World History Exam Notes 2011 ROME VS.

GREECE First, let us look at the differences between Romans and Greeks: The Romans and Greeks are similar in mythology and architecture. However, they are very different. The Greeks usually put the Romans to shame. The Romans took a back seat to the Greeks, however, the Greeks could not organize themselves. The Greeks were in constant war with one another. The Greeks also excelled intellectually; in philosophy, history, drama, art, math and science. The Greeks were not builders (Alexander tried with Helenism) The Roman genius was their architecture (aqueducts), engineering, their military, roads, and law and order. They are geniuses at coming up with high standards of living and controlling other populations. They made the populations feel like they are under one government. They started with the city of Rome, into the entire Italian peninsula, Sicily, North Africa, Spain, Gaul (modern day France), England and the Middle East. The Roman Empire lasted for 600 years and at its peek controlled the entire Mediterranean called Mar Nostrum=our sea. When we describe the Romans we describe them of being brutal - they had a large territory to control at times were ruthless but ruled with generosity. If the Romans recognized you as Roman then you took on all the responsibilities of Rome. When the empire collapsed people yearned for it to come together again - Napoleon, Hitler Romans bring the divided, disparate countries of Europe together into one population - still try to unify the countries today ie. the EU - want to do this so that they are not constantly going to war with them because Europe is highly competitive. Engineering: Romans built a lot (baths, theatres, roads and more). Wherever Romans went, they left impressive monuments behind. Urban Planning: This was taken very seriously. Life for these people needed to be as comfortable as possible. Created the aqueduct. Military Sciences: Legions (24-28), in a phalanx form. They mastered the ability to divide and conquer. Roman Values First, we compare Roman legends to the Greek legends. Achilles is an individual fighting against the world. He fights for his own existential status. He sulks in his tent for his own purposes. Odysseus is constantly tricking the world around him and uses his genius to manipulate. He gives and takes at the same time. The Romans, to these ideas, would say absolutely not! (More about Aeneas shortly) The Roman values are: Pietas: (piety) One must be pious to family and the rules of the system. Gravitas: (grave) One must be serious. Life is not question of fun’ it is a question o following the prescription that comes out through tradition (aware of the implications of traditions)

World History Exam Notes 2011 Dignitas: (dignity) The Roman rulers would have to be well kept and composed. They had to speak in a seemly fashion, be clean-shaven, stride with confidence and never hurrying and with deliberation. These qualities are what they bring to bear – not curiosity, rashness, and impulsiveness. They have to bring upon values that allow the collective to flourish. These ideas influence us until this day. They do not clout about and they do not lie. Maintaining the Empire is a serious process and you are always dignified and have a heaviness of spirit. Geography: The Italians are much more primitive and basic than Greece. Italy only picks up on trade much later. (This works with the idea of diffusion; Italy is farther west) Italy is much more multicultural. There were Indo-European cultures that had moved into Italy, but they were dealing with several populations that had resided there before. The Roman population was just one culture in Italy called the Latini. There is a multitude of disparate populations. Italy itself is very mountainous by the coast. The populations are much more separate. There are very few natural ports and harbors therefore the Romans are not interested in trade. They are an agricultural population because the land is fertile. It is not a maritime power. The Roman ideal is a tough gnarly backwards country bumpkin who is self-sufficient. It is also positioned in the centre of Western Europe and Eastern Europe and Africa – it is easy for them to look in all directions. FOUDNING MYTHS Legend of Aeneas Aeneas is an important legend of the Romans. He is much less colourful than Achilles or Odysseus but he is much more loyal. Romans remain loyal until the very end, for it is the group that counts in the end, not yourself. From the very beginning Romans are thinking that they are an important people - they are destined for greatness When Virgil tells the founding myths in the Aeneid of Rome in the 1st century BCE he thinks that it was inevitable that Rome would take over the world - he is somewhat sad because he knows that the greatness that was destined to be Rome would come at a very high cost. When the Romans started talking about their city, 3-4 centuries after, when it started taking over neighboring countries… The Romans availed themselves of their founding legends not artifacts. Virgil’s Aeneid: This is to Rome what Homer’s Iliad is to the Greeks. Virgil’s Aeneid is much more artificial than the Iliad. It took Virgil around 20 years to compose this poem. They are looked upon as the height of Roman poetry. He wrote it at a time when Rome had just discovered the empire. Virgil is looking back to the origin of Rome. (Augustus: Embarrassing moments in the poem, he pauses, now I’m going to think of the glory of Augustus = element of propaganda.)

World History Exam Notes 2011 Virgil’s Aeneid is, unquestionably, literary brilliance, a treasure trove of legends. This would have been composed around 20 BCE, but he is talking about the distant past. Legend: Aeneas: (son of Aphrodite, she was struck with Cupid’s arrow, married Anchises, had Aeneas therefore cares for him). He is mentioned in Homer’s Iliad, fighting on the Trojan side. There is a graphic image of Troy as well. Aeneas happens to be in Troy on the night that the Trojan horse is wheeled into the city of Troy as a monument to Athena and ostensibly the Greeks have gone home (they’ve given up). Aeneas takes his father on his shoulder, takes his son Ascanius/Iulus, takes his wife Creusa and is holding onto Penates. The Greeks see the sign of Pietas (piety) = it is decided to let them pass. Creusa cannot keep up = she was left there. Aeneas will meet up with other survivors from Troy and they will set sail (destination = Italy). He ends up however ending in North Africa (Carthage). The queen, Dido, is building it up. Aeneas has an affair with Dido but then decides he will be her mate. He says that sounds ok but Jupiter who says keep going visits him; your destiny is not here. Aeneas has to sneak out of Dido’s palace. Dido is very angry with this and threatens war between her city and the city Aeneas will found. Aeneas ends up in Italy after many adventures. This is a combination of the Iliad & Odyssey, of a mixture of the journey and the fighting. In Italy: Aeneus meets Latinus (King) who is very interested in Aeneus. He is struck by him and thinks: you are the fulfillment of prophecy. (A stranger will come, magnificent destiny ahead, I will marry my daughter to him). Therefore he immediately offers his daughter’s hand to Aeneus. Her name is Lavinia. But he forgets that he has already offered her hand to Turnus. War: Turnus and his allies fight against Aeneus against his allies, all because King Latinus promised Lavinia to Turnus and Aeneus. Pallas: joins Aeneus’ side and Pallas’ father asks: Aeneus, look after my son in battle. Unfortunately Pallas runs out ahead and is killed by Turnus. Turnus helps himself to Pallas… In the very last scene of the poem Turnus and Aeneus have a duel and Aeneus wounds Turnus. Turnus is a very noble king; not a villain – he falls to the ground, is wounded and supplicates Aeneus – you are the better man, you will marry Lavinia. But Aeneus spots Pallas’ belt (Pallas being the one Turnus killed) and Aeneus is angry and kills Turnus. The ending to the poem is one of homicide. Virgil’s answer, to why he ended the play like this: I lived in a very brutal period. Aeneus has this brilliant future ahead of him but the founding of Rome comes at a terrible cost = the death of innocents. If you’re going to have empires your hands will be steeped in blood. And therefore at any given time, but we live in an age where the USA are leading powers – if Virgil were to hear the critics of the united States saying we’re tired of empire he would say: you can’t have it both ways. Power (w/blood) or no power! Make up your mind!

World History Exam Notes 2011 History of Rome + General Ideas (+ Continuation of Founding Myths) Livy: To understand the events that follow we turn to the historian Livy who was a genuine historian. He wanted to tell the whole history of Rome, so he wrote this book called Ab Urbe Condita. (from the founding of the city) The Urbe here is Rome itself, in 753 BCE. He picks up where Virgil is left off in the story. Aeneas founds Lavinium, and it is taken over by Iulus. Iulus leaves and founds a new city, Alba Longa Many generations pass and we come face to face with two brothers. Numitor and Aemulius (brothers) Numitor is the rightful heir to the throne as the older, but Aemulius is the scheming younger brother. Aemulius schemes against him and locks Numitor away. Numitor, however, has a daughter. Aemulius is nervous that she’ll have children, and if she has children those would be the legitimate heirs to the throne. Aemulius doesn’t want to kill her so he enrolls her in this group of women called the Vestal Virgin. (A special religious office where women cannot get married or have children = nasty punishment. This is a very religious part of the Roman culture) Mars, the god of War, visits the daughter. Mars impregnates the daughter and she gives birth to twins: Romulus & Remus. Aemulius exposes them in the wilderness (epdusis). There is a famous statue of a she-wolf grabbing at the twins. The Sheppard finds them and they discover who they are: they muscle in Aemulius, push him out of the way, they free their grandfather Numitor – we have a destiny ahead of us. Romulus and Remus decide they want to make a city of their own, but they have an argument over where to build it. There are seven hills in the area. Romulus: we should build it around the hill Palatine Remus: No, we should build it around the hill of Aventine They decide to send eagles to see where the most go, and 12 eagles fly on the Palatine vs 6 eagles on the Aventine! Therefore Romulus takes a plow and traces the outline of his city. The outline of the city he traces is called the Pomerium. Remus jumps over the outline and Romulus kills him in a fury. Message/Clear in the Legend: Mars it the patron god of Rome. He is watching over the city – a city that will gain its future at the point of the sword. It is also understood right from the beginning that brothers can be divided over this city. The relationship to your own kin does not stand in the way of the future city of Rome: costs to family bonds. The message is also that the founding of Rome will come at high costs. Great enterprises require heads to be cracked. It is understood by all Romans that this a huge, huge enterprise. Romulus names the city after himself: Rome. He is the first King of Rome. Then there is a succession of Kings from 753 BCE – 509 BCE. Who went there: losers, criminals, and outcasts. It is a collection of Trojan refugees and nobody really wants to go. They are facing the dilemma of how to attract people.

World History Exam Notes 2011 The Rape of the Sabine Women, by Livy (not sexual violation, rather snatching) Most of the renegades are male. So you have this large male population of Rome. Romulus understands that if they do not bring females in the city will not succeed. He holds an athletic competition; come and watch if you want to! At a given signal according to this legend Romulus had his men run into the crowd, grab women (Sabine women) take them into the city. The Sabines are about to go to war! The Sabines want their daughters back. The daughters tell them that the Romans are honorable and they don’t want to go to war with them, they just want wives! The Romans expand the borders; include Sabine now. Myth between Alba Longa and Rome: Horiati vs Curiati In principle Alba Longa, a more progressed city, and Rome share a kinship but they become suspicious and march into Rome because Rome has expanded too much. Triplets from 1 side fight against triplets from the other side. Horatii vs Curiati – fight until death The one surviving member of the Horiati (Roman) kills the three Curiati – his sister is upset because she was engaged to one of the Curiati and her brother kills her because she is mourning in a time of triumph. Alba Longa is now part of Rome as well. 7 Kings: Romulus gives rise to 7 kings. They rule Rome from 753-510 BCE. Review of the Archaeological History of Rome and the Latin League: Very close to the traditional founding date of Rome (758 BCE), sometime around 800 BCE there was an Indo-European population that inserted itself into the area that we call Rome. There was an Italic branch of the IndoEuropean family that intruded into Italy that settled in the area of Rome. • Why Rome? It has natural defense (7 hills). At the same time Rome lies on the river Tiber. Therefore it is connected to the sea by the river. This is key for transporting goods. The earth was also very fertile. 600 BCE & on: This population had contact with something called the Latin League: this consisted of cities that formed a pact within; defend themselves against common enemies. This Latin League was in a state of antagonism with the Romans. Eventually Rome would take control of this Latin League. The area around Rome would be under the control of Rome. These myths that are being told make sense because we know that from an historical perspective that Rome naturally and peacefully incorporated these people or accommodated them after wars. Summary: Rome becomes part of the Latin League. Etruscans As Rome continues to expand it reaches a stronger population: Etruscans. They live in Etruria. There is a war and Rome is beaten. This is essentially a win-win situation. It is true that the Etruscan kings will rule. Although we know very little about the Estruscans, they seem to possibly have picked up Greek practices. Whatever their origins, they themselves were considerably more sophisticated than Rome at this time. The Estrucans influenced the Romans a lot: military organization, religious ways, art, agriculture etc. This is probably the introduction to gladiatorial combat: enormously popular and massive amounts of death! Is this Good or Bad for Rome? Yes, on the one hand – Romans themselves were not ruling them! (Estrucans!) But on the other hand…

World History Exam Notes 2011 The Estrucan influence is going to expose Rome to remarkable advances. The only problem is that the Romans don’t really like this foreign incursion (myth/history) Etruscan rulers Tarquinius Superbus and his son Sexta were hated. Sextus was a horrible king. The Romans were talking about Lucretia and Sextus is so upset about their descriptions of her that he visits her and rapes her. Lucretia goes to her husband and tells him. He relays what happened to her to his friend Brutus. Lucretia kills herself and makes them promise that they will avenger her dishonor Brutus takes this honor, leads his men and chases out Sexta. The Estrucans are now expelled from Rome! This is the start of the Republic. The Republic Republic/Respublica: Kings are a thing of the past and Romans are looking after their own destiny! The System Pomerium: The outline of the city. The Domus is inside and the Malitia is outside. This is important to know for the purpose of Imperium. Imperium: The power over life and death. When you were elected into office at the highest level that meant you had Imperium. • SPQR: Senatus Populus que Romanorum (The Senate and the People of Rome) The Romans know that even if it is essential to give the highest elected power, they did not trust them, because the leader is allowed to exercise it without questions from the people. It is only after he is out of office when the questions come. Imperium (power) is limited by geography and time. • Geography: It is limited to the Militia and not to the Domus. (Pomerium) • Time: annual election Consuls: The position most wanted. There were 2 consuls elected each year and enjoyed Imperium for that duration. They would give their name to the year (Dating things: that happened 150 years after Ab Urbe Condita, 753-150 = 603 BCE. Or, “that was the year the Consul _______ served in office”). The Consul had to wait ten years to run again. Function: the consuls would lead armies. They would also summon the Senate and determine its discussion + religious responsibility • The Consuls are executive but cannot carry out the laws as they see it; they need the approval of the Senate. You can ensure that they are on your side because they have the power to summon the Senate and determine the discussion! So the Consul can decide what to avoid if he knows the Senate’s will is different than his own. Sometimes the Consul would mention something “for the greater good of Rome” and the Senate would find loopholes to discuss the topic they wanted. The two consuls were usually in opposition with each other so that they couldn’t join their Imperium and wreak havoc in the city The consuls actually control the elections. (The consuls summon the assemblies so that they can vote in the next level of officials). The people who summon the assemblies are the consuls! This is a huge amount of power within the State.

World History Exam Notes 2011

How do you know that someone has Imperium? When you saw the fascus: (symbl of the Roman consul). • Lictors: people who are actually carrying the rods • Fascus: Bundle of rods with an axe in the middle = this represents his power, and his ability to kill if he sees fit • Fascism = Mussolini thought of fascus and translated into fascism Mos Maiorum: “The way of our ancestors” (e.g. Pirkei Avot). It is not written down, meaning that they have a traditional way of business. If you were a consul and saw someone you didn’t like, you might say I want to put him or her to death. Unwritten rule: don’t go after members of the clan. You don’t do that. If that consul says: I’ll do it anyway! then he can be charged with violating the Mos Maiorum. This ties the consul’s hand. Novus Homo: The position of Consul is so choice that if it is the first time for a clan to produce a Consul they are referred to as a Novus Homo.  Ecce Homo: Pontius Pilate comes out, sees Jesus, who has been beaten up and he says, “behold, the man!” Classes of Rome (Appointing the Consuls) Patrician Class: The consuls are coming from the Patrician class. There are 5 classes in Rome, this is the top one that consists of the Aristocats. Equine Class: Business class. Sometimes Senators came from here as well. They will not come from the lower classes. The most important governmental office is only open to the Aristocats. The Senate decides which members of the Patrician class are going to run as Consuls. In a sense the Senate too consists of the Patrician and Equine classes; they are determining which candidates are suitable to run for the Consul. Patricii vs Plebs: The aristocrats vs. the unwashed plebs. (common, vulgar, underclass) Proletarii: the bottom class. (In later years, when Rome is an empire…) Proconsul: Someone with imperial powers and they were sent off to a specific province where they would control it in the way that a Consul controls Rome itself. And there, your hands are not tied, except that you are Proconsul only in that province. • Rubicon: very insignificant river in Italy. But this river was the boundary between Gol and Cycil Pine Gol (a province) and Italy itself. Caesar himself was proconsul of Cycil Pin Gol. He was told to come home: “your turn of consul is expired.” He decides to bring his whole army across the river and becomes… • Hostis: fascinating term with a rich etymological history. But he becomes a traitor (he is violating the law). “Alea Iacta Est” Back to before the Empire… Dictators: (6 months)… His will is the will of Rome. He is voted into office. Sometimes Rome itself was faced with such terrible circumstances that they would appoint a Dictator - where your will was the will of Rome - had total Imperium for 6

World History Exam Notes 2011 months. A dictator = given complete power by the state unlike a tyrant = seizes power unconstitutionally Praetor: Praetors were the assistants of Consuls. When Rome grew they would take care of the army. They do have Imperium and look after the organization The Quaestors were also elected annually and they did not have Imperium - they would look after the treasury, taxes, armaments, and organization of the state Quaestor: They do not have Imperium but they look over treasury and taxes, sufficient number of armaments in supply, organization = transport systems being build, enough food + water being brought into Rome They look after infrastructure. Panem et Circenses: bread and circuses. Du pain = Insula: equivalent of apartment buildings Cursus Honorom: (An ambitious Roman’s path to a career). The Curus Honorom is the general hierarchy of getting to the big positions. First Quaestor: low functioning Then Praetor: someone with Imperium (assistant to the Consul) Then Consul (Climb the ladder!) You can only apply for the job of Quaestor at age 36, except Rome has a problem when it comes to encouraging the upper class to have offspring. You do not have large families on the affluent side of Rome. For every child you have you can knock a year off of the qualifying age of offices. Proconsul: outside of Italy itself: that appointment could last for a good 5 years and it would put you in a position where you could amass a great deal of wealth for yourself. Censor: (census = to count) the purpose of the censor is to count the population. And this would happen every five years. (Elected every 5 years and last 18 months). 1. Censors looked over the Senators: if you were a senator and used foul language/dressed badly/corrupt practices the Censors could have your name removed from the role of Senator. (A bit like ephors) 2. The censors also sorted the population into 5 classes. The classes determined your responsibilities and your entitlements within the state. (What role you could have = military service) Early Republican Ways: • Proletarii (bottom class) = idle poor. You did not serve in the army. It is the class that gives you offspring. The equipment cost money. Serving in the army was the first step to becoming a government position. The Government System You need more stability. Senate: A permanent structure, a deliberative body. It is made up of old men (senex = gerousia = gerontology). They were from the higher ranks of society (Patrician and Equine) If there are any large issues the Senate comes and deliberates these issues. It is the

World History Exam Notes 2011 group of political experience and wisdom, with advice, because these old men have lived through many things. But the Senate is only allowed to discuss issues that are introduced by the Consul, and you can only meet when the Consul allows you to meet. But once you have met and are discussing these things you would publish a Senatus Consultum. (sort of like a bill) The Consul, Praetor, or the Quaestor do not have to listen to the Senate - the Senate would have to be summoned and then told what they would have to talk about. The Consul can completely ignore the Senatus Consultum, a consensus, if he sees fit to do so (Mos Maiorum kicks in here though). He will pay the price as soon as his Imperium comes to an end. General Assembly: (Centuriate Assembly) Because all of the positions are elected (Consul, Praetors, etc.) there must be a body to elect them = the population. There are five classes and each class is divided into centuries, which were political units - there were approximately 193 centuries for the entire population, and each centry votes at election time. The two highest classes, the Patrician and Equine, are given the highest number of centuries so that they control more control in government - you would vote by century. The higher classes are determining who will be voted into governmental positions. Rome is a republic. Republics are democratic. When you take a look at all the officials they are all voted into power. The Senate can give their blessing on the law, the Consul can push the law on society, but the people have to vote their laws into the system. So Rome is a democracy… Right? Five Classes in Rome:  The whole Roman population = the two highest classes take up a small bit of Rome, but they have the most number of votes! Patricii vs Plebs: If you have to choose who is going to be Consul for that year you vote by Sentry (193). But the majority of those votes are coming from the two highest classes. This leads to a struggle between the classes - the Plebs are fighting against the Patricians - they stop voting, they are tired of voting in politicians who do nothing for them. The Plebs feel that they are doing some of the fighting and their own voice is not being heard; they feel that this situation is grossly unjust. After many of strikes on part of the Plebs (guess what we’re not voting!) After a great deal of deliberation another politician is introduced: the Tribune to be a Tribune you had to be a member of the Plebeians - he can grant immunity to the Plebs. Tribune: (Two + could be elected) Political official: You have to come from the Plebian class (you have to represent the Plebs). The Tribune can grant immunity to the Plebs. He also controls to some degree elections and the passage of laws. Now you could actually be taken out of the roles of Patrician and go into Plebian ranks and become the Tribune and have some power! Julius Caesar became Tribune (even though part of the Patrician class) The Carthaginian Wars

World History Exam Notes 2011

There is no more revealed tension between Patricii vs Plebs. Now it’s morphed to something along the lines of the Optimates vs. the Populares. The Romans were political animals. If you were a Patrician or Equine class you were an Optimician (conservative, hang on to the regular way in which business in Rome is conducted) Populares: progressive, reform, SPQR: Senate and the People of Rome (the whole population is known as this) The Carthaginian Wars, or Punic Wars, which we will speak of in a moment, really transformed Rome from a city that controlled all of Italy to a city that controlled the whole of the Mediterranean. Carthage: The city Carthage was actually a Phoenician Colony (Phoenicians base = modern day Lebanon). Located in North Africa (Tunisia). It generally speaking was quite a harsh empire in the sense that it would send out generals and some troops but they enlisted non-Carthaginians into their armies and brutalized them when it came to making them fight. They did not have the same idea of citizenship They developed an Empire of their own in Sicily, North Africa and parts of Spain. They want to trade and for the longest time Romans don’t really carea bout the presence of Carthage at their borders. When Aeneas leaves Dido she says there will be war (lover’s quarrel between them). This is the legendary source for the Carthaginian wars. Rome starts as a tiny place and conquers a little more territory. It is faced with pressure and conquers more. The more you conquer the more tension there is between places and therefore must have to conquer more! 753 – 275 BCE = Rome is pretty much in control of all of Italy. It is at this moment that they understand there is a problem in Sicily, specifically, with the city of Messana. 1st Carthaginian War 265: Sicily is comprised of Greek city-states that hate each other. King Hiero of Syracuse is very interested in the city-state Messana. Messana controls the Strait of Messina. And the Strait is important is because it is a natural Suez-canal. You can save several hundred miles off your trade time. Messanians invite Carthaginians; Carthaginians are even tougher than the Syracusan invasions. Messana then calls in Rome, and Rome has a huge debate over whether they should intervene in territory outside their jurisdiction. This leads to the first Carthaginian war, which lasts close to 20 years. Rome develops a navy, but what is perhaps most significant is that when Rome finally defeats Carthage it develops a province. Rome has to decide what it is going to do with this territory of Sicily. If Sicily operates on its own there will be constant civil war. Therefore Rome turns Sicily into its first province. The only issue with this is that Rome will now have to build other provinces, and therefore must build new political structures. Proconsul: This is the position created to rule over the outside provinces.

World History Exam Notes 2011 Peace of Lutatius in 264: (Repeat, overview) 10 000 troops are sent to Messana. The Carthaginians say: if your troops fight with our troops we go to war! There are a number of battles, mostly in Syracuse. In the end, Rome prevailed. Carthage has its part of the world, Romans have their part of the world where it operates and they cannot interfere. The Carthaginains will pay a large sum of money and there will be peace between these two giants. 2nd Carthaginian War Carthage, understanding that it must be careful about the area in Italy, developed a huge amount of territory in Spain. This was their slow rise to power. The Carthaginians control nearly all of Spain and Rome is getting nervous. Therefore Rome brokers the Treaty of Ebro. Treaty of Ebro: The Treaty states that all north of the river Ebro is interest to Rome and therefore the Carthaginians cannot pass that line. Hannibal, of Carthage, is operates in Spain. His successor was Hammicar. Hannibal attacks Saguntum. Saguntum: A town south of the river that allied with Rome – before Carthage conquered them. According to the prior Peace of Lutatius, Saguntum, although south of the river, is a Roman ally that cannot be tampered with. It only recently became an ally of Rome so Hannibal (Carthage) feels it is okay. Rome calls the Carthaginians and tells them to stop. One Roman senator says: in my right hand is peace (toga) and in my left hand is war – choose. The Carthaginians answer with war. This is the start of the 2nd Carthaginian War. Hannibal takes over Saguntum. There’s very little the Romans can do about this. He gets into Italy. The Romans think: we will deal with him like any other enemy. 218: Hannibal’s secret enemy = African elephants (across the Alps!), thereby putting direct pressure on Rome. In spite of the fact that his army is exhausted after crossing the alp they fight two battles against the Romans. Ticinus, Trebbia: Rome is defeated both times. The Romans lose many people. 217: Battle at Trasimene. Hannibal inflicted yet another defeat upon the Romans, Romans lose 15 000 troops. Fabius Maximus Cunctator: For Example (Side Point): Gaius Iulius Caesar (Praenomen, Nomen, Cognomen) If someone did very well = get a nickname (Caesar) and you would pass along the name through that branch of the family (Caesar = the hairy one) Fabius Maximus Cunctator was a general whose tactic was to “delay,” and push off fighting Hannibal so that he would tire and retreat. 216: A couple of ambitious Romans go against his advice and lead many Romans into a battle against Hannibal called Cannae (lose around 50 000). For the next ten years Hannibal roams – there is no one attacking. But Italy has locked all its cities. (Think of an intruder in a house with gated rooms). He cannot break into any of the areas that would bring about the capitulation of allies.

World History Exam Notes 2011 This is a bit like the tactic the Athenians practiced against the Spartans. 210: Scipio Africanus starts leading Roman armies. Italy is in the control of Hannibal. In Spain, Sicily and in 206 Africa Scipio does tremendous damage against the Carthaginians! Scipio and Hannibal have a close encounter; Hannibal is defeated. Carthaginian senate brokers peace. They send for Hannibal to come back from Italy: there is one last attempt on part of Carthaginians to overwhelm the Romans. 203: Peace postponed: Battle of Zama (Scipio Africanus vs. Hannibal) 197: Realized that we have Spain here, don’t want anyone moving into this area and turn it into 2 provinces 167: Illyricum 146: Macedonia 146: Africa 129: Asia Cato the Elder decides to be a real nasty piece of work and calls for the destruction of Troy (delenda est Carthago) Rome just annihilates Carthage. Literally puts salt into the soil so nothing will grow. In the aftermath of the destruction of Carthage we have Rome move off into a number of different areas (diff. provinces – Africa, Sicily, Spain divided into two, area b/w France & Italy, Yugoslavia, Greece in 146 = lots of new territory) This leads us to the Downfall of the Republic. The Decline & Fall of the Republic Rome moves to control parts of North Africa, Greece, Spain, Sardinia, Sicily, part of modern day Georgia, Yugoslavia = this territory is only going to continue to grow. Problems ensue when we have Gracchi brothers, Marius, and Sulla. Read on! Overview of the Class Struggle In this time, a citizen of Rome was either a backer of the Populares or Optimates Populares Platform: I believe in the majority. It doesn’t mean you yourself are a member of those masses; you are not poor. You are a progressive; tend to think that there are certain reforms that have to be brought in. These people would generally speaking be part of the plebs. But it would also include a number of wealthy businessmen (Equites, or Patricii) Optimates Platform: Conservative stand – traditional view of government. This group was primarly composed of the upper class Equines or Patricii; they controlled the Senate whereas the Populares controlled the Assembly. Realistically, you will have lots of enemies if you support either. The Roman Empire is split in two. The two populations seldom cooperate with each other. Ager Publicus: The public land (field). There are tracks of land in Italy itself that belong to the public (SPQR). They do not belong to any individual. The Optimatus believe that they are entitled to this. (Latfundia) But Rome says this is not okay because huge areas of land cannot belong to individuals. Why? Because the Empire needs soldiers! Therefore you need someone with property. There is huge political tension between Optimates and the Populares. The population, together with certain members of the aristocracy, agrees that Rome has to change with

World History Exam Notes 2011 time. The Gracchi Brothers (Tiberias, Gaius) Tiberius Gracchus: (Popularus) He himself is hell bent on reforming the land laws. He wants to dissolve the Latfundia so that the Romans can be part of the army. He proposes as Tribune. Tribunes are able to pass laws with voting = restricting the size of Latfundia. The only problem is that he should go to the Senate, but he doesn’t (why? Because they consist of Optimatus and would say it’s not a good law). Tiberias decides that he will bypass the Senate and go straight to the Assembly and see if they want to pass the law. The problem with this: He has violated Mos Maiorum. You are expected as a Tribune to pass the laws before the Senate! The other Tribune, under pressure, vetoes the law. Tiberius Gracchus strategizes here, and threatens: Fine, veto this! But I’ll veto every other law unless you don’t veto mine. Therefore, the law is passed! The only thing is: his term of office is only 1 year. So when he’s gone, they want to prosecute him to pieces!! Even before his position expires he runs for it the next year (another violation) = he is doing it for political reasons and he is assassinated! (Generally, we see here a major problem: Pro-Consuls last longer than a year. People who become consuls are doing so to be pro-Consuls. (Could be 5, 10 years eg Julius Caesar). Gaius Gracchus: Becomes tribune ten years later. The Populares like these brothers. (eg Kennedys!) He builds allies in the Equine class (businessmen, capitalists, practical men!) They are also the tax collectors. Gaius manages to pass the land reform bills. He speaks of citizen rights for everyone and is therefore put to death. The story of the Gracchi brothers is the first sign that things in Rome are not going well. People are assassinated (brothers, no less). Marius: After Gaius Gracchus has been put to death Marius gains Rome’s attention. He is from the northern part of Italy and is upper-middle class. He’s not from the upper echelons and there was no reason for anyone to assume that Marius would make something of himself. Rome is becoming more of a land of meritocracy. (Awarded based on merit) In 120 he manages to make himself a tribune. He becomes a tribune because he is sided with the Populares faction. This means anyone on the Optimatus side strongly distrusts him. They think he is not one of them therefore an enemy. 112: A man named Jigurtha in Africa decides to stage a rebellion. Rome nominates generals to monitor this situation. The war goes on for 5 years. Marius: What’s wrong here? He accuses the Optimates of somehow drawing the war out intentionally.  Through his own perseverance he gets to be Pro-Consul and he deals with the war in Africa. Together with Sulla, who is his Praetor, they defeat Jigurtha. This is important because Marius is not from Rome, yet he has managed to do something no other Pro-consuls could do. Marius becomes the poster boy for the Populares cause, and is a hero in Rome.

World History Exam Notes 2011

109-105: Marius is challenged by Teutones, Cimbri (Germany) They are massive Germans who are pouring in from Northwest Europe into boundaries that threaten Rome’s stability. Rome is in a panic because two large Roman armies are crushed within the state of the day. War is declared against them: you cannot come into Roman territory; but this is like trying to control a Tsunami, they are just spilling in. Marius is appointed 5 years running in a row (a violation of Mos Maiorum). He defeats Cimbri & Teutones and manages to quash this difficult situation. So again he becomes a poster boy for the Populares. 90-88: there is a question of the social wars. Rome has these Italian allies who are clamoring for citizenship, full citizenship. There are a number of communities who have formed the backbone of the Roman army. After many generations of being born without full privileges they feel it is their time. The Roman population is not interested in this, not even the Populares. Sharing citizenship cuts into their wealth and borders. You don’t want to extend it to others because that means less for you! There is a war fought over this. Italian allies decide that they are going to turn their backs on Rome and they wage a civil war against Rome. Tens of thousands of Italians and Romans are killed as a result. This is such a waste! Marius uses his “Poster-boy” Position to do something crucial: Military Reforms: Marius believes the military tactics are old fashioned. He gives the soldiers new equipment (throwing spear is now built with a breakable hinge if it strikes something), redistributed the people in armies etc. He opened the army to everyone (even from classes who could not serve privately; poor soldiers would be enrolled at the public’s expense) During the Cimbri & Teutones war Marius realized there was a shortage of troops. Many people could not meet the property requirement. The Ager publicus was concentrated in the hands of a few, sot here were lots of people who couldn’t fight. Marius decides: he’s going to waive the property requirement. He will turn Rome’s armies into professional armies. Without having any estate or money behind you one could sign up for a lifetime of service and fight for Rome, and Rome will supply you with food, equipment, and shelter. And if you survive the campaign your general will see to it that laws are passed that will grant you land settlement after you retire. This is a win situation for Rome because many men are now joining the army. The problem is that these people become personally loyal to the pro-Consuls under who them serve. They expect these people to reward them with land settlements. There are generals operating with his soldiers and there is a strong understanding b/w general + soldiers that they are his men. When the general gets back to Rome he needs to get his promise fulfilled because he needs to give it to his men and keep their loyalty. The tight, tight relationship between general and soldier has been strengthened and this weakens the

World History Exam Notes 2011 Republic. After the Cimbri and Teutones have been dealt with and the social wars are under control, Mithridates starts to act up in the Black Sea. Mithridates is a thug and he has a kingdom (Pontus) but wants to take over other regions in the area that are under Rome’s protection or belong to Rome itself. There are tens of thousands of Roman citizens conduction business in the area and he slaughters 80 000 of them. This is such a bloody period that Rome has to deal with. There are politicians thinking, “I’ll do it!” because that’s how a politician would advance himself. Sulla, who if you recall was Marius’ Praetor, is given the appointment. It is his turn now to come into the sun. He is very disciplined and competent, and strays more with the Optimates. The Senate is, therefore, more than willing to appoint him. This makes Marius furious! After all, he was the star until now. Just as Sulla is leaving for his mission, Marius takes over the government and forces the Assembly to annul this appointment and appoint him in turn. When word reaches Sulla about this he gets so angry that he marches back to Rome (with an army) and puts many of Marius’ followers to death. He has introduced soldiers into the domus (forgets about Mos Maiorum, Imperium etc). He reverses Marius’ decision and he does something very significant. He is the first to establish Proscriptions. Proscriptions: A list of undesirable citizens. Roman citizens can target these individuals and they will receive cash compensation. This is a very dangerous way of dealing with undesirables. Sulla settles things and Marius comes back to Rome (kills some of Sulla’s followers) and promptly dies. Sulla now comes back to the Roman Empire and puts out the Populares fires, because now the whole Roman Empire boils down to: are you a loyal follower of Populares or Optimates? So there are certain generals who were appointed by Marius and they are in other provinces of Rome and although Marius himself has died, people hang on. Sertorius is an example of such who hangs on and he is ruler of Spain. He would not recognize legitimacy of government in Rome (it is Optimates). When Sulla returns to Rome he says, this is it! He appoints himself dictator and rules by edict because Rome can’t look after itself. He bans the Tribuneship, passes certain laws that give his troops land but at the same time strengthen the Optimates, he sends out armies after Sertorius. But after a couple of years Sulla gets tired and fed up. He says goodbye, good luck and he goes and parties. (There are already issues here with the Republic = Marius is appointed 5 years in a row, Sulla launches Proscription lists and violates the Domus by bringing in his army!) For the next couple of years things sort of manage to carry on but this leads to the next series of tensions among certain characters,

World History Exam Notes 2011 which will gradually cause the Republic to fall. Downfall of the Republic Recall: Marius violated the tradition by taking office seven consecutive terms Sulla corrects this by destroying Marius’ followers, assumes dictatorship for a while... but then it’s back to business as usual, and the power struggle breaks out (As dictator, Sulla neutralized the tribunes. This would ultimately weaken the system.) Pompey (Gnaius Pompeius Magnus) He is loosely affiliated with the Optimates. He wanders in and out of their influence. He has great abilities. Pompey is acknowledged in the Italian War, serves as a Privatus – private army (through his father). (He comes from an immensely wealthy family and owned and armed his slaves so that he actually owned his own army.) Pompey lent out that army to the Senate during the Italian War. From 83-81 Pompey unofficially supports Sulla and helps him out to defeat Marius’ Populares fires. Sulla really liked Pompey and nicknamed him “magnus”  the great. From 76-71 Pompey serves as Proconsul despite not climbing up the ladder of cursos au norm. However, this is done so that he can fight in Spain against Sertorius who was a member of the Populares and has been keeping up their cause in Spain. Pompey is sent to deal with them, and he is appointed Proconsul so that he can have Imperium, and defeat Sertorius. Alarming  again, someone has bypassed the political system! Not healthy for stable governance. In 71 BCE, Pompey goes back to Italy. There is a state of crisis because of the Spartacus rebellion. (These are Alex’s from when I was on the March) (Let’s first understand slavery): For all its faults, it is not a brutally unjust system as it sometimes may be thought of as. Conquering populations had three options: 1) let off society with warning 2) destroy completely 3) enslave. Under the Roman system, a slave could actually buy his/her freedom; it was not based on racial distinctions. You became a slave simply because you were unlucky – supporting the wrong side in war, fell into debt, etc. At the back of his mind, your owner understood that it could have been him. So when they look at slaved, yes it’s true they deprived them of freedom and were sometimes treated harshly, but slaves were also often treated like members of the family, slaves could buy their freedom, these slaves could even gain immense influence once freed. The Romans have gladiators. Gladiators are a special band of slaves. Their purpose was to provide entertainment for the population at large. Either they broke the law or were captured in battle, they would then be bought by those who owned gladiator houses, who would then exhibit them in front of audiences. At the beginning this was a fairly rare enterprise. As Roman wealth increases, these combats become much more lavish, often dressed in outlandish costumes and using outlandish weapons. Often the goal was not to kill, since the gladiator was very expensive. However as Rome became more decadent, it became a fight to the death. Spectacles became enormous: example, the Coliseum, in which people died by the dozens. Sometimes

World History Exam Notes 2011 games went on for days! By doing so, people’s minds were momentarily diverted from the larger political context. The problem is: if these gladiators escape, watch out! Spartacus was serving in Capua. He and a couple dozens killed their guards, escaped, and stole equipment from wagon of the Roman army, then retreated to Mt Vesuvius. Word is gradually broadcast that they have escaped and are putting up resistance. Many more slaves are tempted to do the same. Within a year, Spartacus is in charge of 70 000 (!) slaves. In 2 and ½ years, he’s defeated 3 Roman armies. Rome is going up and down the countryside wreaking havoc. Uh oh! In the end, Spartacus is boxed in. There is dissention amongst the slaves; he wanted to send everyone back to their hometowns free and simply disband the army, followers want to go together to Sicily and create a state for themselves, but bit-by-bit their army is destroyed. This happens under the watch of Marcus Crassus, but Pompey delivers the final blow. There are 6000 slaves crucified on the Via Appia road as a warning to other slaves. The rebellion is another reminder of how cheap life is at this point in Roman history. Today we often look to Spartacus as a hero. He is seen as an early proponent of freedom. Others emphasize then egalitarianism built into his rebellion  seems like a (gasp) Communist! 70 – 69: Pompey appointed as Consul. The Aristocracy is unhappy because he hasn’t paid his political dues. Pompey realizes that he is neither really a part of the Optimates or the Populares, but he starts flirting with the Populares cause, and reinstates the tribunes, thinking  if the Optimates (aristocracy) won’t support me, maybe the Populares will. The Optimates unhappy about the tribunes being reinstated. So he reinstates them. The Optimates are upset, Populares are happy. Pirates have always been a problem. They are very difficult to deal with because they are not one united target, and they are a genuine menace to international trade. Because of the Populares support, Pompey is given control over a huge fleet and cities on the shores of the Mediterranean to deal with the pirates. This amount of control is unprecedented. (This is again a violation of Mos Maiorum) 67: Pirate’s War. Pompey has been given an extraordinary amount of power. Rather than control in one specific province, his sphere of influence extends over the coast of every province. Interestingly, when he’s done the job, he simply gives back the power. Thereby proving to be honest. 65-62 Mithridates causes troubles again. Pompey is sent to deal with him. Pompey travels to Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Israel  listens to the grievances of the people, tells them: here are the laws, here are your taxes, here are Rome’s powers over you... everything else (religion, etc.) is up to you. He gains many clients in the East in this way. All these people would come to his aid if called to do so. An issue arises, however. Pompey has promised that all the veterans in his legions would receive land. In year 61, the Senate refuses to give his veterans the land. They are worried that he has too much personal power, too many contacts in the near east... if Pompey ever had a desire to influence government, he could call on his old veterans and accomplish whatever he wants. Therefore the Senate, thinking that he is pro-Populares, mean

World History Exam Notes 2011 spiritedly decides he will not be getting the land that he wants. Here we have a charismatic, competent leader and he has, unfortunately, hit the wall. Pompey: now what?? He is looking for political allies. He draws on Marcus Crassus, a very wealthy businessman. He was consul with Pompey in 70 so he does have political credentials. Essentially, however, his significance heretofore had been that he was always representing the interests of his business partners and colleagues to the Senate. The Senatorial class does not particularly like him. He can do business with Optimates or Populares; he’s more of a neutral figure, not particularly inclined to their class. They refuse to pass the laws that he would like to see passed that would promote his followers business interests. He, too, cannot make any headway against the Senate. A third member of the equation is Julius Caesar. Caesar comes from an impoverished line of the family. He was an extraordinarily brilliant man, extremely athletic, a good sense of humor, could be very generous with his defeated enemies. He was on the side of the Populares. At the time of the proscriptions (lists that Sulla felt should be eliminated) Caesar had been on the list. He had to be begged by a relative to take it off. Sulla agreed, but he was worried that as an unscrupulous, brilliant man he could take advantage of the system of the government and bring instability. One way or another, he serves with distinction in the army and becomes a Praetor. He studies rhetoric in Rhodes and becomes a skilled orator. En route Pirates captured him. They see that he is a Senator and take him hostage. Caesar actually joked with these people, saying: You’ll get a really good ransom for me but as soon as you let me go, I’m going to get you all. They’re all laughing, meanwhile, he comes back and hangs them all. As an Orator he understands he must play to the Populares faction. He becomes a Tribune, meaning he can propose laws and veto laws of the Senate. B/c his base consists of the Populares, the Senate does not want to give him the political spoils on which he has his eye. However, Caesar has tremendous influence over the Assembly. He can convince them to pass laws the Senate does not want to pass. Caesar wants consulship, but the Senate says flat out no. So we have three influential people who are all having problems with the Senate. Unbeknownst to the Roman public, these people realize that they have a common objective and obstacle. They pool their resources: Crassus = business contacts, Pompey = limited support in the Senate, Caesar = public support. They do this and in 60 BCE, the First Triumvirate (group of 3 men in a political alliance) forms. It is slightly alarming because there is a subset in the government that are taking care of their own personal gains independent of affairs of State. These are three brilliant, unscrupulous, powerful (when together!) people. This is all secret; the public does not know of this or else this would scandalize them. Individually the Senate can interfere with them, but together they are invincible. All three get what they want. Caesar becomes Consul, Pompey gets land, and Crassus gets business laws passed. More importantly  Caesar becomes a Proconsul in Gaul. He does not care about money; he wants a legacy and a reputation. He was extremely ambitious and wanted people to remember him centuries after his death.

World History Exam Notes 2011 As a proconsul, he has been given armies to control. Gaul, which is divided into 3, is absolutely wild at this point. Populated by different tribes, Caesar is hell-bent on bringing these tribes to their knees. For the next 4 years (59-55) he fights unrelentingly in Gaul. He is monstrously destructive. 10 000s of Gauls, 1000s of Roman soldiers die. Caesar is looking for total victory, which means killing thousands and thousands and thousands of people. Famous battles: Gergovia, Acesia, Vercingetorix. Even the Senate is impressed by his victories, although they are alarmed by his power. He was very efficient at moving troops and moved extremely swiftly. As Pompey hears reports of his victory, resentment grows... (back to me) Things become dicey in 55 because Pompey is becoming a little disaffected. He hasn’t been able to perform and Caesar is outstripping his own military power. Caesar wants his pro-Consulship renewed because he hasn’t mastered Gaul. The Triumvirate meets in Luca in 55 and it is renewed. It lasts until around 50. Things have become undone because Crassus died. Pompey hasn’t accomplished anything and is very jealous of Caesar because he has a huge army and a great deal of wealth. The Senate, now aware of this secret coalition, decides to crack these people apart. They play on Pompey and persuade him to join their cause. They tell Caesar to come back as a private citizen. They tell him that once he crosses the Rubicon he is merely Roman. They also warn him that they will ask questions about his campaign. Caesar asks if he can run for Pro-Consulship while he’s in Gaul. The Senate denies his request. Therefore Caesar crosses the Rubicon and says, “Aleia acta es” (the die has been thrown) and invades Italy. Pompey and the Senate flee. At the battle of Pharsalus a year later (48 BCE) they are defeated. (hoc voleurunt – they wanted this!) Caesar travels around the Empire and meets Cleopatra in Egypt. He returns to Rome and settles the Republic once again. He speaks of becoming a Dictateur Perpetuous – a dictator for life. Brutus and Cassius, who think they can restore the Republic to its original form, assassinate Caesar. This doesn’t happen. Antony and Octavian (Caesar’s nephew) read the will of Caesar at his funeral. This inflames the masses against the assassins. Caesar has designated Octavian as his heir, which means Caesar’s soldiers are worried where to put their loyalty. Their answer is Octavian. Brutus and Cassius flee Italy. Antony and Octavian take their troops to Phillipi, in Greece, and defeat the assassins in 42 BCE. Octavian launches a proscription list against the other assassins. The Senate and many senate members make their way east (over to Greece) – they have a powerbase there. Octavian and Antony now form a second triumvirate with Lepidus. Octavian will control the west and Antony will control the east. This goes on for about ten years. The second triumvirate expires and there is a massive exchange of hostilities between Antony and Octavian. Octavian defeats Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE. It is at this stage he realizes that Rome has to change the way it does business: no more Republic.

World History Exam Notes 2011 Octavian  Augustus. Octavian is the last man standing. Once he defeats Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium he is the strongest in the Roman Empire. By 31 BCE there is one authority at large. The question is, does Octavian allow the Republic to continue in its normal fashion? Augustus is princeps. He is the leading figure in the Senate, and the leading figure in the Assembly. He realizes that the system must run as normal, and when there is a glitch he uses his high authority to stop it. Augustus is also in control of religion. He is the chief leading religious figure in the state. He can intervene if religion is becoming too political for his taste. Imperator: He is formally in charge of certain provinces, much more than proconsuls. He must assume this uber-personality, and this is a brilliant solution to the ungainliness of the Republic. This is only successful if Augustus himself is a competent ruler. If Augustus dies, however, he leaves his throne to his heir so that the system will not fall apart. Summary: (Imperium over chief provinces of Rome so that his army will outright every other army and will be stronger than any other army – we will defeat him, as Princeps control business in the assembly and the type of discussion and types of laws that are passed, Augustus – own person is inviolable, and a religious function.) EMPERORSHIP Julio-Claudians Augustus is the first of the Julio-Claudians (Iulii + Claudii) This family will govern this state from 31 BCE – 63 CE The luck of Augustus is that he is able to live for a long time. He defeats Marc Antony and comes to power in 31, and his reign ends in 14 CE. People wonder what the difference is between his titles and that of a dictator. They’re willing to live with this discrepancy, however, because they are enjoying a normal government. Augustus was enlightened and realized there was a problem that had to be solved. And he threw in his weight when he had to, and backing off when he felt he could. He launched something known as the Pax Romana (The Roman Peace). The Pax Romana is essential stability within the Empire from 27 BCE – 180 CE. In the area of the Pax Romana the citizens enjoy affluence, and there is certain cohesion to the Empire. Before this there were different components in the Empire trying to break loose. When they are faced with external threats or new conquests they cooperate to conquer new territory. Sign of Success: on two occasions the Gates of Janus were closed. Ancient Greeks & Romans felt that thresholds were very important. They are highly symbolic. It determines a great deal: domus vs malitia (inside vs outside) = boundaries. Eg. The god Hermes is the God of Boundaries; he goes from Heaven to Mortals, he can cross the boundaries (as a messenger). Janus is the God of Doors (two headed God). He looks inside and outside at the same

World History Exam Notes 2011 time. He had a temple in Rome and you knew Rome was in a state of peace when the doors were closed on his temple. A worldwide Temple of Janus the gates would never be closed. And since during the reign of Augustus the doors were closed twice this is a huge achievement – his policies are working. This is not to say, on the other hand, that he is a pacifist. The cohesion inside the Empire can be used outside of the Empire! They captured many areas of land and had huge territorial expansion:  Eg. Egypt, Switzerland, Croatia, Albania, Syria, E. Turkey, etc Boundaries: in the North there was pressure from the Germans, and from the East there are the Partians. (Europe will have loose terror flaws and freedom of movement during the European Union (centuries to realize that this system is very successful) The EU is recessitating the ideas of Rome. There are huge advantages if you manage to broker this type of arrangement. Deep into the 20th century this is achieved!) There is only peace if the force is in place to guarantee peace. Therefore a standing army is established. It is comprised of 28 legions; around 170 000 men. A Worthy Capital: Augustus makes Rome more livable: he has huge building projects. I inherited a city of mud and gave you a city of marble. Under his watch Rome became spectacular. There were large temples and roads, houses of government, aqueducts, and lasting monuments to the man’s prosperity. Rome gets a police force for safety, and a firefighting force. People like Crassus made fortunes by having huge numbers of slaves dousing the property. It is in anyone’s profit to have a firefighting force. Praetorian Guard: Rome had always been domus: there is no imperirum within the domus. You do not exercise authority over a military brigade because they are excluded from the domus. The military could coerce all the decisions made within the domus if they were allowed in. Now Augustus realizes that he is government. And if he is assassinated this will throw the old Republic system + his authority. He therefore takes the idea from the battlefield into the government: he is guaranteed security (eg. Bodyguards). (This is similar to Hitler’s SS Army, independent of normal military staff = loyal to the leader). However, this is the only military presence within the city. The head of the Praetorian Guard could become very influential and from time to time could determine who the next emperor would be. The Guard would have to be on your side. They chose Claudius! Therefore this becomes a very deep politicial entity within the heart of Rome. Golden Age of Literature: Under Augustus Rome prospers in literature (Livy, Virgil, Horace, Tibulus). They all operate under the patronage of Augustus. Virgil’s Aeneid is written for Augustus. Augutus has normalized the world and this is reflected through the literature being written. This stability has to be handed down to the next party. Who will be Augustus’ successor? Tiberias: Tiberias is the son of Livia, Augustus’ wife. Tiberias was born to Livia by a different husband. (But this is irrelevant according to the Romans. Affluent Romans did not often have a lot of children). In the end he will give it to Tiberias. But the

World History Exam Notes 2011 whole problem here is whom do you choose? The whole system rests on the shoulders of a competent leader! Tiberias is told to divorce Ulpsania to marry Julia (Augustus’ daughter). Tiberias wants to keep everything in the family. Julia has already married and has Gaius & Lucius (as it turns out, both of those will die). (Tacitus: (Annalies, Historias, Suetonius). He lived to see the Senate treated in a horrible fashion. Wrote Lives of the Caesars. They are showing us that total power corrupts.) Tiberias doesn’t like politics and therefore retreats to Rhodes and indulges himself. Gaius and Lucius (the sons of Julia) Tiberias’ relative Germanicus is a distant member of the family. There are problems on the German frontier. Germanicus actually deals with these problems in a very competent fashion and wins over the adoration of the local army. Tiberias doesn’t like this. Therefore Germanicus is put in a position near Syria, visits Syia where the governor Piso murders him. This could potentially be by the orders of Tiberias. Idea: everyone is devious & murderous Dr. Usus dies (TB’s son)… Tiberias goes to Capri, which is in the southern part of Italy where he just has a good time. (Overindulged himself sexually). He allows the Senate to rule the Empire independently of him. Jesus was executed in the reign of Tiberias. Caligula (37-41) He was the son of Germanicus who was hugely popular. He lived in a young child at the military camp, and therefore his nickname is Caligula (little boot). He comes into power mainly because Tiberias has no one else to give the throne to. There is a young boy: Tiberius Lemellus who is assassinated the moment Caligula comes to power (Caligula wants no one contesting him) He was probably schizophrenic; he makes his horse a senator = Ictinus. Caligula was so crazy that he was murdered by the Praetorian Guard. The Guard is wandering around the state of the Empire and murders a few. They find Claudius quaking behind a curtain and decide that he will be Emperor! Claudius: bribed by Praetorian Guard Britian becomes part of the Empire Problem: Choice of wives. He marries Messalina (Paris Hilton of their day!). She sleeps with everyone and is very violent if you cross her. Tacitus tells us that she converted to Judaism. Agrippinia: had the son Nero from another marriage. Claudius was told to adopt Nero even though he had another son (Britannicus) from Messalinia. The minute Nero was adopted she assassinated Britannicus. Nero is psychotic! He wants everything for himself and sets fire on Rome while he reads in the palace. He then blames the fire on the Christians and the Jews.

World History Exam Notes 2011 Year of the Four Emperors What follows is the rule of 4 Emperors over Rome: Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius) Flavians Then comes the Flavians Vespasian, Titus, Domitian The 5 Good Emperors Then come five good emperors: Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antonius Pious Marcus Aurelius The Collapse of the Roman Empire 5 Good emperors, then bad emperors follow! This results in the steady decline of the Roman Empire. There are several external reasons to the fall of the Roman Empire: Lead Pipes, Soil erosion: could cause health problems Religious Change = Christianity. Roman values do not mesh with this religion (piety, dignity et). This whole idea of turning the other cheek - to a Roman this would sound like a fantasy. This religious change brings about a change in attitude that really turns traditional Roman values upside down. Barbarian Invasions: people come in very peacefully – what do you do? They are willing to serve in the Roman army. The Romans start thinking: low population growth, and taxation. The only way to keep this enterprise going is by bringing them in. This new influx of people is willing to have children, play with our ball etc. They account for 75% of the troops. As a unit would you want to go up against a school of Taliban? If one of us were wounded we could do a lot more to help the wounded than any of the Taliban could. Communication, intelligence and strategy even now would make a different. Sheer determination however – we would not have that. Declining Morals: The stability continues in a vacuum but there is a point where society is challenged and requires the population to do the heavy lifting. Those people are very different from us, we do not come from the same background (those tough Canadians, Brits) Does our civilization rest upon that same determination that prevailed back then? You could dupe yourself into thinking probably no, but that would be self-delusion. All of these forces are at work. Just because we are removed from these events by 2000 years, but this is of absolute

World History Exam Notes 2011 relevance. 285-311 Diocletian (Emperor): realizes that the Empire is too weak and too big for one administration to rule successfully. He came up with a bright idea of splitting the Empire in two: Eastern half (everything east of Italy). Italy and everything west of it would be the Western Empire. There should be not one central power, but a central power in both the east and the west. Each half would have an Emperor, an Augustus. Each Augustus would have a Caesar (assistant). Because there were essentially four people ruling it was called a tetrachy. Diocletian gave a half to each of his sons. This system, however, is too complex. It leads to a huge amount of inner fighting. Instead of four rulers, you have four people who are constantly trying to get the upper hand over each other. Diocletian leads to the appearance of Constantine. Constantine: Caesar of the West (Britain, Gaul, Spain). They were not the wealthiest of the nations. Constantine thought: why should I be the Caesar and not the Augustus? He fights a battle against his rival; battle is called the Milvian Bridge. Battle of the Milvian Bride (312): Just before he fights it he hears this in his dream: Ab Hoc Signe Vinices. He sees the cross! (You will win by means of this sign). He will win and spread his rule across the Empire (combines East & West). He passes the Edict of Milan, which makes Christianity an official religion, because he feels he must support it as it was by Christianity that he won. Now Christians can worship openly, build churches etc. The population is delighted with this. Many people are attracted to this open religion. Up until now, the Fish was the sign of Christianity (Ixous = Jesus is the Son of God and Savior). This is a positive sign. However, now the Christianity symbol changes to the Cross because of Constantine’s dream. The cross is the sign of death and murder, and that comes with a victim and a perpetrator. The Romans respected Jews for one reason until now: they were an old religion. The Romans thought: we’ll champion the Jews (as Jews and Christians fought). But when Christians become an official religion they outnumber Jews as far as physical force and financial clout. At the same time you now have this emphasis on the Jewish participation in the savior’s death. Therefore there is culpability. These two trends form anti-Semitism. Constantine (as head of the Empire) moves the Empire to Constantinople (what was known as Byzantium) because he realizes the centre of Empire really lies in the East. The chances of this part of the Empire dissolving are much less than in the West. None of the previous problems have been dealt with (succession, generals). The Christians are growing exponentially in number. This Empire has been twisted inside out. It is weak and perfect for attack. 410: Visigoths (one of the German tribes from the north-west) make their way to Rome and they sack it. They grab stuff for themselves. They leave very quickly and do not stay; it is a thunderstorm that lasts two hours. 45 years later: Vandals (another Germanic tribe) come in and stay for 14 days. They smash statues of senators, break the temples etcetera. It is an act of vandalism (this is where the word comes from). They were not going to pick up on the advantages; just

World History Exam Notes 2011 smash and smash. 476: Rome desperately tries to recover but Romulus Augustus is the last Western Roman Emperor. He yields to a character named Odoacer. The East is still the cradle of civilization. The East part of the world is extremely tame (infrastructure, monuments, religion, tradition) that holds the line to a much greater day than they do in the West. When you get rid of an Empire you are getting rid of civilization. Christianity Rome, to a very significant degree, has settled many of its internal problems. By the time we are talking about Christianity we are talking about the Pax-Romana, the end of civil wars etcetera. Augustus and his successors think about making the boundaries of the Roman Empire secure. The boundary with a population known as the Parthians is a little unstable. They are the only people that can challenge Rome. Today these would be Persians, and other such types. Rome had client states. They were little buffer zones between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Empire. Rome didn’t have to be there, they just expected the client states to do their business for them (to be good customers), so that Rome would not end up somehow going to war with the Parthians. These buffer states (although insignificant) they suddenly assume an exaggerated importance, because if they start to crumble the boundary between Parthia and Rome crumbles. Political Condition of Judaea: One of the client states of Rome was Judaea. Judaea fell into the hands of this man Herod, who was actually not Jewish. Herod’s father was advisor to Hyrcanus, Antigonus (Prince of Judaea) and Herod was sent into the Palace. He quickly came to power there. Neither Christians nor Jews have anything really good to say about Herod. When the Christians think of him they think of a bizarre quantity that is pseudo-Jewish and definitely not Christian. When Herod dies in 4 BCE it is a problem. Why? Herod has been controlling the Galilee and the Golan Heights as his client kingdom. He has built infrastructure, policed the boundaries and therefore as far as this interface with the Parthian Empire Rome loves Judaea. Rome loves Herod, because he is giving them stability! Herod leaves three sons behind and divides his territory: Philip (Golan Heights), Herod Antipas (Galilee) and Archelaus (Judaea & Samaria). Archelaus was a terrible ruler. He ruled from 4 BCE – 6 CE. He was terrible and the Jews hated him. They invited Rome in! The Jews know they need a stable environment, so why choose Roman stability? They understand that Rome can come in like an elephant, but not a charging elephant. Judaea is taken over by Rome. And Rome is thinking one thing: Archelaus is bad news, and we want stability! We need to guarantee these boundaries; otherwise it can lead to exchanges of violence. We will send someone in and he will guarantee the stability of the state.

World History Exam Notes 2011

Procurator: One who ruled the state. The Procurator is more of a judicial power and when he needed help he would go to the Proconsul of Syria. The Romans come in and when they are in Caesarea they create infrastructure that they would make anywhere else; they build entertainment, courts, baths, amphitheatres… and Rome doesn’t care who you worship! For them, the only reason why religion would matter to them is that it might lead to instability. (Religious fanaticism) E.G. Chanukah: Chanukah is about Hellenistic powers that don’t care what the Jews worship! But Jewish worship led to Jewish politics, and that led to an attempt on their part to throw off the Hellenistic power.  What do we care if someone practices Islam or not? If you feel (ew, I hate it) is because you are thinking suicide bomber! This is the guy preaching against America etc. If someone told you: no, he’s a really good guy, he gives charity, loves Canada – you wouldn’t care! People only care about you religion if you take a strong anti-abortion, or anti-gay etc. Therefore the Jews are giving religious freedom. They are also exempt from military service. It’s understood that if the Jews are forced into the army = religious chaos = assimilation = people getting unstable… The military tax will be spent on religious purposes. There will be no money with the Emperor’s image on it. People going to the temple would give money. Having the Emperor’s image would have a violation of Halacha therefore it could not be permitted for the Jews. Jesus & the Money Changers: Jesus visits Jerusalem, as any good Jew would go going to the Temple. He sees men conducting business and overturns the table: How dare you? It has been vastly misunderstood: Christians = those Jews, there they are, when supposed to be worshipping counting their Shekels. But Jews were just exchanging money (Roman Emperor symbol for coinage to buy sacrifices). [Parasitical banking Jew] Now that Rome is in charge of this area, there are two problems: 1. Jewish Nationalism: why are the Romans even here? It’s our land. 2. Religious Diversity/Chaos: The Pharisees, Essenes, Sadducees and the Apocalyptists are all fighting against each other. John the Baptist: Refers to Jesus as the Mashiach coming. This is another stick of dynamite thrown into a situation that is becoming more chaotic where the Romans cannot endure instability. Romans (not the Jews): how do we control this area? That is of fundamental importance to them. Who is Jesus and how do we know about him? Gospels: Matthew (30), Mark (60), Luke (80) & John (120). These are texts that belong to the New Testament, the new bible that supersedes (supersessionism = replaces the previous one). Once Christianity catches on the Old Jew would have puzzled him; all the old practices are null and void. You can be a good Jew by joining

World History Exam Notes 2011 up with this new religion! Christianity is built upon the foundations of Judaism, so you have to have some way of dealing just how valid that foundation is. Supersession: yes we are built upon those foundations but they are null and void. The gospels are essentially biographies of Jesus. The first three gospels are called Synoptic Gospels. Matthew, Mark and Luke actually saw everything happening, they were witnesses. And therefore when you read the three gospels you get a great deal of similarity. Interestingly enough the stories are not identical. What Saint Mark and Saint Matthew and Saint Luke have to say are written in stone. They contradict each other at points, but “these are sacred texts.” The synoptic gospels do not say the same thing about Jesus. His last words might be “My Lord, my Lord, why have you forsaken me?” or, “It is complete”. Which is it! To tell you the truth these are two very different final statements. What is a gospel? A gospel is much more than a biography. What is the point of a gospel? Making Jesus the Mashiach! As you close all four of the gospels… the moral of the story: Jesus is our savior. How do you prove to the nation that someone is Mashiach? Who is the audience? Jews. How do you prove to Jews that someone is Mashiach? You list all the criteria that is required for someone to be a Mashiach! Jesus was born somewhere near Bethlehem. Jesus was born to a virgin. (Almah = young woman). There is a prophecy in Isaiah that Mashiach will be born to an Almah. In the Septuagint it is translated into parthenos which = virgin. There are many gospels at large; there are many more biographies of Jesus than have come down to us. One gospel came down to us, the one of Judas. That gospel doesn’t mesh very well with the gospel of Jesus himself. The four official gospels were clearly written after Jesus’ lifetime. In John’s gospel there is already a deep anti-Semitic trend. How can the synoptic biographies actually be biographies if they are written long after Jesus’ death, and they contradict each other? Fulfilling the elements of Messiah It was written for a Jewish audience. When you say, Jesus is Messiah (a Jewish Messiah!) you have to show how he actually has fulfilled the milestones to be credibly designated as Messiah. Micah  Mashiach will come from Bethlehem. Micah also tells us that Mashiach will be a product of the line of David. In the gospels we find out both are true to the life of Jesus (despite the fact that he grew up in Nazareth – his parents went to Bethlehem to partake in the census) Mashiach will come from an almah (Septuagint translation into virgin). Mary had intimate relations with God and she was actually a virgin when Jesus was born. Must come on a donkey or a foal! If it was one or the other and not both and Zechariah well then he hasn’t fulfilled prophecy. The author of the gospel covers both his bases.

World History Exam Notes 2011

Jesus performed miracles; he was somewhat of a Chasid. Jesus was just one of many Chasidim who were actually doing this. He gathers a large following and people are interested in what he has to say generally because in a sense he is saying that the old, legal approach to religion is irrelevant, and the important thing is if you are a good person. This raises both Jewish and Roman suspicions. He is moving down a math that violates Jewish tradition and the Romans don’t like people who attract large crowds. (Especially mainstream Judaism) – Jesus will rock this boat. Jesus ends up in Jerusalem to make a sacrifice at the Temple. Thousands of other Jews are there as well (bikurim). This is a Roman nightmare – crowd control! The Romans: we really don’t like this. Between Caliphas (Jewish High Priest) & Romans they need to find an insider to kill him off. Judas Iscariot performs this function. He goes to Jesus and he kisses him at the Last Supper to identify him to the Sanhedrin. (A quick comment about Judas Iscariot: this would not have been his family name, rather: Iscariot = Sicarii (zealots). Judah was in a state of real religious and political tension. They were die-hard Jewish nationalists. They wanted to make life difficult for the Romans – caused riots.) Jesus comes before Pontius Pilate, the Roman procurator, because Caliphas really has no power over life and death. Pilate asks Jesus what the truth is, and Pilate realizes Jesus is dangerous but doesn’t want to make the decision (according to the Gospels). So he brings Jesus in front of the Jews and says: either free Barbaras or Jesus (according to tradition they could free one prisoner a year). And the Jews choose Jesus and Pontius says it will rest on your hands, not mine) Jesus is crucified, resurrected (in principle body is taken off the cross, put into a cave and a rock is put in front of the entrance). After 3 days Mary M.comes to pay her respects and sees that this huge heavy stone has been rolled from the face of the cave and Jesus comes and greets her. Jesus appears to other gospels as well. Paul/Saul Paul was born in Tarsus 1. It is in the Roman Empire 2. Hellenized for the longest time Therefore Saul was born in an area where he had access to Rome and Roman civilization and therefore when he decided to move in the direction of traditional Judaism he was a very interesting mix already. This is a bit like Ba’al Tshuva. You would be a mixed bag of tricks! When you look at the death of Jesus and then his disciples his disciples are scattering in all directions. Unlike Jesus they cannot perform miracles (remember that guy who used to walk among us and multiply loaves of bread?) On you, Peter, I will build the Petris of my Church. Peter is hiding from the Roman authorities; he himself is a Jew.

World History Exam Notes 2011 Saul was so dedicated to the Pharisees that when he first encountered manifestations of Christianity and thinks they are riff-raff. The Pharisees catch one of these followers (Stephen) and they decide he is so much of a heretic and stone him. While they stone him shirtless they ask Saul to watch their coats. Saul is a martyr (witness). Saul sets off for Damascus so he walks through Tarsus to Damascus and he has this weird revelation. He has an epileptic seizure because the sky opens up and a voice says, “Why are you persecuting me and my followers?” Saul decides to forget about Judaism and move in the Christian direction. He spends his years travelling through the Roman Empire preaching Christianity and has filtered it through his own understanding. He has come up with this very potent cocktail that no longer appeals to the dusty, broken population and turns it into something much more general and humanistic. It is designed to include everyone! Jews keep the Sabbath – do gentiles? No! Do gentiles have to keep kosher? No. There should be a day of rest, but does that mean you can’t carry, and make fires? No. He changes his name to Paul because he has changed his identity and therefore must change his name. Once Paul gets busy selling Christianity he himself will be persecuted as will many of his followers. He has taken the small seed that Jesus planted and cast it over a wide, wide area. Three centuries later Constantine will pass the Edit of Milan allowing Christianity to become an official religion of Rome (when Rome collapses Christianity is going to fill an enormous void in the west). Christianity will become the exclusive religion of Spain, Germany, Holland, Denmark, and England etc. We can meaningfully speak of well over a billion Christians today. There was something about Christianity in the context of tribalism and Rome and law at the point of the sword that made it appealing and let it caught on. In the same way, Islam catches on with certain people in the West because the people in the West are just as tired with the West’s disciplinary, rational ways.