Chapter 5 Diseases of immunity Nonspecific immunity- do not require previous contact with a specificmicroorganism ● physical barriers ● Antibacterial Agents

● Commensal Microorganisms ● Ongoing Phagocytosis ● Inflammatory Response ● Fever Specific Immunity- required after birth · Recognition-discovering a new pathogen · Learning- what to do when there is a second or subsequent exposureto pathogen · Memory- improved response to pathogen · Self-discrimination- able to discriminate between foreign substancesand those that make up our own body, and to direct its attack only againstintrudersLymphocytesTLymphocytes o Produced in bone marrow or thymus( mature here) o T-cell receptors recognize antigens and immunogenic o Able to recognize foreign substances particularly the surface features of microorganisms, because their receptor shapes match, allowing them to bindtogether. o Antigenic Determinants or epitopes – the billions of binding sites for theT-cell § Why we may have an allergic response to something harmless § May confuse nonself-antigens with self-antigens o Are looking for trouble from foreign substances · B-Lymphocytes o Antibody producing cells o Mature in the bone marrow

tonsils.most prevalent in blood § IgE-allergies and worms § IgA.can attach and mark any of a billionepitopes.a normal immune response § IgG.lymph nodes. where T & B lymphocytes areformed · Secondary.y shaped linkers who limit repertoire of defenses to the hostof invaders that threaten us § Antigen-binding fragment (FAB). and can neutralize toxic substances § The Fc (crystallizable fragment). Peyer’s patches in theintestines o Draining lymph enters blood circulation then can reenter othersecondary lymphoid tissues o The lymphoid tissue are strategically placed to locate and encounterantigens shortly after it violates the body’s outer defenses o . and eosinophils o Tumor surveillance. spleen.o React to specific epitopes o Antibodies. macrophages. this will bring about theproduction of masses of antigen-specific antibodies that can bind to theantigen · Macrophages. thenengage and kill itLymphoid Tissue · Primary.the stalk of the Y.antigen receptor on lymphocyte membranes · Natural killer cells (NK cells) o Large granular lymphocytes that are killers of foreign substances o Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) shared withneutrophils.GI related (gut checker) § bone marrow and thymus. PMNs and eoxinophils have Fc receptors o These antibodies produce a first line of defense: § IgM.recognize if a cell is becoming abnormal.

Itstimulates the immune system without exposing it to an infection. which presents them to T cells o Of the T-cells. Hypersensitivity .· Measles. Tetanus are immunized withbordetella pertussis. the antigens. one will have T-cell receptor that corresponds to anepitope of the antigen o This T-cell is called a helper T cell (Th cell) matching this th cell is calledclonal selection o The Th cell is activated into clonal expansion along with memory cells § Cytotoxic T cells are activated which can identify and kill virus.or parasiteinfected cells § With the expansion of Th cells it initiates the movement of NK cells &macrophages o Antigen presenting cells stimulate B-cells (starting with IgM and thenIgG) to produce antibodies and form memory cells allowing for fasterresponse to the antigen in the future o Cytotokines is a mediating factor that will communicate between cells § Stimulates nearby immune cells to become active and promoteinflammation o Overview of Immune response § Figure 5.Lymphocyte traffic increases chances of running into an antigen in thebody § FilterImmune Response · A macrophage is usually a quick responder to foreign substance o Once it has destroyed a foreign substance .12 Immunization – is the preventive technique of artificially inducing an immune response. are thendisplayed on the surface of the macrophage. Mumps. Inducing a toxins antigeniccomponent is known as a vaccine · The purpose of a vaccine is to induce a primary antibody response with the long-termretention provided by memory T and B cells. Rubella are immunized with attenuated viruses (children 15-19 monthsold)· Diphtheria is immunized with diphtheria toxoid and Pertussis. tetanus toxoid (children 2-3 months old)Vaccine induced immunities are said to be active and passive immunity is ready madeantibodies from outside the system.

This B-cell deficit produces lower gammaglobulin levels. Primary Immune Deficiencies – result when one or more components of immune systemfunction are deficient or lacking. rheumatoid arthritis. hives. skin/nervous systerm . and systemic lupus erythematosus· Type 4 – Cell-mediated Hypersensitivity : Cytokines that activate macrophages or Tccells which mediate direct cellular damage. Includes blood transfusion reactions.. e ) e ediated toxicity sible changesfibers get biggerplasia. Includes serumsickness. and graftrejection· Graft rejection : Antigen presenting cells facilitate T-cell sensitization. dermal. There are four types of reactions. Antibody bindingmakes possible antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by NK cells. with a resulting characteristicpattern of infection. which enhancescomplement deposition and platelet aggregation and in turn phagocytosis.· Type 2 – Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity : Ab directed against cell surface antigens mediatescell destruction via complement activation. NK cells attack thetransplant tissue. autoimmunehemolytic anemia. and eczema. asthma. This results in mast cell degranulation and synthesis of secondarymediators.· B-cell deficiencies result in recurrent infections by viruses that are normally neutralized byantibody or bacteria that can resist phagocytosis. This binds to the Fc receptors on mucosal. or perivascular mast cells.extra cellshange one cell type to another cell type alteration of cells growth patternproduction beyond the body’s neednomous growthof contact inhibitioning indepedentlyof response to ECMt o d e r m layer. Primary mediator of mast cell degranulation is histamineTypical manifestationsinclude hay fever.· Type 3 Complex-Mediated Hypersensitivity : Induce complement activation andensues inflammatory response mediated by massive infiltration of neutrophils. food allergies. Includes dermatitis. while sensitized and activated T cells mobilize a chronic attack on the grafttissue.reactions involve deleterious effects caused by the immune systemresulting in tissue damage. thus arming them.· Type 1 – Immediate hypersensitivity : Contact with antigen results in plasma cellproduction of IgE antibody. often because of a genetic defect. tubercular lesions.