AFT VERTICAL CYLINDER HEAD BAFFLE- TO-COWL SEALS RUBBER SEAL UPPER COWL

BAFFLE

7

;7

_ jFIREWALl

LOWER COWL RUBBER SEAL

On some aircraft, the amount of cooling air that flows into the cowling is controlled through the use of cowl flaps. Cowl flaps are hinged doors that are installed at the bottom rear of the cowling where the cooling air exits. When the cowl flaps are open, a stronger low pressure area is created in the lower cowl and more air is pulled through the cylinders. On the other hand, when the cowl flaps are closed, the low pressure area becomes weaker and less cooling air is drawn between the cylinders. The position of the cowl flaps is controlled from the cockpit and are typically operated manually, electrically, or hydraulically. [Figure 10-6] Cowl flaps are typically in the full open position during all ground operations. The reason for this is that, while operating on the ground, airflow through the cowling is greatly reduced. However, once an aircraft is established in level flight, more air is forced into the cowling. This allows the cowl flaps to be closed so that the drag produced by the cowl flaps can be eliminated.

Augmenter tubes may be used on some aircraft to augment, or increase, the airflow through the cylinders. Like cowl flaps, augmenter tubes create a low pressure area at the lower rear of the cowling in order to increase the airflow through the cylinder cooling fins. [Figure 10-7]

Figure 10-6. By installing cowl flaps on an aircraft, the operator can control the amount of air that flows into the cowling.

The most commonly used auxiliary engine cooling system in helicopters is a large belt-driven cooling fan. an area of low pressure is created which draws additional cooling air over the engine cvlinders. the exhaust gases from the engine are routed into a collector and discharged into the inlet of a stainless steel augmenter tube. Blast tubes. As exhaust gases flow from each exhaust collector into an augmenter tube. where used. Furthermore. therefore. Since the downwash from the main rotor is insufficient to cool an engine an alternate method of engine cooling is required. The flow of high-velocity exhaust gases creates an area of low pressure at the inlet of the augmenter tube and draws air from above the engine through the cylinder fins. As an example of a helicopter cooling fan assembly. For example. Some reciprocating engines use augmenter tubes to improve engine cooling. alternators. produce more heat. and are an integral part of the baffle Many engine installations use blast tubes to direct cooling air in to inaccessible areas of an engine compartment. helicopters typically fly at much slower airspeeds than fixed-wing aircraft and do not benefit from ram airflow.INTER-CYLINDER BAFFLES AUGMENTER TUBE ••• ~ AMBIENT EXHAUST AIR Figure 10-7. and generators are often cooled using blast tubes. consider the Bell 47 helicopter. In an augmenter system. The combination of exhaust gases and cooling air exits at the rear of the augmenter tube. helicopter engines generally operate at a high rpm for prolonged periods of time and. the baffles structure. Engine accessories such as magnetos. A blast tube is basically a small pipe or duct that channels air from the main cooling airstream onto heat-sensitive components. are typically built into Helicopters present unique problems when it comes to cooling an engine. The cooling fan is mounted on the front side of the engine and is dri- .

Anytime a tem perature difference exists between the two junctions.In spite of the disadvantages. water jacket. The 1. several precautions must be observed when replacing or repairing them. A thermocouple is a circuit consisting of two dissimilar metal wires connected together at two junctions to form a loop. new air-cooled engine designs became the standard for several reasons. A coolant pump circulates the coolant in a pressurized loop from the water jacket to a radiator. To allow for higher engine temperatures and a smaller radiator. aircooled engines are not hampered by cold-weather operations as severely as liquid-cooled engines. Two such aircraft were the P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang which flew with liquid-cooled V-12 engines. a galvanometer measures the amount of electrical current produced by a thermocouple. In addition. Figure 10-8. . First. Liquid-cooled aircraft engines are constructed with a metal water jacket that surrounds the cylinders. I Figure 10-8J Most cylinder head temperature gauges are galvanometer-type meters that display temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit. they have had limited success in aircraft. and other associated hoses and lines added a substantial amount of weight. uses a mixture of 60 percent ethylene glycol and 40 percent water as a coolant. The hot junction is installed in the cylinder head in one of two ways. the two dissimilar wires may be joined inside a bayonet probe which is then inserted into a special well in the top or rear of the hottest cylinder. on the other hand. or reference junction. The coolant is circulated at a high velocity and the small radiator is located in an area which produces the least amoun t of drag. coolant. The cold junction. most reci procating engine powered aircraft are equipped with a cylinder head temperature (CHT) gauge that allows you to monitor engine temperatures. TEMPERATURE INDICATING SYSTEMS The engine temperature can have a dramatic impact on engine performance. ensure that all electrical connections are clean and torq ued to the correct value. ven by the transmission fan quill assembly through two matched V-belts. Thermocouple instrument systems are polarized and extremely sensitive to resistance changes within their electrical circuits. a small electrical current is generated that is proportional to the temperature difference and measurable by the galvanometer. Early aircraft engine designs used liquid cooling. liquid-cooled engines were used with great success in some American and British-built WWII fighter aircraft. the TeledyneContinental Voyager. Therefore. be sure to observe all colorcoding and polarity markings because accidentally reversing the wires causes the meter to move offscale on the zero side. In addition. Although liquid-cooled engines have been the standard for automotive and industrial engines for years. is typically located in the instrument case. As coolant circulates in the water jacket. heat passes [rom the cyl in del' walls and heads to the coolant. The two junctions of a thermocouple circuit are commonly referred to as a hot junction and a cold junction. however. where heat is transferred from the coolant to the air. If you recall From your study of electricity. or the wires may be imbedded in a special copper spark plug gasket. The cooling fan assembly on a Bell 47 helicopter is rotated by two V-belts that are driven by the engine transmission. The primary reason for this is that the need for a radiator. Therefore. A recently produced liquid-cooled engine.2:1 quill gear ratio turns the fan at a higher speed than the engine in order to distribute an adequate supply of cooling air to the engine. many liquid-cooled systems are pressurized.

Furthermore. the leads are a specified length.rhermocouple wlnng leads are typically supplied nmatched pairs and secured together by a common raid. only 15 to 30 percent of the total ram )

enters the cowling. the engine manufacturer's service or overhaul manual should be consulted to ensure the repair is within limits. panels must be visually inspected for dents. Therefore. FIN REMOVAL. The cooling fins on an engine are designed with a precise surface area to dissipate a certain amount of heat. when performing repairs to a cylinder's cooling fins. less fin area is available for cooling.Furthermore. it Llldbe followed up with all necessary repairs or acemen(s. An engine's fin area is the total area (both sides of the fin) exposed to the air. Therefore. accumulations of and tears can lead to cracking and contribute rrosion. Such damage causes weakness in anel struct ure and increases drag by disrupthe airflow. finish file the sharp edges to a smooth contour. After removing the damage. overall engine temperature must be interpreted a general way. latched to the system to provide accurate temperaIreindications. the formation of hot spots can occur on the cylinder. the aerodyic shape of a cowling must be clean and smooth ·duce drag and energy loss. ing. and cowl flaps. be inspected for 19 rivets and loose or damaged handles. The condition of the cooling fins plays a large role in their effectiveness and ability to provide adequate cylinder cooling. In on. The amount of fin damage permitted on a given cylinder is based on a percentage of the total fin area and is established by the manufacturer. cracks in cooling fins which do not extend into the cylinder head may be repaired. In cooling system components should be inspected ing a loO-hour or annual inspection. and cracks. Anytime an excessive amount of fin area is missing. Some of the components that are typy inspected include the cowling. This smoothness be considered when accomplishing any rs to a cowling or adjusting alignment of cowl Is and access doors.tems which monitor each cylinder and can be set warn you when a cylinder approaches its maxim temperature limit. necessitating the placement of the entire wiring harness and therocouple if a wire breaks or becomes damaged. Therefore. Therefore. In addition. e a thorough visual inspection is complete. you should check the safety locks for dam'ivets and the condition of the safety spring. mple CHT systems use a single indicator that mitors the hottest cylinder. NEVER ENTER BASE METAL Figure 10-9. accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. you must not remove any of the primary cylinder casting. Internal construction of cowl panels d be examined closely to ensure that the rein19 ribs are not tracked and that the air seal is ~maged. The percentage of total fin area that is removed must not exceed the limits established by the manufacturer. In addition. IFigure 10-9] Cracks drilled at the edge of a fin may be filed or stop to prevent the crack from lengthening. . In )me cases. :owl panel latches shou!c. A typical repair requires you to remove the damaged portion of the fin with a die grinder and rotary file. With this type of sysn. however. when cooling fins are broken off a cylinder. Early detection of breaks and cracks provide an opportunity to limit the damage and extend the service life of a cowling. more complex . ne all support brackets carefully to verify the ty of mounting and repair any cracks found in MAX. Generally. The length of the leads cannot be tteredbecause doing so changes their resistance. There are. au recall. cylinder fins. When repairing a damaged fin on a cylinder. the wiring leads are permanently tached to a thermocouple. cylinder cooling fins must be checked during each regular inspection. fin loss near spark plug openings or exhaust ports can cause dangerous local hot spots.

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enters the cowling. the engine manufacturer's service or overhaul manual should be consulted to ensure the repair is within limits. panels must be visually inspected for dents. Therefore. FIN REMOVAL. The cooling fins on an engine are designed with a precise surface area to dissipate a certain amount of heat. when performing repairs to a cylinder's cooling fins. less fin area is available for cooling.Furthermore. it Llldbe followed up with all necessary repairs or acemen(s. An engine's fin area is the total area (both sides of the fin) exposed to the air. Therefore. accumulations of and tears can lead to cracking and contribute rrosion. Such damage causes weakness in anel struct ure and increases drag by disrupthe airflow. finish file the sharp edges to a smooth contour. After removing the damage. overall engine temperature must be interpreted a general way. latched to the system to provide accurate temperaIreindications. the formation of hot spots can occur on the cylinder. the aerodyic shape of a cowling must be clean and smooth ·duce drag and energy loss. ing. and cowl flaps. be inspected for 19 rivets and loose or damaged handles. The condition of the cooling fins plays a large role in their effectiveness and ability to provide adequate cylinder cooling. In on. The amount of fin damage permitted on a given cylinder is based on a percentage of the total fin area and is established by the manufacturer. cracks in cooling fins which do not extend into the cylinder head may be repaired. In cooling system components should be inspected ing a loO-hour or annual inspection. and cracks. Anytime an excessive amount of fin area is missing. Some of the components that are typy inspected include the cowling. This smoothness be considered when accomplishing any rs to a cowling or adjusting alignment of cowl Is and access doors.tems which monitor each cylinder and can be set warn you when a cylinder approaches its maxim temperature limit. necessitating the placement of the entire wiring harness and therocouple if a wire breaks or becomes damaged. Therefore. Therefore. In addition. e a thorough visual inspection is complete. you should check the safety locks for dam'ivets and the condition of the safety spring. mple CHT systems use a single indicator that mitors the hottest cylinder. NEVER ENTER BASE METAL Figure 10-9. accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. you must not remove any of the primary cylinder casting. Internal construction of cowl panels d be examined closely to ensure that the rein19 ribs are not tracked and that the air seal is ~maged. The percentage of total fin area that is removed must not exceed the limits established by the manufacturer. In addition. IFigure 10-9] Cracks drilled at the edge of a fin may be filed or stop to prevent the crack from lengthening. . In )me cases. :owl panel latches shou!c. A typical repair requires you to remove the damaged portion of the fin with a die grinder and rotary file. With this type of sysn. however. when cooling fins are broken off a cylinder. Early detection of breaks and cracks provide an opportunity to limit the damage and extend the service life of a cowling. more complex . ne all support brackets carefully to verify the ty of mounting and repair any cracks found in MAX. Generally. The length of the leads cannot be tteredbecause doing so changes their resistance. There are. au recall. cylinder fins. When repairing a damaged fin on a cylinder. the wiring leads are permanently tached to a thermocouple. cylinder cooling fins must be checked during each regular inspection. fin loss near spark plug openings or exhaust ports can cause dangerous local hot spots.

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