Microchannels During Magnetic Heating or Cooling Simulation Appendix B: FIDAP Program for Transient Heat Transfer in Circular Microchannels Under Time Varying Heat Source Simulation Appendix C: FIDAP Program for Transient Heat Transfer in Trapezoidal Microchannels During Activation of Magnetic Heating Simulation Appendix D: FIDAP Program for Transient Heat Transfer in Trapezoidal Microchannels Under Time Varying Heat Source Simulation ii 91 91 94 95 112 114 114 117 117 134 136 136 139 140 149 151 151 155 155 164 165 165 167 168 172 173 175 177 179 .3 Results and Discussion 7.3 Results and Discussion 8.2 Numerical Simulation and Parametric Study 8.4 Conclusions Chapter 7 – Steady State Analysis of Hydronic Snow Melting System 7.2 Numerical Simulation and Parametric Study 7.3 Results and Discussion 6.Chapter 5 – Transient Heat Transfer in Trapezoidal Microchannels Under Time Varying Heat Source 5.1 Mathematical Model 6.1 Mathematical Model 7.2 Numerical Simulation and Parametric Study 5.1 Mathematical Model 5.4 Conclusions Chapter 9 – Conclusions 9.4 Conclusions Chapter 8 – Transient Analysis of Hydronic Snow Melting System 8.1 Conclusion 9.1 Mathematical Model 8.3 Results and Discussion 5.

Appendix E: FIDAP Program for Steady State Heat Transfer Using Nanofluids in Circular Microchannels Simulation Appendix F: FIDAP Program for Steady State Analysis in Hydronic Snow Melting System Simulation Appendix G: FIDAP Program for Transient Analysis in Hydronic Snow Melting System Simulation Appendix H: Design of Experiment on Parameters and Quantitative Error Analysis of the Grid Test About the Author 181 184 188 192 End Page iii .

3: Figure 2. G = 5 T.1: Figure 2.3: Figure 2.036 cm.036 cm.036 cm. G = 5 T.List of Figures Figure 1. d = 0.7: 28 Figure 2. Water) 2 2 4 20 20 24 24 Figure 2.1: Figure 1. Water) Local peripheral average Nusselt number along axial coordinate at various Reynolds numbers (d = 0. Water) Local dimensionless peripheral average heat transfer coefficient along axial coordinate at various diameters and constant Reynolds numbers (Re = 1600. d = 0.4: Schematic drawing of the bed heat exchanger assembly for magnetic refrigerating Schematic drawing for a microchannel test fixture used for electronic cooling Schematic drawing for hydronic snow melting system Schematic drawing for the circular microchannel model Schematic drawing for the circular microchannel simulated model Local dimensionless peripheral average interface temperature for different grid sizes (Re = 1600. Water) Local dimensionless peripheral average interface temperature along axial coordinate at various diameters and constant Reynolds numbers (Re = 1600.5: 26 26 Figure 2.6: Figure 2.2: Figure 1.036 cm. G = 5 T. G = 5 T. Water) Local dimensionless peripheral average interface temperature along axial coordinate at various Reynolds number (d = 0.8: 28 iv .2: Figure 2. Water) Local Nusselt number variation for different axial locations along the angular direction (Re = 1600.

Water) Pressure drop in the model at various diameters (with constant Reynolds number) and Reynolds number (G = 5 T.367 m/s.8 cm for various diameters (with constant Reynolds number) and Reynolds number (G = 5 T.11: 30 32 Figure 2. G = 5 T.19: 37 38 38 Figure 2.15: Figure 2. G = 5 T.21: .036 cm.12: Figure 2. G = 5 T.036 cm) Local dimensionless peripheral average interface temperature along axial coordinate for different fluids (Re = 1600.367 m/s.10: 30 Figure 2.036 cm) Local dimensionless peripheral average heat transfer coefficient along axial coordinate for different fluid (Re = 1600. G = 5 T. Water) Dimensionless maximum temperature in the system at various diameters (with constant Reynolds number) and Reynolds number (G = 5 T. Water) Local peripheral average Nusselt number along axial coordinate for different fluids (Re = 1600. G = 5 T. Water) Local peripheral average Nusselt number along axial coordinate at various diameters and constant inlet velocity (Vin = 4. d = 0. Water) Comparison for friction factor results to existing experimental results in the literature Comparison for Nusselt number results to existing experimental results in the literature v 29 Figure 2. G = 5 T.4 cm for various diameter (with constant Reynolds number) and Reynolds number (G = 5 T. d = 0.20: Figure 2.17: Figure 2.036 cm. d = 0. Water) Local dimensionless peripheral average interface temperature along axial coordinate at various diameters and constant inlet velocity (Vin = 4. Water) Local average Nusselt number at z = 0. G = 5 T. d = 0. Water) Local Nusselt number variation for different working fluids along the angular direction (Re = 1600.14: 33 34 Figure 2.16: 35 35 Figure 2. Water) Local average Nusselt number at z = 0.Figure 2.13: 32 Figure 2.18: 37 Figure 2.9: Local peripheral average Nusselt number along axial coordinate at various diameters and constant Reynolds numbers (Re = 1600.

2: Schematic for microchannel heat exchanger model Maximum temperature over 9 seconds (Re = 1600.1: Figure 3.036 cm) Peripheral average Nusselt number at different axial locations with Re = 1000 (G = ±2 T. G = 5 T.036 cm) Peripheral average heat flow rate at different axial locations over 9 seconds with G = ±4 T (Re = 1600. d = 0.5: Figure 3.036 cm) Peripheral average heat flow rate at different axial locations over 9 seconds (Re = 1600. d = 0.012 cm (Re = 1600.036 cm) Peripheral average Nusselt number at different axial locations with G = ±4 T (Re = 1600. Hfl = 0. G = ±2 T) Peripheral average heat flow rate at different axial locations with Re = 1000 (G = ±2 T.11: Figure 3. Hfl = 0. G = ±2 T. G = ±2 T. d = 0. d = 0.3: Figure 3. d = 0.1: Figure 4. d = 0.036 cm) Peripheral average heat flow rate at different axial locations with d = 0.Figure 3. d = 0.036 cm) Peripheral average interface temperature at different axial locations over 9 seconds (Re = 1600. G = 5 T.036 cm) Peripheral average Nusselt number at different axial locations over 9 seconds (Re = 1600. G = ±2 T.03 cm) Peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000. G = ±2 T. d = 0.9: Figure 3.03 cm) 42 46 46 47 47 49 49 50 51 51 53 53 56 60 60 Figure 4.3: vi .12: Figure 4.2: Figure 3.036 cm) Maximum temperature over 9 seconds with G = ±4 T (Re = 1600.4: Figure 3.036 cm) Schematic draw for the model of trapezoidal microchannel Peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.10: Figure 3. G = ±2 T) Peripheral average Nusselt number at different axial locations with d = 0.012 cm (Re = 1600.6: Figure 3.7: Figure 3.8: Figure 3. d = 0.

G = 5 T.03 cm) The effect of Reynolds number on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (G = 5 T. G = 5 T. G = 5 T. Hfl = 0.13: 68 Figure 4. G = 5 T.03 cm) Peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time steps at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.03 cm) Peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time steps at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000. Hfl = 0.6: 63 Figure 4.14: 69 .Figure 4.5: 61 Figure 4. Hfl = 0.03 cm) Peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time steps at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.9: 65 Figure 4.03 cm) The effect of Reynolds number on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (G = 5 T.8: 64 Figure 4. Hfl = 0.03 cm) Peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time steps at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000. Hfl = 0. Hfl = 0.03 cm) Peripheral average heat transfer coefficient along the axial direction at different time steps at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000. Hfl = 0. G = 5 T.03 cm) The effect of Reynolds number on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (G = 5 T. G = 5 T. G = 5 T.03 cm) Peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time steps at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.4: Peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time steps at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.12: 68 Figure 4.03 cm) vii 61 Figure 4.03 cm) Peripheral average heat transfer coefficient along the axial direction at different time steps at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000. G = 5 T.10: 66 Figure 4. Hfl = 0. Hfl = 0.7: 63 Figure 4. Hfl = 0. Hfl = 0.11: 66 Figure 4.

03 cm) The effect of Reynolds number on the Peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (G = 5 T.25: 75 viii .16: 70 Figure 4.03 cm) The effect of Reynolds number on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (G = 5 T.21: 72 Figure 4. Hfl = 0. Hfl = 0. Hfl = 0. G = 5 T) The effect of channel depth on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.18: 71 Figure 4. Hfl = 0. Hfl = 0.15: The effect of Reynolds number on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (G = 5 T.17: 70 Figure 4.Figure 4.24: 75 Figure 4.03 cm) The effect of magnetic field on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.03 cm) The effect of magnetic field on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.23: 73 Figure 4. Hfl = 0. Hfl = 0.03 cm) The effect of magnetic field on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000. Hfl = 0.22: 73 Figure 4. G = 5 T) 69 Figure 4.03 cm) The effect of magnetic field on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.03 cm) The effect of channel depth on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.19: 71 Figure 4. Hfl = 0.03 cm) The effect of magnetic field on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.03 cm) The effect of magnetic field on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.20: 72 Figure 4.

28: 77 Figure 4. Hfl = 0.31: 78 Figure 4.27: 76 Figure 4. G = 5 T.Figure 4.32: 79 Figure 4. G = 5 T.35: 81 .03 cm) The effect of height of gadolinium substrate on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000. Hfl = 0. G = 5 T) The effect of channel depth on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.03 cm) The effect of height of gadolinium substrate on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000. Hfl = 0.03 cm) The effect of height of gadolinium substrate on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.29: 77 Figure 4. Hfl = 0.03 cm) The effect of height of gadolinium substrate on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000. G = 5 T) The effect of channel depth on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.03 cm) ix 76 Figure 4.30: 78 Figure 4. Hfl = 0.34: 80 Figure 4. G = 5 T.03 cm) The effect of height of gadolinium substrate on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000. G = 5 T) The effect of height of gadolinium substrate on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000. G = 5 T. G = 5 T) The effect of channel depth on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000. G = 5 T. Hfl = 0.33: 80 Figure 4.26: The effect of channel depth on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000. G = 5 T.

G = 5 T.03 cm) The effect of changing the fluid on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000. Hfl = 0. G = 5 T.43: 87 Figure 4. Hfl = 0.03 cm) The effect of channel spacing on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.03 cm) The effect of channel spacing on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.41: 85 Figure 4. G = 5 T. G = 5 T.39: 84 Figure 4. Hfl = 0. Hfl = 0.03 cm) The effect of channel spacing on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000. Hfl = 0.45: 88 x . G = 5 T.03 cm) The effect of changing the fluid on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000. Hfl = 0.36: The effect of channel spacing on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000. Hfl = 0. Hfl = 0. G = 5 T.03 cm) The effect of channel spacing on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.40: 84 Figure 4.42: 87 Figure 4.03 cm) The effect of channel spacing on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.44: 88 Figure 4.37: 82 Figure 4.03 cm) The effect of changing the fluid on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000. Hfl = 0.03 cm) The effect of changing the fluid on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.38: 83 Figure 4. Hfl = 0. G = 5 T.Figure 4. G = 5 T. G = 5 T. G = 5 T.03 cm) 82 Figure 4.

9: 102 Figure 5.2: Figure 5. G = 5 T. Hfl = 0.8: 101 Figure 5.03 cm) Peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000. Hfl = 0.03 cm) The effect of changing the fluid on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.03 cm) Peripheral average heat flow rate over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.03 cm) Peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000. Hfl = 0.03 cm) Peripheral average heat flow rate over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.03 cm) Peripheral average Nusselt number over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-solid interface (Re = 2000.03 cm) Schematic for microchannel heat exchanger model Local variation of magnetic field with time Local Nusselt along the fluid-gadolinium interface at different axial locations after 1 second (Re = 2000.5: 99 Figure 5. G = 5 T. G = 5 T.03 cm) 89 Figure 4. G = 5 T. G = 5 T.4: Figure 5. G = 5 T.47: 89 92 95 Figure 5.1: Figure 5. Hfl = 0. G = 5 T.6: 99 Figure 5.03 cm) Local Nusselt along the fluid-silicon interface at different axial locations after 1 second (Re = 2000.Figure 4.46: The effect of changing the fluid on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000. Hfl = 0. Hfl = 0. Hfl = 0. G = 5 T. Hfl = 0.10: 103 xi .3: 97 97 Figure 5. Hfl = 0. Hfl = 0.7: 101 Figure 5.03 cm) Peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface with G = ±10 T (Re = 2000. G = 5 T.

03 cm) Peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface with Hfl = 0.17: 107 Figure 5.02 cm (Re = 2000.18: 108 Figure 5.15: 106 Figure 5. Hfl = 0.03 cm) Peripheral average heat flow rate over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-silicon interface with G = ±10 T (Re = 2000.16: 107 Figure 5.19: 108 Figure 5.Figure 5.02 cm (Re = 2000. G = 5 T) Peripheral average heat flow rate over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface with Hfl = 0.20: 110 Figure 5.13: 105 Figure 5. G = 5 T) Peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface at Re = 1000 (G = 5 T.21: 110 xii .02 cm (Re = 2000. Hfl = 0. Hfl = 0.03 cm) Peripheral average Nusselt number over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-solid interface with G = ±10 T (Re = 2000.14: 106 Figure 5. Hfl = 0.03 cm) 103 Figure 5.02 cm (Re = 2000. G = 5 T) Peripheral average heat flow rate over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-silicon interface with Hfl = 0.11: Peripheral average heat flow rate over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface with G = ±10 T (Re = 2000. G = 5 T) Peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-silicon interface with Hfl = 0.03 cm) Peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-silicon interface with G = ±10 T (Re = 2000.03 cm) Peripheral average heat flow rate over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface at Re = 1000 (G = 5 T.02 cm (Re = 2000. G = 5 T) Peripheral average Nusselt number over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-solid interface with Hfl = 0. Hfl = 0. Hfl = 0.12: 105 Figure 5.

d = 0.24: 113 115 Figure 6.3: 118 Figure 6.06 cm) Local Nusselt number along the angular direction at different axial locations (Silicon.5: 120 Figure 6.06 cm) Peripheral average heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number along the axial direction (Silicon. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina. Hfl = 0. Re = 500. d = 0.1: Figure 6.8: 123 Figure 6. Re = 500.03 cm) Schematic of nanofluid circular microchannel model Peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction (Silicon.06 cm) Local heat flow rate along the angular direction at different axial locations (Silicon.Figure 5.7: 121 Figure 6.9: 123 . Re = 500. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina. d = 0.03 cm) Peripheral average heat flow rate over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-silicon interface with at Re = 1000 (G = 5 T. Re = 500.06 cm) Peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction (Silicon. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.2: 118 Figure 6.06 cm) xiii 111 Figure 5.03 cm) Peripheral average Nusselt number over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-solid interface with at Re = 1000 (G = 5 T. d = 0.22: Peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-silicon interface at Re = 1000 (G = 5 T.06 cm) Peripheral average interface temperature and heat flow rate along the axial direction (Silicon.6: 121 Figure 6. d = 0. d = 0. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina. d = 0. Hfl = 0. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina. Re = 500.4: 120 Figure 6. Hfl = 0. d = 0. Re = 500. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.06 cm) Local interface temperature along the angular direction at different axial locations (Silicon. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina. Re = 500. Re = 500.23: 111 Figure 5. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.06 cm) Local heat transfer coefficient along the angular direction at different axial locations (Silicon.

d = 0.06 cm) Peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different solid substrates (Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.06 cm) Peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different Reynolds numbers (Silicon.19: 130 Figure 6.06 cm) Heat flow rate along the axial direction at different angular location (Silicon. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.06 cm) Peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different solid substrates (Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.11: 124 Figure 6. Re = 500. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.13: 126 127 127 Figure 6.06 cm) Nusselt number along the axial direction at different angular location (Silicon.06 cm) Peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different solid substrates (Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.06 cm) Peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different working fluids (Silicon. d = 0. d = 0.15: Figure 6.06 cm) xiv 124 Figure 6. Re = 500. d = 0.21: 131 .17: 129 Figure 6. d = 0. Re = 500. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.06 cm) Peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different Reynolds numbers (Silicon. d = 0. d = 0.06 cm) Peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different Reynolds numbers (Silicon. d = 0. Re = 500.16: 129 Figure 6. Re = 500. Re = 500. d = 0.12: 125 Figure 6.06 cm) Peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different working fluids (Silicon.14: Figure 6. d = 0. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina. d = 0.18: 130 Figure 6. Re = 500.06 cm) Peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different working fluids (Silicon.10: Interface temperature along the axial direction at different angular location (Silicon.Figure 6. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.20: 131 Figure 6. Re = 500. Re = 500. d = 0.

8: Figure 7. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.6: Figure 7. Re = 500) Peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different tube diameters (Silicon. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.2: Figure 7.24: 133 Figure 6. Re = 500) The three dimensional snow melting system model for steady state analysis Heat flow rate at the outer pipe surface along the angular direction Heat flow rate at the snow boundary surface along the width of the slab Average temperature at the concrete-ground interface along the width of the slab Heat flow rate at the concrete-ground interface along the width of the slab Average interface temperature at the inner pipe surface along the axial direction Average bulk temperature of the fluid along the axial direction Average interface temperature at the outer pipe surface along the axial direction Average heat flow rate at the outer pipe surface along the axial direction Average heat flow rate at the snow surface along the axial direction xv 132 Figure 6. Re = 500) Peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different tube diameters (Silicon.Figure 6.1: Figure 7.5: Figure 7.10: .3: Figure 7.4: Figure 7.22: Peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different tube diameters (Silicon. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.7: Figure 7.25: 134 137 141 141 142 142 144 144 146 146 148 Figure 7.23: 133 Figure 6.9: Figure 7. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina. Re = 500) Peripheral average heat transfer coefficient along the axial direction at different tube diameters (Silicon.

1: Figure 8.9: Figure 8.5: Figure 8.7: Figure 8.11: Average heat flow rate lost to the ground along the axial direction The three dimensional snow melting system model for transient analysis Average peripheral interface temperature along axial direction at different times Average peripheral interface heat flow rate along axial direction at different times Average surface temperature along axial direction at different times Average ground interface temperature along axial direction at different times Average ground interface heat flow rate along axial direction at different times Average peripheral interface temperature along axial direction at different times Average peripheral interface heat flow rate along axial direction at different times Average surface temperature along axial direction at different times Average ground interface temperature along axial direction at different times Average ground interface heat flow rate along axial direction at different times 149 152 157 157 158 159 159 161 161 162 163 163 xvi .8: Figure 8.4: Figure 8.3: Figure 8.10: Figure 8.6: Figure 8.2: Figure 8.11: Figure 8.Figure 7.

m distance along x-direction. W/m3 magnetic field strength. m thermal conductivity.List of Nomenclature d D go G h h* H k L nr nx ny nz p r Re S T V W x y z Z channel diameter. Pa distance in radial direction. m Reynolds number. m distance along y-direction. m number of intervals in r-direction within the tube number of intervals in x-direction number of intervals in y-direction number of intervals in z-direction pressure. x/L xvii . W/m-K channel length. m/s half of the tube spacing. m3 temperature. oC velocity of fluid. ρVd/µ volume of the solid substrate. m dimensionless distance along axial direction. T heat transfer coefficient. m distance along z-direction. h*L/ks height of the substrate. d/H heat generation rate. W/m2-K dimensionless heat transfer coefficient. m dimensionless channel diameter.

kg/m3 kinematic viscosity.d)] Subscripts f in max r s z φ fluid inlet maximum radial solid axial angular xviii .S)/(ks. (T-Tin)/[(go. m2/s density. radian dimensionless temperature. m2/s angular coordinate.Greek Symbols α ρ ν φ θ thermal diffusivity.

transient heat transfer in composite trapezoidal microchannels of silicon and gadolinium with constant and time varying heat source. The mass.Analysis of Conjugate Heat Transfer in Tube-in-Block Heat Exchangers for Some Engineering Applications Abdullatif Abdulhadi Gari ABSTRACT This project studied the effect of different parameters on the conjugate heat transfer in tube-in-block heat exchangers for various engineering applications. steady state heat transfer in microchannels using fluids suspended with nanoparticles. and energy conservation equations were solved in the fluid region and energy conservation in the xix . These included magnetic coolers (or heaters) associated with a magnetic refrigeration system. high heat flux coolers for electronic equipment. transient heat transfer in circular microchannels with time varying heat source in a gadolinium substrate. and analysis of steady state and transient heat transfer in a hydronic snow melting system. and hydronic snow melting system embedded in concrete slabs. momentum. For each of these problems a numerical simulation model was developed. Types of problems studied in this project are: steady state circular microchannels with heat source in the gadolinium substrate. The results of this research will help in designing the cooling/heating systems and select their appropriate geometrical dimensions and material for specific applications.

and Nusselt number along the length of the channel and with the progression of time.solid region of the heat exchanger to arrive at the velocity and temperature distributions. xx . solid materials and working fluids. heat source value. Detailed parametric study was carried out for each problem. heat flow rate. the interface temperature. When the heat source varied with time. The decrease in the diameter at constant Reynolds number decreases the interface temperature and increases the heat flow rate at the fluid-solid interface. Parameters were Reynolds number. Results are presented in terms of solid-fluid interface temperature. heat flow rate. channel diameter or channel height. The results showed that an increase in Reynolds number decreases the interface temperature but increases the heat flow rate and Nusselt number. heat transfer coefficient. and Nusselt number attained a periodic variation with time. by applying and removing the magnetic field.

Magnetic refrigeration profits from the fact that the temperature of certain materials increases when placed in a magnetic field. The magnocaloric beds are microchannels fabricated in a magnocaloric material substrate. Figure 1. Some of the applications that use this type of heat exchangers are: Magnetic refrigeration. This heat generation in the system is dissipated with fluid flowing through the microchannels. and hydronic snow melting system. Electronic cooling is a technique that removes heat from a silicon wafer. A cover plate made of pyrex glass is bonded on the microchannels to form the closed channel construction.1 shows a schematic drawing of the bed and heat exchanger assembly. and likewise decreases when the magnetic field is removed. When a microchannel consists of Gadolinium substrate is exposed to a magnetic field. This phenomenon is known as the “magnetocaloric effect”.1 Introduction Tube-in-block is the most popular heat exchangers in the industry. This study is concerned with the magnetocaloric beds only. The material used in this project is gadolinium.Chapter 1 – Introduction and Literature Review 1. it generates heat in the Gadolinium substrate. The wafer with the 1 . It consists of microchannels embedded in a chip substrate on one side and electronic circuits located on the other side of the wafer. Magnetic refrigeration and electronic cooling use tube-in-block heat exchangers at a microscopic scale. electronic cooling.

2: Schematic drawing for a microchannel test fixture used for electronic cooling [2] 2 .1: Schematic drawing of the bed heat exchanger assembly for magnetic refrigerating [1] Figure 1.Figure 1.

heat transfer coefficient. driveways. The pipes are placed in spiral pattern to distribute heat equally within the slab.2). magnetic field and tube diameter. Figure 1. and Nusselt number. Some researchers introduced a way to achieve high heat dissipation by increasing the thermal conductivity of the fluid with the suspension of nanoparticles of a solid that has much higher thermal conductivity than the fluid. This work presents a parametric study for fluid flow and heat transfer in the applications of magnetic refrigeration. Steady state as well as transient cases were considered in this study to arrive to an understanding about the performance of tube-in-block heat exchangers. heat flow rate. It consists of piping system embedded in concrete slab where hot fluid pumped in to warm up the slab. Hot fluid runs through the pipes to heat up the slab and melt the accumulated snow on the surface. bridges and airplane runways. The increase in power dissipation of electronic circuits led researchers to study varieties of different designs to improve and come up with better microchannel performances.pyrex cover plate was mounted on a Plexiglas plate containing inlet and outlet connections for fluid flow (figure 1. Different microchannel geometries as well as substrate materials and working fluid coolants have great effect on the heat dissipation performance. Hydronic snow melting system is widely used in the industry for a range of applications such as side walks. 3 . The purpose of this system is to melt snow and clear the road pedestrians and vehicles. Some of these parameters include Reynolds number. The results are presented as the peripheral average interface temperature. electronic cooling. and hydronic snow melting application.3 shows a schematic drawing for the hydronic snow melting system.

2. Papautsky et al.1 Steady State Heat Transfer in Rectangular and Trapezoidal Microchannels Peng and Peterson [4] experimentally investigated single-phase forced convective heat transfer of water in small rectangular microchannels for different diameters.5 is the optimum configuration regardless the channel’s aspect ratio. The turbulent was found to be a function of a non-dimensional variable Z. Empirical correlations were suggested for calculating both the heat transfer and the pressure drop. such that Z=0.3: Schematic drawing for hydronic snow melting system [3] 1.Figure 1.2 Literature Review 1. It was also found that the laminar heat transfer is dependent upon the aspect ratio. The results stated that the geometry had a significant effect on the single-phase convective heat transfer. [5] described the effect of a rectangular microchannel aspect ratio on 4 .

Flow rate.laminar friction constant. [7] studied the entry flow induced by an applied electrical potential through microchannels between two parallel plates. Qu et. Lower aspect ratio also showed a substantial increase of 20% in friction constant. and channel configuration. When comparing the experimental results to those numerical predictions it was found that Nusselt number found experimentally is much lower. This may be due to the effects of surface roughness of the microchannel walls. A modified relation that was established based on roughness-viscosity model was suggested to account for the roughness-viscosity effects in future experimental work. two dimensional Poisson equation. Yang et al. Rahman [2] presented new experimental measurements for pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient in microchannel heat sinks. A nonlinear. The experimental data obtained for the water showed an approximate 20% increase in the friction constant for a specified driving potential when compared to micro-scale predictions from the classical Navier-Stokes theory. channel size. A numerical analysis was also carried out by solving a conjugate heat transfer problem to determine the temperature field in both solid and fluid regions. zeta potential and Nernst-Planck equation were numerically solved using a finite difference method. Two different channel patterns were used: the parallel pattern and the series pattern. [6] investigated heat transfer characteristics of water flowing through trapezoidal silicon microchannels. pressure and temperature were measured at several locations in the wafer to calculate the local and average Nusselt number and coefficient of friction in the device for different flow rate. A body force was included in 5 . The experiment data also showed a similar increase when low Reynolds numbers are used (less than 100). al. Channels of different depths or aspect ratio were studied while water was used as the working fluid.

The effect of the entrance region on the fluid velocity distribution. Reynolds number. The change in the velocity profile was apparent in the entry region and the axial velocity profile is no longer flat across the channel height when the Reynolds number is large. charge density boundary layer. Rahman et. Water was the working fluid in a gadolinium substrate. it was found that Nusselt number is larger near the entrance and decreases downstream due to the development of the thermal boundary layer. and shear stress are discussed. Quadir et. Rahman and Shevade [9] studied square and rectangular microchannel with heat generation in the substrate. Varying the aspect ratio. The finite element method was proved satisfactory to predict the surface temperature and fluid temperature when compared with other results obtained from different concepts. This methodology added an advantage of modeling a non-uniform surface heat flux distribution and could be used as an alternative to massive CFD calculations. It was also noticed that for larger Reynolds number the outlet temperature decreased and the average heat transfer coefficient increased. [10] has studied the analysis of heat transfer processes during the heat up and cool down phases of a magnetic material substrate when subjected to a magnetic field. It was found that the thickness of electrical double layer (EDL) in the entry region is thinner than that in the fully developed region.the full Navier-Stokes equations. entrance length. A computer simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer are 6 . [8] applied a finite element method to evaluate the performance of microchannel heat exchangers used in electronic packaging. This method allows us to calculate the total thermal resistance of the microchannel heat sink from the surface and fluid temperature fields. and heat generation. The governing equations in both solid and fluid regions were solved numerically for the velocity and temperature profiles. al. al.

Transition to turbulence was observed with flow visualization. Pressure drop were measured within the channel. Rectangular and square microchannels were considered where water was the working fluid and Gadolinium was the substrate material.carried out. viscous dissipation is a strong function of the channel aspect ratio. Kohl et al. The parametric study included heat generation. 7 . They found a sinusoidal behavior for the heat transfer coefficient along time. Prandtl number. The values of Nusselt number were presented by varying the aspect ratio. The results showed similar behavior to previous studies on circular microtubes. The integral transform technique is applied twice. Tunc and Bayazitoglu [11] studied the convection heat transfer in rectangular microchannel and assumed a fully developed both thermally and hydrodynamically fluid flow. once for velocity and once for temperature. Reynolds number was between 60 and 3450. [13] experimentally examined the pressure drop in microchannels. Koo and Kleinstreuer [14] investigated the effects of viscous dissipation on the temperature field and ultimately on the friction factor using dimensional analysis and computer simulation. This gives a uniform temperature and uniform heat flux boundary conditions. Eckert number. Pfund et al. Straight channel test section with rectangular microchannels was used. It turned out that for microconduits. [12] determined friction factor for high aspect ratio microchannels. Reynolds number. Because of the rectangular cross-section shape momentum equations were solved first and then substituted in the energy equation. and conduit hydraulic diameter. aspect ratio and Reynolds number.

Adams et. The diameters were 1. The experimental results in the 8 . Distilled water was used as the working fluid and stainless steel as the substrate material. 0.5 mm and Reynolds number range used was up to 800. Based on data presented and earlier data for smaller diameter channels. al.7 to 5. The results were compared to both correlations suggested for macroscale and microscale channels.3 and 0. The heat transfer and Nusselt number were much higher in the turbulent regime for smaller diameters.8 mm and both laminar and turbulent flows were employed with Reynolds number from less than 1.1. Lower values for the product f*Re were observed for smaller diameters. al.76 and 1. and 102 micrometers were investigated with Reynolds number ranging from 250 20.7. [17] investigated turbulent. Yu et. 1.000 and Prandtl number ranging from 0. Owhaib and Palm [18] experimentally investigated the heat transfer characteristics of single-phase forced convention of R-134a through microtubes. [16] investigated fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of dry nitrogen gas and water in microtubes with diameters of 19. The reduction in f*Re was more for laminar flow. The diameters selected were 0. 52. a generalized correlation was developed for the Nusselt number for turbulent.1.2 Steady State Heat Transfer in Circular Microchannels Lelea et al. [15] conducted an experimental and numerical research on heat transfer and fluid flow in microtubes.000.2. single-phase. forced convection in circular microchannels. single phase forced convention of water in circular microchannels with diameters of 0.09 mm.000 to 17.2. It was found that Nusselt number resulted are higher than those predicted by traditional large channel correlations. and 0. The experimental results confirmed the conventional or classical theories are applicable for water flow through microchannel of above size.

first for the case of a tube whose wall is wavy in the azimuthal direction. Diabatic experiments showed that heat transfer correlations in laminar and turbulent regimes. Celata et. al. and then for one wavy in the axial direction. Silicon. Reynolds number and geometrical dimensions were varied for a thorough investigation. developed for conventional tubes. In addition. The examined experiments showed that the friction factor is in good agreement with the Hagen-Poiseuille theory for Reynolds numbers below 600-800. and stainless steel were used for substrate materials while water and FC-72 were used as the coolants. It also showed that increasing the hydraulic diameter and Reynolds number results in higher average Nusselt number. were not properly adequate for heat transfer coefficients predictions in microtubes. Nield and Kuznetsov [21] analytically examined steady laminar flow of an incompressible fluid through a tube of almost circular cross-section. Rao and Rahman [20] investigated a steady state laminar flow for a circular microtube in a rectangular substrate. Giulio and D’Agaro [22] investigated the roughness effects on heat transfer and 9 . The laminar and transition regimes were analyzed in detail to clarify the discrepancies among the results obtained by different researchers. Silicon Carbide.turbulent regime showed agreement with correlations of the classical macroscale correlations but not with any of the suggested correlations for microchannels. [19] studied the experimental researches carried out in single phase heat transfer and flow in capillary tubes. The experimental results for the heat transfer coefficient in the laminar region were almost identical for all three diameters. The transition from laminar to turbulent regime occurred at Reynolds number between 1900 and 2500. The results showed that Nusselt number was highest for the Silicon substrate and FC-72 coolant case and lowest for the stainless substrate and water coolant case.

A new correlation to predict the two-phase flow pressure drop in microtubes was developed. Surface roughness was explicitly modeled through a set of randomly generated peaks along the ideal smooth surface. The effect of variations in the relative microtube radius and strength of the Joule and viscous heating on the thermal transport were explored over the possible ranges of the governing parameters. Chakraborty [25] developed closed form expressions for Nusselt number variation in a thermally fully developed microtube flow.and macrotubes. This was done by solving the complete PoissonBoltzmann equation and the Navier-Stokes equation under an analytical approximation 10 . Broderick et al.pressure losses in microscale tubes and channels using a finite element CFD code. Exact solution for the electrical potential profile and the transient electroosmotic flow field are obtained. Grohmann [23] presented an experimental technique and experimental results of heat transfer measurements in microtubes of 250 and 500 µm diameter. Significant insights were also developed regarding the influence of adverse pressure gradients on the thermal transport in the presence of aiding electroosmotic effects.3 Transient Heat Transfer in Microchannels Yang et. Hwang and Kim [26] investigated the pressure drop characteristics in microtubes using R-134a as the test fluid. The data obtained with single phase argon showed no physical difference of heat transfer mechanism between micro. 1. under a combined influence of electroosmotic forces and imposed pressure gradient.2. al. [27] studied transient aspects of electroosmotic flow in a slit microchannel. [24] analyzed the thermally developing electro-osmotically generated flow within circular microtubes with finite Debye-layer thickness.

The 11 . [29] explained the increase in the composite thermal conductivity due to grain size reduction by exploring four possible explanations: Brownian motion of the particles.al. Based on his calculations. al. and the effects of nanoparticles clustering. nature of heat transport in the nanoparticles. the nature of the heat transport in the nanoparticles. This led to power series expressed in terms of particle concentration. Theoretical consideration is restricted to the dilute condition without effects of dynamic particle interactions and fluid turbulence. combined with direct or fluid-mediated clustering effects that provide paths for rapid heat transport. 1. but no effect on either particle size or particle thermal conductivity. molecular-level layering of the liquid at the liquid/particle interface.for the hyperbolic sine function.2. there was a significant increase in the fluid thermal conductivity by 40% for 0.4 Heat Transfer Using Nanofluids There are researchers who worked on nanofluids such as Eastman et.3% volume fraction of copper in ethylene glycol for diameters less than 10 nm. rather than diffusive. Cheng and Law [30] have introduced an exponential model to calculate the effective viscosity for a fluid suspended with nanoparticles. The characteristics of the transient electroosmotic flow were discussed under influences of the electric double layer and geometric size of the microchannel. [28] who studied nanofluids for ethylene glycol suspended with copper and oxide nanoparticles. He concluded that the key factor to understand the thermal properties of nanofluids are the ballistic. Keblinski et. The effects are anomalous based on previous theoretical calculations that had predicted a strong effect of particle shape on effective nanofluid thermal conductivity.

Putra et. On the other hand. Comparisons to the Rhosenow correlation showed that the correlation can potentially predict the performance with an appropriate modified liquid-surface combination factor and changed physical properties of the base liquid. He investigated this deterioration in the heat transfer and its dependence on parameters such as the particle concentration. [33] has investigated theoretically the impressive increase in thermal conductivity of nanofluids achieved experimentally in the literature. al. al. Pool boiling heat transfer coefficients and phenomena were compared with those of pure water. His work was done on a macroscale level aiming to explain the possible mechanism behind the impressive increase in the composite thermal conductivity. The experimental results show that these nanofluids have poor heat transfer performance compared to pure water in natural convection and nucleate boiling. He explained that the thermal wave effects via hyperbolic heat conduction could have been the reason behind the excessive 12 . Vadasz et. material of the particles and the geometry of the containing cavity. Bang and Chang [32] have studied the boiling heat transfer characteristics of water suspended with nanoparticles of alumina with different volume concentration. His model was found to be comparable to various empirical formulas available in the literature. His experiment resulted in paradoxical behavior of heat transfer deterioration. CHF has been enhanced in not only horizontal but also vertical pool boiling. He suggested more investigation done before practical applications of cooling system using nanofluids to understand the physical phenomenon. [31] has investigated natural convection for nanofluids inside horizontal cylinder heated from one end and cooled from the other.derivation then extended using an exponential model for the condition of high particle concentration.

They tested water. Maiga et. Further improvement of the model is needed to take into account other factors such as entrance effects. engine oil and ethylene glycol suspended with Al2O3 and CuO. Wen and Ding [34] examined the effect of particle migration on heat transfer under a fully developed laminar flow regime. which is coupled with an energy equation.[35] has studied the forced convection flow of water-Al2O3 and ethylene glycol-Al2O3 nanofluids inside a uniformly heated tube that is submitted to a constant and uniform heat flux at the wall. This leads to a higher Nusselt number compared to constant thermal conductivity assumption. Results also showed that the ethylene glycol. He suggested that alternative possibilities should be investigated before reaching an ultimate conclusion. The presence of nanoparticles also produces adverse effect on the wall friction that increases with the particle volume concentration. Wang and Xu [36] measured the effective thermal conductivities for fluids suspended with nanoparticles by a steady state parallel method. Compared to theoretical models.improved effective thermal conductivity. the predicted thermal conductivities of mixtures are much lower than the measured data. The improvement of heat transfer increases even more with the increase in nanoparticles concentration. 13 .Al2O3 mixture gives a far better heat transfer enhancement than water-Al2O3 mixture. dynamics of particles and particle-wall interactions. Their experimental results showed that nanofluids have higher thermal conductivities than those of base fluids. al. The flow model takes into account the effects of shear-induced and viscosity-gradient-induced particle migration as well as self diffusion due to Brownian motion. The results suggest a significant non-uniformity in particle concentration. vacuum pump fluid. It was found that nanoparticles enhanced the heat transfer at the tube wall for both laminar and turbulent flows.

heat transfer by radiation and convection. He reviewed and identified recommended revisions to the current ASHRAE snow melting load calculation procedures.They suggested that more comprehensive theory is needed to fully explain the nanofluid behavior. radiation. Then make a frequency distribution analysis to set the design capacity. Chapman [39] also showed that four factors contribute to the total load. The sum of the first four terms equals the required heat output at the upper surface. The author introduced the concept of free area ratio in this article. and back loss to the ground. The article confirms that the actual load should be determined on an hourly basis. None of the four factors can be singled out. researchers only considered the energy required to melt the snow. and evaporation.2. These five energy requirements are the heat of fusion. It also provided sample results based on the revised procedure. In 1952. The load at the melting surface included sensible and snow melting loads along with the heat losses due to convection. Only the frequency analysis of combined four loads is sufficient to determine the required thermal output of the system. Chapman published two articles considering the requirements of heat and mass transfer. The first [37] one described five energy requirements for the snow melting process. heat of vaporization. He also addressed the issue of relating the inches of water equivalent to inches of snowfall topic. sensible heat gain from snowfall. Updated design guidelines and recommendations were presented by Ramsey et al [40]. 1.5 Hydronic Snow Melting System Before 1952. The correlations used are accepted for turbulent convection heat transfer 14 . The second [38] article suggested considering a frequency distribution of the loads.

Kilkis has also published two papers in 1994. he discussed the need to develop a universal and simple technique that does not require extensive manipulation of meteorological data in the first publication. Bounded by ASHRAE guidelines. In the second publication [43] he developed a simple analytical technique to predict the transfer of heat in the snow melting slab while retaining sufficient accuracy. his method was applied for a limited design range using metal pipes. Results of sample designs were compared to solutions used finite element method. Parametric study was carried out examining the transient effects using real storm data for a real storm event and the 15 . wind speed and maximum recorded daily snowfall in order to calculate the heat requirement. In the first article [42]. Rees et al [44] addressed the issue that the transient response of snow melting systems for pavement are operated intermittently and that it has a significant effect on the overall system performance. He recommended that the design algorithm should require only the air temperature. He developed a twodimensional numerical transient analysis method that includes a boundary condition model able to deal with different snow melting conditions. The comparison indicated sufficient accuracy for engineering calculations. These systems operate at moderate supply temperature at the expense of large temperature drop and wide diversity of generally oversized equipment. Calculations are performed for a baseline case using the wind speed as reported from the meteorological data. Kilkis [41] studied the complex hydronic space conditioning and snow melting circuits. The convection and evaporation losses are calculated as functions of wind speed and the characteristic dimensions of the slab. He presented a simple analytical algorithm that can accurately calculate equipment temperature drop and heating capacity. energy loss and fluid flow rate in a complex circuit.coefficient.

He found that effects of storm structure were of most significance. This could result in new understanding to the behavior of nanofluids under conditions existing in the literature. Detailed parametric study is carried out to study the effect of Reynolds number. Nanofluids were investigated in the literature review. 1. heat generation rate and diameter of the tube. He also presented calculations of the back and edge losses under transient conditions.3 Objectives From the microchannel literature review.results were presented. Different solid substrate material and working nanofluids were 16 . One researcher presented a molecular dynamic simulation based on mathematical model to explore four possible explanations for the significant increase in the nanofluids thermal conductivity. Gadolinium was chosen to be the solid substrate material and water as the working fluid. The main emphasis of this study is to develop a simulation model for fluid flow and heat transfer in circular microchannels by taking into account the heat generation in the solid due to applied magnetic field. Researchers presented experimental and theoretical work on nanofluids. The simulation did not show a parametric study to understand the effect of different parameters on the system. it appears that none of the previous studies have addressed the heat generation within the substrate material for circular micro tubes. This project suggests that nanofluid is applied into an existing microtube model developed by Rao and Rahman [20] and study the nanofluids under different conditions. Steady state and transient cases were studied to better understand the effect of different parameters on the performance of the system. conduction in the solid and convection of heat to the fluid.

Design parameters were studied in previous work for calculation of the heat load required for snow melting at different conditions. The transient effect was analyzed under two different storm conditions. As the fluid temperature drops along the slab in the axial direction. A numerical simulation was developed to solve the nonlinear system of discretisized equations of conservation laws in the model. The main objectives of the current work are: • To develop a numerical model for fluid flow and heat transfer in tube-in-block heat exchangers exposed to different kinds of boundary conditions. These results of previous work are based on a two dimensional calculations ignoring the fact that the fluid looses heat and drops in temperature while transferring through the slab in the third direction. Parametric study was carried out to study the effect of Reynolds number. In this project. Results were tabulated for different conditions and parameters. Parametric study was carried out studying the effect of several parameters on the performance of steady state system. it decreases the heat flow rate to the system and thus the snow melting process. 17 . Literature has provided a number of hydronic snow melting researches to calculate the heat load required for snow melting at different steady and transient conditions. and diameter of the tube.chosen. a three dimensional model was presented to study the heat flow rate process within the slab and at the snow melting surface. • To conduct a parametric study to understand how different parameters affect the performance of tube-in-block heat exchangers. Their direct effect on the heat flow rate and snow melting performance was not emphasized.

• To explore both steady state and transient models to understand how the time factor affects the performance of tube-in-block heat exchangers. • To study different designs of tube-in-block heat exchangers expands our choices to use the appropriate design for a certain application. 18 .

Fluid (water) flows through circular channels with diameter D and length L as single pass from inlet to outlet manifold. Magnetic field (G) is applied and the heat (go) is generated throughout the substrate. The channel/substrate extends to a length L. Heat is conducted through the substrate solid material then convected to the working fluid in the microchannels.2. momentum. The governing equations for the conservation of mass.1 shows a schematic drawing of the model.Chapter 2 – Steady State Heat Transfer in Circular Microchannels During Magnetic Heating or Cooling 2.1 Mathematical Model The problem in hand is a microchannel assembly with circular channels in a rectangular solid (Gadolinium) substrate. the analysis can be done by considering half of a tube and associated solid material as shown in figure 2. Figure 2. The thickness of the substrate (or the distance between tubes in the vertical direction) is H and distance between tubes in the horizontal direction is 2W. Due to symmetry. and energy in the liquid region are [45]: ∂Vr 1 1 ∂Vφ ∂V z =0 + + Vr + ∂z ∂r r r ∂φ (1) ⎛ ∂Vr Vφ ∂Vr ∂V 1 ⎞ ⎜ Vr + + V z r − Vφ2 ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ r ∂φ ∂r ∂z r ⎝ ⎠ ⎡ ∂ 2V 1 ∂p 1 ∂Vr 1 ∂ 2Vr ∂ 2Vr Vr 2 ∂Vφ ⎤ − + ν ⎢ 2r + + 2 + − 2 − 2 ⎥ 2 2 ρ f ∂r r ∂r r ∂φ r r ∂φ ⎦ ∂z ⎣ ∂r 19 (2) .

2: Schematic drawing for the circular microchannel simulated model 20 .Figure 2.1: Schematic drawing for the circular microchannel model Figure 2.

∂Vφ VrVφ ⎞ ⎛ ∂Vφ Vφ ∂Vφ ⎟= ⎜ Vr + + Vz − ⎜ r ∂φ r ⎟ ∂r ∂z ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎡ ∂ 2Vφ 1 ∂Vφ 1 ∂p 1 ∂ Vφ ∂ Vφ Vφ 2 ∂Vr ⎤ − +ν ⎢ 2 + + 2 + − 2 + 2 ⎥ 2 2 ρ f r ∂φ r ∂r r ∂φ r r ∂φ ⎥ ∂z ⎢ ∂r ⎦ ⎣ (3) ⎡ ∂ 2V ⎛ ∂V z Vφ ∂V z ∂V z ⎞ 1 ∂p 1 ∂V z 1 ∂ 2V z ∂ 2Vr ⎤ ⎜ Vr ⎟=− + + Vz + ν ⎢ 2z + + 2 + ⎥ ⎜ ∂r ∂z ⎟ r ∂φ ρ f ∂z r ∂r r ∂φ 2 ∂z 2 ⎦ ∂r ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ (4) ∂T f ⎞ ⎛ ∂T f Vφ ∂T f ⎜ Vr ⎟ =αf + + Vz ⎜ ∂r ∂z ⎟ r ∂φ ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 ⎡ ∂ 2T f 1 ∂T f 1 ∂ Tf ∂ Tf ⎤ + 2 + ⎢ 2 + ⎥ r ∂r ∂z 2 ⎥ r ∂φ 2 ⎢ ∂r ⎣ ⎦ (5) Considering constant thermal conductivity.in . Equations (1) to (6) are subject to the following boundary conditions: At z = 0. r < d/2: At z = L. 0 < y < H: p=0 ∂Ts =0 ∂z At x = 0. 0 < x < W. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: Vφ = 0. -d/2 ≤ y ≤ +d/2. ∂T f ∂Vr ∂V = 0. =0 ∂x ∂x ∂x (11) 21 . Vφ = 0. 0 < y < H: At z = L.V z = V z . z = 0. the energy conservation equation in the solid region with heat generation is [46]: ⎡ ∂ 2Ts ∂ 2Ts ∂ 2Ts ⎤ g o + 2 ⎥+ =0 ⎢ 2 + ∂y 2 ∂z ⎦ k ⎣ ∂x (6) Note that a cylindrical coordinate system was used to model convection within the circular tube while a cartesian coordinate system was used to model conduction within the solid substrate material. 0 < x < W. T f = T f . r ≥ d/2.in ∂Ts =0 ∂z (7) (8) (9) (10) At z = 0. r ≥ d/2. 0 ≤ r < d/2: Vr = 0.

0 ≤ z ≤ L: ∂Ts =0 ∂x ∂Ts =0 ∂x ∂Ts =0 ∂x (12) At x = 0. The solution was considered converged when the field values did not change from one iteration to the next.At x = 0. the velocity. and the residuals for each variable became negligible. The Newton-Raphson algorithm was used to solve the nonlinear system of discretized equations. 0 ≤ x ≤ W. Four-node quadrilateral elements were used. r = d/2: (17) 2. 0 ≤ x ≤ W. k f ∂T f dr = ks ∂Ts dr (15) At y = +H/2. -H/2 ≤ y ≤ +H/2. In each element.036 cm. -H/2 ≤ y ≤ -d/2. The original (repeating) case used a diameter of 0. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: (13) At x = W. and temperature fields were approximated which led to a set of equations that defined the continuum. +d/2 ≤ y ≤ +H/2. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: (16) At 0 ≤ z ≤ L. An iterative procedure was used to arrive at the solution for the velocity and temperature fields. pressure.048 cm having a (d/H) 22 .236 cm respectively.2 cm and 0. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: (14) At y = -H/2. For the numerical computations.2 Numerical Simulation and Parametric Study The governing equations along with the boundary conditions were solved using the Galerkin finite element method. Diameter was changed from 0.012 cm to 0. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: ∂Ts =0 ∂y ∂Ts =0 ∂y T f = Ts . the height (H) and the half width (W) of the model were set to 0.

were used to compare their results to those of water. ny = 20. heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number were calculated from the computed velocity and temperature distributions. Water was used as the primary working fluid. and z directions. Gadolinium is one of the materials that generate significant heating and cooling when exposed to a magnetic field under room temperature. Figure 2. r (within the tube). This was performed and presented in Appendix H. Figure 2. nz = 40).3 Results and Discussion The distribution of cells in the computational domain was determined from a series of tests with different number of elements in the x. The local solid-fluid interface temperature. The results obtained by using (nx = 6. Magnetic field value was translated into heat generation per unit volume in the substrate material (go) by using experimental data of Pechasky and Gschneider [47]. Gadolinium was used as the solid substrate material. nz = 20) that had an average error of 1. namely Ammonia and R134a. Reynolds number was varied between 1000 and 2200. It may be noticed that local Nusselt number is 23 . y.3 shows the dimensionless peripheral average interface temperature for different grid systems.ratio of 0. Two more fluids. 2.4 shows the local Nusselt number variation around the tube periphery for different axial locations. Magnetic field (G) value of 5 and 10 T were used to study the effects of changing the magnetic field. ny = 12.24.29% and a maximum error less than 2% compared to (nx = 10.06 to 0. Quantitative error analysis is one way to validate the accuracy of the results from a grid independent study. nr = 6. nr = 10. The effect of the substrate’s rectangular shape is obvious along the angular direction of the tube.

φ Z = 0.8 1 Dimensionless Axial Direction nx = 4. ny = 16.1 Z = 0.6 0.4 Z = 0. Water) 24 . ny = 8.6 0. ny = 12.036 cm.2 0. nz = 30 nx = 8.8 0.Dimensionless Average Peripheral Interface Temperature.9 Figure 2.4 0.2 Z = 0. G = 5 T. nz = 40 Figure 2.036 cm.4: Local Nusselt number variation for different axial locations along the angular direction (Re = 1600. Water) 18 16 14 Local Nusselt number 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90 Angular direction. d = 0. θ 1. nr = 4.2 1 0.2 0 0 0.4 1. d = 0. G = 5 T.3: Local dimensionless peripheral average interface temperature for different grid sizes (Re = 1600. nr = 6.4 0. nz = 20 nx = 6. nr = 8.8 Z = 0. nr = 10. ny = 20.6 Z = 0. nz = 40 nx = 10.

Higher magnetic field generates more heat in the substrate causing an increase in the interface temperature. This causes the interface temperature to increase along the axial direction. The change in the 25 . The variation indicates that shape of the substrate influences the local heat transfer rate as expected in a conjugate problem. This increase in the bulk-interface temperature difference decreases the Nusselt number with the lowering of Reynolds number. Figure 2. The Nusselt number directly depends on the heat flow rate and thus it decreases along the axial direction. The low inlet temperature cools down the substrate. As a result. whereas becomes larger at both top and bottom ends.5 shows the effects of both the change in Reynolds number and magnetic field strength on the dimensionless peripheral average interface temperature. the heat flow rate decreases along the axial direction. It changes slightly in the middle part of the tube. Interface temperature increases along the axial direction causing the temperature gradient in the solid to decrease. The increase in the interface temperature is larger than the increase in the fluid bulk temperature causing an increase in the bulk-interface temperature difference. At lower Reynolds number. Higher Reynolds number decreases the interface temperature by providing more cooling to the interface. Heat is generated in the substrate causing the temperature to rise. As the fluid travels through the channel. a lower fluid velocity causes both the fluid and interface temperatures to increase.minimum at angular locations corresponding to the corners of the substrate where thermal resistance within the solid is maximum. On the other hand.6 shows the effects of both the change in Reynolds number and magnetic field value on the Nusselt number. Figure 2. its temperature increases providing less cooling to the substrate. the dimensionless peripheral average interface temperature does not change with the magnetic field.

G=5T Re=1000.4 0.4 0. G=10T Figure 2. θ 1.6 0.2 1.1. G=10T Figure 2.0 0 0. G=5T Re=1600.8 1 Re=1000.036 cm.8 Dimensionless Axial Coordinate.6 0.036 cm. G=10T Re=1600. G=5T Re=2200. G=5T Re=1600.2 0. G=5T Re=1000.8 0.2 0. Water) 14 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.2 0. G=10T Re=1600.0 0.4 0.4 1.6 Dimensionless Axial Coordinate. Z 1 Re=1000.6: Local peripheral average Nusselt number along axial coordinate at various Reynolds numbers (d = 0. G=5T Re=2200.6 Dimensionless Peripheral Average Interface Temperature. Z 0.5: Local dimensionless peripheral average interface temperature along axial coordinate at various Reynolds numbers (d = 0. Water) 26 .

both heat flux at the interface and difference between interface and bulk fluid temperature increases by the same amount. smaller diameter also results in larger solid volume causing more heat generated from the solid body. the velocity will change for a constant Reynolds number or the Reynolds number will change for a constant velocity. This study shows that the interface temperature is decreasing with diameter. Therefore. As the tube diameter decreases. This increases the heat flow to the fluid. Figure 2. The net result is an increase in the heat transfer 27 .8 shows the variation of the dimensionless peripheral average heat transfer coefficient for different diameters of the channel.magnetic field value had no significant effect on the heat transfer coefficient. Temperature in the solid substrate increases due to more heat generation caused by the increase in the solid volume. The heat transfer coefficient is the ratio of the heat flow rate to the interface-bulk temperature difference. This study showed that the increase in the heat flow rate is much more than the increase in the interface-bulk temperature difference. This is because with the increase of magnetic field strength. When changing the diameter. This causes an increase in heat flow rate. The change in diameter of the channel is examined next. the interface temperature increases causing the interface-bulk temperature difference to increase. Figure 2. On the contrary.7 shows the local dimensionless peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction for different diameters at constant Reynolds number. there was no significant change in Nusselt number with the change in the magnetic field. Smaller diameter at the same Reynolds number gives higher fluid velocity. This should decrease the interface temperature. which means that the interface temperature is affected more by the change of the volume of the solid substrate.

4 0. Water) 20 Dimensionless Peripheral Average Heat Transfer Coefficient.0 0.55 m/s D=0. G = 5 T. V=4. Z D=0.24.8 1.4 0. G = 5 T.2 0.2.8 1 Dimensionless Axial Direction.2 0.2 1. V=3.0 Dimensionless Peripheral Average Interface Temperature.6 0. h* 18 16 14 12 10 8 0 0.27 m/s Figure 2.27 m/s Figure 2. Z D=0.4 1.36 m/s D=0.4 0.18. V=4.12.0 0 0. V=3.12.55 m/s D=0.8 1 Dimensionless Axial Coordinate. θ 1. V=6.2 0. Water) 28 .8 0.18.7: Local dimensionless peripheral average interface temperature along axial coordinate at various diameters and constant Reynolds numbers (Re = 1600.36 m/s D=0.6 0.6 1. V=6.6 0.8: Local dimensionless peripheral average heat transfer coefficient along axial coordinate at various diameters and constant Reynolds numbers (Re = 1600.24.

27 m/s Figure 2. Smaller diameter results in larger solid substrate providing more heat generation. Z 0.2 0. V=3. The net result is a decrease in Nusselt number due to the decrease in channel diameter.6 Dimensionless Axial Coordinate. Nusselt number directly depends on the heat transfer coefficient and the channel diameter.18. and hence. Water) coefficient as the diameter becomes smaller. Figure 2.4 0. V=6.12. Figure 2. increases the interface temperature.14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0. The decrease in the channel diameter overcomes the increase in the heat transfer coefficient. Figure 2.9: Local peripheral average Nusselt number along axial coordinate at various diameters and constant Reynolds numbers (Re = 1600.9 shows the variation of the Peripheral average Nusselt number for different channel diameters.24.11 shows the effect of changing the diameter on the peripheral average Nusselt number while keeping the fluid velocity at the entrance 29 .36 m/s D=0. G = 5 T. V=4.8 1 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number D=0. This increases the heat flow rate to the fluid.10 shows the effect of changing the diameter on the dimensionless peripheral average interface temperature while keeping the fluid velocity at the entrance constant.55 m/s D=0.

8 1 Dimensionless Axial Coordinate.12.18. G = 5 T. Re=1066 D=0. Re=1600 D=0.10: Local dimensionless peripheral average interface temperature along axial coordinate at various diameters and constant inlet velocity (Vin = 4.24.5 1. Water) 30 .2 0. Re=1066 D=0. Re=2133 1.367 m/s. Z Figure 2.18.4 0. Water) 16 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.24. θ 2.6 0.0 D=0.367 m/s.2 0.12. Z D=0. G = 5 T. Re=2133 Figure 2.6 0.11: Local Peripheral average Nusselt number along axial coordinate at various diameters and constant inlet velocity (Vin = 4.4 0.0 0 0.8 1 Diensionless Axial Coordinate.Dimensionless Peripheral Average Interface Temperature.5 0. Re=1600 D=0.0 0.

A higher fluid velocity results in lower rate of increase of interface temperature along the axial direction. As the tube diameter decreases. The lowest velocity was obtained for R-134a and the highest for water. This causes an increase in heat flow rate. Temperature in the solid substrate increases due to more heat generation caused by the increase in the solid volume. The increase in the interface-bulk temperature difference overcomes the increase in the heat flow rate resulting in a decrease in the heat transfer coefficient. A much higher rate of increase of interface temperature is given by R-134a which has the lowest inlet velocity for the same Reynolds 31 . Inlet velocities for these fluids were selected in such a way that Reynolds number remains constant. Figure 2. As explained above. This contributed to different performance of these three working fluids. The heat transfer coefficient is the ratio of the heat flow rate to the interface-bulk temperature difference.12 shows the local peripheral average Nusselt number variation for different working fluids at two different axial locations. the interface temperature increases causing the interface-bulk temperature difference to increase. To run the fluids as liquid at the appropriate temperature range the inlet temperature was chosen as –30 oC for both ammonia and R-134a refrigerants.13 shows the dimensionless peripheral average interface temperature changes along the axial coordinate for different working fluids at the same Reynolds number. Figure 2. Nusselt number has similar trend as those of the heat transfer coefficient because of its direct dependence on the heat transfer coefficient.constant. Nusselt number for water is the highest. Nusselt number is smaller around larger solid area because of the smaller temperature gradient in the larger solid region. Note that both the diameter and the heat transfer coefficient are decreasing together as the tube diameter decreases.

2 Ammonia at Z = 0. θ 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 0 0.8 Ammonia at Z = 0.8 1 Dimensionless Axial Coordinate. d = 0.12: Local Nusselt number variation for different working fluids along the angular direction (Re = 1600.14 12 Local Nusselt number 10 8 6 4 2 0 -90 -60 -30 0 Angular direction. G = 5 T.036 cm) 32 .4 0. φ 30 60 90 water at Z = 0.8 Figure 2.2 water at Z = 0.13: Local dimensionless peripheral average interface temperature along axial coordinate for different fluids (Re = 1600. d = 0.2 R-134a at Z = 0.6 0.036 cm) Dimensionless Peripheral Average Interface Temperature.8 R-134a at Z = 0. Z Water Amonia R-134a Figure 2.2 0. G = 5 T.

4 0.8 1 Dimensionless Axial Direction. the heat flow rate to the fluid. This decreases the temperature gradient at the interface. This increases the temperature gradient at the interface. and hence. h* 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0. An increase in inlet velocity decreases the interface temperature. Figure 2. and hence.14: Local dimensionless peripheral average heat transfer coefficient along axial coordinate for different fluids (Re = 1600.14 shows the dimensionless peripheral average heat transfer coefficient changes along the axial coordinate for different working fluids at the same Reynolds number. G = 5 T. Both of these cause the heat transfer coefficient to increase. It may be noted that the decrease in the interface-bulk temperature difference was much larger than the 33 .6 0. d = 0.20 Dimensionless Peripheral Average Heat Transfer Coefficient.036 cm.2 0. the heat flow rate to the fluid. Therefore. The interface temperature increases along the axial direction. water has the highest heat transfer coefficient while R-134a has the lowest. Both of these cause the heat transfer coefficient to decrease along the axial direction. It also increases the interface-bulk temperature difference. Z Water Amonia R-134a Figure 2. It also decreases the interface-bulk temperature difference. Water) number.

R-134a has lower thermal conductivity compared to water and ammonia.15 shows the peripheral average Nusselt number changes along the axial coordinate for different working fluids at the same Reynolds number. Z Water Amonia R-134a Figure 2.16. A smaller mass flow rate means higher temperature in the system and hence higher maximum temperature. Figure 2. A smaller diameter at constant Reynolds number results in higher fluid velocity but lower mass flow rate. Figure 2.15: Local peripheral average Nusselt number along axial coordinate for different fluids (Re = 1600. thus.6 0. A higher Reynolds number enhances the heat flow rate to the fluid and. This is shown in figure 2. The maximum dimensionless temperature in the substrate occurs in the farthest corner from the channel entrance.4 0. Water) increase in the heat flow rate. Nusselt number depends directly on the heat transfer coefficient and the fluid thermal conductivity.17 shows the 34 .2 0. This causes its Nusselt number to be higher than it is for ammonia.036 cm. G = 5 T.12 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.8 1 Dimensionless Axial Coordinate. decreases the maximum temperature in the system. d = 0.

24 Figure 2.018 D=0.012 D=0.5 0 700 1000 1300 1600 Reynolds Number 1900 2200 2500 D=0.12 D=0. θ max 3.024 Figure 2. kPa 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 700 1000 1300 1600 Reynolds Number 1900 2200 2500 D=0. Water) 80 70 Pressure Difference.16: Dimensionless maximum temperature in the system at various diameters (with constant Reynolds number) and Reynolds number (G = 5 T.17: Pressure drop in the model at various diameters (with constant Reynolds number) and Reynolds number (G = 5 T.5 2 1.5 3 2.5 1 0.Dimensionless Maximum Temperature.18 D=0. Water) 35 .

as previously discussed.pressure drop from inlet to exit of the channel that resulted for various diameters and Reynolds numbers. Figures 2. This is because higher velocities cause higher frictional resistance.18 and 2. the heat flow rate to the fluid.20 and 2. Figures 2. This increases the temperature gradient at the interface. It can be observed that an overall decrease of the Nusselt number occurs along the tube axial direction. For the same diameter.8 along the axial direction from the inlet for various Reynolds number and diameters. and hence. It also decreases the interface-bulk temperature difference.19 show the dimensionless peripheral average heat transfer coefficient and peripheral average Nusselt number at Z = 0. The decrease in the diameter overcomes the increase in the heat transfer coefficient. Nusselt number is the product of the heat transfer coefficient and the diameter. results in an increase the heat flow rate and a decrease in the interface-bulk temperature difference. As a result.21 show a comparison with previous experimental results for flow in a microtube with constant wall heat flux to validate the numerical results for this 36 . The pressure drop is higher for smaller diameter. and hence. decreases the interface temperature.4 and Z = 0. For the same Reynolds number. The pressure drop also increases with Reynolds number. Lower interface temperature. the increase in Reynolds number. or the inlet velocity. The increase in the heat flow rate and the decrease in the interface-bulk temperature difference both causes the heat transfer coefficient to increase. This increases the heat transfer coefficient for smaller diameter. Nusselt number decreases as the diameter becomes smaller. smaller diameter gives higher velocity which results in lower interface temperature. the Nusselt number. This is expected because the flow encounters larger frictional resistance from the walls.

8 cm for various diameters (with constant Reynolds number) and Reynolds number (G = 5 T.19: Local average Nusselt number at z = 0.24 10 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 8 6 4 2 0 700 1000 1300 1600 Reynolds Number 1900 2200 2500 Figure 2. Water) 37 .18 D=0.12 D=0.14 12 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 10 8 6 4 2 0 700 1000 1300 1600 1900 2200 2500 Reynolds Number D=0.24 Figure 2.4 cm for various diameter (with constant Reynolds number) and Reynolds number (G = 5 T.18: Local average Nusselt number at z = 0.18 D=0.12 D=0. Water) 12 D=0.

2 0.5 0.000 10.9 0.3 0. experimental [17] Nusselt Number 100 10 1.000 Reynolds Number 100.1 0 0 100 200 300 Reynolds Number 400 500 600 Numerical friction factor Experimental friction factor [13] Figure 2.21: Comparison for Nusselt number results to existing experimental results in the literature 38 .7 Friction Factor 0.20: Comparison for friction factor results to existing experimental results in the literature 1000 Nu.6 0. numerical Nu.8 0.000 Figure 2.4 0.0.

When compared to the large tube correlation it 39 . Design of experiment is one way to study the effect of different parameters and parameter combinations. [13] and Adams et al. Only one channel was considered in this comparison out of the 5 channels in the experimental work. [17] compared to our work.34 % at Reynolds number of 6.000 respectively.71 % and 16.20 shows a good agreement between the numerical and experimental results for the friction coefficient at different Reynolds numbers in Kohl et al.6%.58 % and 16. Also the error range for Adams et al. [17] presented the difference between his experimental and predicted Nusselt number values were less than 18. Figure 2. The percentage difference for the entrance effect was found to be ranging from 42.4 % along the microchannel axial direction.project. [17] was 7. single-phase forced convection of water in circular microchannels. Interpolation was made to obtain the error range for the experimental data presented in Kohl et al. A generalized correlation for the Nusselt number for turbulent. It was found that the error range for Kohl et al. A detailed was done in Appendix H. single phase forced convection in circular microchannels was developed. Adams et al. these are most appropriate comparisons that could be done. Adams et al. Circular microtube with diameter equals to the hydraulic diameter of the channel used in the experiment was simulated.21 shows a comparison of their Nusselt number data at different Reynolds number with predictions by numerical simulation.27 % at Reynolds number of 170 and 450 respectively. [17] examined turbulent. Figure 2. [13]. Small difference appeared between the two results and could be referred to the approximations used to conduct the numerical simulation as well as errors involved in experimental measurements. [13] was 5.0 % to 43.500 and 22. In the absence of any test data for magnetic heaters (or coolers).

2. It will be used for the design of experiments for practical demonstration of a magnetic microcooler.4 Conclusions A study of parameters that affect convective heat transfer in circular microchannels during heat generation in the substrate due to an applied magnetic field was done. Lower Reynolds number results in higher interface temperature but lower Nusselt number. Decreasing the diameter at constant inlet velocity increases the interface temperature but decreases the Nusselt number.4 % along the microchannel axial direction. Among the working fluid examined. This study provided a foundation for the prediction of heat transfer coefficient during magnetic heating or cooling of the substrate material. Generally the interface temperature increases along the axial direction of the fluid flow due to heat generation in the substrate. A smaller diameter at constant Reynolds number results in higher maximum temperature. A higher Reynolds number decreases the maximum temperature in the system. water has the highest Nusselt number while ammonia has the lowest. The peripheral average heat transfer coefficient was found to decrease with diameter at constant Reynolds number and increase with increasing Reynolds number.7 % to 22. Smaller diameter for a constant Reynolds number gives higher interface temperature and heat transfer coefficient but it decreases Nusselt number.was found that the percentage difference ranges from 25. Pressure drop was found to be higher for smaller diameter at constant Reynolds number. The maximum temperature occurs at the farthest corner of the substrate from the channel entrance. 40 . A higher magnetic field strength also results in higher interface temperature but has no effect on Nusselt number.

left and top are adiabatic while it is symmetrical at the right side. The material of the substrate was Gadolinium while the working fluid was water. Boundary conditions at the bottom. momentum. The magnetic material substrate is subjected to a magnetic field resulting in heat source and heat sink periodically. and energy for the fluid in Cartesian coordinate are [45]: ∂Vr 1 1 ∂Vφ ∂V z + Vr + + =0 ∂r r r ∂φ ∂z (1) ∂Vr ⎛ ∂Vr Vφ ∂Vr ∂Vr 1 2 ⎞ + ⎜Vr ⎜ ∂r + r ∂φ + Vz ∂z − r Vφ ⎟ = ⎟ ∂t ⎝ ⎠ ⎡ ∂ 2V 1 ∂Vr 1 ∂ 2Vr ∂ 2Vr Vr 2 ∂Vφ ⎤ 1 ∂p − + ν ⎢ 2r + + + 2 − 2− 2 ∂r ∂z r ∂r r 2 ∂φ 2 r r ∂φ ⎥ ρ f ∂r ⎣ ⎦ 41 (2) . Because of the symmetry along the width of the wafer. only half of the pipe is simulated. The pipe at the left edge was considered to take into consideration the side end effect.1 shows a 3-D model studied in this project.Chapter 3 – Transient Heat Transfer in Circular Microchannels Under Time Varying Heat Source 3.1 Mathematical Model The problem in hand consists of circular microchannels inside a rectangular magnetic material substrate. Figure 3. The governing equations for the conservation of mass. The boundary conditions at all sides are considered adiabatic. Fluid is entering the microchannels at constant inlet temperature.

the energy conservation equation in the solid region is [46]: 42 .1: Schematic for microchannel heat exchanger model ∂Vφ ⎛ ∂Vφ Vφ ∂Vφ ∂Vφ VrVφ ⎞ + ⎜Vr ⎜ ∂r + r ∂φ + Vz ∂z − r ⎟ = ⎟ ∂t ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 ⎡ ∂ Vφ 1 ∂Vφ 1 ∂ Vφ ∂ 2Vφ Vφ 2 ∂Vr ⎤ 1 ∂p − +ν ⎢ 2 + + + 2 − 2+ 2 ⎥ r ∂r r 2 ∂φ 2 r r ∂φ ⎦ ρ f r ∂φ ∂z ⎣ ∂r ∂Vz ⎛ ∂Vz Vφ ∂Vz ∂Vz ⎞ + ⎜Vr ⎜ ∂r + r ∂φ + Vz ∂z ⎟ = ⎟ ∂t ⎝ ⎠ 2 ⎡ ∂ V 1 ∂Vz 1 ∂ 2Vz ∂ 2Vz ⎤ 1 ∂p − + ν ⎢ 2z + + + 2 ⎥ ∂z ⎦ r ∂r r 2 ∂φ 2 ρ f ∂z ⎣ ∂r (3) (4) ∂T f ∂T ⎛ ∂T V ∂T f + ⎜Vr f + φ + Vz f ∂t ⎜ ∂r ∂z r ∂φ ⎝ 2 2 ⎡ ∂ 2T ⎞ 1 ∂T f 1 ∂ Tf ∂ Tf ⎟ = α f ⎢ 2f + + 2 + 2 ⎟ ∂z r ∂r r ∂φ 2 ⎢ ∂r ⎠ ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (5) For transient heat transfer with uniform heat generation and constant thermal conductivity.Figure 3.

0 ≤ z ≤ L.in . 0 ≤ x ≤ W. 0 ≤ z ≤ L. 0 ≤ y ≤ (H-d)/2: ∂T f ∂V ∂Vr =0 = 0. z = 0. 0 ≤ z ≤ L. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: (17) At r = d/2 and 0 ≤ z ≤ L: (18) 43 . 0 ≤ y ≤ (H+d)/2: (15) At y = 0.Vφ = 0.in ∂Ts =0 ∂z (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) p=0 ∂Ts =0 ∂z ∂Ts =0 ∂x At x = 0. T f = T f . ∂x ∂x ∂x (13) ∂Ts =0 ∂x ∂Ts =0 ∂x (14) At x = W. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: ∂Ts =0 ∂y ∂Ts =0 ∂y Vr = 0.⎡ ∂ 2Ts ∂ 2Ts ∂ 2Ts ⎤ g o 1 ∂Ts + 2 ⎥+ = ⎢ 2 + α ∂t ∂y 2 ∂z ⎦ k ⎣ ∂x (6) Equations (1) to (6) are subject to the following Initial and boundary conditions: At t = 0: At z = 0 and r ≤ d/2: At z = 0 and r > d/2: At z = L and r ≤ d/2: At z = L and r > d/2: Ts = T f = Tin Vr = 0. (H-d)/2 ≤ y ≤ (H+d)/2: Vφ = 0. Tf = Ts . At x = W. 0 ≤ x ≤ W.Vz = Vz .Vφ = 0. k f ∂Tf ∂r = ks ∂Ts ∂r (16) At y = H. 0 ≤ z ≤ L. 0 ≤ y ≤ H: (12) At x = W.Vz = 0.

236 cm respectively. The solution was considered converged when the field values did not change from one iteration to the next. To study the effect of diameter.3 Results and Discussion The local interface temperature.3.012 cm. heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number were calculated from the resulted velocity and temperature distribution. Reynolds number effect was studied and was changed to 1000.2 Numerical Simulation and Parametric Study The governing equations along with the boundary conditions were solved using the Galerkin finite element method. An iterative procedure was used to arrive at the solution for the velocity and temperature fields. heat flow rate. To represent the heat generation and cooling process numerically. For the numerical computations. The Newton-Raphson algorithm was used to solve the nonlinear system of discretized equations. the magnetic field value (G) was fluctuated between the values of +2 and -2 T. 44 . One parameter was changed while all other parameters kept constant to study the effect of each parameter separately. and the residuals for each variable became negligible. Diameter of 0.036 cm and Reynolds number of 1600 were used for this case. Parameters included the magnetic field that was changed to the values of +4 and -4 T. The length of the channel (L) was also a constant value of 2. it was reduced to 0. The first period was chosen to be one half of the selected time length since it started from the initial condition. 0.5 cm. 3. the height (H) and the half width (W) of the model were set to a constant value.2 cm and 0. Time length was one parameter and changed to 10 seconds. Time period of 2 seconds was used.

As heat is generated the interface temperature increases while it decreases when cooling process takes over. The increase in the heat flow rate 45 . The Nusselt number behavior is affected by the heat flow rate and the interface-bulk temperature difference. Similarly to the interface temperature. The heat flow rate increase in value for each of the heat generation and cooling process and the initial condition effect diminishes over time.2 shows the maximum temperature in the model.Figure 3. Figure 3.3 shows the interface temperature at different axial locations of the microchannel. It can be observed that the maximum temperature in the system increases when heat is generated in the system while it decreases when the system is cooled.5 shows the Nusselt number behavior over a period of 9 seconds. 3rdand 5th periods while the cooling process occurred in the 2nd and 4th periods. The heat generation occurred in the 1st. The interface temperature increase along the axial direction is slow at the beginning of the transient process because of the initial condition effect. a sinusoidal behavior is observed in the heat flow rate as heat generation and cooling process alternates. The maximum temperature in the model occurred in the solid region at the outlet edge corner of the substrate. As the fluid travels through the channel its bulk temperature increases providing heat transfer resistance. Figure 3. Sinusoidal behavior is observed for the interface temperature as the heat generation and cooling process alternates. The temperature range gets larger along the axial direction due to larger fluid bulk temperature which slows down the heating or cooling process. This decreases the interface-solid temperature difference and thus the heat flow rate. Figure 3. the maximum temperature does not drop below this value.4 shows that the heat flow rate is supplied to and rejected from the fluid as the heat generation and cooling process alternates in the system. Because the inlet temperature to the system is 20 oC.

s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 16 14 Figure 3.5 cm z = 2.5 cm Time.036 cm) 26 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature. s 6 7 8 9 10 Tmax Figure 3.2: Maximum temperature over 9 seconds (Re = 1600. C 24 o 22 20 0 18 z = 0. d = 0. C o 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time. G = ±2 T.27 26 Maximum Temperature.036 cm) 46 .5 cm z = 1.0 cm z = 2. d = 0.3: Peripheral average interface temperature at different axial locations over 9 seconds (Re = 1600. G = ±2 T.0 cm z = 1.

5 cm -40 -60 Time.0 cm z = 2.5: Peripheral average Nusselt number at different axial locations over 9 seconds (Re = 1600.036 cm) 24 z = 0.0 cm z = 2. s 5 6 7 8 9 Figure 3.5 cm z = 2. G = ±2 T. s Figure 3. d = 0.5 cm z = 1.5 cm Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 20 16 12 8 4 0 0 1 2 3 4 Time.0 cm z = 1.5 cm z = 1.60 Peripharel Average Heat Flow Rate. d = 0.4: Peripheral average heat flow rate at different axial locations over 9 seconds (Re = 1600. kW /m 2 40 20 0 0 -20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 z = 0.0 cm z = 1. G = ±2 T.5 cm z = 2.036 cm) 47 .

Since the Nusselt number behavior is understood. only fewer points along time will be plotted to the results of the other cases. This temperature difference becomes zero at certain time in each time period. the heat flow rate decreases along the axial direction. Figure 3. The Nusselt number shows similar behavior to the previous case. Interface-solid temperature difference also increases with the increase in heat generation.7 shows the heat flow rate at the interface using magnetic field of 4 T.8 shows the Nusselt number over 9 seconds time period using magnetic field of 4 T. Higher heat generation results in higher interface and solid temperatures in the model. 48 .5. Similarly to the previous case. Figure 3.increases the Nusselt number. The increase in the heat flow rate increases Nusselt number thereafter. The interface-solid temperature difference is higher closer to the tube inlet because the inlet fluid temperature increases the interface-solid temperature difference. Nusselt number is not affected by the change in the magnetic field value.2 the maximum temperature is higher because of the higher value of heat generation used. The value of the heat generation diminished the effect of the initial condition and increased the heat flow rate along time. Figure 3. After the heating and cooling processes alternates the system Nusselt number increases from negative infinite value to the actual value. This causes Nusselt number to be infinite at that time. Comparing to figure 3. Compared to figure 3. As heat generation and cooling process alternates the interface-bulk temperature difference alternates positive and negative values.6 shows the maximum temperature in the model when magnetic field of 4 T is used.

32 30 Maximum Temperature.0 cm z = 2. kW/m 60 40 20 0 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 Time.5 cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 Figure 3. C o Tmax 28 26 24 22 20 18 0 2 4 Time.036 cm) 80 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate. d = 0.0 cm z = 1. d = 0.036 cm) 49 .5 cm z = 2.7: Peripheral average heat flow rate at different axial locations over 9 seconds with G = ±4 T (Re = 1600.5 cm z = 1.6: Maximum temperature over 9 seconds with G = ±4 T (Re = 1600. s z = 0. s 6 8 10 Figure 3.

Figure 3. Compared to figure 3. This is similar to the effect of increasing the magnetic field in the previous case.036 cm) Figure 3. The increase in Nusselt number is a direct result for the heat flow rate increase.10 shows Nusselt number behavior when diameter of 0.5 cm z = 2.7.012 cm is used.9 shows the heat flow rate in the model when the diameter of 0. Comparing to figure 3. d = 0. The higher Nusselt number value at the beginning of each time period has similar explanation of those discussed in the previous case.8: Peripheral average Nusselt number at different axial locations with G = ±4 T (Re = 1600. This will increase the value of the heat flow rate at the interface.4.16 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time. doubling the magnetic field has higher effect on the heat flow rate increase.0 cm Figure 3.012 cm is used. the solid volume increases causing more heat generation.0 cm z = 1. the values of heat flow rate is higher. The Nusselt number has similar behavior as the case of higher magnetic field value. s 6 7 8 9 10 z = 1. 50 . As the diameter decreases.

5 cm z = 1.5 cm z = 2. G = ±2 T) 51 .012 cm (Re = 1600.5 cm z = 2.0 cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 3.9: Peripheral average heat flow rate at different axial locations with d = 0. G = ±2 T) 24 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 20 16 12 8 4 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time. s 6 7 8 9 10 z = 1.012 cm (Re = 1600.80 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate.0 cm z = 1.0 cm Figure 3.10: Peripheral average Nusselt number at different axial locations with d = 0. s z = 0. kW/m 2 60 40 20 0 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 Time.0 cm z = 1.

and Nusselt number showed sinusoidal behavior as heat generation and cooling process alternates. This is clearly shown when the figure is compared to figure 3. Notice that Nusselt number reaches high values at the beginning of each time period. This results in less heat flow rate to the fluid. The absolute values of the heat flow rate are lower compared to figure 3. Mathematical model was developed and computations were done to solve the system. The effect of different parameters was studied.Figure 3. The interface temperature.12 shows the Nusselt number behavior in the model for Reynolds number of 1000. The maximum temperature in the model does not drop below 20 oC because of the inlet temperature condition. Higher magnetic field increases the heat flow rate to the fluid as well as Nusselt number. 3. The results showed the behavior of the maximum temperature. Lower velocity means higher bulk temperature and thus less interface-bulk heat transfer. Nusselt number directly decreases with the heat flow rate. Nusselt number is also less for lower Reynolds numbers.4.5. heat flow rate. interface temperature. Larger diameter decreases fluid velocity causing 52 . The absolute value of heat flow rate is used when calculating the Nusselt number. This is because the interface-bulk temperatures difference becomes very small in value at which both temperatures alternate in value. Figure 3. Therefore. This causes Nusselt number to increase during each time period. The heat flow rate increase in value within each time period.11 shows the heat flow rate of the model at the fluid-solid interface surface for Reynolds number of 1000.4 Conclusions Study of the parameters of the circular microchannel model with transient heat generation was done.

0 cm z = 1.50 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate.5 cm z = 1.036 cm) 14 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time.11: Peripheral average heat flow rate at different axial locations with Re = 1000 (G = ±2 T.036 cm) 53 .5 cm z = 2.0 cm 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 Figure 3.5 cm z = 2. d = 0. s 6 7 8 9 10 z = 1.0 cm Figure 3. s z = 0.12: Peripheral average Nusselt number at different axial locations with Re = 1000 (G = ±2 T. d = 0. kW/m 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 Time.0 cm z = 1.

Lower Reynolds number results in lower heat flow rate and Nusselt number. 54 . thus. This increases the heat flow rate and. Nusselt number.higher fluid bulk temperature.

Heat is generated in the gadolinium substrate and convected to the water while part of it is conducted to the silicon and then convected to water. Figure 4. momentum. and energy in the Cartesian coordinate system for the fluid can be written as [45]. The applicable differential equations for the conservation of mass. ∂u ∂v ∂w + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎛ ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ⎞ 1 ∂p ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u +ν ⎜ 2 + 2 + 2 ⎟ =− +w +v +u ⎜ ∂x ρ ∂x ∂z ∂y ∂x ∂t ∂y ∂z ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ∂ 2v ∂ 2v ∂ 2v ⎞ 1 ∂p ∂v ∂v ∂v ∂v +ν ⎜ 2 + 2 + 2 ⎟ +u +v +w = − ⎜ ∂x ρ ∂x ∂z ∂y ∂x ∂t ∂y ∂z ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w ⎞ 1 ∂p ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂w +ν ⎜ 2 + 2 + 2 ⎟ =− +w +v +u ⎜ ∂x ρ ∂x ∂z ∂y ∂x ∂t ∂y ∂z ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 55 (1) (2) (3) (4) .1 Mathematical Model The model in hand is a trapezoidal cross-sectional microchannel consisting of two different substrates gadolinium on top and silicon on bottom while the channel was manufactured into the bottom one. The gadolinium substrate on the top is joined to the silicon substrate and the primary working fluid selected was water.1 shows the schematic drawing of the model.Chapter 4 – Transient Heat Transfer in Trapezoidal Microchannels During Activation of Magnetic Heating 4.

at fluid inlet: Tf = Tgd = Tsi = Tin u=0.Figure 4.1: Schematic draw for the model of trapezoidal microchannel ∂T f ∂t +u ∂T f ∂x +v ∂T f ∂y +w ∂T f ⎛ ∂ 2T f ∂ 2T f ∂ 2T f = α⎜ 2 + + ⎜ ∂x ∂z ∂y 2 ∂z 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (5) The energy conservation equation in the solid gadolinium substrate is [46]: ∂ 2Tgd ∂x 2 + ∂ 2Tgd ∂y 2 + ∂ 2Tgd ∂z 2 + g0 1 ∂Tgd = k gd α ∂t (6) and for the solid silicon substrate is: ∂ 2Tsi ∂ 2Tsi ∂ 2Tsi 1 ∂Tsi + + = α ∂t ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Equations (1) – (7) are subject to following initial and boundary conditions: At t = 0: At z = 0. w=win. v=0. T=Tin 56 (7) (8) (9) .

0 < z < L: k si ∂Tgd ∂Tsi = k gd ∂y ∂y =0 (20) (21) ∂Tgd ∂y 57 . 0 < z < L: u=0. 0 < z < L: At y = (Hsi+Hgd). and kf ∂T f ∂y = k si ∂Tsi ∂y (17) (18) At y = Hsi. Tf = Tsi. at fluid outlet: At z = L. 0 < x < B. 0 < z < L: ∂Tgd ∂x =0 (16) At y = 0. =0 ∂z ∂z p=0 (10) (11) (12) ∂Tgd ∂Tsi = 0. Hii < y < (Hsi+Hgd). 0 < z < L: ∂Tsi =0 ∂y u=0. = 0. on solid surface: At z = L. 0 < x < B.At z = 0. 0 < x < B-Bc. and kf ∂T f ∂y = k gd ∂Tgd ∂y (19) At y = Hsi. (Hsi-Hfl) < y < Hsi. v=0. v=0. =0 ∂z ∂z ∂Tsi =0 ∂z At x = 0. 0 < z < L: ∂Tsi =0 ∂x (16) At x = B. =0 ∂x ∂x ∂x =0 (14) At x = 0. B-Bc < x < B. B-Bs < x < B. 0 < z < L: ∂Tgd ∂x (15) At x = B. w=0. Hsi < y < (Hsi+Hgd). 0 < z < L: u=0. Tf = Tgd. on solid surface: ∂Tgd ∂Tsi = 0. 0 < y < Hsi. 0 < z < L: (13) At x = 0. 0 < y < (Hsi-Hfl). ∂T f ∂v ∂w =0. 0 < z < L: At y = (Hsi-Hfl). w=0.

1 cm and 20 oC respectively. The height of the silicon substrate (Hsi) and the inlet temperature were also set to a constant value.03 cm. height of gadolinium substrate. 2. Hfl = 0. 0. Hfl was changed to 0.29 and 0.3 cm. height of fluid microchannel. and the working fluid was changed to Ammonia. and kf ∂T f ∂n = k si ∂Tsi ∂n (22) 4. Tf = Tsi. spacing between channels. Sp = 0.5 cm.4 and 0. sp = 0. 0<z<L. magnetic field.3 cm respectively. G = 5 Tesla.0 cm and 0.5 and 10 Tesla. and water as the working fluid. Hgd was changed to 0. v=0. The parameters to be changed were selected to be: Reynolds number. w=0. the Length (L) and the half width (W) of the model were set to a constant value. and R-134a. Time period of 1 second was used. The Newton-Raphson algorithm was used to solve the nonlinear system of discretized equations. and working fluid. u=0. One parameter was changed at a time while all other parameters kept constant to study the effect of each parameter separately. and the residuals for each variable became negligible.28 cm. Reynolds number was changed to 1500 and 1000.3 cm. G was changed to 2. The solution was considered converged when the field values did not change from one iteration to the next. 58 .2 Numerical Simulation and Parametric Study The governing equations along with the initial and boundary conditions were solved using the Galerkin finite element method. Hgd = 0. For the numerical computations. An iterative procedure was used to arrive at the solution for the velocity and temperature fields.The inclined fluid-silicon surface. Initially these parameters were selected as follows: Re = 2000.02 cm.

4.3 Result and Discussion Figures 4.2 and 4.3 show a grid independence study carried out in the crosssectional area of the channel to determine the optimum grid size and to insure accurate results. The number of intervals in the axial direction kept constant because it does not affect the results significantly. The results obtained by using (nx = 24, ny = 16, nz = 10) that had an average error of 0.08% in the silicon side and a maximum error of 0.1% in the interface temperature compared to (nx = 36, ny = 24, nz = 10). The heat flow rate also shows a small error comparing the above two grid systems. The average error for the heat flow rate was 0.78% while the maximum was 1.27%. Figures 4.2 and 4.3 show that the grid size selected was sufficient enough to reach optimum results. Figure 4.4 shows that gadolinium interface temperature increases by time. This is because of the heat generated in the system. After 4 seconds the system almost reaches steady state. The first 2 seconds has much larger increase in average interface temperature. Heat is generated in the gadolinium substrate and then transferred to the fluid through convection and to the silicon substrate through conduction. The figure shows that there is an increase in the average interface temperature at the gadolinium interface along the axial direction which is caused by the heat generation. The rate of increase in the average interface temperature decreases when reaching the end of the channel. This is because the fluid temperature rises resulting in less heat rejection. Figure 4.5 shows that the heat flow rate at the gadolinium interface increases with time. This is

59

Peripheral Average Interface Temperature, C

22.5 22 21.5 21 20.5 20 19.5 0 0.5 1 Axial Direction, cm 1.5 nx=12, ny=8, nz=10 nx=24, ny=16, nz=10 nx=36, ny=24, nz=10

Figure 4.2: Peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at the fluidsilicon interface (Re = 2000, G = 5 T, Hfl = 0.03 cm)

80 Perpheral Average Heat Flow Rate, W/m

2

o

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.5 1 Axial Direction, cm 1.5 2 nx=12, ny=8, nz=10 nx=24, ny=16, nz=10 nx=36, ny=24, nz=10

Figure 4.3: Peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000, G = 5 T, Hfl = 0.03 cm)

60

Peripheral Average Interface Temperature,

**27 26 25 24 C 23 22 21 20 19 0 0.5 1 Axial Direction, cm 1.5
**

o

0s 0.4 s 0.8 s 2s 10 s

0.2 s 0.6 s 1s 4s

Figure 4.4: Peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time steps at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000, G = 5 T, Hfl = 0.03 cm)

80 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate, kW/m

2

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.5

0.2 s 0.8 s 4s

0.4 s 1s 10 s

0.6 s 2s

1 Axial Direction, cm

1.5

2

Figure 4.5: Peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time steps at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000, G = 5 T, Hfl = 0.03 cm)

61

because of the heat generation in the gadolinium substrate. The average interface temperature increases along the axial direction. The fluid bulk temperature increases along the axial direction at a higher rate than the interface temperature. This causes the heat flow rate to decrease along the axial direction. From the figure one can see that heat flow rate across the interface reaches steady state closer to the inlet before locations further away along the axial direction. Figures 4.6 and 4.7 show the average heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number respectively. Both, heat flow rate and interface-bulk temperature difference, increase by time. The heat transfer coefficient is a ratio of the heat flow rate to the interface-bulk temperature difference. The figure shows that the heat transfer coefficient increases with time closer to the channel entrance while it decreases with time towards the end of the channel. This means that the rate of change in the heat flow rate to the interface-bulk temperature difference ratio decreases along the axial direction. This could be explained by the increase in the fluid bulk temperature which causes more increase the interface-bulk temperature difference further away from the channel entrance. The net result for the combined effects cause the average heat transfer coefficient and thus the Nusselt number to increase by time at closer to the inlet but decrease by time closer to the outlet. The heat flow rate decreases along the axial direction due to the increase in the interface-bulk temperature difference. This insures a decrease in the heat transfer coefficient and thus Nusselt number along the axial direction. Figure 4.8 shows that the silicon interface temperature increases by time. This is because the heat is conducted through the silicon substrate from the heat generated in the gadolinium substrate. Similarly to the gadolinium side, the system almost reaches steady state after 4 seconds. The heat that is conducted from the gadolinium to the

62

20 18 16 kW/m . G = 5 T.5 1 Axial Direction. C 2o 0. G = 5 T. Hfl = 0.Peripheral Average Heat Transfer Coefficient.4 s 0.6 s 1s 4s 0. cm 1.8 s 2s 10 s 14 12 10 8 0 0.03 cm) 16 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 0.5 2 Figure 4.5 2 Figure 4.03 cm) 63 .7: Peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time steps at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.6: Peripheral average heat transfer coefficient along the axial direction at different time steps at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.2 s 0.8 s 2s 10 s 14 12 10 8 0 0.4 s 0. Hfl = 0.5 1 Axial Direction.6 s 1s 4s 0. cm 1.2 s 0.

8 s 2s 10 s 0.9 shows that the heat flow rate at the silicon interface increases with time. This is because of the heat conducted to the silicon from the heat generation in the gadolinium substrate.5 o 0s 0. Figure 4. This 64 .27 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature.4 s 0. Hfl = 0.2 s 0.5 1 Axial Direction. 26 25 24 C 23 22 21 20 19 0 0. The average interface temperature increases along the axial direction. This is because the heat flow travels through the silicon substrate by conduction before facing the fluid-silicon interface.03 cm) silicon causes the interface temperature increase at the fluid-silicon interface. The heat flow rate is less in the silicon interface compared to the gadolinium interface. This is because the fluid temperature rises resulting in less heat rejection. G = 5 T.6 s 1s 4s Figure 4. The rate of increase in the average interface temperature decreases when reaching the end of the channel. The figure also shows that there is an increase in the average interface temperature at the silicon interface along the axial direction which is caused by the heat conducted to the silicon from the heat generated in the gadolinium substrate. cm 1.8: Peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time steps at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.

kW/m 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.03 cm) slows down the heat transfer process in the silicon substrate resulting less temperature gradient than in the gadolinium substrate where the heat is generated.11 show that after 2 seconds the heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number changes could be ignored.6 s 4s 0.10 and 4. cm 1.2 s 1s 0. The heat flow rate and the interface-bulk temperature difference increase with time. Nusselt number follow similar trend to those 65 . G = 5 T.8 s 10 s 2 Figure 4.5 2 0. The heat flow rate increase is higher which results in an increase in the heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number with time. The heat flow rate decreases along the axial direction due to the increase in the fluid bulk temperature. This result in lower rate of decrease in the heat flow rate along the axial direction at the silicon interface compared to the gadolinium interface. As the fluid travels along the axial direction it gains more heat from the gadolinium substrate and less heat from the silicon side.4 s 2s 0. especially with the rising bulk fluid temperature.80 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate.5 1 Axial Direction.9: Peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time steps at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000. Hfl = 0. Figures 4.

8 s 10 s kW/m . cm 1.4 s 2s 0. Hfl = 0. C 16 2o 12 8 4 0 0.6 s 4s 0. G = 5 T.5 2 0.10: Peripheral average heat transfer coefficient along the axial direction at different time steps at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.4 s 2s 0.6 s 4s 0.2 s 1s 0. Hfl = 0.03 cm) 18 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 16 14 12 10 8 6 0 0. G = 5 T.5 2 Figure 4.Peripheral Average Heat Transfer Coefficient.5 1 Axial Direction.2 s 1s 20 0. 24 0. cm 1.8 s 10 s Figure 4.03 cm) 66 .11: Peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time steps at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.5 1 Axial Direction.

of heat transfer coefficient.20 show the results of interface temperature. Nusselt number increases due to the increase in the heat transfer coefficient.23 show the results of interface temperature. heat flow rate and Nusselt number for different magnetic fields along the axial direction at the silicon-fluid interface. higher fluid velocity increases the heat transfer coefficient at the interface causing lower interface temperature and lower fluid bulk temperature but higher heat flow rate and Nusselt number. Figures 4. Similar to the gadolinium side. heat flow rate and Nusselt number for different magnetic fields along the axial direction at the gadolinium-fluid interface.16 and 4.14 show the results of interface temperature. Higher heat generation increases the temperature profile in the solid substrate causing an increase in the average interface temperature and heat flow rate.22 and 4. 4. It will also increase the temperature gradient in the solid substrate increasing the heat flow rate at the interface. cancel their effects resulting in negligible change in Nusselt number. 4. heat flow rate and Nusselt number for different Reynolds number along the axial direction at the silicon-fluid interface.18. Higher fluid velocity increases the heat transfer coefficient at the interface causing lower interface temperature and lower fluid bulk temperature. Figures 4. 4.12. heat flow rate and Nusselt number for different Reynolds number along the axial direction at the gadolinium-fluid interface. 4. Figures 4.13 and 4. Figures 4.19 and 4. Similar to the gadolinium side.21. The increase in both.15.17 show the results of interface temperature. interface temperature and heat flow rate. It decreases along the axial direction due to the increase in the fluid bulk temperature. higher heat generation increases 67 .

4 s Re=1500. cm 1.5 2 Figure 4.8 s Re=1500. cm 1.13: The effect of Reynolds number on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (G = 5 T.8 s Re=1000. time=0.5 o Re=2000.4 s Re=1500. time=0. time=0. Hfl = 0.03 cm) 68 .27 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature.8 s Re=1500.4 s Re=1000.4 s Re=2000.8 s Re=1000.8 s 0. time=0. time=0.12: The effect of Reynolds number on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (G = 5 T.5 1 Axial Direction.4 s Re=2000. time=0. time=0. time=0.8 s Figure 4. kW/m 2 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 Re=2000. Hfl = 0. time=0.03 cm) 70 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate. time=0. time=0. time=0.4 s Re=1000. 26 25 24 C 23 22 21 20 19 0 0.5 1 Axial Direction.

4 s Re=1000.03 cm) 27 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature.14: The effect of Reynolds number on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (G = 5 T.4 s Re=1000.8 s Re=1000.5 1 Axial Direction.03 cm) 69 .4 s Re=1500. time=0. time=0.15: The effect of Reynolds number on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (G = 5 T.8 s Figure 4.4 s Re=1500.4 s Re=2000.18 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.8 s Re=1500.5 o Re=2000. time=0. time=0. cm 1. time=0.8 s Figure 4. cm 1.8 s Re=1500. time=0.4 s Re=2000.5 1 Axial Direcation. time=0. time=0.8 s Re=1000. time=0. Hfl = 0. 26 25 24 C 23 22 21 20 19 0 0. Hfl = 0. time=0. time=0. time=0.5 2 Re=2000.

kW/m 2 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 Re=2000. time=0.16: The effect of Reynolds number on the Peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (G = 5 T. time=0.8 s Re=1500. Hfl = 0.4 s Re=2000.03 cm) 70 .5 1 Axial Direction.4 s Re=1000. time=0. time=0. time=0. time=0.5 1 Axial Direction. cm 1.5 2 Re=2000. time=0.8 s Re=1000. time=0.70 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate.4 s Re=1000. Hfl = 0.4 s Re=1500. cm 1.03 cm) 18 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0. time=0.8 s Re=1500.8 s Re=1000.8 s 0.17: The effect of Reynolds number on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (G = 5 T. time=0. time=0.8 s Figure 4.4 s Re=2000.5 2 Figure 4.4 s Re=1500. time=0.

time=0. time=0. time=0. time=0.27 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature.19: The effect of magnetic field on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.8 s G=10 T.18: The effect of magnetic field on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.8 s 0. time=0.8 s G=5 T. cm 1. time=0.8 s G=5 T. time=0. time=0. kW/m 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.4 s G=5 T.4 s G=2 T. 26 25 24 C 23 22 21 20 19 0 o G=2 T.4 s G=10 T.5 1 Axial Direction. Hfl = 0.4 s G=5 T.5 2 G=2 T. cm 1. time=0.4 s G=2 T.4 s G=10 T.03 cm) 80 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate. time=0.5 Figure 4.8 s 2 Figure 4.8 s G=10 T. Hfl = 0.5 1 Axial Direction.03 cm) 71 . time=0. time=0.

time=0.4 s G=5 T. time=0. time=0.18 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.8 s G=10 T.20: The effect of magnetic field on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000. time=0. cm 1.21: The effect of magnetic field on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.8 s Figure 4. Hfl = 0. time=0. time=0. cm 1.4 s G=10 T. time=0. time=0. time=0.8 s G=5 T.8 s G=5 T.5 2 G=2 T.4 s G=5 T. time=0.8 s Figure 4.4 s G=10 T. Hfl = 0.8 s G=10 T. time=0.4 s G=2 T.03 cm) 72 .4 s G=2 T. 26 25 24 C 23 22 21 20 19 0 0. time=0.5 1 Axial Direction.5 o G=2 T.03 cm) 27 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature.5 1 Axial Direcation.

5 2 G=2 T. time=0.8 s G=10 T.4 s G=5 T. time=0. cm 1.8 s G=5 T. time=0. kW/m 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0. time=0. Hfl = 0.03 cm) 73 .4 s G=10 T.8 s G=10 T. cm 1.4 s G=2 T. time=0. time=0.03 cm) 18 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.70 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate. time=0.4 s G=5 T.8 s G=5 T.23: The effect of magnetic field on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.5 1 Axial Direction. time=0.8 s 2 Figure 4.4 s G=2 T.5 1 Axial Direction.4 s G=10 T.22: The effect of magnetic field on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.5 2 G=2 T. time=0.8 s Figure 4. time=0. time=0. time=0. Hfl = 0.

4. it is expected that the increase in gadolinium height does not affect the temperature gradient in the solid. the heat flow rate increases due to the higher temperature gradient in the solid substrate. The increase in both. The increase in the heat flow rate increases Nusselt number. This decreases the interface temperature and the fluid bulk temperature. Figures 4.28 and 4. Similarly to the gadolinium side. Figures 4.31 and 4. interface temperature and heat flow rate. 4.30. Figures 4. heat flow rate and Nusselt number for different channel height along the axial direction at the gadolinium-fluid interface.29 show the results of interface temperature. This enhances the cooling rate and decreases the interface temperature as well as the fluid bulk temperature. heat flow rate and Nusselt number for different channel height along the axial direction at the silicon-fluid interface. Results showed a small 74 . The increase in the heat flow rate increases Nusselt number.24.the temperature profile in the solid substrate causing an increase in the average interface temperature and heat flow rate.26 show the results of interface temperature. Since the heat generation is calculated per unit volume. The reduction in the channel height with maintaining the same Reynolds number results in higher fluid velocity.25 and 4.27.32 show the results of interface temperature. The heat flow rate increases due to the higher temperature gradient in the solid substrate. the channel height reduction increases the fluid velocity. Higher gadolinium height results in higher heat generation but the heat generation per unit volume remains the same. 4. cancel their effects resulting in no change in Nusselt number. heat flow rate and Nusselt number for different height of gadolinium substrate along the axial direction at the gadolinium-fluid interface. On the other hand.

4 s Hfl=0. cm 1.5 1 Axial Direction.03 cm. G = 5 T) 50 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate. time=0. 24 23 22 21 20 19 0 0.5 C Hfl=0.5 2 Figure 4. time=0.02 cm. cm 1. time=0. time=0. time=0. G = 5 T) 75 .02 cm.25 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature.03 cm.8 s 0 0 0.8 s Figure 4.03 cm.25: The effect of channel depth on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.4 s Hfl=0. time=0. time=0.02 cm.8 s Hfl=0.4 s Hfl=0.03 cm.5 1 Axial Direction.24: The effect of channel depth on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.02 cm.8 s Hfl=0. time=0. kW/m 2 o 40 30 20 10 Hfl=0.4 s Hfl=0.

02 cm. time=0.03 cm. time=0.03 cm.5 1 Axial Direction.5 1 Axial Direcation.8 s Figure 4.02 cm.27: The effect of channel depth on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.02 cm.8 s Hfl=0. G = 5 T) 25 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature.03 cm.4 s Hfl=0. time=0.8 s Hfl=0.4 s 4 0 0 0.03 cm. cm 1. cm 1.02 cm. time=0.4 s Hfl=0.4 s Hfl=0. G = 5 T) 76 o . time=0. time=0. time=0.24 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 20 16 12 8 Hfl=0.5 Hfl=0.5 2 Hfl=0. 24 23 C 22 21 20 19 0 0.8 s Figure 4. time=0.26: The effect of channel depth on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.

03 cm. time=0.8 s Hfl=0.8 s 1.03 cm. time=0.4 s Hfl=0.02 cm.03 cm. time=0. cm Figure 4. G = 5 T) 77 . cm 1.02 cm. time=0. time=0.5 2 Hfl=0.02 cm.50 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate. G = 5 T) 30 Hfl=0.4 s Hfl=0.4 s 0 0.03 cm. time=0.8 s Figure 4.5 2 0 1 Axial Direction.02 cm.28: The effect of channel depth on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.8 s Hfl=0. kW/m 2 40 30 20 10 Hfl=0.5 Hfl=0.4 s Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 0. time=0.5 1 Axial Direction.29: The effect of channel depth on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000. time=0.

4 cm.8 s Figure 4. time=0. time=0.25 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature. time=0. time=0. time=0.4 cm.4 s Hgd=0.8 s Hgd=0.5 Hgd=0.5 1 Axial Direction.3 cm.4 s Hgd=0.03 cm) 50 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate.30: The effect of height of gadolinium substrate on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluidgadolinium interface (Re = 2000.8 s Hgd=0. cm Figure 4. time=0. time=0.4 cm.3 cm.3 cm. time=0.4 s Hgd=0. cm 1.31: The effect of height of gadolinium substrate on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.5 cm.8 s Hgd=0.3 cm. Hfl = 0.4 s 0 0. time=0. Hfl = 0.5 cm.8 s 1. time=0. time=0. 24 23 C 22 21 20 19 0 0. G = 5 T.4 cm.5 2 0 1 Axial Direction.03 cm) 78 .5 Hgd=0. time=0.5 cm. G = 5 T.5 cm.4 s Hgd=0. kW/m 2 o 40 30 20 10 Hgd=0.8 s Hgd=0.4 s Hgd=0.

5 2 Hgd=0.8 s Hgd=0. Higher gadolinium height results in higher heat generation. The heat flow rate. The decrease in the heat flow directly decreases the heat transfer coefficient and thus the Nusselt number.03 cm) increase in the average interface temperature which indicates a small decrease in the solid temperature gradient.3 cm. heat flow rate and Nusselt number for different height of gadolinium substrate along the axial direction at the silicon-fluid interface. The temperature gradient decreased in the gadolinium 79 . This means that the gadolinium height has a very low effect on the system.8 s Hgd=0. time=0. Figures 4. 4. G = 5 T.8 s Figure 4.4 cm.35 show the results of interface temperature.5 cm.5 1 Axial Direcation.33. cm 1.34 and 4. time=0. on the other hand.4 s Hgd=0. Hfl = 0.32: The effect of height of gadolinium substrate on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.4 s Hgd=0.18 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0. this increases the average interface temperature was barely noticeable. time=0. This is a direct result for the decrease in the solid temperature gradient. time=0.4 s Hgd=0.3 cm. decreased with higher gadolinium height.5 cm. time=0. Similarly to the gadolinium side.4 cm. time=0.

4 s Hgd=0. G = 5 T.4 s Hgd=0. time=0.8 s 30 20 10 0 0 0.3 cm.8 s Hgd=0.8 s Hgd=0. time=0. time=0.03 cm) 50 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate. cm 1.3 cm. time=0. time=0.4 cm.5 cm. Hfl = 0.8 s Hgd=0.8 s Figure 4. G = 5 T.4 cm.4 s Hgd=0. time=0.3 cm.5 2 Figure 4.4 s Hgd=0.5 cm. kW/m 2 o 40 Hgd=0.8 s Hgd=0.34: The effect of height of gadolinium substrate on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.5 1 Axial Direction.03 cm) 80 . time=0.4 s Hgd=0.5 cm.4 cm.5 1 Axial Direction.4 cm. time=0. cm 1. time=0.5 Hgd=0. time=0.3 cm.4 s Hgd=0.5 cm. time=0.33: The effect of height of gadolinium substrate on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000. 25 24 23 C 22 21 20 19 0 0.Peripheral Average Interface Temperature. Hfl = 0. time=0.

time=0. time=0.4 s) but increased at later times (t = 0.38 show the results of interface temperature. time=0.4 s Hgd=0.4 s Hgd=0.3 cm. Hfl = 0. Both the heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number are decreasing with larger gadolinium height. heat flow rate and Nusselt number for different channel spacing along the axial direction at the gadolinium-fluid interface. Figures 4. 4. Higher fluid 81 . Unlike the gadolinium side.4 cm.5 cm.03 cm) substrate due to larger solid volume.8 s Figure 4.8 s Hgd=0.3 cm.5 cm.35: The effect of height of gadolinium substrate on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000. the temperature gradient in the silicon substrate decreased at earlier times (t = 0. time=0. cm 1.5 2 Hgd=0.37 and 4.18 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0. This increases the fluid velocity for the same Reynolds number. time=0.4 cm.5 1 Axial Direction.4 s Hgd=0.8 s Hgd=0.36. time=0. This is due to increase in the interface-bulk temperature difference as the interface temperature increases. G = 5 T. Larger spacing for the same model width results in smaller channel. This is because of the constant heat conduction from the gadolinium to the silicon substrate which increased the temperature gradient at later times.8 s).

cm 1.4 s sp=0. time=0.8 s sp=0. sp=0.28 cm.29 cm.5 1 Axial Direction.03 cm) 82 .37: The effect of channel spacing on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000. time=0.28 cm.29 cm.8 s sp=0. time=0.8 s sp=0.3 cm. time=0.25 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature. cm 1. G = 5 T. G = 5 T. Hfl = 0.5 sp=0.3 cm.3 cm. time=0.03 cm) 50 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate.8 s kW/m 2 o 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.4 s sp=0.29 cm. time=0.28 cm. 24 23 C 22 21 20 19 0 0.4 s sp=0.5 1 Axial Direction. time=0.8 s sp=0.36: The effect of channel spacing on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.8 s Figure 4. Hfl = 0.5 2 Figure 4. time=0. time=0.28 cm.4 s sp=0. time=0.4 s sp=0.4 s sp=0. time=0. time=0.3 cm.29 cm.

Figures 4.39.29 cm. The change in the heat transfer coefficient and the Nusselt number are also negligible. This increases the fluid velocity for the same Reynolds number.8 s sp=0. The heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number depend directly on the heat flow rate.8 s sp=0. In this case. time=0.28 cm.03 cm) velocity increases the cooling process and usually results in lower interface temperature and higher heat flow rate.4 s sp=0. heat flow rate and Nusselt number for different channel spacing along the axial direction at the silicon-fluid interface. the solid volume also increases as the channel spacing increase.4 s sp=0.29 cm. time=0.3 cm. Both effects cancel each other and result in negligible change in the interface temperature and heat flow rate.18 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0. time=0. time=0. G = 5 T. Higher fluid 83 .5 2 sp=0.28 cm. time=0. Larger spacing for the same model width results in smaller channel. time=0.38: The effect of channel spacing on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.3 cm. 4. Hfl = 0.5 1 Axial Direcation.41 show the results of interface temperature. This provides more heat generation in the solid substrate and increases the interface temperature.40 and 4.4 s sp=0. cm 1.8 s Figure 4.

Peripheral Average Interface Temperature,

25 24 23 22 21 20 19 0 0.5 1 Axial Direction, cm 1.5 C sp=0.28 cm, time=0.4 s sp=0.29 cm, time=0.4 s sp=0.3 cm, time=0.4 s sp=0.28 cm, time=0.8 s sp=0.29 cm, time=0.8 s sp=0.3 cm, time=0.8 s

Figure 4.39: The effect of channel spacing on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000, G = 5 T, Hfl = 0.03 cm)

Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate, kW/m

2

o

50 sp=0.28 cm, time=0.4 s sp=0.29 cm, time=0.4 s sp=0.3 cm, time=0.4 s sp=0.28 cm, time=0.8 s sp=0.29 cm, time=0.8 s sp=0.3 cm, time=0.8 s

40

30

20

10

0 0 0.5 1 Axial Direction, cm 1.5 2

Figure 4.40: The effect of channel spacing on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000, G = 5 T, Hfl = 0.03 cm)

84

18 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.5 1 Axial Direction, cm 1.5 2 sp=0.28 cm, time=0.4 s sp=0.29 cm, time=0.4 s sp=0.3 cm, time=0.4 s sp=0.28 cm, time=0.8 s sp=0.29 cm, time=0.8 s sp=0.3 cm, time=0.8 s

Figure 4.41: The effect of channel spacing on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000, G = 5 T, Hfl = 0.03 cm)

velocity increases the cooling process and usually results in lower interface temperature and higher heat flow rate. The solid volume also increases as the channel spacing increase. This provides more heat generation in the solid substrate and increases the interface temperature. The heat generation in the gadolinium substrate increases and is conducted to the silicon substrate. Silicon has high thermal conductivity and this transfers some of the added heat generation in the gadolinium. This additional heat generation conducted to the silicon substrate overcomes the effect of the increase in the fluid velocity and the net result can be observed in higher interface temperature. The additional heat generation conducted to the silicon substrate also enhances the heat flow rate to the fluid at the interface. This increase in the heat flow rate increases the heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number.

85

Figures 4.42, 4.43 and 4.44 show the results of interface temperature, heat flow rate and Nusselt number for different working fluids along the axial direction at the gadolinium-fluid interface. Water has the lowest rate of increase in the interface temperature along the axial direction but the highest heat flow rate and Nusselt number. This is because water has the highest conductivity among the fluids tested in this research. The high fluid thermal conductivity reduces the fluid resistance in heat transfer and enhances the heat transfer to the fluid resulting in lower interface temperature. On the other hand, R134a has the lowest fluid thermal conductivity. This cause higher resistance to the heat flow to the fluid resulting in a decrease in the heat flow rate but an increase in the interface temperature. Nusselt number directly depends on the heat flow rate and, therefore, has similar behavior. Figures 4.45, 4.46 and 4.47 show the results of interface temperature, heat flow rate and Nusselt number for different working fluids along the axial direction at the silicon-fluid interface. Similarly to the gadolinium side, water has lowest interface temperature but the highest heat flow rate and Nusselt number. R134a have highest interface temperature but the lowest heat flow rate and Nusselt number.

4.4 Conclusions Study of the parameters in transient case of the trapezoidal composite microchannel model with heat generation in gadolinium was done. Mathematical model was developed and computations were done to solve the system. The study showed that the model reaches steady state after approximately 4 seconds. It also showed that gadolinium and silicon sides have similar results and values for interface temperature and

86

29 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature, 28 27 26 C 25 24 23 22 21 20 0 0.5 1 Axial direction, cm 1.5 Water, time=0.4 s Ammonia, time=0.4 s R-134a, time=0.4 s Water, time=0.8 s Ammonia, time=0.8 s R-134a, time=0.8 s

Figure 4.42: The effect of changing the fluid on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000, G = 5 T, Hfl = 0.03 cm)

50 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate, kW/m Water, time=0.4 s Ammonia, time=0.4 s R-134a, time=0.4 s Water, time=0.8 s Ammonia, time=0.8 s R-134a, time=0.8 s

2

o

40

30

20

10

0 0 0.5 1 Axial Direction, cm 1.5 2

Figure 4.43: The effect of changing the fluid on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000, G = 5 T, Hfl = 0.03 cm)

87

time=0.5 Figure 4. G = 5 T.4 s Water.03 cm) 88 .8 s C 23 22 21 20 0 0.8 s R-134a. cm 1. time=0. Hfl = 0. Hfl = 0.5 1 Axial Direction. time=0. time=0.5 2 Water.44: The effect of changing the fluid on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.8 s Figure 4.4 s R-134a. time=0. time=0. time=0. G = 5 T. time=0. time=0. 26 25 24 o Water.8 s Ammonia.4 s Ammonia.5 1 Axial Direcation.4 s Water. time=0. cm 1.03 cm) 27 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature.20 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0. time=0.4 s Ammonia.8 s R-134a.45: The effect of changing the fluid on the peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.4 s R-134a. time=0.8 s Ammonia.

**50 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate, kW/m
**

2

40

Water, time=0.4 s Ammonia, time=0.4 s R-134a, time=0.4 s

Water, time=0.8 s Ammonia, time=0.8 s R-134a, time=0.8 s

30

20

10

0 0 0.5 1 Axial Direction, cm 1.5 2

Figure 4.46: The effect of changing the fluid on the peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000, G = 5 T, Hfl = 0.03 cm)

24 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 20 16 12 8 4 0 0 0.5 1 Axial Direction, cm 1.5 2 Water, time=0.4 s Ammonia, time=0.4 s R-134a, time=0.4 s Water, time=0.8 s Ammonia, time=0.8 s R-134a, time=0.8 s

Figure 4.47: The effect of changing the fluid on the peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different time periods at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000, G = 5 T, Hfl = 0.03 cm)

89

heat flow rate. This is because the silicon has higher conductivity that makes up for the heat generation in the gadolinium side. The increase in Reynolds number increases the heat flow rate and Nusselt number. The increase in the magnetic field increases the heat flow rate and interface temperature. The increase in both cancels each other and results in no change in the Nusselt number. Lowering the channel height for the same Reynolds number increases the heat flow rate and Nusselt number. The change in gadolinium height and channel spacing had the least effect on both the heat flow rate and Nusselt number. Using water results in lower interface temperature but higher heat flow rate while R-134a results in higher interface temperature but lower heat flow rate. The magnetic field and the working fluid had the highest effect on the interface temperature and heat flow rate. Nusselt number was affected the most by the channel height (Hfl) and the change in the working fluid.

90

Chapter 5 – Transient Heat Transfer in Trapezoidal Microchannels Under Time Varying Heat Source

5.1 Mathematical Model The model in hand is the same as the one described in the previous chapter. It is a trapezoidal cross-sectional microchannel manufactured into a silicon substrate with gadolinium substrate attached on the top. Heat is generated in the Gadolinium substrate and convected to the water while part of it is conducted to the Silicon and then convected to water. In this chapter a time varying heat source is studied rather than a constant one. The magnetic material substrate is subjected to a magnetic field resulting in a heat source and sink periodically. All boundary conditions at all sides are considered adiabatic. Symmetrical condition along only one axis is considered. Figure 5.1 shows the schematic draw of the model. Boundary conditions at the bottom, left and top are adiabatic while it is symmetrical at the right side. The differential equations for the conservation of mass, momentum and heat in the Cartesian coordinate system for transient case for the fluid are given as [45], ∂u ∂v ∂w + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z

⎛ ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ⎞ ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u 1 ∂p +u +v +w =− +ν ⎜ 2 + 2 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

(1)

(2)

91

Figure 5.1: Schematic for microchannel heat exchanger model

⎛ ∂ 2v ∂ 2v ∂ 2v ⎞ ∂v ∂v ∂v ∂v 1 ∂p +u +v + w = − +ν ⎜ 2 + 2 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w ⎞ 1 ∂p ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂w +u +v +w =− +ν ⎜ 2 + 2 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ρ ∂x ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ⎟ ⎠ ⎝

(3)

(4)

∂T f ∂t

+u

∂T f ∂x

+v

∂T f ∂y

+w

∂T f

⎛ ∂ 2T f ∂ 2T f ∂ 2T f = α⎜ 2 + + ⎜ ∂x ∂z ∂y 2 ∂z 2 ⎝

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

(5)

The energy conservation equation in the solid Gadolinium substrate is [46]: ∂ 2Tgd ∂x 2 + ∂ 2Tgd ∂y 2 + ∂ 2Tgd ∂z 2 + g0 1 ∂Tgd = k gd α ∂t (6)

And for the solid Silicon substrate is [46]:

92

0 < y < (Hsi-Hfl). B-Bs < x < B. 0 < z < L: u=0. and kf ∂T f ∂y = k si ∂Tsi ∂y (17) (18) At y = Hsi. Tf = Tgd. on solid surface: At z = L. Hsi < y < (Hsi+Hgd). =0 ∂z ∂z ∂Tsi =0 ∂z (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) At x = 0. 0 < z < L: At y = (Hsi-Hfl). on solid surface: Tf = Tgd = Tsi = Tin u=0. 0 < z < L: (13) At x = 0. at fluid outlet: At z = L. 0 < z < L: ∂Tsi =0 ∂y u=0. (Hsi-Hfl) < y < Hsi. v=0. 0 < x < B-Bc. 0 < z < L: ∂Tgd ∂x =0 (16) At y = 0. T=Tin ∂Tgd ∂Tsi = 0. ∂Tgd ∂x ∂T f ∂v ∂w =0. 0 < y < Hsi. w=0. v=0. 0 < z < L: u=0. 0 < z < L: (15) At x = B. =0 ∂z ∂z p=0 ∂Tgd ∂Tsi = 0. w=win. = 0. v=0. at fluid inlet: At z = 0. 0 < z < L: ∂Tsi =0 ∂x (16) At x = B. w=0. =0 ∂x ∂x ∂x =0 (14) At x = 0. 0 < x < B.∂ 2Tsi ∂ 2Tsi ∂ 2Tsi 1 ∂Tsi + + = α ∂t ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Equations (1) – (7) are subject to following initial and boundary conditions: At t = 0: At z = 0. Hii < y < (Hsi+Hgd). and 93 . Tf = Tsi.

To represent the heat generation and cooling process numerically. the Length (L) and the half width (W) of the model were set to a constant value. 0 < z < L: ∂Tgd ∂y (21) At the inclined channel surface between fluid and silicon. 0. 0<z<L. An iterative procedure was used to arrive at the solution for the velocity and temperature fields. figure 5. The solution was considered converged when the field values did not change from one iteration to the next.3 cm respectively. The heights of the gadolinium (Hgd) and silicon substrate (Hsi) and the inlet temperature were also set to a constant value. u=0. Tf = Tsi.2 Numerical Simulation and Parametric Study The governing equations along with the boundary conditions were solved using the Galerkin finite element method. 0 < z < L: k si ∂Tgd ∂Tsi = k gd ∂y ∂y =0 (20) At y = (Hsi+Hgd). and the residuals for each variable became negligible. Time period of 2 seconds was used. the magnetic field value was fluctuated between the values of +5 and -5 T. The Newton-Raphson algorithm was used to solve the nonlinear system of discretized equations. w=0. 0. B-Bc < x < B.kf ∂T f ∂y = k gd ∂Tgd ∂y (19) At y = Hsi. 2. For the numerical computations. 0 < x < B. v=0. The first period 94 .3 cm.3 cm and 0.1 cm and 20 oC respectively. and kf ∂T f ∂n = k si ∂Tsi ∂n (22) 5.2.

Initially these parameters were selected as follows: Re = 2000.03 cm.Figure 5.3 Results and Discussion The local interface temperature. heat flow rate. Magnetic field that was changed to the values of +10 and -10 T. and water as the working fluid. height of fluid microchannel. heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number were calculated from the resulted velocity and temperature distribution. 5. Hfl = 0. and Reynolds number was changed to 1000. G = 5 Tesla.02 cm. The parameters to be changed were selected to be: magnetic field.2: Local variation of magnetic field with time was chosen to be one half of the selected time length since it started from the initial condition. Hfl was changed to 0. 95 . One parameter was changed at a time while all other parameters kept constant to study the effect of each parameter separately. and Reynolds number.

Figure 5. there is small fluid volume where the heat flow rate almost transfers without any resistance. Further away from the tip of the tapered edge. The silicon edge is tapered at closer to the side ends of the channel. Figure 5. smaller Nusselt number. and 5th periods while the cooling process occurred in the 2nd and 4th periods.3 shows the local Nusselt along the fluid-gadolinium interface at different axial locations at the end of the first time period. the heat flow finds away to travel through the fluid and to the silicon overcoming the small fluid resistance. This is because the fluid volume is lesser at the edges of the trapezoidal microchannel which results in lesser resistance in heat transfer. This lesser resistance gives smaller temperature gradient in the solid region resulting in smaller heat flow rate. The heat flows from the gadolinium to the silicon by conduction and then to the fluid by convection. At the tapered edge.3 and 5. At the very far tip of the tapered edge. the heat flow from the silicon takes control giving 96 . The heat flow rate increases along the edge towards the center of the channel. and thus Nusselt number. Along the axial direction.4 shows the local Nusselt along the fluid-silicon interface at different axial locations at the end of the first time period.The heat generation occurred in the 1st. the temperature gradient decreases causing the heat flow rate to decrease. the temperature gradient is smaller and causes smaller heat flow rate values. to increase. As a result.4 show local Nusselt number along different channel edges. Figure 5. and thus. It shows that Nusselt number is higher closer to the center of the trapezoidal microchannel. 3rd. Curves for different axial locations were plotted. Both cause the Nusselt number to decrease along the axial direction. This causes the heat transfer coefficient. The interface-bulk temperature difference increases along the axial direction.

1 0.1 0.0 cm z = 1.25 0. Hfl = 0.3 0.35 Side Direction.5 cm z = 1.5 cm z = 1.15 0. G = 5 T.5 cm z = 2.03 cm) 97 .4: Local Nusselt along the fluid-silicon interface at different axial locations after 1 second (Re = 2000.0 cm Figure 5.25 0.3 0.2 0.3: Local Nusselt along the fluid-gadolinium interface at different axial locations after 1 second (Re = 2000.03 cm) 35 30 25 Local Nusselt Number 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 Side Direction.5 cm z = 2.2 0. cm z = 0.18 16 Local Nusselt Number 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0. Hfl = 0. cm 0.35 z = 0.0 cm z = 1.15 0. G = 5 T.0 cm Figure 5.

5 shows the Peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface.6 shows the average heat flow rate over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface. The heat flow rate increases quickly along the tapered edge reaching reasonable values resulting in adequate Nusselt number values. Similarly to the gadolinium edge. This causes the heat flow rate to decrease along the axial direction. The interface temperature rate of change also increases along the axial direction because of the inlet condition effect. The interface-bulk temperature difference increases along the axial direction. This is because part of the heat flow rate that travel through the silicon transfers by convection to the fluid before it reaches the center of the channel. It shows that the heat flow rate is supplied to and rejected from the fluid as the heat generation and cooling process alternates in the system. the temperature gradient decreases along the axial direction. The interface temperature rate of change along the axial direction is slow at the beginning of the transient process because of the initial condition effect. As heat is generated the interface temperature increases while it decreases when cooling process takes over. Both cause the Nusselt number to decrease along the axial direction. Sinusoidal behavior is observed for the interface temperature as the heat generation and cooling process alternates. the temperature gradient and the heat flow rate decrease. Figure 5. This eventually causes Nusselt number to decrease along the horizontal side of the silicon edge. This is because of the initial condition where the temperature distribution provides the highest interface-solid temperature difference and 98 . Along the horizontal edge. The rate of change in the heat flow rate increases with each new period of heating or cooling process.positive results. Figure 5.

5: Peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000.00 cm 7 8 9 10 Figure 5.6: Peripheral average heat flow rate over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface (Re = 2000. Hfl = 0.50 cm z = 2. kW/m z = 0.00 cm z = 1.26 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature.03 cm) 60 40 20 0 0 -20 -40 -60 Time.00 cm 2 .50 cm z = 1. G = 5 T.00 cm z = 1. s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 5. G = 5 T.50 cm z = 1. Hfl = 0. s 1 2 3 4 5 6 z = 0.03 cm) 99 Average Heat Flow Rate. C o 24 22 20 0 18 16 14 Time.50 cm z = 2.

that is when the interface and bulk temperature are equal. gadolinium and silicon. 5. Even though this process slows down the heat transfer in the silicon substrate the silicon side has a bit smaller interface temperature than the gadolinium because its high thermal conductivity.8 shows the average heat flow rate over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-silicon interface. That is why at each time period (3. At certain point of the switching process Nusselt number will be infinite. This is because the heat generation occurs in the gadolinium substrate. The initial condition effect diminishes over time.7 shows the Peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-silicon interface. Similar to the gadolinium side. Figure 5. Figure 5. The Nusselt number behavior is shown to be increasing for each time period regardless of the process.5 s.9 shows the average Nusselt number over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the total interface including both sides of the channel. The silicon side shows a less heat flow rate at its interface than the gadolinium. Nusselt number is always positive and increasing for both heating and cooling processes because only the absolute value of the heat flow rate is considered. Figure 5.5 s) Nusselt number increase to a high value then decreases to reasonable values where it starts to increase again. Heat is generated in the gadolinium substrate then convected to the fluid directly and conducted to the silicon substrate. the interface and bulk temperature switch because the cooling and heating processes alternate. At the beginning of each period. Sinusoidal behavior is also observed for the interface temperature as the gadolinium interface. The switch between 100 . the heat flow rate is supplied to and rejected from the fluid over time.thus higher heat flow rate.5 s and 7. The heat flow rate is higher closer to the inlet because of the constant temperature inlet condition.

50 cm z = 2. Hfl = 0.50 cm z = 1. s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 z = 0.26 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature.00 cm z = 1.00 cm Figure 5.7: Peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000.03 cm) 101 Average Heat Flow Rate. Hfl = 0.03 cm) 60 40 20 0 0 -20 -40 -60 Time. G = 5 T.50 cm z = 1. C 24 22 20 0 18 16 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 z = 0.50 cm z = 2.8: Peripheral average heat flow rate over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-silicon interface (Re = 2000. G = 5 T. s Figure 5. kW/m 2 .00 cm o Time.00 cm z = 1.

Nusselt number seems to be lower further away from the inlet because of the lower heat flow rate that results from lower interface-bulk temperature. The interface temperature reaches higher values when heating and lower values when cooling than those of the previous case. s 6 7 8 9 10 z = 1.50 cm z = 2. Hfl = 0. Figure 5.9: Peripheral average Nusselt number over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-solid interface (Re = 2000.18 16 Average Nusselt Number 14 12 10 8 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time.03 cm) interface and bulk temperatures seems to occur early in the second period causing lower Nusselt number at time 1.5 s.11 shows the average heat flow rate over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface with 102 . Figure 5.10 shows the peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface with magnetic field alternates between +10 and -10. G = 5 T.00 cm Figure 5. This is because of the larger magnetic field applied during heating and cooling.

00 cm 7 8 9 10 Figure 5. Hfl = 0.00 cm 7 8 9 10 Figure 5.50 cm z = 1.30 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature. Hfl = 0. C o 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 Time. kw/m 2 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 Time.50 cm z = 2. s 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 z = 0.03 cm) 103 .03 cm) 100 80 Average Heat Flow Rate.10: Peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface with G = ±10 T (Re = 2000.50 cm z = 1.00 cm z = 1.00 cm z = 1.11: Peripheral average heat flow rate over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface with G = ±10 T (Re = 2000. s 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 z = 0.50 cm z = 2.

16. This results in lower interface temperatures during the heating process but higher interface temperature during the cooling process. This is because of the higher heat source and sink caused by higher magnetic field at both processes. This is because smaller channel with same Reynolds number have higher axial velocity which enhances the convection heat transfer to the fluid.02 cm.12 and 5. Figures 5.19 show the effect of using smaller channel height on the heating and cooling performance of the trapezoidal microchannel system.magnetic field alternates between +10 and -10. gadolinium and silicon. Figures 5. Compared to figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5.18 show similar results of the silicon side to those of the gadolinium side.15 shows the peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface with Hfl = 0. Both sides.17 and 5.13 show results at the silicon edge similar to those at the gadolinium when compared to the original case.5. The absolute value of heat flow rate is higher for smaller channels as shown in figure 5. This is because the temperature gradient in the solid is increasing due to higher fluid velocity.19 shows the average Nusselt number over 9 seconds at 104 . The figure shows very close results to those of the original case. has an increase in the absolute value of the interface temperature and heat flow rates during the heating and cooling processes.15 to 5.14 shows the average Nusselt number over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-solid interface with magnetic field alternates between +10 and -10. Our experience from previous work tells us that the change in the magnetic field does not affect the Nusselt number. Figures 5. Figure 5. The heat flow rate is higher when heating and lower when cooling compared to the previous case. the interface temperature is less for smaller channel height.

13: Peripheral average heat flow rate over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-silicon interface with G = ±10 T (Re = 2000. kW/m 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 Time.03 cm) 100 80 Average Heat Flow Rate.00 cm z = 1.50 cm z = 1.00 cm o Figure 5. s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 z = 0.00 cm z = 1.12: Peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-silicon interface with G = ±10 T (Re = 2000.00 cm Figure 5. Hfl = 0.50 cm z = 1. Hfl = 0.50 cm z = 2. C 26 24 22 20 0 18 16 14 12 Time. s 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 z = 0.28 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature.03 cm) 105 .50 cm z = 2.

Hfl = 0. s 6 7 8 9 10 z = 2. G = 5 T) 106 .02 cm (Re = 2000.50 cm 16 Average Nusselt Number 14 12 10 8 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time.00 cm o 24 22 20 0 18 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 16 14 Time.50 cm z = 2.03 cm) 26 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature. s Figure 5.50 cm z = 1.00 cm z = 1.18 z = 1. C z = 0.00 cm Figure 5.14: Peripheral average Nusselt number over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-solid interface with G = ±10 T (Re = 2000.15: Peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface with Hfl = 0.

16: Peripheral average heat flow rate over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface with Hfl = 0.02 cm (Re = 2000. s Figure 5.50 cm z = 1. s Figure 5.50 cm z = 2.00 cm o 24 22 20 0 18 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 16 14 Time. G = 5 T) 107 .50 cm z = 1.00 cm z = 1. C z = 0.60 z = 0.00 cm z = 1. G = 5 T) 26 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature.02 cm (Re = 2000.17: Peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-silicon interface with Hfl = 0.00 cm 40 Average Heat Flow Rate. kW/m 2 20 0 0 -20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 -40 -60 Time.50 cm z = 2.

50 cm z = 1.00 cm 20 0 0 -20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 -40 -60 Time. s 6 7 8 9 10 z = 1.00 cm Figure 5.00 cm z = 1.19: Peripheral average Nusselt number over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-solid interface with Hfl = 0.18: Peripheral average heat flow rate over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-silicon interface with Hfl = 0. G = 5 T) 24 20 Average Nusselt Number 16 12 8 4 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time. G = 5 T) 108 .50 cm z = 2. s Figure 5.60 40 Average Heat Flow Rate.50 cm z = 2.02 cm (Re = 2000. kW/m 2 z = 0.02 cm (Re = 2000.

Lower Reynolds number. The heat flow rate is the nominator for Nusselt number. When the heating process takes over. Nusselt number is lower with smaller channel height. the solid has higher temperature than the interface.02 cm. The time when the temperature gradient switch has took place while the interface-bulk temperatures are still in the switch process Nusselt number may be negative.21 in comparison with figure 5. This is shown in figure 5.6. It also results in lower absolute value of heat flow rate.20 shows the peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface at Re = 1000.23 show the peripheral average interface temperature and heat flow rate over 9 seconds at 109 .different axial locations at the fluid-solid interface with Hfl = 0. When the cooling process takes place the interface temperature becomes higher than the solid.22 and 5. This affects the sign of the heat flow rate indicating a heating or cooling process. or lower fluid velocity. The temperature gradient is the change in temperature in the solid region at the interface. slows down the heating or cooling process and thus results in lower interface temperature. This switch between values takes place at the beginning of every time period. It shows more irregular Nusselt number than the original case. Higher fluid velocity that enhances the heat flow rate and results in earlier temperature gradient switch in the solid might be the reason behind the reason for having low Nusselt numbers. Compared to the original case. Figure 5. The interface-bulk temperature difference is the denominator of the Nusselt number. In addition another switch between the interface and bulk temperatures is taking place. After the interface-bulk temperature switch Nusselt number starts its increase to reasonable values. Figures 5.

Hfl = 0. Hfl = 0. kW/m z = 0.03 cm) 110 Average Heat Flow Rate. s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 z = 0.50 cm z = 2.20: Peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface at Re = 1000 (G = 5 T.00 cm z = 1. C 24 22 20 0 18 16 14 Time.50 cm z = 1.50 cm z = 2.00 cm o Figure 5.00 cm z = 1.50 cm z = 1.26 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature.00 cm 2 .03 cm) 60 40 20 0 0 -20 -40 -60 Time.21: Peripheral average heat flow rate over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-gadolinium interface at Re = 1000 (G = 5 T. s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 5.

s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 z = 0.00 cm z = 1.50 cm z = 2.00 cm Figure 5. s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 z = 0.00 cm Figure 5.03 cm) 60 40 20 0 0 -20 -40 -60 Time.03 cm) 111 Average Heat Flow Rate. kW/m 2 o . Hfl = 0.22: Peripheral average interface temperature over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-silicon interface at Re = 1000 (G = 5 T. C 26 24 22 20 0 18 16 14 Time.50 cm z = 1. Hfl = 0.23: Peripheral average heat flow rate over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-silicon interface with at Re = 1000 (G = 5 T.50 cm z = 1.Peripheral Average Interface Temperature.00 cm z = 1.50 cm z = 2.

Nusselt number decreased because of its dependence on the hydraulic diameter of the channel. Nusselt number found to increase in each time period regardless the process. Lower Reynolds number decreases the interface temperature. The behavior of the interface temperature. The interface temperature showed sinusoidal behavior as the heating and cooling processes alternates. 112 .24 is explained in the same fashion as in the previous case. It does not have any effect on the behavior of Nusselt number.7 and 5. Higher magnetic field increases the interface temperature and the absolute value of the heat flow rate. The results showed that the local Nusselt number was higher at the center of the channel. and Nusselt number.different axial locations at the fluid-silicon interface at Re = 1000 respectively. heat flow rate. They show similar results of those of gadolinium side when compared to figures 5. and Nusselt number were mostly sinusoidal. Nusselt number behavior in figure 5. 5. The heat flow rate increases in absolute value in each time period. It also showed that Nusselt number decreased along the axial direction. The value of Nusselt number is less than the original case because of the lower absolute values of the heat flow rate resulted from lower fluid velocity. heat flow rate.4 Conclusions This study of a time varying heat generation in a trapezoidal composite microchannel model with showed the effect of different parameters. Smaller channel height decreased the interface temperature but increased the absolute heat flow rate.8.

Hfl = 0.00 cm Figure 5. s 6 7 8 9 10 z = 1.03 cm) 113 .14 12 Average Nusselt Number 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time.50 cm z = 2.24: Peripheral average Nusselt number over 9 seconds at different axial locations at the fluid-solid interface with at Re = 1000 (G = 5 T.

Figure 6. The channel substrate extends to a length (L). Heat is conducted through the solid substrate material and convected to the working fluid. Nanofluids are fluids suspended with solid particles. momentum.Chapter 6 – Steady State Heat Transfer Using Nanofluids in Circular Microchannel 6. and energy in the liquid region are [45]: ∂Vr 1 1 ∂Vφ ∂V z + Vr + + =0 ∂r r r ∂φ ∂z (1) ⎛ ∂Vr Vφ ∂Vr ∂V 1 ⎞ ⎜ Vr + + V z r − Vφ2 ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ ∂r ∂z r r ∂φ ⎝ ⎠ ⎡ ∂ 2V 1 ∂p 1 ∂Vr 1 ∂ 2Vr ∂ 2Vr Vr 2 ∂Vφ ⎤ − + ν ⎢ 2r + + 2 + − 2 − 2 ⎥ 2 2 r ∂r r ∂φ ρ f ∂r ∂z r r ∂φ ⎦ ⎣ ∂r 114 (2) .1 shows a schematic drawing for the model simulated. These nanometer-sized particles have high thermal conductivity which enhances the overall fluid’s thermal conductivity. Nanofluid flows through circular channels with diameter (D) and length (L) as single pass from inlet to outlet manifold. The heat is supplied at the bottom of the substrate. The governing equations for the conservation of mass.1 Mathematical Model The problem in hand is a microchannel assembly with circular channel in a rectangular solid substrate. The thickness of the substrate is (H) and distance between tubes in the horizontal direction is 2W.

the energy conservation equation in the solid region with heat generation is [46]: ⎡ ∂ 2 Ts ∂ 2 Ts ∂ 2 Ts ⎤ + 2 ⎥=0 ⎢ 2 + ∂y 2 ∂z ⎦ ⎣ ∂x 115 (6) .Figure 6.1: Schematic of nanofluid circular microchannel model ∂Vφ VrVφ ⎞ ⎛ ∂Vφ Vφ ∂Vφ ⎜ Vr ⎟= + + Vz − ⎜ ∂r ∂z r ∂φ r ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 ⎡ ∂ 2Vφ 1 ∂Vφ 1 ∂p 1 ∂ Vφ ∂ Vφ Vφ 2 ∂Vr ⎤ − +ν ⎢ 2 + + 2 + − 2 + 2 ⎥ ρ f r ∂φ r ∂r ∂z 2 r ∂φ 2 r r ∂φ ⎥ ⎢ ∂r ⎣ ⎦ (3) ⎡ ∂ 2V ⎛ ∂V z Vφ ∂V z ∂V z ⎞ 1 ∂p 1 ∂V z 1 ∂ 2V z ∂ 2Vr ⎤ ⎜ Vr ⎟=− + + Vz + ν ⎢ 2z + + 2 + ⎥ ⎜ ∂r ∂z ⎟ r ∂φ ρ f ∂z r ∂r r ∂φ 2 ∂z 2 ⎦ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ∂r (4) ∂T f ⎞ ⎛ ∂T f Vφ ∂T f ⎜ Vr ⎟ =αf + + Vz ⎜ ∂r ∂z ⎟ r ∂φ ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 ⎡ ∂ 2T f 1 ∂T f 1 ∂ Tf ∂ Tf + + 2 + ⎢ 2 r ∂r ∂z 2 r ∂φ 2 ⎢ ∂r ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (5) Considering constant thermal conductivity.

Equations (1) to (6) are subject to the following boundary conditions: At z = 0. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: (12) At x = 0. 0 ≤ x ≤ W. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: ∂Ts =0 ∂y ∂Ts =0 ∂y T f = Ts . =0 ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂Ts =0 ∂x ∂Ts =0 ∂x ∂Ts =0 ∂x (11) At x = 0. -H/2 ≤ y ≤ +H/2. Vφ = 0. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: (13) At x = W. 0 ≤ x ≤ W. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: 116 ∂Ts − q" = dy ks (18) . z = 0. r = d/2: (17) At y = -H/2. 0 < x < W. ∂T f ∂Vr ∂V = 0. 0 < y < H: Vr = 0. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: Vθ = 0. k f ∂T f dr = ks ∂Ts dr (15) At y = +H/2. T f = T f . r < d/2: At z = L. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: (16) At 0 ≤ z ≤ L. r ≥ d/2.in .in ∂Ts =0 ∂z (7) (8) (9) (10) p=0 ∂Ts =0 ∂z At x = 0. -H/2 ≤ y ≤ -d/2.V z = V z . -d/2 ≤ y ≤ +d/2. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: (14) At y = -H/2. 0 ≤ r < d/2: At z = 0. 0 < y < H: At z = L. 0 < x < W. +d/2 ≤ y ≤ +H/2.It may be noted that a cylindrical coordinate system was used to model convection within circular tube while a Cartesian coordinate system was used to model conduction within the solid substrate material. r ≥ d/2. 0 ≤ x ≤ W.

2 and 6.3 Results and Discussions To establish an independent mesh.06 cm to 0. 1% and 2% volume fraction of Alumina suspended into water were used as well. Silicon was used as the solid substrate material. The diameter was changed from 0. the velocity. The solution was considered converged when the field values did not change from one iteration to the next. 117 . pressure. the height (H) and the half width (W) of the model were set to 0. The local solid-fluid interface temperature. several mesh sizing were studied and compared.2 Numerical Simulation and Parametric Study The governing equations along with the boundary conditions were solved using the Galerkin finite element method. The channel length (L) was set to 2.3 show the interface temperature and Nusselt number for different mesh sizing.14 cm. and the residuals for each variable became negligible. For the numerical computations. Figure 6. An iterative procedure was used to arrive at the solution for the velocity and temperature fields. Water suspended with 4% volume fraction of Alumina (AL2O3) was used as the working fluid. Reynolds number was varied between 500 and 1500.1 cm respectively. heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number were calculated from the resulted velocity and temperature distributions.3 cm. Four-node quadrilateral elements were used. Another two solid substrate were used: Silicon carbide and stainless steel. In each element.6. Interface temperatures and Nusselt numbers were plotted. heat flow rate. and temperature fields were approximated which led to a set of equations that defined the continuum. 6.2 cm and 0.

nr=4. ny=16. nr=10. nz=40 nx=6. ny=20. cm 10 12 nx=4. d = 0. nr=6.2: Peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction (Silicon. nr=4.65 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature. d = 0. nz=40 5. nr=8.3: Peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction (Silicon. nz=40 5. 60 55 50 C o 45 40 35 30 25 20 0 2 4 6 8 Axial Direction.5 4. Re = 500. nr=6. ny=20. nr=8. ny=16. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.06 cm) 6. nz=40 nx=8. nz=40 nx=10. ny=8. cm 10 12 Figure 6.06 cm) 118 . Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina. ny=12.5 nx=8.0 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number nx=4. nr=10.0 4. ny=12. nz=40 nx=10.0 0 2 4 6 8 Axial Direction. nz=40 nx=6. Re = 500. nz=40 Figure 6. ny=8.

heat flow rate. Figure 6. The heat transfer coefficient is generally decreasing from the bottom of the tube to the top. The heat flow rate is higher closer to the bottom of the tube.7 shows the Nusselt number along the angular direction from bottom to top at different axial locations. nz = 40) was found to be sufficient for mesh independence. ny = 16. Notice that the heat flow rate is higher closer to the tube entry. which is closer to the heat source. the heat transfer coefficient is higher closer to the tube entry. This is expected because of the low inlet fluid temperature that results in higher temperature difference. at all axial locations. This is the area where the heat flow stream lines are parallel to the channel tube. which is closer to the heat source. The high conductance of the solid material transfers parts the heat towards the sides and top of the tube. Similarly to the heat flow rate. Figure 6. 119 . Figure 6.6 shows the heat transfer coefficient along the angular direction from bottom to top at different axial locations.4 shows the interface temperature along the angular direction from bottom to top at different axial locations. The local interface temperature.respectively. From both figures the mesh size (nx = 8. This is because of the fluid low inlet temperature. This is done because of the one sided heat flux boundary condition from the bottom. The interface temperature is slightly higher at the bottom of the tube. heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number were calculated from the resulted velocity and temperature distribution. The Nusselt number follows similar trend of those of heat transfer coefficient because of its direct dependence. Figure 6. nr = 8.5 shows the heat flow rate along the angular direction from bottom to top at different axial locations. There is a slight increase in the heat flow rate between the side and bottom of the tube. This where it slightly re-increase but then continue to decrease afterwards.

C 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 -90 -60 -30 0 Angular Direction. d = 0.0 cm Figure 6. d = 0.0 cm z = 1. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.06 cm) Local Heat Flow Rate.4: Local interface temperature along the angular direction at different axial locations (Silicon. kW/m 2 o 120 . φ z = 0. Re = 500. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina. Re = 500.5 cm z = 1.5 cm z = 1.0 cm z = 1.5 cm z = 2.0 cm Figure 6.32 Local Interface Temperature.06 cm) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 -90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90 Angular Direction.5 cm z = 2.5: Local heat flow rate along the angular direction at different axial locations (Silicon. φ 30 60 90 z = 0 cm z = 0.

5 cm z = 1. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.0 cm z = 1.36 Local Heat Transfer Coefficient. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina. d = 0.K 2 30 z = 0. Re = 500.7: Local Nusselt number along the angular direction at different axial locations (Silicon.06 cm) 121 . d = 0.0 cm z = 1.06 cm) 30 25 Local Nusselt Number 20 15 10 5 0 -90 -60 -30 0 Angular Direction.5 cm z = 2.5 cm z = 2.0 cm Figure 6.0 cm 24 18 12 6 -90 -60 -30 0 Angular Direction. Re = 500.5 cm z = 1. kW/m. φ 30 60 90 z = 0. φ 30 60 90 Figure 6.6: Local heat transfer coefficient along the angular direction at different axial locations (Silicon.

Because of the one sided heat flux boundary condition the top. This is because of the heat flux boundary condition at the bottom of the substrate. The heat flow rate is decreasing along the axial direction because the fluid temperature rises along the axial direction. Nusselt number decreases 122 .10 shows the interface temperature along the axial direction at different angular locations. At the bottom of the tube the heat flow rate decreasing rate along the axial direction decreases because of the heat source. Figure 6. Detailed analysis is represented to study the angular effect on the interface temperature. The average peripheral heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number decrease along the axial direction because of the interface-bulk temperature difference that is increasing along the axial direction. The interface temperature increases along the axial direction because of the heat flux.11 shows the heat flow rate along the axial direction at different angular locations. heat flow rate. The bottom of the tube has higher interface temperature while the top of the tube has the lowest.9 shows the peripheral average heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number along the axial direction. The Nusselt number follows similar trend of those of heat transfer coefficient because of its direct dependence. and Nusselt number. Figure 6. The heat flow rate is decreasing along the axial because of the fluid bulk temperature rises. It is expected that the bottom side will have the highest interface temperature and heat flow rate.Figure 6.12 shows Nusselt number along the axial direction at different angular locations. Figure 6. side and bottom lines of the tube were analyzed separately.06 cm. Figure 6.8 shows the average peripheral interface temperature and heat flow rate along the axial direction for Silicon substrate and water suspended with 4% volume fraction of Alumina as the working fluid. Reynolds number was 500 and the tube diameter was 0.

K 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Figure 6. d = 0.9: Peripheral average heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number along the axial direction (Silicon.5 1 1. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina. 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 0 0.06 cm) 2 123 kW/m 20 2 .5 Axial Direction.5 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number Heat transfer coeffcient Nusselt number 90 80 70 60 15 10 5 0 0 0. kW/m . d = 0. cm 2 2. C o 100 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate.5 1 1.06 cm) 40 Peripheral Average Heat Transfer 35 Coefficient.35 30 Peripheral Average Interface 25 Temperature. Re = 500.5 Temperature Heat flow rate 50 40 30 20 Figure 6. Re = 500.8: Peripheral average interface temperature and heat flow rate along the axial direction (Silicon. cm 2 2.5 Axial Direction.

Peripheral Average Interface Temperature,

30

28

26

o

C 24

22

Top of the tube Side of the tube Bottom of the tube

20 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Axial Direction, cm

Figure 6.10: Interface temperature along the axial direction at different angular location (Silicon, Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina, Re = 500, d = 0.06 cm)

100

Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate, kW/m

2

80

60

40 Top of the tube Side of the tube Bottom of the tube 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2

20

0 Axial Direction, cm

Figure 6.11: Heat flow rate along the axial direction at different angular location (Silicon, Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina, Re = 500, d = 0.06 cm)

124

32 28 Local Nusselt Number 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Axial Direction, cm Top of the tube Side of the tube Bottom of the tube

Figure 6.12: Nusselt number along the axial direction at different angular location (Silicon, Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina, Re = 500, d = 0.06 cm)

along the axial direction because the interface-bulk temperature difference decreases along the axial direction. Figure 6.13 shows the interface temperature along the axial direction using different working fluids. Four fluids used are: pure water and water suspended with Alumina (Al2O3) at different volume fractions of 4%, 2% and 1%. To maintain the same Reynolds number the fluid velocity must be adjusted for each fluid. The water suspended with higher volume fraction of Alumina has higher thermal conductivity. This thermal conductivity enhancement is caused by the high thermal conductivity of the solid particles. This causes more heat rejection to the working fluid and thus lower interface temperatures. On the other hand, the fluid velocity decreases with higher volume fraction, because of the change in properties and maintaining the same Reynolds number, which

125

Peripheral Average Interface Temperature, C

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 0 0.5 1 1.5 Axial Direction, cm 2 2.5 water + Al2O3 (4%) water + Al2O3 (2%) water + Al2O3 (1%) pure water

Figure 6.13: Peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different working fluids (Silicon, Re = 500, d = 0.06 cm)

cause an increase to the interface temperature. The net result is a decrease in the interface temperature. Figure 6.14 shows the heat flow rate along the axial direction using different working fluids. The heat flow rate decreases along the axial direction because of the increase in the fluid bulk temperature. It is expected that higher volume fraction of the nanoparticles in the fluid will enhance the heat flow rate at the interface of the tube. On the other hand, the heat flow rate decreases because of the lower fluid velocity due to the change in properties and maintaining the same Reynolds number. The net result is an increase in the heat flow rate with lower volume fraction. Nusselt number directly depends on the heat flow rate and the fluid conductivity. Figure 6.15 shows the Nusselt number along the axial direction at different angular locations. Nusselt number depends on the heat transfer coefficient and the fluid thermal conductivity. Both are changing but

126

o

**70 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate, kW/m
**

2

65

60

55

water + Al2O3 (4%) water + Al2O3 (2%) water + Al2O3 (1%) pure water 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2

50 Axial Direction, cm

Figure 6.14: Peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different working fluids (Silicon, Re = 500, d = 0.06 cm)

26 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 0 0.5 1 1.5 Axial Direction, cm 2 2.5 water + Al2O3 (4%) water + Al2O3 (2%) water + Al2O3 (1%) pure water

Figure 6.15: Peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different working fluids (Silicon, Re = 500, d = 0.06 cm)

127

Nusselt number is directly dependent on the heat flow rate and thus it also increases with Reynolds number. This is because it increases the heat rejection in the system causing the heat flow rate at the interface to increase as shown in figure 6. It is expected that this causes the 128 .19 shows the interface temperature along the axial direction using different Reynolds numbers. Higher Reynolds numbers require longer tube which causes the Nusselt number to be higher at the same axial location. Figure 6. Larger diameter reduces the fluid velocity to maintain its Reynolds number and hence slows down the cooling process.22 shows the interface temperature along the axial direction using different diameters.16 shows the interface temperature along the axial direction using different solid materials. The relatively higher Nusselt numbers shown in figure 6. Stainless steel.the heat flow rate has higher effect on Nusselt number. The lower thermal conductivity works as a thermal resistance and reduces the heat flow rate increases the interface temperature at the interface. Figure 6.18. on the other hand. Higher Reynolds number enhances the cooling rate and thus decreases the interface temperature.17 shows the heat flow rate along the axial direction using different solid materials. and stainless steel. The three solids used are: Silicon. This results in lower Nusselt number for stainless steel as shown in figure 6. The stainless steel has lower thermal conductivity which leads to lower heat flow rate at the interface. Figure 6. This results in a decreasing Nusselt number with higher nanoparticles volume fraction.21 resulted from higher Reynolds number is because the thermal development of the fluid depends on the value of Reynolds number. Silicon and silicon carbide has close property values and hence the effect of this change was negligible. Figure 6. has much lower thermal conductivity.20. silicon carbide.

8 2 2. cm 1. Re = 500.6 Axial Direction.5 1 1. C o 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 0 Silicon Silicon Carbide Stainless Steel 0. d = 0.30 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature. d = 0.16: Peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different solid substrates (Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.2 1. Re = 500.4 1.8 1 1.06 cm) 129 .2 Figure 6. cm 2 2.06 cm) 70 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate. kW/m 2 65 Silicon Silicon Carbide Stainless Steel 60 55 50 0.17: Peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different solid substrates (Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.5 Figure 6.5 Axial Direction.

19: Peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different Reynolds numbers (Silicon.5 Axial Direction.5 1 1. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.22 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 0 0.06 cm) 130 .06 cm) 30 29 28 27 26 C 25 24 23 22 21 20 0 0. d = 0. Re = 500.18: Peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different solid substrates (Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina. d = 0.5 Axial Direction.5 1 1. cm 2 2. cm 2 2.5 o Peripheral Average Interface Temperature. Re = 500 Re = 1000 Re = 1500 Figure 6.5 Silicon Silicon Carbide Stainless Steel Figure 6.

06 cm) 45 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 0.4 1. d = 0.5 Axial Direction.2 Re = 500 Re = 1000 Re = 1500 1.5 Re = 500 Re = 1000 Re = 1500 Figure 6. cm Figure 6.6 1.21: Peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different Reynolds numbers (Silicon. kW/m 2 75 70 65 60 55 50 0.5 1 1. d = 0.80 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina. cm 2 2.06 cm) 131 .20: Peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different Reynolds numbers (Silicon.8 2 2. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.8 1 1.2 Axial Direction.

5 Axial Direction.06 cm d = 0.10 cm d = 0. the interface temperature decreased with higher diameter. The heat transfer coefficient has similar trend to those of the heat flow rate as shown in figure 6.25.22: Peripheral average interface temperature along the axial direction at different tube diameters (Silicon.Peripheral Average Interface Temperature. This decrease is not enough to overcome the diameter increase. 132 . on the other hand.23 shows the heat flow rate along the axial direction using different diameters.24 because of its direct dependence. Re = 500) interface temperature to increase. the heat transfer coefficient decreases. Figure 6. It also reduces the volume of the solid substrate. Nusselt number. This is also the reason why the change of Nusselt number is smaller in ratio than those of heat transfer coefficient.5 1 1. In this case. Higher diameters results in lower fluid velocity which slows down the cooling process. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.5 o d = 0. As the diameter increases. 30 29 28 27 26 C 25 24 23 22 21 20 0 0. Less solid volume results in less temperature rise in the model. depends on the heat transfer coefficient and diameter. Thus. the heat flow rate reduces with larger diameter.14 cm Figure 6. Thus Nusselt number increases with the diameter increase as shown in figure 6. cm 2 2.

cm 2 2.14 cm Figure 6.24: Peripheral average heat transfer coefficient along the axial direction at different tube diameters (Silicon.2 d = 0.23: Peripheral average heat flow rate along the axial direction at different tube diameters (Silicon. Re = 500) 30 Peripheral Average Heat Transfer 25 Coefficient.06 cm d = 0.K 20 15 10 5 0 0 0.5 Axial Direction.4 1.10 cm d = 0. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.70 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate.2 1.8 1 1.8 2 2.5 2 d = 0.14 cm Figure 6. cm 1.10 cm d = 0. kW/m .06 cm d = 0.6 Axial Direction. Re = 500) 133 . kW/m 2 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.5 1 1.

25: Peripheral average Nusselt number along the axial direction at different tube diameters (Silicon. decreased along the axial direction. on the other hand.06 cm d = 0.5 1 1. and Nusselt number along the axial direction and at different parameters.5 2 2. The model was simulated and solved for the velocity and temperature distribution. Increasing the volumetric fraction of the nanoparticles decreased the interface temperature and the heat flow rate as well as 134 .5 Axial Direction. The interface temperature increased along the axial direction while the heat flow rate decreased. It showed that the heat flow rate and the Nusselt number are higher on the side of the tube where it is closer to the heated edge. Re = 500) 6. Nusselt number. cm d = 0. heat flow rate. Water + 4% volume fraction of Alumina.4 Conclusions Grid test was performed for the nanofluid system to select an appropriate meshing.10 cm d = 0.14 cm Figure 6.30 Peripheral Average Nusselt Number 26 22 18 14 10 6 0 0. Angular analysis was carried out to understand the effect of one-sided heating boundary condition. The results were presented in terms of the interface temperature.

Nusselt number depends on the heat flow rate and diameter. The increase in diameter overcomes the decrease in the heat transfer coefficient and increases Nusselt number. Larger diameters decreased the interface temperature and the heat flow rate. Stainless steel has a higher interface temperature but lower heat flow rate and Nusselt number than the Silicon.Nusselt number. 135 . The increase in the Reynolds number decreases the interface temperature but increases the heat flow rate and Nusselt number.

The governing equations for the conservation of mass.1 shows the model to be studied. The assumption of isothermal boundary condition at the bottom of the ground is now valid. To consider the heat loss to the ground it was assumed to be of height ten times the height of the concrete slab. The depth of the ground was considered to be ten times of the slab height (120 cm) to insure taking into account the heat loss to the ground.Chapter 7 – Steady State Analysis of Hydronic Snow Melting System 7. Figure 7. momentum. only half of one pipe is modeled. and energy in the liquid region are [45]: ∂Vr 1 1 ∂Vφ ∂V z + Vr + + =0 ∂r r r ∂φ ∂z (1) ⎛ ∂Vr Vφ ∂Vr ∂V 1 ⎞ 1 ∂p ⎜ Vr + + V z r − Vφ2 ⎟ = − + ⎜ ⎟ ρ f ∂r r ∂φ ∂r ∂z r ⎝ ⎠ ∂V ⎤ ⎡ r (ν + ν t )⎢ 1 ∂ ⎛ r ∂Vr ⎞ + 12 ∂ ⎛ ∂Vr ⎞ + ∂ ⎛ ∂Vr ⎞ − V2 − 22 φ ⎥ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ∂φ ⎟ ∂z ⎜ ∂z ⎟ r r ∂φ ⎦ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎣ r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎠ r ∂φ ⎝ 136 (2) .1 Mathematical Model The problem in hand is a hydronic snow melting system. Hot fluid is passing through the pipe to heat the slab and melt the snow accumulated. Because of the symmetry in the system. It consists of stainless steel pipe embedded in a concrete slab exposed to snow weather condition. The model has a slab width of 15 cm and height of 12 cm. The symmetry lines also have isothermal boundary condition. The slab is mounted over a soil ground.

equations governing the conservation of turbulence kinetic energy and its rate of dissipation were solved.1: The three dimensional snow melting system model for steady state analysis ∂Vφ VrVφ ⎛ ∂Vφ Vφ ∂Vφ ⎜ Vr + + Vz − ⎜ ∂r ∂z r ∂φ r ⎝ ⎡ ⎛ ∂V (ν + ν t )⎢ 1 ∂ ⎜ r φ ⎜ ⎣ r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎞ 1 ∂p ⎟=− + ⎟ ρ f r ∂φ ⎠ ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂Vφ ⎟+ ⎜ ⎟ ∂z ⎜ ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ Vφ 2 ∂Vr ⎤ ⎟− 2 + 2 ⎥ ⎟ r r ∂φ ⎦ ⎠ ⎞ 1 ∂ ⎛ ∂Vφ ⎟+ 2 ⎟ r ∂φ ⎜ ∂φ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ (3) ⎛ ∂V z Vφ ∂V z ∂V ⎞ 1 ∂p ⎜ Vr + + Vz z ⎟ = − + ⎜ ⎟ ρ f ∂z r ∂φ ∂r ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ⎡ (ν + ν t )⎢ 1 ∂ ⎛ r ∂Vz ⎞ + 12 ∂ ⎛ ∂Vz ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎠ r ∂φ ⎜ ∂φ ⎝ ⎣ ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂V z ⎟+ ⎜ ⎟ ∂z ∂z ⎝ ⎠ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ (4) The k-ε model was used for simulation of turbulence. These equations can be expressed as: 137 . In this model.Figure 7.

the energy conservation equation in the solid region is [46]: ⎡ ∂ 2 Ts ∂ 2 Ts ∂ 2 Ts ⎤ + 2 ⎥=0 ⎢ 2 + ∂y 2 ∂z ⎦ ⎣ ∂x (9) Note that a cylindrical coordinate system was used to model convection within the circular tube while a cartesian coordinate system was used to model conduction within the solid substrate material.09. C1 = 1. C2 = 1.⎛ ∂k Vφ ∂k ∂k ⎞ ⎜ Vr ⎜ ∂r + r ∂φ + V z ∂z ⎟ = ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎡1 ∂ ⎛ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛⎛ ν ⎞ ν ⎜ ⎜ν + t ⎟r ∂k ⎟ + 12 ∂ ⎜ ⎜ν + t ⎢ ⎜ ⎟ ∂r ⎟ r ∂φ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ σk ⎠ σk ⎢ r ∂r ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝⎝ ⎣ ⎡⎛ 1 ∂V r + ν t ⎢⎜ ⎜ r ∂φ ⎢⎝ ⎣ 2 ⎞ ⎛ ∂Vr ⎞ ⎛ ∂Vφ Vφ ⎟ +⎜ − ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ r ⎠ ⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ∂r 2 2 ⎞ ∂k ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ⎛ ν ⎟ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎜ν + t ⎟ ∂φ ⎟ ∂z ⎜ ⎜ σk ⎠ ⎠ ⎝⎝ 2 2 ⎞ ∂k ⎞⎤ ⎟ ⎟⎥ ⎟ ∂z ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎥ ⎦ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (5) ⎤ ⎥ −ε ⎥ ⎦ ⎞ ⎛ ∂Vφ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ ∂V z ⎞ ⎛ 1 ∂V z ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ∂r ⎠ ⎝ r ∂φ ⎛ ∂ε Vφ ∂ε ε2 ∂ε ⎞ ⎜ Vr ⎟ = −C 2 + + Vz + ⎜ ∂r r ∂φ k ∂z ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎡1 ∂ ⎛ ⎛ ⎛⎛ ⎞ ν ⎞ ν ⎜ ⎜ν + t ⎟r ∂ε ⎟ + 12 ∂ ⎜ ⎜ν + t ⎢ ⎜⎜ σ ε ⎟ ∂r ⎟ r ∂φ ⎜ ⎜ σε ⎢ r ∂r ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎡⎛ 1 ∂V r + C1 ν t ⎢⎜ ⎜ r ∂φ k ⎢⎝ ⎣ ⎞ ∂ε ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ⎛ ν ⎞ ∂ε ⎞⎤ ⎟ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎜ν + t ⎟ ⎟⎥ ⎟ ∂φ ⎟ ∂z ⎜ ⎜ σ ε ⎟ ∂z ⎟⎥ ⎠ ⎠ ⎠ ⎠⎦ ⎝⎝ 2 2 (6) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ε 2 2 ⎞ ⎛ ∂Vr ⎞ ⎛ ∂Vφ Vφ ⎞ ⎛ ∂Vφ ⎞ ⎛ ∂V z ⎞ ⎛ 1 ∂V z ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ − ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ r ⎠ ⎝ ∂z ⎟ ⎝ ∂r ⎠ ⎜ r ∂φ ⎠ ⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ∂r ⎝ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (7) where ν t = C µ k 2 ε The empirical constants appearing in equations (5) to (7) are given by the following values.44. σε = 1.3. σk = 1. The energy equation in the fluid region is: 2 2 2 ∂T f ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ∂T f Vφ ∂T f ν ⎞⎡ ∂ T 1 ∂T f 1 ∂ Tf ∂ Tf ⎤ ⎜ Vr ⎟ = ⎜ α f + t ⎟ ⎢ 2f + + 2 + + + Vz ⎥ ⎜ r ∂φ Prt ⎟ ⎢ ∂r r ∂r ∂r ∂z ⎟ ⎜ r ∂φ 2 ∂z 2 ⎥ ⎠⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎦ (8) Considering constant thermal conductivity.0. 138 . Cµ = 0.92.

Vφ = 0.V z = V z . r < d/2: At z = L.in .Equations (1) to (6) are subject to the following boundary conditions: At z = 0. ∂T f ∂Vr ∂V = 0. r ≥ d/2. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: (15) At x = W. z = 0. r = d/2: Vr = 0. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: Vφ = 0. k f (20) 7. 0 < y < H: At z = L. 0 < y < H: Vr = 0. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: (16) At x = 0. (H+d)/2 ≤ y ≤ H.V z = 0. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: (17) At y = -E.in ∂Ts =0 ∂z (10) (11) (12) (13) p=0 ∂Ts =0 ∂z At x = W. The solution was considered converged 139 . 0 < x < W. 0 ≤ x ≤ W. 0 ≤ x ≤ W. r ≥ d/2. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: ∂Ts =0 ∂y ∂Ts =0 ∂y ∂T f dr = ks ∂Ts dr (18) At y = H. =0 ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂Ts =0 ∂x ∂Ts =0 ∂x ∂Ts =0 ∂x (14) At x = W. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: (19) At 0 ≤ z ≤ L. 0 < x < W. An iterative procedure was used to arrive at the solution for the velocity and temperature fields. -E ≤ y ≤ H. (H-d)/2 ≤ y ≤ (H+d)/2.2 Numerical Simulation and Parametric Study The governing equations along with the boundary conditions were solved using the Galerkin finite element method. T f = T f . 0 ≤ r < d/2: At z = 0.Vφ = 0. T f = Ts . -E ≤ y ≤ (H-d)/2.

This is a direct result for the drop of the fluid temperature 140 .2 to 7. pipe diameter and pipe spacing. stainless steel pipe. The parameters to be changed are the working fluid. the spacing was increased to 20 cm. Reynolds number.3 Results and Discussion Studying the results for the temperature distribution in the model one can calculate the heat flow rate at various locations in the model. The working fluid was changed to Ethylene Glycol in one case. Figures 7.when the field values did not change from one iteration to the next. Reynolds number was increased to 5000 and the inlet fluid temperature was changed to 60 oC. Fluid entered at 80 oC to a ¾ in. The following figures show the results of all cases with the effect of each parameter. This is because the top of the pipe is facing the snow boundary condition which causes higher temperature difference resulting in higher heat flow rate. 7. It is clear that the heat flow rate is higher at the top of the pipe and lower at the bottom. Finally. keeping the Reynolds number constant.0 in.5 represent the original case.2 shows the heat flow rate along the angular direction. In each case only one parameter is changed. The working fluid for the original case is water and the fluid was considered turbulent at Reynolds number = 3000. The spacing was taken as 15 cm. The pipe diameter was changed to 1. Figure 7. Notice that the heat flow rate drops along the axial direction. and the residuals for each variable became negligible. inlet fluid temperature. This study is a parametric study that has an original case and several other cases to study the effect of each parameter. Variable properties were used for the Ethylene Glycol while water properties were considered constant.

3: Heat flow rate at the snow boundary surface along the width of the slab 141 .000 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate.2: Heat flow rate at the outer pipe surface along the angular direction 1.500 3.000 2. W/m 3.000 500 0 -90 -60 -30 0 30 Angular Direction.500 2. W/m 2 1. φ 60 90 z = 0 cm z = 10 cm z = 20 cm z = 30 cm z = 40 cm z = 50 cm z = 60 cm 2 Figure 7.200 Average Heat Flow Rate.400 1.000 1.4.000 800 600 400 200 0 0 z = 0 cm z = 10 cm z = 20 cm z = 30 cm z = 40 cm z = 50 cm z = 60 cm 3 6 9 12 15 Slab Width Direction. cm Figure 7.500 1.

Average Concrete-Ground Interface Temperure. cm Figure 7.4: Average temperature at the concrete-ground interface along the width of the slab 300 250 Average Heat Flow Rate. W/m 2 o 200 150 100 50 0 0 -50 z = 0 cm z = 10 cm z = 20 cm z = 30 cm z = 40 cm z = 50 cm z = 60 cm 3 6 9 12 15 Slab Width Direction. cm 12 15 z = 0 cm z = 20 cm z = 40 cm z = 60 cm Figure 7. 50 45 40 C 35 30 25 20 0 3 6 9 Slab Width Direction.5: Heat flow rate at the concrete-ground interface along the width of the slab 142 .

6 to 7. several cases were studied where only one parameter was changed for each case while the rest are kept constant. The heat flow rate is higher at locations closer to the pipe because it is closer to the heat source. This means for the same Reynolds number Ethylene Glycol gives much higher fluid velocity. Figures present the results for all cases compared to the original one. Figure 7. It is obvious that the heat flow rate is higher at the snow surface where it is closer to the pipe (x = 15 cm). Notice that it becomes a negative value at the midway between two pipes.4 shows the interface temperature at the concrete-ground interface along the width of slab. Figure 7. The ratio of density to viscosity for water is 7 times that of Ethylene Glycol.7 represent the interface temperature at the inner pipe surface and the fluid bulk temperature along the axial direction at different parameters. Using less spacing or inlet temperature may not allow it. The temperature is higher at locations closer to the pipe and it is decreasing along the axial direction. hot fluid. To study the effect of each parameter alone. Figures 7. Ethylene Glycol has a slightly higher density and very high viscosity compared to water. It is also shown that the heat flow rate drops in the axial direction. Figure 7.6 shows the average interface temperature along the axial direction.along the axial direction of the pipe due to heat rejection.3 shows the heat flow rate at the snow boundary condition along the width of the slab. Figure 7. The above figures were for the original case explained above. This is a direct result for the drop of the fluid temperature axially. This is because the heat flow is escaping through the space between two pipes to support the snow melting process.5 is the heat flow rate at the concrete-ground interface along the width of slab. This 143 . This is because that location is closer to the heat source.

cm 40 50 60 Original Ethyl.6: Average interface temperature at the inner pipe surface along the axial direction 85 80 Average Fluid Bulk Temperature.80 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature.7: Average bulk temperature of the fluid along the axial direction 144 . Glycol Re = 5000 T = 60 C d = 1 in sp = 8 in o Figure 7. C 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 0 10 20 30 Axial Direction. Glycol Re = 5000 T = 60 C d = 1 in sp = 8 in Figure 7. cm 40 50 60 Original Ethyl. C o 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 0 10 20 30 Axial Direction.

Both the bulk and inner interface temperature has similar trend along the axial direction. Larger pipe also increases the pipe surface area enhancing the heat flow rate.7 shows the average bulk temperature along the axial direction. pipe-concrete 145 . This increases the interface temperature at the fluid-pipe interface. on the other hand. Figure 7. This is because the pipe is very thin and has high conductivity. It has very similar trend as the average interface temperature at the inner pipe surface in figure 7. On the contrary. There was a slight decrease in the interface temperature with larger spacing. Higher Reynolds number means higher fluid velocity. Figure 7. enlarges the solid material and adds more resistance to the heat flow rate.8 shows the average interface temperature along the axial direction at the pipe-concrete surface.6. Larger spacing. The higher velocity enhances the heat flow rate from the fluid to the solid. Figure 7.7 are similar to those of figure 7. This results in higher temperature at the inner pipe surface. Lower inlet temperature have same trend as the original case with higher temperature. This is because the interface temperature is a direct result for the change in the fluid bulk temperature. The results of figure 7. This is because the temperature difference between the lower inlet temperature and the boundary condition is less which results in lower heat flow rate through the system. its rate of decrease is less than the original case along the axial direction.9 shows the heat flow rate at the outer pipe surface. Enlarging the pipe diameter reduces the solid material which acts as a resistance to the heat flow rate. Using Ethylene Glycol is the only case when the bulk temperature has a different slope than the interface temperature because it has different thermal conductivity.6.enhances the convection heat transfer and cause the wall temperature at the inner pipe surface to drop drastically.

Glycol Re = 5000 T = 60 C d = 1 in sp = 8 in Figure 7.85 Peripheral Average Interface Temperature.9: Average heat flow rate at the outer pipe surface along the axial direction 146 . cm 40 50 60 Original Ethyl.8: Average interface temperature at the outer pipe surface along the axial direction 2500 Peripheral Average Heat Flow Rate. Glycol Re = 5000 T = 60 C d = 1 in sp = 8 in 0 0 10 20 30 40 Axial Direction. C 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 0 10 20 30 Axial Direction. cm 50 60 Figure 7. W/m 2 o 2000 1500 1000 500 Original Ethyl.

Lower inlet temperature gives less temperature gradient in the solid causing the heat flow rate to decrease. it decreases the heat flow rate at the interface. Higher Reynolds number with higher fluid velocity increases the heat flow rate from the fluid to the solid. Ethylene Glycol causes smaller temperature gradient in the solid substrate as explained before. As explained above Ethylene Glycol decreases the temperature gradient in the substrate. Hence it increases the heat flow rate at the outer pipe surface. It is obvious that the heat flow rate decreases in a lower rate in the axial direction. The increase in the heat flow rate at the snow surface is a direct result. 147 . Lower inlet temperature results in a decrease in the heat flow in the system. Both increase in the heat flow rate to the model. Figure 7. This results in a high interface-bulk temperature difference and increases the heat flow rate to the system. This increases the heat flow rate to the snow surface. This cool down the pipe walls and decreases the pipe wall temperature. Larger diameter results in a reduction in the solid volume and an increase the pipe surface area. This is because lower inlet temperature causes less interface-bulk temperature difference and thus reduces the heat flow rate from the working fluid to the system. This results in a decrease in the heat flow rate on the snow surface. Therefore. For higher Reynolds number the fluid velocity is higher. This increases the heat flow rate from the fluid to the solid. This also reflects on the snow surface heat flow. along the axial direction.10 shows the average heat flow rate at the snow surface along the axial direction. With larger spacing between the pipes the amount of heat flow is distributed over a larger area reducing the average heat rate per unit area.interface. Using larger diameter results in an increase the pipe surface area. Larger spacing between the pipes means more heating load per pipe.

This increases the heat loss to the ground as well.500 450 Average Heat Flow Rate. Glycol Re = 5000 T = 60 C d = 1 in sp = 8 in 2 Figure 7. This also reflects on the heat loss to the ground. 148 .10: Average heat flow rate at the snow surface along the axial direction . The increase in the heat flow rate overcomes the heat amount passes to the top between the pipes and increases the heat loss to the ground.11 shows the average heat flow rate at the ground-concrete interface along the axial direction. Lower inlet temperature results in a decrease in the heat flow in the system. The increase in the heat flow rate to the ground is a direct result. cm 40 50 60 Original Ethyl. Ethylene Glycol causes smaller temperature gradient in the solid. This results in a decrease in the heat flow rate to the ground. Figure 7. W/m 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 10 20 30 Axial Direction. Higher Reynolds number with higher fluid velocity increases the heat flow rate from the fluid to the solid and hence the heat flow rate to the system. Larger spacing increases the heat flow rate from as explained above. As explained above the increase in diameter increases the heat flow rate. It also gives space to the heat flow to pass through the pipes to the top. This represents the heat loss to the ground.

W/m 2 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 10 20 30 Axial Direction. Parametric study was carried out to understanding the effect of different parameters. Lower inlet temperature results in less heat flow rate at the fluid interface and the snow boundary condition. A numerical scheme was applied to come up with the heat flow rate calculations within the system. The heat flow rate was higher at the top of the pipe where it faces the snow boundary condition.11: Average heat flow rate lost to the ground along the axial direction 7. results in lower heat flow rate at the fluid interface and the snow boundary condition.4 Conclusions Three dimensional steady state snow melting model was developed. Glycol Re = 5000 T = 60 C d = 1 in sp = 8 in Figure 7.140 120 Average Heat Flow Rate. Using Ethylene Glycol. Larger spacing between 149 . The increase in Reynolds number increases the heat flow rate at the fluid interface and the snow boundary condition. Larger diameter for the same Reynolds number results in larger heat flow rate at the fluid interface and snow boundary condition. cm 40 50 60 Original Ethyl. as the working fluid.

Ethylene Glycol and lower inlet temperature decrease the heat loss to the ground. higher Reynolds number. 150 . On the other hand. The heat loss to the ground was analyzed and plotted. larger diameter and spacing increase the heat loss to the ground.pipes increases the heat flow rate at the fluid interface but reduces it at the snow surface.

The assumption of isothermal boundary condition at the bottom of the ground is now valid. The depth of the ground was considered to be ten times of the slab height (120 cm) to insure taking into account the heat loss to the ground. It consists of stainless steel pipe embedded in a concrete slab exposed to snow weather condition.1 has a width.1 shows the model to be studied. The symmetry lines also have isothermal boundary condition.1 Mathematical Model The problem in hand is a hydronic snow melting system. The pipe depth was at the center of the model at 6 cm. and energy in the liquid region are [45]: ∂Vr 1 1 ∂Vφ ∂V z + Vr + + =0 ∂r r r ∂φ ∂z (1) 151 . momentum. The governing equations for the conservation of mass. of 15 cm and height of 12 cm. The slab is mounted over a soil ground. To consider the heat loss to the ground it was assumed to be of height ten times the height of the concrete slab. Because of the symmetry in the system. Figure 8. The model in figure 8.Chapter 8 – Transient Analysis of Hydronic Snow Melting System 8. Hot fluid is passing through the pipe to heat the slab and melt the snow accumulated. only half of one pipe is modeled. or pipe spacing.

1: The three dimensional snow melting system model for transient analysis ∂Vr ⎛ ∂Vr Vφ ∂Vr ∂V 1 ⎞ 1 ∂p + ⎜ Vr + + V z r − Vφ2 ⎟ = − + ⎜ ⎟ r ∂φ ρ f ∂r ∂t ⎝ ∂r ∂z r ⎠ ∂V ⎤ ⎡ r (ν + ν t )⎢ 1 ∂ ⎛ r ∂Vr ⎞ + 12 ∂ ⎛ ∂Vr ⎞ + ∂ ⎛ ∂Vr ⎞ − V2 − 22 φ ⎥ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂φ ⎟ ∂z ⎜ ∂z ⎟ r ⎟ r ∂φ ⎦ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎣ r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎠ r ∂φ ⎝ ∂Vφ ∂Vφ VrVφ ⎞ ⎛ ∂Vφ Vφ ∂Vφ 1 ∂p ⎟=− + ⎜ Vr + + Vz − + ⎜ ⎟ ∂t ⎝ ∂r ∂z r ∂φ r ⎠ ρ f r ∂φ ⎞ 1 ∂ ⎛ ∂Vφ ⎟+ 2 ⎟ r ∂φ ⎜ ∂φ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂Vφ ⎟+ ⎜ ⎟ ∂z ⎜ ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ Vφ 2 ∂Vr ⎤ ⎟− 2 + 2 ⎥ ⎟ r r ∂φ ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ (2) ⎡ ⎛ ∂V (ν + ν t )⎢ 1 ∂ ⎜ r φ ⎜ ⎢ r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎣ (3) ∂V z ⎛ ∂V z Vφ ∂V z ∂V z ⎞ 1 ∂p ⎟=− + ⎜ Vr + + Vz + ⎜ ⎟ ∂t ⎝ ∂r r ∂φ ∂z ⎠ ρ f ∂z ⎡ (ν + ν t )⎢ 1 ∂ ⎛ r ∂Vz ⎜ ⎣ r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎞ 1 ∂ ⎛ ∂V z ⎜ ⎟+ 2 ⎜ ⎠ r ∂φ ⎝ ∂φ ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂V z ⎟+ ⎜ ⎟ ∂z ∂z ⎝ ⎠ 152 ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ (4) .Figure 8.

C1 = 1.0. The energy equation in the fluid region. These equations can be expressed as: ∂k ⎛ ∂k Vφ ∂k ∂k ⎞ + ⎜ Vr ⎜ ∂r + r ∂φ + V z ∂z ⎟ = ⎟ ∂t ⎝ ⎠ ⎡1 ∂ ⎛ ⎛ ⎛⎛ ⎞ ⎛⎛ ν ⎞ ν ⎞ ⎞ ν ⎞ ⎞⎤ ⎜ ⎜ν + t ⎟r ∂k ⎟ + 12 ∂ ⎜ ⎜ν + t ⎟ ∂k ⎟ + ∂ ⎜ ⎜ν + t ⎟ ∂k ⎟⎥ ⎢ ⎜⎜ σ k ⎟ ∂r ⎟ r ∂φ ⎜ ⎜ σ k ⎟ ∂φ ⎟ ∂z ⎜ ⎜ σ k ⎟ ∂z ⎟⎥ ⎢ r ∂r ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎠ ⎠ ⎠⎦ ⎝⎝ ⎠ ⎝⎝ ⎣ ⎡⎛ 1 ∂V r + ν t ⎢⎜ ⎜ r ∂φ ⎢⎝ ⎣ 2 2 ⎞ ⎛ ∂Vr ⎞ ⎛ ∂Vφ Vφ ⎞ ⎛ ∂Vφ ⎞ ⎛ ∂V z ⎞ ⎛ 1 ∂V z ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ +⎜ − ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ r ⎟ ⎜ ∂z ⎟ ⎝ ∂r ⎠ ⎜ r ∂φ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ∂r ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 2 (5) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ −ε ⎥ ⎦ ε2 ∂ε ⎛ ∂ε Vφ ∂ε ∂ε ⎞ ⎟ = −C 2 + ⎜ Vr + + Vz + r ∂φ k ∂t ⎜ ∂r ∂z ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎡1 ∂ ⎛ ⎛ ⎛⎛ ⎞ ⎛⎛ ν ⎞ ν ⎞ ⎞ ν ⎞ ⎞⎤ ⎜ ⎜ν + t ⎟r ∂ε ⎟ + 12 ∂ ⎜ ⎜ν + t ⎟ ∂ε ⎟ + ∂ ⎜ ⎜ν + t ⎟ ∂ε ⎟⎥ ⎢ ⎜⎜ σ ε ⎟ ∂r ⎟ r ∂φ ⎜ ⎜ σ ε ⎟ ∂φ ⎟ ∂z ⎜ ⎜ σ ε ⎟ ∂z ⎟⎥ ⎢ r ∂r ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎠ ⎠ ⎠⎦ ⎝⎝ ⎠ ⎝⎝ ⎣ ⎡⎛ 1 ∂V r + C1 ν t ⎢⎜ ⎜ r ∂φ k ⎢⎝ ⎣ (6) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ε 2 2 ⎞ ⎛ ∂Vr ⎞ ⎛ ∂Vφ Vφ ⎞ ⎛ ∂Vφ ⎞ ⎛ ∂V z ⎞ ⎛ 1 ∂V z ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ − ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ r ⎟ ⎜ ∂z ⎟ ⎝ ∂r ⎠ ⎜ r ∂φ ⎠ ⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ∂r ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (7) where ν t = C µ k 2 ε The empirical constants appearing in equations (5) to (7) are given by the following values. In this model.09. C2 = 1. considering Prt = 1.44. Cµ = 0.The k-ε model was used for simulation of turbulence. is: ∂T f ∂T f ⎞ ⎛ ∂T f Vφ ∂T f ⎟= + Vz + + ⎜ Vr ⎜ r ∂φ ∂z ⎟ ∂r ∂t ⎝ ⎠ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 2 2 2 ⎛ ν ⎞⎡ ∂ T 1 ∂T f 1 ∂ Tf ∂ Tf ⎜ α f + t ⎟ ⎢ 2f + + 2 + ⎜ Prt ⎟ ⎢ ∂r r ∂r r ∂φ 2 ∂z 2 ⎝ ⎠⎣ (8) Considering constant thermal conductivity. equations governing the conservation of turbulence kinetic energy and its rate of dissipation were solved. the energy conservation equation in the solid region is [46]: 153 . σk = 1.3.92. σε = 1.

in . 0 ≤ x ≤ W.in ∂Ts =0 ∂z (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) At z = 0. Vφ = 0. 0 < x < W. 0 < x < W.V z = V z . 0 ≤ z ≤ L: (17) At x = 0. =0 ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂Ts =0 ∂x ∂Ts =0 ∂x ∂Ts =0 ∂x (15) At x = W. T f = T f . (H+d)/2 ≤ y ≤ H. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: (16) At x = W.⎡ ∂ 2Ts ∂ 2Ts ∂ 2Ts ⎤ 1 ∂Ts + 2 ⎥= ⎢ 2 + ∂y 2 ∂z ⎦ α ∂t ⎣ ∂x (9) Note that a cylindrical coordinate system was used to model convection within the circular tube while a cartesian coordinate system was used to model conduction within the solid substrate material. z = 0. r ≥ d/2. Equations (1) to (9) are subject to the following boundary conditions: At t = 0: At z = 0. -E ≤ y ≤ H. r < d/2: At z = L. 0 < y < H: p=0 ∂Ts =0 ∂z At x = W. -E ≤ y ≤ (H-d)/2. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: ∂Ts =0 ∂y ∂Ts =0 ∂y 154 (19) At y = H. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: (20) . 0 ≤ x ≤ W. ∂T f ∂Vr ∂V = 0. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: (18) At y = -E. 0 ≤ z ≤ L: Vθφ = 0. 0 < y < H: At z = L. (H-d)/2 ≤ y ≤ (H+d)/2. r ≥ d/2. 0 ≤ r < d/2: Ts = Tf = Tin Vr = 0.

Another storm was selected with 6 times of the snow fall of the first one to 155 . This work is a parametric study that has an original case and several other cases to study the effect of each parameter.At 0 ≤ z ≤ L. pipe diameter. 8. This provides us with understanding about how the model will perform during a real storm. The original case used water as the working fluid and the fluid was considered turbulent at Reynolds number = 3000.Vφ = 0.V z = 0. The spacing was taken as 15 cm. Fluid entered at 80 oC to a ¾ in stainless steel pipe. k f ∂T f dr = ks ∂Ts dr (21) 8. T f = Ts . The solution was considered converged when the field values did not change from one iteration to the next.2 Numerical Simulation and Parametric Simulation The governing equations along with the boundary conditions were solved using the Galerkin finite element method.3 Results and Discussion To study the transient effect a storm scenario was selected and applied to the model. Reynolds number was increased to 45000 and 6000 while the pipe diameter was changed to ½ and 1 in keeping the Reynolds number constant. and the residuals for each variable became negligible. The pipe depth was changed to 3 and 9 cm while pipe spacing was changed to 12 and 9 cm. In each case only one parameter is changed. The parameters to be changed are the Reynolds number. pipe depth and pipe spacing. An iterative procedure was used to arrive at the solution for the velocity and temperature fields. r = d/2: Vr = 0.

the surface temperature is increasing 156 . The surface temperature is decreasing along the axial direction because the fluid is at higher temperature at the inlet.2 to 8. Figures 8. This could be understood because the interface temperature increasing rate drops with more accumulated snow where the fluid could maintain decent bulk temperature. The temperature curve increases as the model warms up with the end of the storm. The second storm had 6 times the snow fall than the first and lasted for 9 hours longer.make sure the model will handle severe storm. Notice that the temperature curve along the axial direction comes into a steady state over the 5 hours storm length. Two more hours added for both storm scenarios to understand how the model performs after the storm is over.3 shows the heat flow rate at the interface along the axial direction over time. This is because both the interface and bulk temperature drop together along the axial direction maintaining constant temperature difference.4 shows average temperature at the surface along the axial direction over time. The heat flow rate seems to be constant along the axial direction.7 to 8. Figure 8. The fluid enters at 80 oC and cools down along the axial direction because of the storm. On the other hand.2 shows the average peripheral interface temperature along the axial direction over the storm time length of 5 hours. Figure 8. Figure 8. The fluid heats up the model over time and thus the interface temperature.11 represent results for the second storm scenario. The last tow hours represent the time when the storm is over and the weather condition is removed. The transient behavior is a little different where the bulk temperature seems to be increasing more rapidly than the interface temperature causing the heat flow rate at the interface to slow down over time.6 represent results for the first storm scenario while figures 8.

cm 50 60 1 hour 3 hour 5 hour 7 hour 2 hour 4 hour 6 hour Figure 8.2: Average peripheral interface temperature along axial direction at different times Average Peripheral Fluid-Pipe Interface Heat 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 10 20 30 40 Axial Direction. C 74 72 70 68 66 64 62 60 0 10 20 30 40 Axial Direction.80 Average Peripheral Fluid-Pipe Interface 78 76 Temperature. W/m 2 . cm 50 o 1 hour 2 hour 3 hour 4 hour 5 hour 6 hour 7 hour 60 Figure 8.3: Average peripheral interface heat flow rate along axial direction at different times 157 Flow Rate.

Figure 8.4: Average surface temperature along axial direction at different times with respect to time. Notice that the rate of ground temperature drop is less than the rate of surface temperature drop along the axial direction. This is because the fluid enters at a temperature high enough to overcome the storm condition and heat up the system and the surface temperature. C o 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 0 10 20 30 40 Axial Direction.6 Average Surface Temperature. cm 1 hour 3 hour 5 hour 7 hour 2 hour 4 hour 6 hour 50 60 Figure 8. The ground temperature decreases along the axial direction as the fluid temperature drops. This could be different if a lower inlet temperature is used or more snow fall occurred. the last tow hours of the time length studied has higher surface temperature as it increases with the end of storm condition. This is because the surface temperature is exposed to the cold weather while 158 . This is because as the fluid temperature drop the heat transfer to the ground decrease reducing temperature at the ground interface. This shows the importance of trying a different storm scenario with more snow fall. Similarly to previous cases.5 shows the average ground interface temperature at the bottom of the concrete slab along the axial direction over time.

cm 50 60 1 hour 3 hour 5 hour 7 hour 2 hour 4 hour 6 hour Figure 8.5: Average ground interface temperature along axial direction at different times Temperature. cm 50 60 Figure 8. W/m 2 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 Axial Direction.6: Average ground interface heat flow rate along axial direction at different times 159 .10 Average Ground-Sandstone Interface 8 6 4 2 0 -2 0 10 20 30 40 Axial Direction. C o 20 Average Ground-Sandstone Interface Heat 1 hour 3 hour 5 hour 7 hour 2 hour 4 hour 6 hour 15 Flow Rate.

As the model heat up with time the heat flow rate to the ground increases. The fluid inlet temperature used was higher at 95 oC. Figure 8. The heat flow rate is constant along the axial direction because both the interface and bulk temperature drop together along the axial direction maintaining constant temperature difference. Figure 8. It lasted 14 hours and the time length considered 2 more hours to observe the model performance after the storm is over.8 shows the heat flow rate at the interface along the axial direction over time.the ground is kept warmer under the heated slab. Figure 8. Because the fluid temperature drops along the axial direction the heat flow rate also drops. This could be caused by the severity of storm that cools the model fast enough to reach the steady state in a short time.7 shows the average peripheral interface temperature along the axial direction over time. This is to study the highest possible inlet temperature use and check if it will give good results. The temperature curve increases as the model warms up with the end of the storm. The surface temperature is decreasing along the axial 160 . This is the heat loss to the ground. The second storm studied has 6 times the snow fall of the previous storm. The temperature curve along the axial direction comes into a steady state within the first 2 hours.9 shows average temperature at the surface along the axial direction over time. Figure 8.6 shows the average heat flow rate at the ground interface along the axial direction over time. The ground temperature increases with time because of the high inlet temperature that heat up the model. It is also noticed that the temperature drop along the channel is lesser than the previous storm which means using 95 oC overcome six times the snow fall of the previous storm. Steady state occurred fast in both axial direction and over time. Because of the storm condition the heat flow rate from the fluid to the model slows down.

cm 50 60 2 hour 6 hour 10 hour 14 hour 4 hour 8 hour 12 hour 16 hour 2 Figure 8. cm 50 60 o 2 hour 6 hour 10 hour 14 hour 4 hour 8 hour 12 hour 16 hour Figure 8.7: Average peripheral interface temperature along axial direction at different times 8000 Average Peripheral Fluid-Pipe Interface 7000 Heat Flow Rate.8: Average peripheral interface heat flow rate along axial direction at different times 161 .Average Peripheral Fluid-Pipe Interface 100 98 96 Temperature. W/m 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 10 20 30 40 Axial Direction. C 94 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 0 10 20 30 40 Axial Direction.

This also supports our conclusion of sufficient inlet temperature. This also shows that using inlet temperature of 95 oC was sufficient to warm up the concrete slab. cm 50 60 hour 2 hour 6 hour 10 hour 14 hour 4 hour 8 hour 12 hour 16 o Figure 8. Comparing the rate of decrease in the surface temperature along the axial direction for both storm scenarios shows that the rate of decrease is less for the second storm. The surface temperature maintains almost constant value with respect to time. This could be explained by the small drop in the channel temperature along the axial direction caused by the fact that the inlet temperature at 95 oC overcomes the accumulated snow for the second storm. One can see how fast the surface temperature rises at the last tow hours when the storm ends.10 shows the average ground interface temperature at the bottom of the concrete slab along the axial direction over time. C 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Axial Direction. The ground temperature is almost constant along the axial direction with a slight decrease as the fluid temperature drops. Figure 8. The ground temperature increases with time because of the high inlet 162 .10 Average Surface Temperature.9: Average surface temperature along axial direction at different times direction because the fluid is at higher temperature at the inlet. which is six times the first storm scenario.

11: Average ground interface heat flow rate along axial direction at different times 163 .10: Average ground interface temperature along axial direction at different times 20 Average Ground-Sandstone Interface Heat 18 16 Flow Rate. W/m 2 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 10 20 30 40 Axial Direction. C 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 10 20 30 Axial Direction. cm 50 60 2 hour 6 hour 10 hour 14 hour 4 hour 8 hour 12 hour 16 hour Figure 8.10 Average Ground-Sandstone Interface 8 6 Temperature. cm 40 50 60 2 hour 6 hour 10 hour 14 hour 4 hour 8 hour 12 hour 16 hour o Figure 8.

Because the ground temperature gradient was negligible at the ground interface along the axial direction. The heat flow rate at the fluid interface showed a constant behavior along the axial direction for heavier storms. the heat flow rate also remains negligible. 8. The third dimension provided much understanding of the model behavior in the axial direction. The heat flow rate to the ground remains constant with time because of its negligible value. Results presented showed that considering a higher inlet temperature can overcome as much as six times the snow fall.4 Conclusions Three dimensional transient snow melting system model was developed.11 shows the average heat flow rate at the ground interface along the axial direction over time.temperature that heat up the model. A numerical scheme was applied to come up with the heat flow rate calculations within the system. Two different storm scenarios were studied. Figure 8. 164 . The heat loss to the ground decrease in the axial direction too. The temperature at the surface was decreasing along the axial direction. Calculated heat flow rates were plotted and presented. The rate of change in the surface temperature was less for the heavier storm.

Transient as well as steady state cases with different boundary conditions were implemented in this study to understand the microchannel cooling performance under different conditions and designs. The absolute heat flow rate and the Nusselt number were 165 . channel diameter or height. heat flow rate. The results showed that an increase in Reynolds number decreases the interface temperature but increases the heat flow rate and Nusselt number. When the heat source varied with time. and working fluid. On the other hand. Numerical simulation models were developed for this project with the desired designs and boundary conditions. by applying and removing the magnetic field.Chapter 9 – Conclusions 9. The change in magnetic field value had the greatest impact on the interface temperature and the heat flow rate. heat flow rate and Nusselt number at the fluid-solid interface. the interface temperature. it did not have any significant effect on the Nusselt number at the fluidsolid interface.1 Conclusion Different types and designs of microchannels were studied in this project. The parameters that were varied are Reynolds number. A parametric study was conducted for each of the designs and results were presented in terms of interface temperature. and Nusselt number attained a periodic variation with time. Computer software was used to solve the conservation equations for the velocity and temperature distribution. Magnetic field strength.

Ethylene Glycol showed less heat flow rate in the model compared to water. In nanofluids. Nusselt number depends on the diameter and the heat flow rate. Larger diameter decreases the heat flow rate and the heat flow rate coefficient. it will either increase or decrease with the change in diameter according to the change in the heat flow rate. Nusselt number increased with diameter in this study. The increase in Reynolds number increased the heat flow rate in the model. The most important addition to the literature is the three-dimensional model that showed a great drop in the bulk fluid temperature along the axial direction. This temperature drop reduces the quality the performance of the energy transfer to melt the snow along the axial direction. The increase in Reynolds number increases both the heat flow rate and the Nusselt number. Hydronic snow melting system was also simulated to carry out a parametric study in order to arrive to an understanding how different parameters affect the melting process. This temperature reduction must be taken into consideration when 166 . The Nusselt number could decrease due to lower heat transfer coefficient or increase due to larger diameter. Using different fluids revealed that water results in the lower interface temperature and highest heat flow rate. Therefore. This is determined separately for each case. The heat loss to the ground increased with higher Reynolds number or larger diameter. Higher heat flow rate could be achieved by increasing the inlet temperature or using smaller pipe diameter. the increase in the solid volumetric ratio decreases the heat flow rate and Nusselt number.increasing with time at each period. The decrease in the diameter at constant Reynolds number decreases the interface temperature and increases the heat flow rate at the fluidsolid interface. Using stainless steel substrate results in lower heat flow rate and Nusselt number compared to Silicon.

It was also found that the system could also work in heavy storms with a slight increase in the inlet temperature. Other channel geometries or parameters that are not included in this work could be good material for future studies. Only one composite material was studied in this work.designing the system. They were simulated to understand their effect on the melting system with time. 9. Concrete was the only solid used for the hydronic snow melting system and only circular pipes were considered. There are many other combinations of other composite material and design that could be used in an effort to find the optimum design. The rate of change in the surface temperature was less for the heavier storm. Steady state parametric study was done on nanofluids in this work. Other material such as asphalt and other channel geometries can be included in future research. 167 . Transient cases were studied by analyzing two different snow storm scenarios.2 Recommendations for Future Research Researchers could continue studying different designs for microchannels. The heat flow rate at the fluid interface showed constant behavior along the axial direction for the heavier storm. Transient problem was not considered for this research as well as other nanoparticles which might have better thermal conductivity.

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Appendices 172 .

PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. CONS = 436. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD.0250956. NATT = "Fluid-t" ) BCNODE( ADD. CONS = 0. NAME = "Gd-in". ENTI = "f-bsym". ENTI = "f-tin". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD.13.0098 ) ENTITY( ADD. VELO. SET = "Solid". UY. NAME = "f-bin". ATTA = "Gadolinium". NAME = "Gd-bottom". TEMP. PROP = "Fluid" ) ENTITY( ADD.690952 ) BCNODE( ADD. NEWJ ) 173 . NAME = "f-bwall1". NAME = "Fluid-t". ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. NAME = "Gadolinium". UX. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. CONS = 7. SET = "Fluid". ENTI = "Gd-lwall". SET = "Solid". ENTI = "f-tin". ATTA = "Gadolinium". SET = "Fluid". CONS = 0 ) BCFLUX( ADD. CONS = 0. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. HEAT. CONS = 0. NATT = "Fluid-b" ) ENTITY( ADD. VELO. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. ENTI = "f-tin". ENTI = "f-tsym". ENTI = "Gd-tsym". CONS = 436. PLOT.9974 ) DENSITY( ADD. HEAT. ENTI = "f-bsym". NAME = "f-tsym". FLUI. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. HEAT. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. UZ. TEMP. ENTI = "f-tin". ENTI = "f-bwall2". NAME = "f-tin". CONS = 0.0014435. ENTI = "Gd-top".9988 ) SPECIFICHEAT( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. CONS = 20 ) BCNODE( ADD. PROP = "Solid" ) ENTITY( ADD. VELO. CONS = 0 ) BCFLUX( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. HEAT.690952 ) BCNODE( ADD. PLOT. ENTI = "f-bin". CONS = 5. ENTI = "f-bin". CONS = 0 ) BCFLUX( ADD. NAME = "f-bwall2". NAME = "f-twall2". CONS = 0. NAME = "Gd-bsym". NATT = "Fluid-t" ) ENTITY( ADD. SET = "Solid".Appendix A: FIDAP Program for Steady State Heat Transfer in Circular Microchannels During Magnetic Heating or Cooling Simulation FIPREP( ) CONDUCTIVITY( ADD. ATTA = "Gadolinium". NAME = "f-bsym". ENTI = "f-bwall1". HEAT. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. UX. UX. ENTI = "Gd-bsym". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "Gd-lwall". ISOT ) CONDUCTIVITY( ADD. ENTI = "f-bin". SOLI. NAME = "f-tout". ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. CONS = 0 ) DATAPRINT( ADD. CONS = 0.895 ) SPECIFICHEAT( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. UX. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. ENTI = "f-twall2". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "Gd-out". UY. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. SET = "Fluid". NAME = "Gd-top".054971 ) VISCOSITY( ADD. ZERO ) SOURCE( ADD. ENTI = "f-twall1". NAME = "Gd-tsym". ATTA = "Gadolinium". UY. NAME = "f-bout". VELO. PLOT. NATT = "Fluid-b" ) ENTITY( ADD. ENTI = "f-tsym". ENTI = "f-bin". NAME = "f-twall1". ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. FLUI. ENTI = "Gadolinium" ) BCFLUX( ADD. SET = "Fluid". UZ. UY. PROP = "Fluid" ) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "Fluid-b". ISOT ) DENSITY( ADD. CONS = 20 ) BCNODE( ADD. CONT ) EXECUTION( ADD. PLOT.

3-D. ACCF = 0. FIXE. MOME. NONL.02. ENER. 0. RESC = 0. NONE ) OPTIONS( ADD. 20. NEWT. VELC = 0. NOFI = 3 ) CLIPPING( ADD.05 ) WIND = 0. STEA. = 7500. N. 0.R. INCO. SING ) SOLUTION( ADD. UPWI ) PROBLEM( ADD.Appendix A: (Continued) PRINTOUT( ADD. 0 END( ) 174 . MINI ) 0.75. 0.02. LAMI.

NAME = "Fluid-t". ATTA = "Gadolinium". ENTI = "f-bin".895 ) SPECIFICHEAT( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "Gd-top". TEMP. ENTI = "f-bin". NAME = "Gadolinium". PLOT. ISOT ) CONDUCTIVITY( ADD. NAME = "f-bin". SET = "Solid". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. SET = "Fluid". NAME = "f-twall2". NAME = "f-bsym". ATTA = "Gadolinium". CONS = 0. SET = "Fluid". NAME = "Fluid-b".69 ) BCNODE( ADD. NAME = "Gd-bottom". UY. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT. PROP = "Solid" ) ENTITY( ADD. ENTI = "f-bin". SET = "Solid".0014435. NAME = "Gd-bsym". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "Gd-out". ENTI = "f-bin". NAME = "f-bout". NAME = "f-tsym". NATT = "Fluid-b" ) ENTITY( ADD. CONS = 20 ) 175 . SET = "Fluid". UX. FLUI. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. FLUI. SET = "Fluid".0098 ) /========================================= / ENTITY NAMES /========================================= ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "f-bwall2".0250956. NAME = "f-bwall1".Appendix B: FIDAP Program for Transient Heat Transfer in Circular Microchannels Under Time Varying Heat Source Simulation FIPREP( ) /========================================= / MATERIAL PROPERTIES /========================================= CONDUCTIVITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. UZ. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "f-tin". CONS = 0. NAME = "Gd-in". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. NATT = "Fluid-b" ) ENTITY( ADD. ISOT ) DENSITY( ADD. NAME = "Gd-lwall". CONS = 436. SET = "Solid".9988 ) SPECIFICHEAT( ADD. SOLI.054971 ) VISCOSITY( ADD. CONS = 0.9974 ) DENSITY( ADD. ATTA = "Gadolinium". NATT = "Fluid-t" ) ENTITY( ADD. CONS = 7. PROP = "Fluid" ) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "f-twall1". ATTA = "Gadolinium". PLOT. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. PROP = "Fluid" ) ENTITY( ADD. CONS = 0. NATT = "Fluid-t" ) /========================================= / BOUNDARY CONDITION COMMANDS /========================================= BCNODE( ADD. NAME = "f-tout". CONS = 0. PLOT. CONS = 0. NAME = "Gd-tsym". ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD.

NONL. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. CONS = 20. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. NEWT. 10. VELO. NOPT. UPWI ) PROBLEM( ADD. NSTE = 200. READ) ICNODE( ADD. ENTI = "f-bsym". CONS = 436. 20 POSTPROCESS( ADD. ENTI = "f-tin". MOME. ENER. CONS = 20. INCO. FIXE. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. ENTI = "f-tsym". UX. NBLO = 2. NOPA ) 2. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. UZ. = 100. DT = 0. ENTI = "Fluid-b" ) ICNODE( ADD. NEWT. TRAN. TEMP. NONL. ENTI = "f-tin". N. ENTI = "f-twall1". 3-D. 20 END( ) 176 . ENTI = "Fluid-t" ) ICNODE( ADD. BACK. READ ) /========================================= / EXECUTION COMMANDS /========================================= DATAPRINT( ADD. TRAN. CONS = 20. VELO.005. BACK. FIXE. ENTI = "Gadolinium" ) SOURCE( ADD. ENTI = "Gadolinium" ) ICNODE( ADD.001) TIMEINTEGRATION( ADD.R.005. 2 20. 3-D. 200. VELO. VELO. CONT ) EXECUTION( ADD. ENTI = "f-tsym".0. INCO. TEMP.0. TEMP. CONS = -2. NSTE = 400.56. VELC = 0. 400. FIXE) TIMEINTEGRATION( ADD. DT = 0. CONS = 20 ) BCNODE( ADD. UY. LAMI. VELO. ENTI = "f-bwall2". NOPA ) 20. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. TEMP.69 ) BCNODE( ADD. ENTI = "f-bwall1". HEAT. NOMO. NEWJ ) PRINTOUT( ADD. ENTI = "Gadolinium" ) ICNODE( ADD. UX. LAMI. FIXE) POSTPROCESS( ADD. UY. ZERO ) SOURCE( ADD. HEAT. UX. ENTI = "f-bsym". UY. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. TEMP. NBLO = 1. ENER. NOPT. TSTA = 0. ENTI = "f-tin". SING ) PROBLEM( ADD.Appendix B: (Continued) BCNODE( ADD. ENTI = "f-tin". SING ) SOLUTION( ADD. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. ENTI = "f-twall2". CONS = 2.56. NONE ) OPTIONS( ADD. TSTA = 1.

PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. CONS = 2. NAME = "si3". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD.054971 ) /========================================= / ENTITY NAMES /========================================= ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "si3-out". NAME = "si3-int". NAME = "si2-right". NAME = "si1-bot". PLOT ) 177 in Trapezoidal . CONS = 7. NATTA = "si2" ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "fl". CONS = 0. PROP = "gd" ) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. FLUI. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. PROP = "si" ) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "si1". SOLI. CONS = 0. ISOT ) DENSITY( ADD. SET = "si". PLOT. NAME = "si1-left". NAME = "si2-out". NAME = "fl-in".9974 ) SPECIFICHEAT( ADD. PROP = "fl" ) ENTITY( ADD. SOLI. NAME = "si3-in".329 ) SPECIFICHEAT( ADD. SOLI. CONS = 0. SET = "fl". SET = "gd". SET = "si". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT. NAME = "si1-top". NAME = "si1-out". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD.29637.895 ) SPECIFICHEAT( ADD. NAME = "si3-bot". ATTA = "fl". CONS = 0.0014435. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "si1-in". ISOT ) DENSITY( ADD.0098 ) CONDUCTIVITY( ADD. NAME = "gd". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. PROP = "si" ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "fl-axi". NAME = "si2-in". ATTA = "fl". SET = "si". SOLI. CONS = 0. SET = "gd".0250956. PROP = "si" ) ENTITY( ADD. SET = "gd". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD.16778 ) CONDUCTIVITY( ADD. CONS = 0.9988 ) VISCOSITY( ADD. CONS = 0. NAME = "fl-out". NAME = "si2-int". ISOT ) DENSITY( ADD. NAME = "si2".Appendix C: FIDAP Program for Transient Heat Transfer Microchannels During Activation of Magnetic Heating Simulation FIPREP( ) /========================================= / MATERIAL PROPERTIES /========================================= CONDUCTIVITY( ADD. CONS = 0. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. SET = "fl". NATTA = "si3" ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "si2-bot". SET = "fl". SET = "fl". NAME = "si1-right". NAME = "si3-axi". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD.

PLOT. ATTA = "fl". SING ) SOLUTION( ADD. ENTI = "fl-axi". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. = 100. N. UX. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. CONS = 5. PLOT ) /========================================= / BOUNDARY CONDITION COMMANDS /========================================= BCNODE( ADD. NAME = "gd-axi". 10. NOPT. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD.R. CONS = 20. ENTI = "gd" ) /========================================= / EXECUTION COMMANDS /========================================= DATAPRINT( ADD. NAME = "gd-left". UY. ENTI = "fl-int". ENER. CONT ) EXECUTION( ADD. NEWT. NEWJ ) PRINTOUT( ADD. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. FIXE) POSTPROCESS( ADD. 20 END( ) 178 . TEMP. NOPA ) 2. TRAN. FIXE. NAME = "gd-in". ENTI = "si3-int". NAME = "fl-int". ENTI = "gd" ) ICNODE( ADD. ENTI = "si2" ) ICNODE( ADD.91) BCNODE( ADD. CONS = 20. 2 20. 3-D. ENTI = "fl-in". TEMP. CONS = 20.Appendix C: (Continued) ENTITY( ADD. NSTE = 200. VELO. CONS = 403. UPWI ) PROBLEM( ADD. VELC = 0. ENTI = "fl-in". NBLO = 2. UZ. DT = 0. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. CONS = 20 ) BCNODE( ADD. ZERO ) SOURCE( ADD. TSTA = 0. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. 200. LAMI. NONL. TEMP. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. NAME = "gd-out". ENTI = "fl-in". UX. VELO. VELO. ENTI = "fl" ) ICNODE( ADD. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. NAME = "gd-top". HEAT. ENTI = "si2-int". TEMP. ENTI = "si1" ) ICNODE( ADD.001) /TIME LENGTH = 1s TIMEINTEGRATION( ADD. CONS = 20.005. NONE ) OPTIONS( ADD. NATTA = "gd" ) ENTITY( ADD. ENTI = "fl-in". INCO. TEMP.0. ENTI = "si3" ) ICNODE( ADD. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD.12. TEMP. MOME. CONS = 20. BACK.

NATTA = "si3" ) ENTITY( ADD. CONS = 0. SET = "gd". CONS = 0. NAME = "fl-in".0098 ) CONDUCTIVITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "si3-axi". PLOT. NAME = "si3-in".Appendix D: FIDAP Program for Transient Heat Transfer Microchannels Under Time Varying Heat Source Simulation FIPREP( ) /========================================= / MATERIAL PROPERTIES /========================================= CONDUCTIVITY( ADD. NAME = "si1-out". CONS = 0. NAME = "si1-in". PLOT ) 179 in Trapezoidal . PROP = "fl" ) ENTITY( ADD.16778 ) CONDUCTIVITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD.29637.0014435. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. SET = "fl". SET = "fl".9988 ) VISCOSITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD.895 ) SPECIFICHEAT( ADD. SET = "si". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "si1-bot". NATTA = "si2" ) ENTITY( ADD. CONS = 0. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. CONS = 0. CONS = 0. CONS = 0. NAME = "si2-in". PROP = "si" ) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. SOLI. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. SET = "gd". FLUI. ISOT ) DENSITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. ATTA = "fl". NAME = "si3-bot". PLOT. SET = "fl". SET = "si". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "si3-out". NAME = "si3-int". CONS = 2. NAME = "fl-axi".9974 ) SPECIFICHEAT( ADD. PROP = "gd" ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "si1-left". NAME = "si1-top".0250956. SOLI. SET = "gd". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. SET = "si".054971 ) /========================================= / ENTITY NAMES /========================================= ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "si2-right". ISOT ) DENSITY( ADD. SET = "fl". NAME = "si2-int". PROP = "si" ) ENTITY( ADD. SOLI. CONS = 0. PROP = "si" ) ENTITY( ADD. SOLI. NAME = "si3". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "si1-right". CONS = 7. NAME = "si2-out".329 ) SPECIFICHEAT( ADD. NAME = "fl-out". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "si2-bot". ISOT ) DENSITY( ADD. NAME = "si1". NAME = "fl". NAME = "si2". ATTA = "fl". NAME = "gd".

ENER. NATTA = "gd" ) ENTITY( ADD. TSTA = 1. NOPT. TEMP. NAME = "gd-out". NAME = "gd-axi". NONE ) OPTIONS( ADD. VELO. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. INCO. TEMP. FIXE) TIMEINTEGRATION( ADD. ENTI = "fl-in".Appendix D: (Continued) ENTITY( ADD. VELO. ATTA = "fl". 400. ENTI = "si3-int". ENTI = "si2-int". TEMP. 2 20. UX. PLOT ) /========================================= / BOUNDARY CONDITION COMMANDS /========================================= BCNODE( ADD. NAME = "gd-left". NEWT. FIXE) POSTPROCESS( ADD. PLOT. HEAT. NAME = "gd-in". NBLO = 2. CONS = 403. TRAN. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. ENTI = "fl" ) ICNODE( ADD. CONS = 20. NOMO. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. BACK. HEAT. ENTI = "si2" ) ICNODE( ADD. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. 3-D. TEMP. CONS = 20. 10. BACK. SING ) PROBLEM( ADD. UY.001) TIMEINTEGRATION( ADD. FIXE. TEMP. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD.12. NONL. SING )SOLUTION( ADD. TSTA = 0. ENTI = "si1" ) ICNODE( ADD. ENTI = "fl-axi". CONS = -5. NEWT. UX. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. NSTE = 200. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. READ ) /========================================= / EXECUTION COMMANDS /========================================= DATAPRINT( ADD. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. 20 POSTPROCESS( ADD. UZ. ENTI = "si3" ) ICNODE( ADD. TEMP. CONS = 20. ENER. CONS = 5. TEMP. ENTI = "gd" ) ICNODE( ADD. NBLO = 1. FIXE. ZERO ) SOURCE( ADD. VELO.005. VELO. LAMI. NAME = "fl-int". 3-D. 200. ENTI = "gd" ) SOURCE( ADD. ENTI = "fl-int". = 100. 20 END( ) 180 . MOME. ENTI = "fl-in".91) BCNODE( ADD. NSTE = 400. ENTI = "gd" ) ICNODE( ADD. INCO. CONS = 20. LAMI. CONS = 20. NONL. DT = 0. DT = 0. CONS = 20 ) BCNODE( ADD.R. NOPT. CONT ) EXECUTION( ADD. VELC = 0.005. READ ) ICNODE( ADD. NEWJ ) PRINTOUT( ADD. ENTI = "fl-in". NOPA ) 2.12.0. UPWI ) PROBLEM( ADD.0. TRAN. ENTI = "fl-in". NAME = "gd-top". NOPA ) 20. N. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD.

SET = "wa1". NAME = "staxi". PLOT.96954 ) VISCOSITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. SET = "wa4".010331 ) /composite of Alumina suspended in water with 4% CONDUCTIVITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD.1180 ) SPECIFICHEAT( ADD. ISOT ) DENSITY( ADD. PROP = "wa4" ) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. SET = "si". CONS = 0.0250956.0016491. NATT = "ft" ) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT. CONS = 7. CONS = 2. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "int3". PROP = "si" ) ENTITY( ADD. SET = "wtr". CONS = 0. CONS = 0. SET = "wa1". SET = "wa1". SET = "wa1".87958 ) VISCOSITY( ADD.29637. NAME = "fb". FLUI.329 ) SPECIFICHEAT( ADD. ATTA = "s". ATTA = "s".0281 ) SPECIFICHEAT( ADD. ISOT ) DENSITY( ADD. NAME = "sbaxi". NATT = "fb" ) ENTITY( ADD. SET = "gd". SET = "wtr". NAME = "sout". NAME = "ft".895 ) SPECIFICHEAT( ADD. SET = "gd". ATTA = "s".9982 ) SPECIFICHEAT( ADD.9995 ) VISCOSITY( ADD. ISOT ) DENSITY( ADD. CONS = 0. NATT = "ft" ) ENTITY( ADD. FLUI. ATTA = "s". SET = "wa4". ISOT ) DENSITY( ADD. CONS = 0. CONS = 0. NAME = "int4". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. CONS = 0. PLOT. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. CONS = 0.Appendix E: FIDAP Program for Steady State Heat Transfer Using Nanofluids in Circular Microchannels Simulation FIPREP( ) /========================================= / MATERIAL PROPERTIES /========================================= CONDUCTIVITY( ADD. CONS = 0.01003 ) /composite of Alumina suspended in water with 1% CONDUCTIVITY( ADD. SET = "wtr".0017925. NAME = "sin". NAME = "int2".001434. NAME = "s". ISOT ) DENSITY( ADD. NATT = "fb" ) ENTITY( ADD. SET = "si". PLOT ) 181 . NAME = "sleft". SET = "wtr". CONS = 0. PROP = "wa4" ) ENTITY( ADD. SET = "gd". SOLI. SET = "wa4". CONS = 0. CONS = 0. CONS = 0. NAME = "stop". NAME = "sbot".011033 ) CONDUCTIVITY( ADD. CONS = 1. CONS = 1. NAME = "int1".054971 ) /========================================= / ENTITY NAMES /========================================= ENTITY( ADD. SET = "wa4". PLOT. CONS = 0. SET = "si".16778 ) CONDUCTIVITY( ADD.

ENTI = "int2". UX. NAME = "fbout". NAME = "fbaxi". ENTI = "fbaxi". ENTI = "int3".1702 ) BCFLUX( ADD. UX. ENTI = "fbin". ENTI = "ftaxi". HEAT. CONT ) 182 . VELO.896 ---> Re=200 /for 1% composite Vin=167. TEMP. ENTI = "fbin". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "ftout". ENTI = "ftin". ENTI = "int4". HEAT. ENTI = "sbot". HEAT. CONS = 0 ) BCFLUX( ADD. UY. HEAT. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. UX. ENTI = "ftaxi".48 ===> Re=1000 / vin=32. ENTI = "ftin".494 ---> Re=200 BCNODE( ADD. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. ENTI = "sbaxi". ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. ENTI = "sleft". ENTI = "ftin". UX. NAME = "fint". CONS = 32. NAME = "fbin". ENTI = "ftin". ENTI = "fbin". PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. UZ. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. ENTI = "int1". ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. ENTI = "fbin". ENTI = "fbaxi". CONS = 20 ) BCNODE( ADD. CONS = 0 ) BCFLUX( ADD. ENTI = "stop". VELO. CONS = 20 ) BCNODE( ADD.Appendix E: (Continued) ENTITY( ADD. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. CONS = 0 ) BCFLUX( ADD. NAME = "ftaxi".48 ===> Re=1000 / vin=33. VELO. CONS = 0 ) BCFLUX( ADD. HEAT. ENTI = "staxi". ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. VELO. PLOT ) /========================================= / BOUNDARY CONDITION COMMANDS /========================================= /for 4% composite Vin=164. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. CONS = 0 ) /========================================= / EXECUTION COMMANDS /========================================= DATAPRINT( ADD. HEAT. ENTI = "fbaxi". NAME = "ftin". UY. CONS = 32. HEAT.896 ) BCNODE( ADD. ENTI = "ftaxi". UY. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. CONS = 7. PLOT ) ENTITY( ADD. CONS = 0 ) BCFLUX( ADD. UY. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD.496 ---> Re=200 /for pure water Vin=167. ZERO ) /These 7 lines are default but include them any way just in case BCFLUX( ADD.47 ===> Re=1000 / vin=33. TEMP. UZ.896 ) BCNODE( ADD.

= 100.R. S.Appendix E: (Continued) EXECUTION( ADD. N. INCO. NEWT. 3-D. ENER. UPWI ) PROBLEM( ADD. NONL. LAMI.001) END( ) 183 . = 100.S. SING ) SOLUTION( ADD. FIXE. VELC = 0.001) /SOLUTION( ADD. NONE ) OPTIONS( ADD. MOME. NEWJ ) PRINTOUT( ADD. STEA. VELC = 0.

PROP = "so") ENTITY (ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. SOLID. WALL. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PROP = "gr") /inlet ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "pb-in". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "pipe-t". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "ft-axi". NAME = "fb-intb". SOLID. SEGR=10) DATAPRINT (ADD. NATT = "pipe-b") /MS3 ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD.Appendix F: FIDAP Program for Steady State Analysis in Hydronic Snow Melting System Simulation FIPREP /========================================= / EXECUTION COMMANDS /========================================= EXECUTION (NEWJOB) PROBLEM (ADD. NAME = "fb-out". NAME = "ground". WALL. NAME = "solid-t". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "s3-in". NAME = "ft-out". ENERGY) SOLUTION (ADD. PROP = "pi") ENTITY (ADD. PROP = "so") ENTITY (ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "pt-axi". NAME = "sb-in". PROP = "so") ENTITY (ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. SOLID. PROP = "so") ENTITY (ADD.CONT) PRINTOUT (ALL) /========================================= / ENTITY NAMES /========================================= /continium ENTITY (ADD. NAME = "ft-in". SOLID. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "solid-b". TURB. NATT = "pipe-b") ENTITY( ADD. PROP = "so") ENTITY (ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. SOLID. PLOT) 184 . NAME = "s1-in". WALL. NAME = "pt-out". ATTA = "fluid-b". NAME = "st-in". NAME = "fluid-t". ATTA = "fluid-t". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) /MS2 ENTITY( ADD. PROP = "fl") ENTITY (ADD. NAME = "ft-intt". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. SOLID. NAME = "ft-intb". PLOT) /MS1 ENTITY( ADD. FLUID. NAME = "pipe-b". NAME = "s2-in". PROP = "pi") ENTITY (ADD. FLUID. SOLID. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "fb-axi". ATTA = "fluid-t". NAME = "ft-bot". NAME = "pt-intt". ATTA = "fluid-b". 3-D. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "g-in". NATT = "pipe-t") ENTITY( ADD. PROP = "fl") ENTITY (ADD. NAME = "fluid-b". NAME = "pt-in". NAME = "fb-in". NAME = "solid-2". NATT = "pipe-t") ENTITY( ADD. WALL. NAME = "fb-intt". NONLINE. NAME = "solid-1". SOLID. NAME = "solid-3".

NAME = "s2-bot". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "st-intt". CONS=0. NAME = "s2-out". NAME = "s1-axi". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "pb-axi". UY. NAME = "sb-intt". NAME = "st-out". NAME = "pb-out".1869. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "sb-axi". CONS=0. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. UZ. PLOT) /MS4 ENTITY( ADD. ZERO. NAME = "pt-intb". CONS=0. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "sb-intb". NAME = "pb-intb". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. ZERO. NAME = "st-bot". NAME = "st-intb". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "g-left". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD.Appendix F: (Continued) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. ENTITY = "fb-in") BCNODE (ADD. PLOT) /MS9 ENTITY( ADD. UY. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. UZ. ENTITY = "fb-intt") BCNODE (VELOCITY. NAME = "st-axi". NAME = "s2-left". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. UX.1869. NAME = "s1-out". NAME = "g-axi". ENTITY = "ft-intb") BCNODE (VELOCITY. PLOT) /MS5 ENTITY( ADD. ENTITY = "ft-in") BCNODE (ADD. PLOT) /MS6 ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "pb-intt". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. CONS=0. PLOT) /MS7 ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "g-out". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. ZERO. ENTITY = "ft-in") BCNODE (ADD. ZERO. CONS=6. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "s1-bot". PLOT) /MS10 ENTITY( ADD. ENTITY = "fb-in") /interface BCNODE (VELOCITY. PLOT) /MS8 ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "s3-axi". ENTITY = "fb-in") BCNODE (ADD. ENTITY = "fb-intb") /axi 185 . UX. ENTITY = "ft-intt") BCNODE (VELOCITY. PLOT) /========================================= / BOUNDARY CONDITION COMMANDS /========================================= /inlet BCNODE (ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "s1-top". ENTITY = "ft-in") BCNODE (ADD. NAME = "pt-bot". NAME = "g-bot". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "sb-out". CONS=6. NAME = "s3-bot". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "s3-out". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD.

CONS = 0. ENTITY = "sb-out") BCFLUX (HEAT. ENTI = "ft-in" ) /BCNODE( KINE.0.00.0. CONS = 0.0. CONS = 0. CONS = 80.00045.0015750478) 186 . ENTITY = "s2-out") BCFLUX (HEAT. ENTI = "ft-in" ) BCNODE( DISS. CONS = 0. ENTI = "ft-in" ) BCNODE( KINE. CONS = 0. CONS = 0.0. CONS = 0. ENTITY = "pt-axi") BCFLUX (HEAT. TEMPERATURE. CONS = 0. CONS = 0. ENTITY = "s3-out") BCFLUX (HEAT. CONS = 0.001. CONS = 0.0. ENTITY = "s3-in") BCFLUX (HEAT. ENTI = "fb-in" ) /BCNODE( KINE. CONS = 0. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. SET = "fl". CONS = 0.0. ENTI = "fb-in" ) /IC /ICNODE( KINE. CONS = 0. CONS = 0.0. ENTI = "ft-axi". ENTITY = "st-in") BCFLUX (HEAT. ENTI = "fb-axi". CONS = 0. CONS = 80. CONS = 0. CONS = 0.98) CONDUCTIVITY (ADD.0.0. ENTITY = "ft-axi") BCFLUX (HEAT. ENTITY = "fb-in") BCNODE (ADD.Appendix F: (Continued) BCNODE( ADD.00. ENTITY = "fb-axi") BCFLUX (HEAT. ENTITY = "g-left") BCFLUX (HEAT.0.00. UX. CONS = 0.00045. ENTITY = "pb-axi") BCFLUX (HEAT.0. CONS = 0. ENTI = "fb-in" ) BCNODE( DISS. CONS = 0. ZERO ) /temperature BCNODE (ADD.0. UX. ENTITY = "s1-top") /insulation/symmetry BCFLUX (HEAT. CONS = 0.0. ENTITY = "g-bot") BCFLUX (HEAT. ENTITY = "sb-in") BCFLUX (HEAT. ENTITY = "s1-axi") BCFLUX (HEAT. CONS = 0. CONS = 0.00045.001. ENTITY = "s1-in") BCFLUX (HEAT. ENTI = "ft-in" ) /BCNODE( DISS. ENTITY = "g-in") BCFLUX (HEAT. TEMPERATURE. ENTITY = "s3-axi") BCFLUX (HEAT. CONS = 0. CONS = 0.0. ENTI = "fb-in" ) /BCNODE( DISS.003. TEMPERATURE. ENTITY = "ft-in") BCNODE (ADD. ENTITY = "g-axi") /in face and out face BCFLUX (HEAT. ENTITY = "s2-in") BCFLUX (HEAT. SET = "fl".0. CONS = 0. ALL ) /ICNODE( DISS.00. CONS = 0. ALL ) /========================================= / MATERIAL PROPERTIES /========================================= /fluid=fl (water) DENSITY (ADD. CONS = 0. CONS = 0.0.0. CONS = 0.0. ENTITY = "s2-left") BCFLUX (HEAT.0. CONS = 0. ENTITY = "g-out") /special BCNODE( KINE. CONS = 0.0. ENTITY = "sb-axi") BCFLUX (HEAT. CONS = 0. CONS = 0. ENTITY = "st-out") BCFLUX (HEAT.0. CONS = 0.0.0. ENTITY = "s1-out") BCFLUX (HEAT. ENTITY = "st-axi") BCFLUX (HEAT.0. CONS = 0.

CONS = 0.00423 ) /EDDY(BOUS) /pipe=pi (Carbon Steel 1%) DENSITY (ADD. SET = "fl".00239005736) SPECIFICHEAT (ADD. CONS = 0.102772467) SPECIFICHEAT (ADD.801) CONDUCTIVITY (ADD. CONS = 0. SET = "gr". CONS = 7. SET = "so". CONS = 1.000717) VISCOSITY( ADD. SET = "pi".113049713) /solid=so (concrete) DENSITY (ADD. SET = "so". SET = "fl". SET = "so".00239005736) SPECIFICHEAT (ADD. CONS = 0. SET = "gr". CONS = 1. CONS = 0.Appendix F: (Continued) SPECIFICHEAT (ADD. CONS = 2.3) CONDUCTIVITY (ADD. CONS = 0. CONS = 0.454110899) END 187 . SET = "pi". SET = "gr". SET = "pi".5) CONDUCTIVITY (ADD. TWO-.210325048) /ground=gr (sandstone) DENSITY (ADD.

PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "fb-in". NAME = "fb-intt". NAME = "solid-t". NAME = "solid-2". NAME = "pipe-t".0. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. WALL. FIXE) POSTPROCESS( NBLO = 2 ) 120. PROP = "fl") ENTITY (ADD. SOLID. CGS. SOLID. ATTA = "pipe-t") ENTITY( ADD. SOLID.01.01. NAME = "s2-in". NAME = "s1-in". NAME = "ft-bot". FLUID. NAME = "sb-in". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PROP = "fl") ENTITY (ADD. NATTA = "fluid-b". PLOT) /MS2 ENTITY( ADD. FLUID. NAME = "ft-in". NATTA = "fluid-t". TSTA = 0. 5040. NAME = "fb-out". NAME = "pt-in". NONLINE. NAME = "st-in". WALL. NAME = "ft-out".Appendix G: FIDAP Program for Transient Analysis in Hydronic Snow Melting System Simulation FIPREP /========================================= / EXECUTION COMMANDS /========================================= EXECUTION (NEWJOB) PROBLEM (ADD. ATTA = "pipe-b") 188 . PROP = "so") ENTITY (ADD. NAME = "solid-b". NAME = "ground". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PROP = "so") ENTITY (ADD. SOLID. TURB. PROP = "pi") ENTITY (ADD. 3-D. PROP = "so") ENTITY (ADD. VELC=0. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. SEGR=1000. PROP = "so") ENTITY (ADD. NAME = "ft-axi". ENERGY) SOLUTION (ADD. NAME = "solid-1". 600. TRAN. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NATTA = "fluid-t". NSTE = 5040. SCHANGE=0) DATAPRINT (ADD.CONT) PRINTOUT (NONE) TIMEINTEGRATION( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "ft-intb". RESC=0. PROP = "so") ENTITY (ADD. NAME = "fb-axi". NAME = "fluid-b". SOLID. NAME = "fluid-t". NAME = "ft-intt". NAME = "pipe-b". PROP = "gr") /inlet ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "solid-3". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. SOLID. NAME = "g-in". NAME = "s3-in". SOLID. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) /MS1 ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. 120 720. DT = 5. NAME = "pb-in". BACK. SOLID. PROP = "pi") ENTITY (ADD. CR. 720 /========================================= / ENTITY NAMES /========================================= /continium ENTITY (ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. ATTA = "pipe-t") ENTITY( ADD. WALL.

NAME = "pt-axi". NAME = "s2-left". NAME = "s3-axi". NAME = "s1-axi". NAME = "g-axi". NAME = "fb-intb".1869. ENTITY = "ft-in") BCNODE (ADD. NAME = "s1-top". NAME = "sb-out". ATTA = "pipe-b") /MS3 ENTITY( ADD.Appendix G: (Continued) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) /MS7 ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "s1-out". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "s1-bot". PLOT) /========================================= / BOUNDARY CONDITION COMMANDS /========================================= /inlet BCNODE (ADD. PLOT) /MS8 ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "st-intt". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "st-axi". NAME = "sb-intt". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) /MS9 ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "sb-axi". UZ. ENTITY = "ft-in") BCNODE (ADD. WALL. NAME = "pt-bot". NAME = "pb-intt". CONS=0. NAME = "g-bot".1869. CONS=6. NATTA = "fluid-b". NAME = "pt-intt". PLOT) /MS4 ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "st-bot". NAME = "s3-out". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "pb-intb". CONS=6. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "pt-intb". NAME = "sb-intb". PLOT) /MS5 ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. CONS=0. UZ. CONS=0. NAME = "st-intb". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "s2-bot". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. UY. PLOT) /MS6 ENTITY( ADD. UX. NAME = "pt-out". NAME = "pb-out". PLOT) /MS10 ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "pb-axi". NAME = "st-out". ENTITY = "ft-in") BCNODE (ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. UY. ENTITY = "fb-in") 189 . NAME = "g-left". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "g-out". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. CONS=0. ENTITY = "fb-in") BCNODE (ADD. PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. NAME = "s3-bot". PLOT) ENTITY( ADD. ENTITY = "fb-in") BCNODE (ADD. UX. NAME = "s2-out".

0. ENTITY = "g-bot") BCFLUX (HEAT.010630406 18000 -0. CONS = 0. ENTITY = "fb-intt") BCNODE (VELOCITY.008686007 7200 -0.0. CONS = 0. CONS = 0. ENTITY = "fb-intb") /axi BCNODE( ADD.0. ENTITY = "st-axi") BCFLUX (HEAT. ENTITY = "st-in") BCFLUX (HEAT. ENTITY = "ft-axi") BCFLUX (HEAT. CONS = 0. CONS = 0. ENTITY = "g-axi") /in face and out face BCFLUX (HEAT. CONS = 1. ENTITY = "s2-left") BCFLUX (HEAT.0.0. ENTITY = "pt-out") BCFLUX (HEAT. ENTI = "ft-axi". ENTITY = "s1-in") BCFLUX (HEAT.0.0. UX. CONS = 0.0.0.0. ENTITY = "g-in") BCFLUX (HEAT. CONS = 0.0.0.0. ENTITY = "s1-out") BCFLUX (HEAT. CONS = 0. CONS = 0. CONS = 0.0.Appendix G: (Continued) /interface BCNODE (VELOCITY.0. ENTITY = "pb-in") BCFLUX (HEAT. CONS = 0. CONS = 0. ENTI = "fb-axi". CONS = 0.0. ENTITY = "ft-intt") BCNODE (VELOCITY. CURV = 1. ENTITY = "s3-out") 190 . ENTITY = "pb-out") BCFLUX (HEAT. CONS = 0. ENTITY = "pt-in") BCFLUX (HEAT. CONS = 0. ENTITY = "pb-axi") BCFLUX (HEAT. ENTITY = "sb-out") BCFLUX (HEAT. TEMPERATURE.00667844 /insulation/symmetry BCFLUX (HEAT. CONS = 0. CONS = 0. ENTITY = "s1-top") TMFUNCTION(SET=1. CONS = 0.012986843 21600 -0. ENTITY = "fb-in") /variable heat transfer/storm data BCFLUX (HEAT. ZERO. CONS = 0. ENTITY = "ft-in") BCNODE (ADD. ENTITY = "s1-axi") BCFLUX (HEAT.0. ENTITY = "pt-axi") BCFLUX (HEAT.0. NPOI = 8) /CURVE=16) 0000 -0.009111684 14400 -0. FACT = 1.0.0.005518975 25200 -0.0. ENTITY = "s3-in") BCFLUX (HEAT.0. ENTITY = "ft-intb") BCNODE (VELOCITY. ENTITY = "s2-in") BCFLUX (HEAT.008537614 3600 -0. CONS = 0. ENTITY = "fb-axi") BCFLUX (HEAT.0. ENTITY = "s2-out") BCFLUX (HEAT. ZERO.0. ZERO. ENTITY = "sb-in") BCFLUX (HEAT.0. CONS = 0. ZERO ) /temperature BCNODE (ADD. ENTITY = "g-left") BCFLUX (HEAT.008811232 10800 -0. ENTITY = "s3-axi") BCFLUX (HEAT.0. CONS = 0. CONS = 0. CONS = 80. ZERO ) BCNODE( ADD. ENTITY = "st-out") BCFLUX (HEAT. TEMPERATURE. CONS = 0. ENTITY = "sb-axi") BCFLUX (HEAT.0. CONS = 0. CONS = 0. CONS = 80. CONS = 0. ZERO. UX.

CONS = 0. TEMP. ENTI = "fb-in" ) /IC ICNODE( ADD. SET = "pi". CONS = 0. CONS = 0. SET = "so". ENTI = "solid-3" ) ICNODE( ADD. TEMP. CONS = 0. SET = "fl".102772467) SPECIFICHEAT (ADD.00. SET = "fl". TEMP. SET = "so". SET = "so". CONS = 0. ENTI = "solid-2" ) ICNODE( ADD.113049713) /solid=so (concrete) DENSITY (ADD.801) CONDUCTIVITY (ADD.00239005736) SPECIFICHEAT (ADD. TWO-. CONS = 1.00239005736) SPECIFICHEAT (ADD. SET = "fl". CONS = 0.Appendix G: (Continued) BCFLUX (HEAT. CONS = 0.98) CONDUCTIVITY (ADD. SET = "gr". CONS = 0. TEMP. ENTI = "solid-b" ) ICNODE( ADD.0015750478) SPECIFICHEAT (ADD. CONS = 0. CONS = 0. CONS = 0. ENTI = "fluid-b" ) ICNODE( ADD. CONS = 0. ENTI = "fb-in" ) BCNODE( DISS. CONS = 0. CONS = 1. ENTI = "fluid-t" ) ICNODE( ADD. TEMP. CONS = 0. CONS = 0. CONS = 0.00. ENTI = "solid-t" ) ICNODE( ADD. CONS = 0. SET = "pi". TEMP. SET = "gr". CONS = 0. ENTI = "solid-1" ) ICNODE( ADD.454110899) END 191 . CONS = 2. CONS = 0. ENTI = "pipe-t" ) ICNODE( ADD. ENTI = "ft-in" ) BCNODE( DISS. SET = "pi". ENTI = "ground" ) /========================================= / MATERIAL PROPERTIES /========================================= /fluid=fl (water) DENSITY (ADD. TEMP. TEMP. CONS = 0.000717) VISCOSITY( ADD. ENTITY = "g-out") /special BCNODE( KINE.00.5) CONDUCTIVITY (ADD. CONS = 0. SET = "gr". CONS = 7. TEMP.210325048) /ground=gr (sandstone) DENSITY (ADD.00.00423 ) /pipe=pi (Carbon Steel 1%) DENSITY (ADD. ENTI = "ft-in" ) BCNODE( KINE. CONS = 0. ENTI = "pipe-b" ) ICNODE( ADD. SET = "fl". CONS = 0. TEMP.0.3) CONDUCTIVITY (ADD. CONS = 0.

8 6.036 Re = 1000. d = 0.4 Re = 1000. G = 10.71 6. The parameter combinations used are listed together with the resulting data as follows: Z = 0. G = 10. magnetic field intensity.16 0 0 7.4 and Z = 0.23 10.80 0 0 6.23 10.34 8. n = number of runs 192 (Contrast ) 2 = 23 n .94 9.8 4. Using combinations of three parameters will end up with 8 runs and 8 data outputs.92 7. The parameters used in this study are: Reynolds number.048 Re = 1600. and tube diameter.01 9.40 0. G = 5. G Contrast d Contrast Re. d = 0.048 Nu = Nu = Nu = Nu = Nu = Nu = Nu = Nu = 7. This study was performed at two different locations: Z = 0. d Contrast Re. d = 0. G.01 9.92 9.64 7.68 0 0 Z = 0.34 The contrast constants for each parameter and parameter combinations are obtained by performing a series of mathematical operations.52 0 0 Sum of the squares for the effects are calculated using the following formula: SS eff where.00 0. d = 0. d Contrast G.64 7.036 Re = 1600.036 Re = 1000.8.036 Re = 1600. G = 5. G = 10. d = 0. adding. G = 5.55 8. d = 0. G = 10.048 Re = 1600.55 8. d = = = = = = = 6. d = 0. d = 0.71 8. and subtracting the data according to the run they were generated from.048 Re = 1000.Appendix H: Design of Experiment on Parameters and Quantitative Error Analysis of the Grid Test Design of experiment Design of experiment is a technique to study the effect of different parameters on a specific data output by applying a combination of parameter changes.4 Contrast Re Contrast G Contrast Re. G = 5.94 Z = 0. The contrast for the parameters and parameter combinations are shown as follows: Z = 0.

78 % 0. d = = = = = = = 0.. d = = = = = = = 40.496 % 0% 0% Z = 0.G . G SSd SSRe. G % contribution of d % contribution of Re.3600 0 0 0. d % contribution of Re. d SSG.85 % 0% 0% 60...004225 0 0 The percentage contribution of each of the effects is obtained by taking the ratio of the sum of squares of the effect to the total sum of squares and then multiplying the results with 100.8 0...4 % contribution of Re % contribution of G % contribution of Re. The results were as follows: Z = 0.5929 0 0 0. + SS Re..4 SSRe SSG SSRe.. the percentage contribution of effect Re is given as: Percentage contribution of Re = SS Re × 100 SS T The factor having the highest percentage contribution is said to have the most effect on the experiment.456 % 0% 0% The results clearly show that the change in Reynolds number and diameter have the most effect on Nusselt number but the change in the magnetic field is the least.. Total sum of squares is calculate by adding all the sum of squares as follows: SS T = SS Re + SS G + SS Re..8556 0..73 % 0% 0% 58..G + .007225 0 0 Z = 0.Appendix H: (Continued) Then. d % contribution of G.5625 0. 193 .70 % 0. G. For example. d SSRe.8 38. G..d This is done for each effect ending up with the following results: Z = 0.

An initial value of e was assumed.56 % 4. a correct value for e is determined. The results are shown below.49269 8. and after performing a number of iterations.05001 3. the number of elements that were used to mesh the geometry had to be deemed adequate.22457 5. Afterwards.8 1.204276 30. The quantitative difference in grid independence can be calculated using the equation: T =C+ D Ne N is the number of elements along an axis.42 % 3.63 % 2. 6 x 12 x 30.561867 27.Appendix H: (Continued) Quantitative error analysis To insure accurate results.76 % Z = 0.4 e = C= D= % error for 4 x 8 x 20 = % error for 6 x 12 x 30 = % error for 8 x 16 x 40 = 0. Three different grid tests provides three equations with known T and N.23 % 1. the percentage error could be obtained by: T −C × 100 C This test is performed at two different axial locations: Z = 0.4 and Z = 0. and 8 x 16 x 40. D. and e are constants to be evaluated. and C. This was done by performing computations for several combinations of elements in the axial and cross-sectional directions.58 % 194 .8.61695 41. These combinations were: 4 x 8 x 20. This results in a set of non-linear equations with three variables. Z = 0.

. He finished his Master’s degree in Mechanical Engineering at Oklahoma State University in December of 1999.D. degree in Mechanical Engineering at the University of South Florida. Saudi Arabia. He received a scholarship from his country to continue his higher education career abroad. He also finished his Ph.About the Author Abdullatif Gari was born in Saudi Arabia and lived there until he achieved his Bachelor’s degree in April of 1994 in Mechanical Engineering Department at King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah. He is going to work as an Assistant Professor in the thermal Engineering Department at King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah.

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