∂ÈÎÔÓÈ΋ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›· Î·È Ë Û˘Ì‚ÔÏ‹

ÙˆÓ ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙˆÓ ÁÚ·ÊÈÎÒÓ
ÛÙËÓ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ¤Ú¢ӷ
°È¿ÓÓ˘ ∫Ô˘ÚÙ˙¤ÏÏ˘
∞Ú¯·ÈÔÏfiÁÔ˜
∫ã ∂ÊÔÚ›· ¶ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎÒÓ Î·È ∫Ï·ÛÈÎÒÓ ∞Ú¯·ÈÔًوÓ

∏ ÓÔÂÚ‹ ·ÂÈÎfiÓÈÛË (visualization) ·Ú¯·›ˆÓ ÎÙÈÚ›ˆÓ Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÒÓ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È Î¿ÙÈ Î·ÈÓÔ‡ÚÈÔ ÛÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË Ù˘ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜. OÈ ÂÚÈËÁËÙ¤˜ Ù˘ ∞Ó·Á¤ÓÓËÛ˘ Î·È ÙÔ˘ 18Ô˘-19Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ· ·Ó·Î·Ï‡ÙÔ˘Ó ÙÔ˘˜ ·Ú¯·›Ô˘˜ Û˘ÁÁÚ·Ê›˜, Ù·
·Ú¯·›· ΛÌÂÓ· Î·È ÁÓˆÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ·fi ÎÔÓÙ¿ ÙȘ ·Ú¯·ÈfiÙËÙ˜, ΢ڛˆ˜ Ù˘ ∞ÈÁ‡ÙÔ˘, Ù˘ πÙ·Ï›·˜ Î·È Ù˘ ∂ÏÏ¿‰·˜. ™ÙÔ
Û˘ÓÂÚÁÂ›Ô ÙÔ˘˜ ˘¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ˜-ۯ‰ȷÛÙ¤˜, Ô˘ ·ÔÙ˘ÒÓÔ˘Ó Ù· ÂÚ›È· ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯·›ˆÓ ÌÓËÌ›ˆÓ, ÂȯÂÈÚÒÓÙ·˜ Ù·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ· Î·È ÙȘ ÚÒÙ˜ «ÂÈÎÔÓÈΤ˜ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ» ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯·›ˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÒÓ. Δ· ÂÚ›È· Û˘ÌÏËÚÒÓÔÓÙ·È, ÙÔÔıÂÙÔ‡ÓÙ·È ÛÙÔ Ê˘ÛÈÎfi ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ, Âȯڈ̷ٛ˙ÔÓÙ·È, ÛÙÔÏ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Ì ·Ó·ı‹Ì·Ù· Î·È ·Á¿ÏÌ·Ù· ηÈ
Ô Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔ˜ ¿ÓıÚˆÔ˜ ·ÔÎÙ¿ ÙËÓ ÚÒÙË ÔÏÔÎÏËڈ̤ÓË ÂÈÎfiÓ· ÁÈ· ÙÔ˘˜ ·Ú¯·›Ô˘˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÔ‡˜.1

O

∏ ¤Ï¢ÛË ÙˆÓ ˘ÔÏÔÁÈÛÙÒÓ, Ë ¯Ú‹ÛË ÙˆÓ ÔÏ˘Ì¤ÛˆÓ Î·È
È ÂÈÎfiÓ˜ ·˘Ù¤˜ Û ÁÎÚ·‚Ô‡Ú˜, ¯·Ú·ÎÙÈο Î·È Û¯¤‰È·
ÙˆÓ ÂÍÂÏÈÁÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÁÚ·ÊÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ ÚÔÁÚ·ÌÌ¿ÙˆÓ ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·Ù˘
ı· ·Ô‰ÂȯıÔ‡Ó È‰È·›ÙÂÚ· ‰˘Ó·Ù¤˜ Î·È ı· ·ÁÈÒÛÔ˘Ó
·ÂÈÎfiÓÈÛ˘ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈÒÓ ÛÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ ÙÔ˘ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÔ‡ ÚÔÛ¤ÙËÓ ·ÓÙ›ÏË„Ë ÙˆÓ ·ÓıÚÒˆÓ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ÙˆÓ
‰ˆÛ·Ó Ó¤· ‰˘Ó·ÌÈ΋ ÛÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË Ù˘ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜, ‰ËÌÈ·Ú¯·›ˆÓ ÎÙÈÚ›ˆÓ, ·ÚfiÏÔ Ô˘ ·ÚÎÂÙ¿ ·fi Ù· ÛÙÔȯ›· ›ӷÈ
Ô˘ÚÁÒÓÙ·˜ ÙÔ ‰›Ô Ù˘ «ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜» (ÂÈÎ. 2).3
Ê·ÓÙ·ÛÙÈο Î·È ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó Î·ÏÏÈÙ¯ÓÈΤ˜ ÂÈÓÔ‹ÛÂȘ ÙˆÓ
‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÒÓ ÙÔ˘˜.
∞fi Ù· ̤۷ ΢ڛˆ˜ ÙÔ˘ 19Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ· Ë ∞Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋
∂ÈÎÔÓÈ΋ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›·: ÔÚÈÛÌfi˜
∂Ù·ÈÚ›·, ÔÈ Í¤Ó˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ Û¯ÔϤ˜ Ù˘ ∂˘ÚÒ˘ ηÈ
∏ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÙÔÔıÂÛÈÒÓ Ì ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎfi Î·È ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎfi
Ù˘ ∞ÌÂÚÈ΋˜ ηıÒ˜ Î·È ÂÈÊ·Ó›˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏfiÁÔÈ Î·È ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓ, ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈÌ¤ÓˆÓ Î·È ÙÔ›ˆÓ ÙÔ˘ ·ÚÂÏıfiÓÙÔ˜ Ì ÙË
ÎÙÔÓ˜ ·Ó·ÛοÙÔ˘Ó Û˘ÛÙËÌ·ÙÈο ÙȘ ·Ú¯·›Â˜ fiÏÂȘ, ÙÔ˘˜
‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ˘ÔÏÔÁÈÛÙ‹ Î·È ÚÔÁÚ·ÌÌ¿ÙˆÓ ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙˆÓ ÁÚ·Ó·Ô‡˜ Î·È Ù· ÈÂÚ¿ Û fiÏË ÙËÓ ¤ÎÙ·ÛË Ù˘ ·Ú¯·›·˜ ∂ÏÏ¿‰·˜,
ÊÈÎÒÓ, ÔÓÔÌ¿˙ÂÙ·È «ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›·». O fiÚÔ˜ ÚÔÙ¿ıË·fi ÙËÓ ∫¿Ùˆ πÙ·Ï›· ¤ˆ˜ Î·È Ù· ‚¿ıË Ù˘ ªÈÎÚ¿˜ ∞Û›·˜, ·Ú¤Î ÁÈ· ÚÒÙË ÊÔÚ¿ ·fi ÙÔÓ Paul Reilly ÙÔ 1990.
¯ÔÓÙ·˜ Ù·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ· ÂÍ·ÈÚÂÙÈΤ˜ ÁÈ·
ÙËÓ ·ÎÚ›‚ÂÈ¿ ÙÔ˘˜ ‰ËÌÔÛȇÛÂȘ. OÈ
¢ÂÏÊÔ›, Ë OÏ˘Ì›· Î·È ·ÚÁfiÙÂÚ· Ë
∞Ú¯·›· ∞ÁÔÚ¿, Ô ∫ÂÚ·ÌÂÈÎfi˜ ηÈ,
ÛÙËÓ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ ÙÔ˘ μÔÚÂÈÔ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈÎÔ‡
∞ÈÁ·›Ô˘, Ë ¶ÔÏÈfi¯ÓË ÛÙË §‹ÌÓÔ, ÙÔ
πÂÚfi ÙÔ˘ ª¤ÛÛÔ˘ ÛÙË §¤Û‚Ô Î·È ÙÔ
∂ÌÔÚÈfi Ù˘ Ã›Ô˘2 Â›Ó·È ÌÂÚÈο ÌfiÓÔ
·fi Ù· ·Ú·‰Â›ÁÌ·Ù· ·˘Ù‹˜ Ù˘ ηÙËÁÔÚ›·˜. OÈ ‰ËÌÔÛȇÛÂȘ ÙˆÓ ·Ú·¿Óˆ ¯ÒÚˆÓ Û˘ÌÏËÚÒÓÔÓÙ·È ÌÂ
ÂÎÙÂÓ‹ Û¯¤‰È· (fi„ÂȘ, ÙÔ̤˜, ÚÔÔÙÈο ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ ÙˆÓ
·Ú¯·›ˆÓ ÎÙÈÚ›ˆÓ), ÛÙË ÛÙÈÁÌ‹ Ù˘
ÔÏÔÎÏ‹ÚˆÛ‹˜ ÙÔ˘˜, ÛÙËÓ ÈÔ ¤Ó‰ÔÍË
ÛÙÈÁÌ‹ ÙÔ˘˜. ∂›Ó·È Ô˘ÛÈ·ÛÙÈο ÔÈ ÚÒÙ˜ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ Û ‰‡Ô ‰È·ÛÙ¿1. ∞Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÙÔ˘ Ó·Ô‡ ÙÔ˘ ¢Èfi˜ ÛÙËÓ OÏ˘Ì›· Î·È ÙÔ˘ ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ˘ ‚ˆÌÔ‡.
ÛÂȘ (ÂÈÎ. 1).
APXAIO§O°IA & TEXNE™ Ù¯. 109

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∏ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÎÔÓÈÎÔ‡ ‰ËÏÒÓÂÈ fiÙÈ ÚfiÎÂÈÙ·È ÁÈ· ¤Ó· ·ÓÙ›ÁÚ·ÊÔ, ¤Ó· ˘ÔηٿÛÙ·ÙÔ, ¤Ó· ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙÔ ÌÔÓÙ¤ÏÔ, Ô˘
ÛÙȘ ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚ˜ ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ ·Ó··ÚÈÛÙ¿ οÙÈ Ô˘ ϤÔÓ
‰ÂÓ ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ ÛÙËÓ ÂÔ¯‹ Ì·˜, ·ÏÏ¿ ˘‹ÚÍ ÛÙÔ ·ÚÂÏıfiÓ.
ªÂ ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· Ù˘ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜ ÔÈ ·Ú¯·›ÔÈ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÔ› Î·È Ù·
‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ‹Ì·Ù¿ ÙÔ˘˜ ˙ˆÓÙ·ÓÂ‡Ô˘Ó ÛÙËÓ ÔıfiÓË ÙÔ˘ ˘ÔÏÔÁÈÛÙ‹. OÈ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏfiÁÔÈ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ÔÙÈÎÔÔÈ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÔχÏÔη
‰Â‰Ô̤ӷ Ù˘ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋˜ ¤Ú¢ӷ˜. ∏ ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›· ·ÍÈÔÔÈ› Â›Û˘ ÙȘ ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋˜ Î·È Â·˘ÍË̤Ó˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜, fiÔ˘ ϤÔÓ ‰ÂÓ ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ ÌÈ·
·Ï‹ ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙË ·ÂÈÎfiÓÈÛË, ·ÏÏ¿ ÌÈ· ‰˘Ó·ÌÈ΋ ‰È·‰Ú·ÛÙÈ΋ ÔÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛË-·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË.
∏ ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· ÂÈÙÚ¤ÂÈ ÛÙÔÓ ¿ÓıÚˆÔ Ó·
ÍÂÂÚ¿ÛÂÈ ÙËÓ ·Ï‹ ‰È¿‰Ú·ÛË Ì ÙÔÓ ˘ÔÏÔÁÈÛÙ‹ Ô˘ ÚÔÛʤÚÔ˘Ó ÙÔ ÔÓÙ›ÎÈ Î·È ÙÔ ÏËÎÙÚÔÏfiÁÈÔ, Ù· ÔÔ›· ıˆÚÔ‡ÓÙ·È
«ÛÙ·ÙÈο ̤۷ ‰ÈÂ·Ê‹˜» Î·È Ó· ÏÔËÁËı› Û ¤Ó·Ó ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙÔ (three dimensional-3D), Ù¯ÓËÙfi (artificial) ÎfiÛÌÔ. ∏ ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· ¤¯ÂÈ ·Ó·ÊÂÚı› ˆ˜ «ÙÔ ÂÈÛÈÙ‹ÚÈÔ Û ¤Ó·Ó
¿ÏÏÔ ÎfiÛÌÔ». ∏ Â·Ê‹ ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘-˘ÔÏÔÁÈÛÙ‹ ÂÈÙ˘Á¯¿ÓÂÙ·È
Ì Á¿ÓÙÈ· ‰Â‰ÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ ‹ «·ÙÈο» Á¿ÓÙÈ· (data gloves), ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙÔ ÔÓÙ›ÎÈ (3D mouse) ‹ ÛÙÂÚÂÔÛÎÔÈο ÎÈ¿ÏÈ· (goggles ‹
head-mounted displays). O ¯Ú‹ÛÙ˘ ·ÏÏËÏÂȉڿ Û Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfi ¯ÚfiÓÔ Ì ¤Ó· ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙÔ Û˘ÓıÂÙÈÎfi ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ, fiˆ˜
ÛÙÔÓ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfi ÎfiÛÌÔ. OÈ ıÂÌÂÏÈÒ‰ÂȘ ¤ÓÓÔȘ Ù˘ ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋˜
Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ Â›Ó·È Ë ÂÌ‚‡ıÈÛË (immersion), Ë ·ÏÏËÏÂ›‰Ú·ÛË (interaction) Î·È Ë ÏÔ‹ÁËÛË (navigation).
Δ· ÙÚÈۉȿÛٷٷ ÌÔÓ٤Ϸ ÂÓfi˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÔ‡ ¯ÒÚÔ˘ ÙÔÔıÂÙË̤ӷ ̤۷ Û ÚÔ‚·ÏÏfiÌÂÓ· ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙ· ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋˜
Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜, fiˆ˜ ÙÔ «Cave» ÙÔ˘ π‰Ú‡Ì·ÙÔ˜ ªÂ›˙ÔÓÔ˜

∂ÏÏËÓÈÛÌÔ‡, ·˘Í¿ÓÔ˘Ó ÙÔ ‚·ıÌfi ·ÏÏËÏÂ›‰Ú·Û˘ Ì ÙÔ ¯Ú‹ÛÙË Î·È ·Ú¤¯Ô˘Ó Ӥ˜ ‰˘Ó·ÌÈΤ˜ ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ˜ ÛÙËÓ ÂÍÂÚ‡ÓËÛË ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯·›ˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÒÓ, ÛÙËÓ ÔÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛË ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈ̤ӈÓ, Û‡ÓıÂÙˆÓ ÂÓÓÔÈÒÓ Î·È ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙˆÓ.
∂ÈϤÔÓ ÛÙ·ıÂÚ¤˜ ‹ ÎÈÓÔ‡ÌÂÓ˜ ÂÈÎfiÓ˜ ÂÓfi˜ ÌÓËÌ›Ԣ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÚÔ‚ÏËıÔ‡Ó Ì¤Ûˆ CD-ROMs, DVDs Î·È ÛÙÔ ‰È·‰›ÎÙ˘Ô,
ÂÓÈÛ¯‡ÔÓÙ·˜ ÙËÓ ÂÈÛ΄ÈÌfiÙËÙ¿ ÙÔ˘.
Δ· ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ¯ÚfiÓÈ· Ë ·˘Í·ÓfiÌÂÓË ‚ÂÏÙ›ˆÛË ÙˆÓ ÁÚ·ÊÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ ÚÔÁÚ·ÌÌ¿ÙˆÓ Ô‰‹ÁËÛ ÛÙË ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›· ÔÏÏÒÓ
ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙˆÓ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ ¯ÒÚˆÓ ÌÂ
ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ˘ÔÏÔÁÈÛÙ‹. ªÂ ÙÔÓ fiÚÔ «ÙÚÈۉȿÛٷ٘ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ Ì ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ˘ÔÏÔÁÈÛÙ‹» ·Ó·ÊÂÚfiÌ·ÛÙ ÛÙË
‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›· ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙˆÓ ÂÈÎÔÓÈÎÒÓ ÌÔÓÙ¤ÏˆÓ ·Ó·ÛηÊÒÓ,
·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ ¯ÒÚˆÓ, ÙÔ›ˆÓ Î·È Î·ÏÏÈÙ¯ÓËÌ¿ÙˆÓ Ì ÙË
‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ÁÚ·ÊÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ ÚÔÁÚ·ÌÌ¿ÙˆÓ, fiˆ˜ ÙÔ ÙÔ XSI, ÙÔ
Maya, ÙÔ 3D Studio Max, ÙÔ Cinema 4D, ÙÔ Microstation Î.¿.
OÈ ˘ÔÏÔÁÈÛÙ¤˜ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈËıÔ‡Ó ÛÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ
ÙÔ˘ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÔ‡ ÛÙÔ˘˜ ·Ú·Î¿Ùˆ ÙÔÌ›˜:
1. æËÊȷ΋ ‰È·¯Â›ÚÈÛË Ù˘ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ÎÏËÚÔÓÔÌÈ¿˜.
2. ∂Ó›Û¯˘ÛË Ù˘ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜-Ì·ıËÛȷ΋˜ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·˜.
3. ¶ÔÏÈÙÈÛÙÈ΋ ÂÈÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·, ‰È¿‰ÔÛË Ù˘ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ÎÏËÚÔÓÔÌÈ¿˜.
4. ΔÚÈۉȿÛٷ٘ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ Î·È ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ ÙfiˆÓ Î·È ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈ̤ӈÓ.

O ÛÎÔfi˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜
∏ ·Ú·‰ÔÛȷ΋ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›·, fiˆ˜ ¤¯ÂÈ ‰È·ÌÔÚʈı› Ù·
ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· 100 ¯ÚfiÓÈ·, ¤¯ÂÈ ÛÎÔfi Ó· Ì·˜ Ô‰ËÁ‹ÛÂÈ Ó· ηٷÓÔ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ٷ ‰È¿ÊÔÚ· ÛÙ¿‰È· ÛÙËÓ ÂͤÏÈÍË ÙÔ˘ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÔ‡,

2. ΔÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙË È‰Â·Ù‹ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÙˆÓ ÁÏ˘ÙÒÓ ÙÔ˘ ¶·ÚıÂÓÒÓ·.

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Ù¯. 109 APXAIO§O°IA & TEXNE™

·Ó·ÛοÙÔÓÙ·˜ ÙfiÔ˘˜ Ì ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎfi ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓ Î·È
ʤÚÓÔÓÙ·˜ ÛÙÔ Êˆ˜ ÛÙÔȯ›·, Ô˘ ʈٛ˙Ô˘Ó ‰È¿ÊÔÚ˜ Ï¢ڤ˜ Ù˘ ·ÓıÚÒÈÓ˘ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜ ·fi ÙȘ ÈÔ Ù·ÂÈÓ¤˜ (Û˘Óı‹Î˜ ‰È·‚›ˆÛ˘, ÂÚÁ·Ï›·, ÔÏÈÛÌfi˜, Û·Ë) ̤¯ÚÈ ÙȘ ÈÔ
·ÓÂÙ˘Á̤Ó˜, fiˆ˜ Ë Ù¤¯ÓË Î·È Ë ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋. ªÂÙ¿ ÙËÓ
·Ó·Ûηʋ Î·È ÙË Û˘ÏÏÔÁ‹ ÙˆÓ ‰Â‰Ô̤ӈÓ, ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı› Ë ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË Î·È Ë ÂÚÌËÓ›· ÙÔ˘˜. ™ÙÔ Ù¤ÏÔ˜ Ù· ‰Â‰Ô̤ӷ ÔÙÈÎÔÔÈÔ‡ÓÙ·È Ì ÙË ÌÔÚÊ‹ ۯ‰›ˆÓ Î·È ÂÈÎfiÓˆÓ.
™ÙȘ ·Ú¯¤˜ ÙÔ˘ 21Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ· ÔÈ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏfiÁÔÈ ‰È·ı¤ÙÔ˘Ó ÌÈ·
ÛÂÈÚ¿ ÂÚÁ·Ï›ˆÓ, Ô˘ ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÈÙÚ¤Ô˘Ó Ó· ÔÙÈÎÔÔÈ‹ÛÔ˘Ó
Ù· ·Ó·ÛηÊÈο ‰Â‰Ô̤ӷ. ∏ ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›· Ì ·˘Ùfi
ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ Û˘Ó‰˘¿˙ÂÈ ·ÊÂÓfi˜ ÌÂÓ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ Ù˘ ·Ú·‰ÔÛȷ΋˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜ ‰ÔÎÈÌ·Ṳ̂Ó˜ ÛÙÔ ¯ÚfiÓÔ, ·ÊÂÙ¤ÚÔ˘ ‰Â
ηÈÓÔÙfi̘ Ù¯ÓÈΤ˜ ηٷÁÚ·Ê‹˜ Î·È ÔÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛ˘ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈÒÓ Ì ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ÙˆÓ ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙˆÓ ÁÚ·ÊÈÎÒÓ.
O ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfiÙÂÚÔ˜ ÛÎÔfi˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜ Â›Ó·È Ë Û˘ÓÂÚÁ·Û›· ÌÂٷ͇ ÙˆÓ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÒÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏfiÁˆÓ
‰›Ô˘. ¶·Ú¤¯ÂÈ ÙË ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· ÛÙÔ˘˜ ·Ó·ÛηÊ›˜ Ó· ÌÔÈÚ¿˙ÔÓÙ·È ÙȘ ·Ó·Î·Ï‡„ÂȘ ÙÔ˘˜ Ì ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ˜ ·fi fiÏÔ ÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ. OÏÔÎÏËÚÒÓÔÓÙ·˜ ÙËÓ ·Ó·ÛηÊÈ΋ ¤Ú¢ӷ ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı› Ë
‰ËÌÔÛ›Â˘ÛË ÙˆÓ ·ÔÙÂÏÂÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ. OÈ ÙÚÈۉȿÛٷ٘ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ Û˘ÌÏËÚÒÓÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ‰ËÌÔÛȇÛÂȘ, ·Ú¤¯Ô˘Ó Ôχ ‰˘Ó·Ù¤˜ ÂÈÎfiÓ˜, ÂÓÈÛ¯‡Ô˘Ó ÙÔ ÂÎÙÂÓ¤˜ ΛÌÂÓÔ
Î·È ÙËÓ ·Ú·‰ÔÛȷ΋ ۯ‰ȷÛÙÈ΋ ·ÔηٿÛÙ·ÛË (ÂÈÎ. 3).
ŸÙ·Ó Ë Ó¤· ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›· ÙÔÔıÂÙËı› Û ¤Ó· ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙÔ ÌÔÓÙ¤ÏÔ, ÌÔÚ› Ó· ·Ó·ÓÂÒÓÂÙ·È ‰È·ÚÎÒ˜, fiÙ·Ó ÚÔ·ÙÔ˘Ó Ó¤· ÛÙÔȯ›·. ∏ ‰È·‰Èηۛ· Ù˘ ·Ó·Î·Ù·Û΢‹˜ ‹ Ù˘
Û˘ÌÏ‹ÚˆÛ˘ ‰Â‰ÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ Â›Ó·È Û·ÊÒ˜ ¢ÎÔÏfiÙÂÚË Û ¤Ó·
˘ÔÏÔÁÈÛÙÈÎfi ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ ·fi fi,ÙÈ ÛÙÔ ·Ó·ÏÔÁÈÎfi Û¯¤‰ÈÔ, ÙÔ
ÔÔ›Ô Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁËı› ·fi ÙËÓ ·Ú¯‹, ÎÔÛÙ›˙ÔÓÙ·˜
¤ÙÛÈ Û ¯ÚfiÓÔ Î·È Û ¯Ú‹Ì·. OÈ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏfiÁÔÈ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó ϤÔÓ
Ó· Û˘ÓÂÚÁ¿˙ÔÓÙ·È Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚ· ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÒÓÙ·˜
ÔÏÔ¤Ó· Î·È ÈÔ ·Ó·Ï˘ÙÈο ÌÔÓ٤Ϸ ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯·›ˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÒÓ.
™ËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi˜ ÛÎÔfi˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜ Â›Ó·È Î·È
Ë ‚ÂÏÙȈ̤ÓË ·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË ÙˆÓ ·ÔÙÂÏÂÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ Ù˘ ·Ó·ÛηÊÈ΋˜ ¤Ú¢ӷ˜. Δ· ÙÚÈۉȿÛٷٷ ÌÔÓ٤Ϸ ÂÓfi˜ ÌÓËÌ›Ԣ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ÚÔ‚ÏËıÔ‡Ó ÛÙÔ ‰È·‰›ÎÙ˘Ô. ΔÔ ‰È·‰›ÎÙ˘Ô ·Ú¤¯ÂÈ
ÂÎÙÂٷ̤Ó˜ ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ˜ ÚÔ‚ÔÏ‹˜ ̤ۈ ÂÈÎÔÓÈÎÒÓ ÂÎı¤ÛˆÓ, Ô˘ ·ÊÔÚÔ‡Ó Â›Ù Û ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓ· ›Ù Û ÔÏfiÎÏËÚÔ˘˜
·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÔ‡˜ ¯ÒÚÔ˘˜. ª¤¯ÚÈ ÙÒÚ· Ô ÌÔÓ·‰ÈÎfi˜ ÙÚfiÔ˜ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·Û˘ ÂÎıÂÌ¿ÙˆÓ ‹Ù·Ó ÛÙȘ ·›ıÔ˘Û˜ ÂÓfi˜ ÌÔ˘Û›Ԣ,
··ÈÙÒÓÙ·˜ ¤ÙÛÈ ÙË Ê˘ÛÈ΋ Â›ÛÎÂ„Ë ÙˆÓ ÂӉȷÊÂÚÔ̤ӈÓ. ∏
‰È·‰Èηۛ· Ù˘ Ê˘ÛÈ΋˜ ¤ÎıÂÛ˘, fï˜, ¤¯ÂÈ ÌÂÚÈÎÔ‡˜ ÛÔ‚·ÚÔ‡˜ ÂÚÈÔÚÈÛÌÔ‡˜: ·) ı¤Ì·Ù· ·ÛÊ¿ÏÂÈ·˜, ‚) Û˘ÓÙ‹ÚËÛË
ÙˆÓ ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈ̤ӈÓ, Á) ¤ÏÏÂÈ„Ë Ê˘ÛÈÎÔ‡ ¯ÒÚÔ˘.
ªÂ ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ÙˆÓ ÂÈÎÔÓÈÎÒÓ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ ¯ÒÚˆÓ Î·È Î·ÏÏÈÙ¯ÓËÌ¿ÙˆÓ, Ù· ·Ú·¿Óˆ ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù· Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›˙ÔÓÙ·È. ∞fi ÙË ÛÙÈÁÌ‹ Ô˘ Ù· ÂÈÎÔÓÈο ÌÔÓ٤Ϸ ˘¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó ·ÔÎÏÂÈÛÙÈο ̤۷ Û ¤Ó·Ó ˘ÔÏÔÁÈÛÙ‹ ‰ÂÓ Ù›ıÂÓÙ·È fiÚÈ· ˆ˜ ÚÔ˜ ÙËÓ ¤ÎÙ·Û‹ ÙÔ˘˜. ∂›Û˘, Ë
ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋ ¤ÎıÂÛË ÌÔÚ› Ó· ‰È·ÙËÚËı› ÁÈ· ÌÂÁ¿Ï· ¯ÚÔÓÈο
APXAIO§O°IA & TEXNE™ Ù¯. 109

3. ΔÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙË È‰Â·Ù‹ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË ÙÔ˘ ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈÎÔ‡ Ù˘ μ·ÛÈÏÈ΋˜ Ù˘
·Ú¯·›·˜ fiÏ˘ CLVNIA.

‰È·ÛÙ‹Ì·Ù· ÛÙÔ ‰È·‰›ÎÙ˘Ô, ·Ú¤¯ÔÓÙ·˜ Û‡ÓıÂÙ˜ ·Ó·Ï˘ÙÈΤ˜ ÏËÚÔÊÔڛ˜ ÁÈ· fiϘ ÙȘ ·Ú·Ì¤ÙÚÔ˘˜ Ù˘ ¤ÎıÂÛ˘
(ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ, Û˘ÓÂ˘Ú‹Ì·Ù·, ·Ú¯·ÈfiÙËÙ˜ Ù˘ ¢ڇÙÂÚ˘ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹˜). ∫·Ó¤Ó· ·fi Ù· ·Ó·ÏÔÁÈο Â˘Ú‹Ì·Ù· ‰ÂÓ ÎÈÓ‰˘Ó‡ÂÈ ·fi ÙË Ê˘ÛÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ¤ÎıÂÛË, ·fi ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈÎÔ‡˜
·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ˜, ·fi ÎÏÔ‹ ‹ ‚·Ó‰·ÏÈÛÌfi (ÂÈÎ. 4).
∏ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË ÙˆÓ ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙˆÓ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ ÛÙÔ
¢ڇ ÎÔÈÓfi Î·È ÛÙËÓ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ· ÎÔÈÓfiÙËÙ· ÙˆÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌfiÓˆÓ
Ì ÙË ÌÔÚÊ‹ ÂÈÎÔÓÈÎÒÓ ÂÎı¤ÛˆÓ, ›Ù ÛÙÔ ‰È·‰›ÎÙ˘Ô Â›Ù ̤۷ Û ·˘ÙfiÓÔÌ· ÊÔÚËÙ¿ ÊÔÚÌ¿Ù ·Ôı‹Î¢Û˘, fiˆ˜ ÙÔ DVD,
Â›Ó·È È‰È·›ÙÂÚ· ηٷÓÔËÙ‹ ÛÙËÓ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË ÙÔ˘ ¡·Ô‡ ÙÔ˘ ∂ÈÎÔ‡ÚÂÈÔ˘ ∞fiÏψӷ ÛÙȘ μ¿ÛÛ˜ Ù˘ ºÈÁ·Ï›·˜. O Ó·fi˜ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›˙ÂÈ ÌÂÁ¿Ï· ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù· ‰È¿‚ÚˆÛ˘ Î·È ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÚÔÛÙ·Û›· ÙÔ˘ ¤¯ÂÈ ÙÔÔıÂÙËı› ¤Ó· ›‰Ô˜ ÛÙÂÁ¿ÛÙÚÔ˘ Ì ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· Ô Ó·fi˜ Ó· Â›Ó·È «·fiÚ·ÙÔ˜» ÁÈ· ¿Óˆ ·fi 20 ¯ÚfiÓÈ·,
ηıÈÛÙÒÓÙ·˜ ۯ‰fiÓ ··ÁÔÚ¢ÙÈ΋ ÙË Ê˘ÛÈ΋ Â›ÛÎÂ„Ë ÙÔ˘
ÌÓËÌ›Ԣ.
∂›Û˘, Ë ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙË ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË Î·È Ë ·ÚÔ˘Û›·Û‹
ÙÔ˘ ı· ÚfiÙÂÈÓ ·Ó¤Íԉ˜ χÛÂȘ ÛÙÔ˘˜ ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ˜ Ô˘
·Û¯ÔÏÔ‡ÓÙ·È Ì ÙË Ê˘ÛÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ·Ó·ÛًψÛË, χÛÂȘ Ô˘ ı·
‰ÔÎÈÌ¿˙ÔÓÙ·Ó ÛÙÔ ÂÈÎÔÓÈÎfi ÌÔÓÙ¤ÏÔ ÚÈÓ ·ÔÊ·ÛÈÛÙ› ÔÔÈ·‰‹ÔÙ Â¤Ì‚·ÛË ÛÙÔ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfi ÌÓËÌ›Ô. ΔÔ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÙÈÎfi ·Á·ıfi, Û „ËÊȷ΋ ÌÔÚÊ‹, Â›Ó·È ‰È·ı¤ÛÈÌÔ ÛÙÔ˘˜ ÂÈÛΤÙ˜ ¯ˆÚ›˜ Ó· ··ÈÙÂ›Ù·È ϤÔÓ Ë Ê˘ÛÈ΋ Â›Û΄‹ ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ.

∂ÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË Ù˘ ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋˜
·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·Û˘ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ ¯ÒÚˆÓ
OÈ ¿ÓıÚˆÔÈ, ÛÙËÓ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ¿ ÙÔ˘˜ Ó· ·Ó··Ú·Á¿ÁÔ˘Ó Î·È
Ó· ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ÔÏ˘ÏÔÎfiÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ ·ÏËıÈÓÔ‡
ÎfiÛÌÔ˘, ηٷÛ΢¿˙Ô˘Ó Û¯¤‰È·, ÌÔÓ٤Ϸ, ‹ ÚÔ¯ˆÚÔ‡Ó ÛÂ
·Ó·Ï˘ÙÈΤ˜ ÁψÛÛÈΤ˜ ÂÚÈÁڷʤ˜, ÚÔÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ Ó· ÌÂÙ·‰ÒÛÔ˘Ó ÛÙÔ˘˜ ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜ ÙË ÛΤ„Ë Î·È ÙË ÁÓÒÛË ÙÔ˘˜. ŒÓ· ·Ó·Ï˘ÙÈÎfi ÂÈÎÔÓÈÎfi ÌÔÓÙ¤ÏÔ ÂÓfi˜ ÌÓËÌ›Ԣ ‹ ÂÓfi˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÔ‡
¯ÒÚÔ˘ ¤¯ÂÈ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ·Í›· ÌfiÓÔ ·Ó ̤۷ ·fi ÙȘ ÏÂÙÔ89

4. ΔÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙË ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË Ù˘ ÛËÌÂÚÈÓ‹˜ ÌÔÚÊ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ ¶·ÚıÂÓÒÓ· ·fi ÙÔ ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ Ù˘ ¡fiÙÈ·˜
∫·ÏÈÊfiÚÓÈ·˜ Î·È ÙÔ πÓÛÙÈÙÔ‡ÙÔ ¢ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÈÎÒÓ Δ¯ÓÔÏÔÁÈÒÓ, Ô˘ ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ ‰È·‰›ÎÙ˘Ô.

̤ÚÂȘ Ô˘ ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙ·È ÌÔÚ› Ó· ‚ÔËı‹ÛÂÈ ÛÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË Î·È ÛÙËÓ Â›Ï˘ÛË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ¿ÙˆÓ, ‰ËÏ·‰‹ Â¿Ó Â›Ó·È ·ÓÔȯÙfi Û ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ ıÂÒÚËÛË. Δ· ÏÔÁÈÛÌÈο-ÂÚÁ·Ï›· ‹ ÔÈ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂȘ ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋˜ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·Û˘ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ‰‡Ô
‚·ÛÈΤ˜ ¯Ú‹ÛÂȘ: ÙËÓ ÂÚÌËÓ¢ÙÈ΋ (interpretive) Î·È ÙËÓ ÂÎÊÚ·ÛÙÈ΋ (expressive). Δ· ÂÚÌËÓ¢ÙÈο ÂÚÁ·Ï›· ‚ÔËıÔ‡Ó
ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ˜ Ó· ‰Ô˘Ó Î·È Ó· ÂÂÍÂÚÁ·ÛÙÔ‡Ó ÙËÓ ÔÙÈÎÔÔÈË̤ÓË ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›·, ÒÛÙ ӷ ÂÚÌËÓ‡ÛÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›· Ô˘ ¤¯ÂÈ ÔÙÈÎÔÔÈËı›.
∏ ÔÙÈ΋ ·ÂÈÎfiÓÈÛË ‚ÔËı¿ÂÈ ÙÔÓ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ· Ó· ‰È¢ÎÚÈÓ›ÛÂÈ ‰‡ÛÎÔϘ ‹ ·ÔÛ·ÛÌ·ÙÈΤ˜ ÏËÚÔÊÔڛ˜ ÂÓfi˜ ÌÓËÌ›Ԣ Î·È Ó· ηٷÓÔ‹ÛÂÈ Ù· Û˘ÌÊÚ·˙fiÌÂÓ·, οÓÔÓÙ¿˜ Ù· ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ ·ÓÙÈÏËÙ¿.
∏ ÂÎÊÚ·ÛÙÈ΋ ¯Ú‹ÛË Ù˘ ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋˜ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·Û˘ ‚ÔËı¿ÂÈ ÙÔ˘˜ ¯Ú‹ÛÙ˜-·Ô‰¤ÎÙ˜ ÛÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË Ù˘ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›·˜, ÒÛÙ ӷ Á›ÓÂÈ ·ÓÙÈÏËÙ‹ ·fi ÙÔ ÎÔÈÓfi Ì ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ·
Ù˘ ÂÈÎfiÓ·˜ ‹ Ù˘ ÎÈÓÔ‡ÌÂÓ˘ ÂÈÎfiÓ·˜ (ηٿ Ì›· ¤ÓÓÔÈ· ·ÏÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È Ë ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›· Ì ÙËÓ ÔÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛË)
(ÂÈÎ. 5).
Δ· ̤۷ Î·È ÔÈ Ù¯ÓÈΤ˜ ÔÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛ˘ ‚ÔËıÔ‡Ó ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ˜ Ó· ‰ÈÂÚ¢ӋÛÔ˘Ó fiÏ· Ù· ‰Â‰Ô̤ӷ Ù˘ ¤ÚÂ˘Ó¿˜ ÙÔ˘˜,
Ù· ÔÔ›· Û˘Ó‹ıˆ˜ ÚÔ¤Ú¯ÔÓÙ·È ·fi ÙËÓ ·Ó·ÛηÊÈ΋ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·, Ó· ·ÓÔ›ÍÔ˘Ó Ó¤Ô˘˜ ‰ÚfiÌÔ˘˜ ÛÙËÓ ¤Ú¢ӷ Î·È Ó· ÌÂÙ·‰ÒÛÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ·Ó·Î·Ï‡„ÂȘ ÙÔ˘˜, ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙ÔÓÙ·˜ Ù· ·ÔÙÂϤÛÌ·Ù· Ù˘ ÂÚÁ·Û›·˜ ÙÔ˘˜. ◊‰Ë ÙÔ 1986, Ô Latour, Û˘ÏÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÔÓÙ·˜ ÙË ‰‡Ó·ÌË Ù˘ ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋˜ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·Û˘, ·Ó·Ê¤ÚÂÈ
¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο: «∏ ÔÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛË ‚ÔËı¿ÂÈ Ó· ‰È¢ÎÚÈÓ›ÛÔ˘Ì ÙÈ ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ ‹ Ó· ·ÏÏ¿ÍÔ˘Ì ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ Ì ÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô ÔÈ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ˜ ÛΤÊÙÔÓÙ·È. ∂ÊfiÛÔÓ ¿Óˆ ·fi ÙÔ 60% Ù˘ ‰È·ÓÔËÙÈ΋˜ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·˜ Â›Ó·È ·ÊÈÂڈ̤ÓÔ ÛÙËÓ ÔÙÈ΋ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·,
Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÔÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛË Ù˘ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋˜ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›·˜ ı· ‚ÂÏÙÈÒÛÂÈ ‰Ú·Ì·ÙÈο ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÂÚÌËÓ›·-ÂÍ‹ÁËÛË ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ ‰Â‰Ô̤ӈӻ.
90

OÈ ÂÈÎÔÓÈΤ˜ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ
·Ú¤¯Ô˘Ó ÙË ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ «ÚÔÛÔÌÔ›ˆÛ˘» ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ ‰Â‰Ô̤ӈÓ, Ô˘ ÚÔ¤Ú¯ÔÓÙ·È ·fi ÙËÓ ·Ó·ÛηÊÈ΋ ‰È·‰Èηۛ· Î·È ÙȘ ‰ËÌÔÛȇÛÂȘ, Ì ÙË ÌÔÚÊ‹ Ù˘ ÂÈÎfiÓ·˜.
ªÈ· ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈ΋ ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·Û˘ Ì ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ˘ÔÏÔÁÈÛÙÒÓ Â›Ó·È Ë ÂÚÌËÓ›· ·˘ÙÒÓ ÙˆÓ
‰Â‰Ô̤ӈÓ, ‚ÔËıÒÓÙ·˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ÂȉÈÎÔ‡˜ Ó· ηٷÓÔ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ı¤Ì·Ù· ηٷÛ΢·ÛÙÈο, ¯ˆÚÔÙ·ÍÈο, Ó· Ï¿‚Ô˘Ó
··ÓÙ‹ÛÂȘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË ÙˆÓ
¯ÒÚˆÓ, ÙË ¯ÚÔÓÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ‰È·‰Ô¯‹
ÙˆÓ ÎÙÈÚ›ˆÓ ‹ ÙȘ ηٷÛÙÚÔʤ˜ ηÈ
·ÏÏ·Á¤˜, Ô˘ ¤¯Ô˘Ó Û˘ÓÙÂÏÂÛı› ÛÂ
¤Ó· ÌÓËÌ›Ô.

ΔÚÈۉȿÛٷٷ ÁÚ·ÊÈο ÛÙËÓ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›·
Δ· ÙÚÈۉȿÛٷٷ ÁÚ·ÊÈο Ì¿˜ ÂÈÙÚ¤Ô˘Ó:
1. ∫·Ï‡ÙÂÚË ·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯·›ˆÓ ÏÂÈ„¿ÓˆÓ. OÈ „ËÊȷΤ˜ ÙÚÈۉȿÛٷ٘ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ ¯ÒÚˆÓ Î·È ÌÓËÌ›ˆÓ ÂÈÙÚ¤Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚË ·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË ÙˆÓ
·Ú¯·›ˆÓ ÏÂÈ„¿ÓˆÓ, ›Ù ÚfiÎÂÈÙ·È ÁÈ· ÛÙ·ıÂÚ¿ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈο
ηٿÏÔÈ·, ›Ù ÁÈ· ÎÈÓËÙ¿ Â˘Ú‹Ì·Ù· Î·È ›¯ÓË ·ÚÂÏıfiÓÙˆÓ
ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÒÓ. π‰È·›ÙÂÚ· Û ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ, fiÔ˘ Ë ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋
ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›· Â›Ó·È Î·Ù·ÓÔËÙ‹ ÌfiÓÔ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ÂȉÈÎÔ‡˜, Ù· ÏÔÁÈÛÌÈο ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙˆÓ ÁÚ·ÊÈÎÒÓ Î·È Ë „ËÊȷ΋ ÔÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛË ÙˆÓ ‰Â‰ÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ÚÔÛʤÚÔ˘Ó Û·ÊÒ˜ ηχÙÂÚË ÂÈÎfiÓ·.
Δ· ÙÚÈۉȿÛٷٷ ÁÚ·ÊÈο ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó ¤Ó· ÈÛ¯˘Úfi ÂÚÁ·ÏÂ›Ô ÛÙ· ¯¤ÚÈ· ÙˆÓ ÌÂÏÂÙËÙÒÓ ÂÓfi˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÔ‡ ¯ÒÚÔ˘
ÛÙËÓ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ· ηٷÓfiËÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎÒÓ ¯ÚÔÓÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ Ê¿ÛÂˆÓ ÂÓfi˜ ÌÓËÌ›Ԣ ‹ ÂÓfi˜ Û˘ÓfiÏÔ˘ ÌÓËÌ›ˆÓ. OÈ
ÂÚ¢ÓËÙ¤˜, ÛÙËÓ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ¿ ÙÔ˘˜ Ó· ·ÔηٷÛÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ
·Ú¯È΋ ÌÔÚÊ‹ ÂÓfi˜ ÎÙÈÚ›Ô˘, ÂȉÈο Û ÎÙ›ÚÈ· Ì ̷ÎÚ·›ˆÓË
ÔÚ›· Î·È Ì ÔÏϤ˜ ÚÔÛı‹Î˜, ÂȉÈÔÚıÒÛÂȘ Î·È ·ÏÏ·Á¤˜, Ì ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· Ù˘ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜, ηٷÓÔÔ‡Ó ÔÈ· ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈο ̤ÏË ·Ó‹ÎÔ˘Ó Û οı ʿÛË ÙÔ˘ ÎÙÈÚ›Ô˘. ∏ ‰È·ÊÔÚ¿
Ì ÙË ‰ÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙË ·Ó·ÏÔÁÈ΋ ۯ‰ȷÛÙÈ΋ ·ÔηٿÛÙ·ÛË Â›Ó·È Ë ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· ÂÂÍÂÚÁ·Û›·˜ ÙˆÓ ‰Â‰Ô̤ӈÓ, Ë Ù·¯‡ÙËÙ·
·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÎÔÓÈÎÔ‡ ÌÔÓÙ¤ÏÔ˘ Î·È ÚˆÙ›ÛÙˆ˜ Ë ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· ÂÂÍÂÚÁ·Û›·˜ ÙÔ˘.
2. ¢˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· ηχÙÂÚ˘ ηٷÓfiËÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎÒÓ
Ê¿ÛÂˆÓ Î·Ù·ÛÙÚÔÊ‹˜ ÂÓfi˜ ¯ÒÚÔ˘. ¶·ÚÔÌÔ›ˆ˜, Ì ÙËÓ „ËÊȷ΋ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË Î·È ÂÂÍÂÚÁ·Û›· ÙˆÓ ‰Â‰ÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÔÈ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙ¤˜ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÙË ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· ηχÙÂÚ˘ ηٷÓfiËÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎÒÓ Ê¿ÛÂˆÓ Î·Ù·ÛÙÚÔÊ‹˜ ÂÓfi˜ ¯ÒÚÔ˘, ·Ô‰›‰ÔÓÙ·˜ ÌÂ
Û‡ÓıÂÙ˜ „ËÊȷΤ˜ ÂÈÎfiÓ˜ οı ÛÙÔÈ¯Â›Ô Ô˘ ·Ú¤¯ÂÈ Ì·ÚÙ˘Ú›Â˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂͤÏÈÍË ÌÈ·˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋˜ ı¤Û˘, ÂÓÈÛ¯‡ÔÓÙ·˜
ÙËÓ ¤Ú¢ӷ Î·È ‚ÔËıÒÓÙ·˜ ÛÙËÓ ÂÍ·ÁˆÁ‹ Û˘ÌÂÚ·ÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ.
Ù¯. 109 APXAIO§O°IA & TEXNE™

3. ¢˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· ‰È·ÚÎÔ‡˜ ‚ÂÏÙ›ˆÛ˘ Î·È ÂÓۈ̿وÛ˘
ÔÈ, ÚÔÙÔ‡ ÂȯÂÈÚ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙË Ê˘ÛÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÔηٿÛÙ·ÛË Û˘Ó¤·˜ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›·˜. Δ· ÙÚÈۉȿÛٷٷ ÁÚ·ÊÈο ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó ¤Ó·
ÌÏËÚÒÓÔÓÙ¿˜ Ù· Ì Ӥ· ÎÔÌÌ¿ÙÈ·, ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡Ó ÙÔ ÂÈÎÔÓÈÎfi
ÈÛ¯˘Úfi ÂÚÁ·ÏÂ›Ô ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋˜ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·Û˘, Ù· ÔÔ›· ‚ÂÏÌÔÓÙ¤ÏÔ ÙÔ˘˜. °È· ÙËÓ Î·Ù·Û΢‹ ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÎÔÓÈÎÔ‡ ÌÔÓÙ¤ÏÔ˘ ›ӷÈ
ÙÈÒÓÔÓÙ·È ‰È·ÚÎÒ˜, ÔÙÈÎÔÔÈÒÓÙ·˜ ÙȘ Ӥ˜ ·Ó·Î·Ï‡„ÂȘ.
··Ú·›ÙËÙÔ Ó· ÏËÊıÔ‡Ó ˘fi„Ë ÂÍ·Ú¯‹˜ ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù· ¤ÓˆÛ˘
¢›ÓÔ˘Ó ÙË ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· ‰È·ÚÎÔ‡˜ ‚ÂÏÙ›ˆÛ˘ Ù˘ „ËÊȷ΋˜ ·ÔÙˆÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈÎÒÓ ÌÂÏÒÓ ÙÔ˘, ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù· ¤‰Ú·Û˘, Ó·
ηٿÛÙ·Û˘ ‚¿ÛÂÈ ÙˆÓ Ó¤ˆÓ ‰Â‰ÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ Ô˘ ÚÔ·ÙÔ˘Ó
ÚÔÛ‰ÈÔÚÈÛı› Ë ·ÎÚÈ‚‹˜ ı¤ÛË ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈÎÒÓ ÌÂÏÒÓ Ì¤Û·
‰È·ÚÎÒ˜ ·fi ÙËÓ ·Ó·ÛηÊÈ΋ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·. ΔÔ ÌÔÓÙ¤ÏÔ ÂÍÂÏ›ÛÛÙÔ ÔÈÎÔ‰fiÌËÌ·, Î.¿. ∂›Û˘ Ì ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· Ù˘ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜
ÛÂÙ·È, Ù· ÎÂÓ¿ ÛÙËÓ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›· Û˘ÌÏËÚÒÓÔÓÙ·È ‰È·ÚÎÒ˜
·Ôηı›ÛÙ·ÓÙ·È Ù· ·Ú¯Èο ¯ÚÒÌ·Ù·, ‰›ÓÔÓÙ·˜ ÌÈ· ÔÏÔÎÏËÚˆ·ÍÈÔÔÈÒÓÙ·˜ Ù· Ó¤· ÛÙÔȯ›·.
̤ÓË ÂÈÎfiÓ· Ù˘ ÌÔÚÊ‹˜ ÂÓfi˜ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜.
4. ªÂϤÙË ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎÒÓ ˘ÔıÂÙÈÎÒÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ. ¢ÂÓ Â›Ó·È
6. ¶·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË ÙÔ˘ ‰ÈÏ‹ÌÌ·ÙÔ˜ ÌÂٷ͇ ÙˆÓ ·Ï·ÈÒÓ Î·È
¿ÁÓˆÛÙÔ ÛÙËÓ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ· ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›·, ΢ڛˆ˜ ÁÈ· ÌÓËÌ›·
ÙˆÓ Ó¤ˆÓ ·ÔηٷÛÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ ÛÙËÓ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË Ù˘ Â·Ó·Î·Ù·Ì ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈ΋ ÂÍÂÏÈÎÙÈ΋ ÔÚ›· ·Ó¿ ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÈÒÓ˜, Ó· ˘¿ÚÛ΢‹˜. ™ÙËÓ ÔÚ›· Ù˘ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋˜ ¤Ú¢ӷ˜ ÚÔ·¯Ô˘Ó ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ ÚÔÙ¿ÛÂȘ ·ÔηٿÛÙ·Û˘ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÚ¢ÙÔ˘Ó ‰È·ÚÎÒ˜ Ó¤· ÛÙÔȯ›·, Ô˘ ·ÏÏ¿˙Ô˘Ó ‹ Û˘ÌÏËÚÒÓÔ˘Ó
ÓËÙ¤˜. °È· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, ÙÔ ª·˘ÛˆÏÂ›Ô Ù˘ ∞ÏÈηÚÓ·ÛÛÔ‡
ÙȘ ÁÓÒÛÂȘ Ì·˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·Ú¯·›· ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋. ∏ ·ÔηٿÛÙ· ÌÈÎÚ·ÛÈ·ÙÈο ·Ú¿ÏÈ· Î·È Ô Ó·fi˜ Ù˘ ∞ÚÙ¤ÌȉԘ ÛÙËÓ
ÛÙ·ÛË ·Ú¯·›ˆÓ ÎÙÈÚ›ˆÓ Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· ‰È·Ú΋˜ ‰È·Ì¿¯Ë ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ·
ŒÊÂÛÔ, ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙Ô˘Ó ÙÂÏ›ˆ˜ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ Î·È ‰È·ÌÂÙÚÈο
ÛÙÔ˘˜ ÂȉÈÎÔ‡˜ ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ ÚÔÛ‰ÈÔÚÈÛÌfi ÙÔ˘ ÙÈ Â›Ó·È ‰ÂÔÓÙÔÏÔ·ÓÙ›ıÂÙ˜ ÌÂϤÙ˜ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·Û˘ Î·È ·ÔηٿÛÙ·Û˘. O
ÁÈο ÔÚıfi. ∫¿ı ÂÔ¯‹ ‰ÈÂΉÈΛ ÙÔ ÌÂÚ›‰Èfi Ù˘ ÛÙË ÌÂϤÙË
ÏfiÁÔ˜ Ù˘ ‰È·ÊˆÓ›·˜ ÙˆÓ ÂȉÈÎÒÓ
ÁÈ· ÙÔ ª·˘ÛˆÏÂ›Ô Ù˘ ∞ÏÈηÚÓ·ÛÛÔ‡4 Â›Ó·È Ë ¤ÏÏÂÈ„Ë ÙÔ˘ ÚˆÙ·Ú¯ÈÎÔ‡ ÌÓËÌ›Ԣ, ηıÒ˜ ·˘Ùfi ‰È·Ï‡ıËΠÁÈ· ÙËÓ Î·Ù·Û΢‹ ÙÔ˘ ÊÚÔ˘Ú›Ô˘ Ù˘ fiÏ˘, ÛÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ÂÓۈ̷ÙÒıËÎ·Ó ÔÏÏ¿ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈο ̤ÏË. ∂›Ó·È ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο Ù· ÏfiÁÈ·
ÙÔ˘ °. ª·Î·Ï¿ÎË ˆ˜ ÚÔ˜ ÙȘ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂȘ ·ÔηٿÛÙ·Û˘: «ªÂ ‚¿ÛË ÙȘ ÏËÚÔÊÔڛ˜ ÙˆÓ ËÁÒÓ Î·È
Ù· ÂÚ›È·, ÚÔÛ·ıÔ‡Ó ÔÈ ÂȉÈÎÔ›
Ó· ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙÔ ÌÓËÌ›Ô,
Î·È ÔÈ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ Ê˘ÛÈο Â›Ó·È ·‰‡Ó·ÙÔ Ó· ·ÏËıÂ‡Ô˘Ó ·Ôχو˜. ∂›Ó·È ¿ÏψÛÙ ÙfiÛ˜ ÔÏϤ˜,
ÒÛÙ ӷ ¤¯ÂÈ ÁÚ·Ê› Î·È ÌÔÓÔÁÚ·Ê›· ÁÈ· ·˘Ù¤˜. ∂‡ÏÔÁ· οı ÂÔ¯‹
‚ϤÂÈ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈο, Ì ÙÔ ‰ÈÎfi Ù˘
ÙÚfiÔ ÙÔ Úfi‚ÏËÌ·». Δ· ÙÚÈۉȿÛٷٷ ÁÚ·ÊÈο ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó ¤Ó· ÈÛ¯˘Úfi ÂÚÁ·ÏÂ›Ô ÛÙËÓ ÔÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛË ·˘ÙÒÓ ÙˆÓ ÚÔÙ¿ÛˆÓ, ÛÙË Û‡ÁÎÚÈÛË
Î·È ÙÂÏÈο ÛÙÔÓ ¤ÏÂÁ¯fi ÙÔ˘˜. Δ·
˘ÔıÂÙÈο ÌÔÓ٤Ϸ Û˘ÁÎÚ›ÓÔÓÙ·È
ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜ Î·È ÔÈ ÂȉÈÎÔ› ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó
Ó· ‰È·ÈÛÙÒÛÔ˘Ó Ù· Ï¿ıË ‹ ÙȘ ·Ú·Ï›„ÂȘ οı ¿Ԅ˘.
5. ∫·Ï‡ÙÂÚË Û˘ÓÙ‹ÚËÛË ÂÓfi˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÔ‡ ¯ÒÚÔ˘. ∂ȉÈο Û ÌÂÁ¿Ï· ÚÔÁÚ¿ÌÌ·Ù· ·Ó·ÛًψÛ˘ ·Ú¯·›ˆÓ ÎÙÈÚ›ˆÓ, Ù· ÙÚÈۉȿÛٷٷ ÁÚ·ÊÈο ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi ÂÚÁ·5. ΔÔ ¡˘ÌÊ·›Ô Ù˘ ·Ú¯·›·˜ ™·Ï·Á·ÛÛÔ‡ ÛÙË ¡¢ ΔÔ˘ÚΛ·. ∂¿Óˆ: ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË. ∫¿Ùˆ: ·ÚÔ‡ÏÂ›Ô ÛÙ· ¯¤ÚÈ· ÙˆÓ ÂȉÈÎÒÓ, ÔÈ ÔÔ›Û· ηٿÛÙ·ÛË.
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91

ÙˆÓ ˘ÏÈÎÒÓ Î·Ù·ÏÔ›ˆÓ Î·È ÛÙËÓ
·ÔηٿÛÙ·ÛË ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎÒÓ Î˘Ú›ˆ˜ ÎÙÈÚ›ˆÓ, Ì ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· Ó·
ÚÔ·ÙÔ˘Ó ·ÔηٷÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ Ô˘,
ÌÂÙ¿ ÙËÓ ·Ú¤Ï¢ÛË ÌÂÚÈÎÒÓ
ÂÙÒÓ, ıˆÚÔ‡ÓÙ·È ÍÂÂÚ·Ṳ̂Ó˜, ÙfiÛÔ Û Â›Â‰Ô ÙÂÎÌËÚ›ˆÛ˘, ηıÒ˜ Ó¤· ÛÙÔȯ›· ·ÔηχÙÔÓÙ·È, Ù· ÔÔ›· ‰ÂÓ Â›¯·Ó
ÏËÊı› ˘fi„Ë, Î·È ‰Â‡ÙÂÚÔÓ Ó¤·
˘ÏÈο Û˘ÓÙ‹ÚËÛ˘5 ÂÊ¢ڛÛÎÔÓÙ·È ‹ ·Ï·È¿ ˘ÏÈο ÎÚ›ÓÔÓÙ·È
·Î·Ù¿ÏÏËÏ·. ªÂ ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ÙˆÓ
„ËÊÈ·ÎÒÓ ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙˆÓ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ ÔÈ ıˆڛ˜ ‰ÔÎÈÌ¿˙ÔÓÙ·È, ÔÈ ÚÔÙ¿ÛÂȘ ÂÚ¢ÓÒÓÙ·È, Ì ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· Ó· ÎÚ›ÓÂÙ·È
Ë Î·Ù·ÏÏËÏfiÙËÙ¿ ÙÔ˘˜ – ÔÚıfiÙËÙ· ÚÒÙ· Û ˘ÔÏÔÁÈÛÙÈÎfi ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ Î·È ¤ÂÈÙ· ÛÙÔ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfi ÌÓËÌ›Ô. ∂›Û˘, Ë ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋
6. ºˆÙÔÁÚ·ÊÈο ηڤ ·fi ÙË Û‡ÓÙÔÌË ÂÊ·ÚÌÔÁ‹ Ì ٛÙÏÔ «¶·ÚıÂÓÒÓ», Ô˘ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ÔÌ‹ ÙˆÓ
·Ó·ÛًψÛË ÌÔÚ› Ó· ¯ÚËÛȶ·Ó·ıËÓ·›ˆÓ ÛÙË ‰˘ÙÈ΋ ÏÂ˘Ú¿ ÙÔ˘ Ó·Ô‡.
ÌÔÔÈËı› ÁÈ· Ó· ‰È·ÈÛÙˆı› Ë
ÔÛfiÙËÙ· ˘ÏÈÎÔ‡ Ô˘ ··ÈÙÂ›Ù·È ÁÈ· ÙË Ê˘ÛÈ΋ ·Ó·ÛًψÛË
ÔÈ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏfiÁÔÈ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ηχÙÂÚË ÂÈÎfiÓ· ÙˆÓ ·Ó·ÛηÊÈÎÒÓ
ÂÓfi˜ ÎÙÈÚ›Ô˘ Î.¿.
ÛÙÚˆÌ¿ÙˆÓ Î·Ù¿ ÙË ‰ÈÂÓ¤ÚÁÂÈ· Ù˘ ·Ó·Ûηʋ˜. ∏ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔ7. ªÂÁ¿ÏË ÔÈÎÈÏ›· ÚÔ˚fiÓÙˆÓ Ô˘ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÁÈ΋ ¤Ú¢ӷ ··ÈÙ› ÔÏϤ˜ ÊÔÚ¤˜ ÙËÓ ·Ê·›ÚÂÛË ÙˆÓ ÓÂfiÙÂËıÔ‡Ó ÁÈ· ‰ËÌÔÛ›Â˘ÛË. Δ· ÙÚÈۉȿÛٷٷ ÁÚ·ÊÈο ·Ú¿ÁÔ˘Ó
ÚˆÓ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎÒÓ ÏÂÈ„¿ÓˆÓ ÚÔÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ Ó· ÚÔ¯ˆÚ‹ÛÂÈ ÛÙ·
ʈÙÔÚ·ÏÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ÂÈÎfiÓ˜, ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÔ‡ÓÙ·È ÁÈ·
‚·ı‡ÙÂÚ· ÛÙÚÒÌ·Ù·.
ÙËÓ ÙÂÎÌËÚ›ˆÛË, ÙËÓ ·Ó¿‰ÂÈÍË Î·È ÙËÓ ÚÔ‚ÔÏ‹ ÂÓfi˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔπ‰È·›ÙÂÚ· Û ·Ó·Ûηʤ˜ Ì ÂÎÙÂٷ̤ӷ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈο Ï›ÏÔÁÈÎÔ‡ ¯ÒÚÔ˘ Û Ï‹ıÔ˜ ·Ó·ÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ-¤ÓÙ˘ˆÓ ÂΉfiÛˆÓ,
„·Ó· Ô˘ ·Ó‹ÎÔ˘Ó Û ÔÏϤ˜ ¯ÚÔÓÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ ÂÚÈfi‰Ô˘˜ Ô ·Úfiˆ˜ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ‰ËÌÔÛȇÛÂȘ, ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÔ› Ô‰ËÁÔ›,
¯·ÈÔÏfiÁÔ˜ ‰˘ÛÎÔχÂÙ·È Ó· ·ÔÎÙ‹ÛÂÈ ÙËÓ Ï‹ÚË ÂÈÎfiÓ·. ªÂ
Ï¢ÎÒÌ·Ù·, posters Î.¿. ∂›Û˘, ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÔ‡ÓÙ·È ÁÈ· ÙË ‰ËÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ÙˆÓ ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙˆÓ ÁÚ·ÊÈÎÒÓ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ‰ËÌÈÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›· ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ ÓÙÔÎÈÌ·ÓÙ¤Ú ÌÈÎÚ‹˜ ‰È¿ÚÎÂÈ·˜, Ô˘
Ô˘ÚÁËıÔ‡Ó „ËÊȷΤ˜ ·ÂÈÎÔÓ›ÛÂȘ οı ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ Ê¿Û˘
Û˘Ó‰˘¿˙Ô˘Ó Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈΤ˜ Ï‹„ÂȘ Î·È „ËÊȷΤ˜ ÂÈÎfiÓ˜ ‹ ·ÔͯˆÚÈÛÙ¿ Ì·˙› Ì ٷ Â˘Ú‹Ì·Ù¿ Ù˘ ‹ Û˘ÓÔÏÈΤ˜ ·Ó··Ú·ÙÂÏÔ‡ÓÙ·È ·ÔÎÏÂÈÛÙÈο ·fi „ËÊȷΤ˜ ÂÈÎfiÓ˜ ηıÒ˜ Î·È ÁÈ·
ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ, ÛÙȘ Ôԛ˜ ı· ÙÔÓ›˙ÂÙ·È Î¿ı ÊÔÚ¿ οÔÈ· ¯·Ú·ÙË ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›· ÔÏ˘ÌÂÛÈÎÒÓ ÂÊ·ÚÌÔÁÒÓ Î·È ÚÔ‚ÔÏ‹ ÛÙÔÓ
ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈ΋ ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË ‹ ·Ú¿ÌÂÙÚÔ˜ Ù˘ ·Ó·Ûηʋ˜. π‰È·›Ù‰ȷ‰ÈÎÙ˘·Îfi ¯ÒÚÔ ÂÓfi˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡ ÔÚÁ·ÓÈÛÌÔ‡ (ÂÈÎ. 6).
Ú· Û ¯ˆÚÔÙ·ÍÈο ÂÎÙÂٷ̤Ó˜ ·Ó·Ûηʤ˜, Ë ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋ ·Ó·∞Í›˙ÂÈ Ó· ÛËÌÂȈı› Ë Û˘Ì‚ÔÏ‹ ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË ÙÔ˘
·Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË ¯ÒÚˆÓ-‰ˆÌ·Ù›ˆÓ ÛÂ Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛÌfi Ì ٷ Â˘Ú‹Ì··Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÔ‡ ˘ÏÈÎÔ‡, ηıÒ˜ ·Ú¤¯Ô˘Ó ÌÈ· ÈÔ ·ÓÔȯً ηÈ
Ù¿ ÙÔ˘˜, Ô‰ËÁ› ·¢ı›·˜ ÛÙËÓ ·Ó·ÁÓÒÚÈÛË ¯ÒÚˆÓ Î·È ¯Ú‹·ÓÙÈÏËÙ‹ ¤Î‰ÔÛË ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ ‰Â‰Ô̤ӈÓ. ∏ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÛÂˆÓ (Û˘ÓÔÈ˘ Â·ÁÁÂÏÌ·ÙÈÒÓ, ÎÔÈÓfi¯ÚËÛÙ· ̤ÚË, Ï·Ù›ÏÔÁÈ΋ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›· Ì ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ÙˆÓ „ËÊÈ·ÎÒÓ ÂÈÎfiÓˆÓ Á›Â˜, ¯ÒÚÔÈ Î·ÙÔ›ÎËÛ˘, Û˘Ó¿ıÚÔÈÛ˘, ÂÌÔÚ›Ô˘ Î.¿.). ∏ ÔÙÈÓÂÙ·È ÈÔ ÚÔÛÈÙ‹ Î·È Î·Ù·ÓÔËÙ‹ ÛÙËÓ ÏÂÈÔÓfiÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ ÎÔÈÎÔÔÈË̤ÓË ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›· Ì ÙË ÌÔÚÊ‹ ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙˆÓ ÁÚ·ÊÈÓÔ‡, ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ÂÍÔÈÎÂȈ̤ÓÔ Ì ٷ ·Ó·ÏÔÁÈο Û¯¤‰È·
ÎÒÓ, ÌÔÚ› ‡ÎÔÏ· Ó· ·Ó·Óˆı› Î·È Ê˘ÛÈο Â›Ó·È ‰È·ı¤ÛÈÌË
(ηÙfi„ÂȘ, fi„ÂȘ, ÙÔ̤˜, ÚÔÔÙÈο) Ô˘ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡Ó ÔÈ ·Ú¢ÎÔÏfiÙÂÚ· Î·È ÛÙÔ˘˜ ÌÂÏÏÔÓÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙ¤˜.
¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ˜ Î·È ÔÈ Û¯Â‰È·ÛÙ¤˜ Î·È ·ÊÔÚÔ‡Ó Û ÙÂÏÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË
9. ΔÚÈۉȿÛٷٷ ÁÚ·ÊÈο Î·È °ÂˆÁÚ·ÊÈο ™˘ÛÙ‹Ì·Ù· ¶ÏËÌfiÓÔ ÙÔ˘˜ ÂȉÈÎÔ‡˜. ΔÔ ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙÔ ÌÔÓÙ¤ÏÔ, ¤¯ÔÓÙ·˜ Û˘ÚÔÊÔÚÈÒÓ. Δ· ÙÚÈۉȿÛٷٷ ÁÚ·ÊÈο ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÁÎÂÓÙÚÒÛÂÈ fiÏË ÙËÓ ··Ú·›ÙËÙË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›·,
ÔÈËıÔ‡Ó Î·È ÛÙËÓ ÂÈÊ·ÓÂȷ΋ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ¤Ú¢ӷ, Û˘ÓÂ›Ó·È ÊÔÚ¤·˜ ÁÓÒÛ˘ Î·È ÁÈ· ÙÔ˘˜ ÌË ÂȉÈÎÔ‡˜, ÔÈ ÔÔ›ÔÈ ·Ó·‰˘·˙fiÌÂÓ· Ì ٷ °ÂˆÁÚ·ÊÈο ™˘ÛÙ‹Ì·Ù· ¶ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈÒÓ (GIS)
ÁÓˆÚ›˙Ô˘Ó Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚ· ÙËÓ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›·.
Ì ÙË ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›· ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙˆÓ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ ¿Óˆ ÛÂ
8. ΔÚÈۉȿÛٷٷ ÁÚ·ÊÈο ÛÙËÓ ·Ó·Ûηʋ Î·È ÛÙËÓ ÂÈÊ·¤Ó·Ó „ËÊÈ·Îfi ıÂÌ·ÙÈÎfi ¯¿ÚÙË.6 ∏ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›· ÂÈÙÚ¤ÂÈ ÙËÓ
·fiÎÙËÛË Ù˘ ÁˆÌÂÙÚ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ ÁˆÁÚ·ÊÈÎÔ‡ ·Ó¿ÁÏ˘ÊÔ˘
ÓÂȷ΋ ¤Ú¢ӷ. ªÂ ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ÙˆÓ ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙˆÓ ÁÚ·ÊÈÎÒÓ
92

Ù¯. 109 APXAIO§O°IA & TEXNE™

ÌÈ·˜ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹˜ Ì ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙË Û¿ÚˆÛË ‹ Ì ʈÙÔÁÚ·ÌÌÈΤ˜
·ÔÙ˘ÒÛÂȘ Î·È ÙË ÌÂÙ¤ÂÈÙ· ÙÔÔı¤ÙËÛË ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÎÔÓÈÎÔ‡
ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙÔ˘ ÌÔÓÙ¤ÏÔ˘ ÂÓfi˜ ÌÓËÌ›Ԣ (ÂÈÎ. 7).
μ·ÛÈο ÛÙÔȯ›· ÙÔ˘ ÁˆÁÚ·ÊÈÎÔ‡ ·Ó·ÁχÊÔ˘, Ù· ‚Ô˘Ó¿
Î·È Ù· ÔÙ¿ÌÈ· ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙Ô˘Ó ÌÈ· Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· ·‰È¿ÎÔË ÛÙËÓ ÔÚ›· ÙÔ˘ ¯ÚfiÓÔ˘. §›Á· ÛÙÔȯ›· ¤¯Ô˘Ó ˘ÔÛÙ› ·ÏÏ·Á‹ ·fi ÙËÓ
·Ú¯·ÈfiÙËÙ· ¤ˆ˜ Û‹ÌÂÚ· Î·È Û˘Ó‹ıˆ˜ ÁÈ· ÙȘ ·ÏÏ·Á¤˜ ·˘Ù¤˜
˘¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó ÊÈÏÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ Ì·ÚÙ˘Ú›Â˜.7
OÈ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙ¤˜ ÙÔÔıÂÙÒÓÙ·˜ ÌÓËÌ›·, ·Ú¯·›Ô˘˜ ‰ÚfiÌÔ˘˜,
Û‡ÓÔÚ· fiÏÂˆÓ Î·È ÂÈÎÚ·ÙÂÈÒÓ, Î·È ¤¯ÔÓÙ·˜ ÙÔ ÁˆÁÚ·ÊÈÎfi
·Ó¿ÁÏ˘ÊÔ ÌÈ·˜ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹˜ (DTM, Digital Terrain Model) ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ·Ú·ÙËÚ‹ÛÔ˘Ó Ï¢ڤ˜ Ù˘ ·Ú¯·›·˜ ηÙÔ›ÎËÛ˘, ÔÈ
Ôԛ˜ Â›Ó·È Ôχ ‰‡ÛÎÔÏÔ Ó· Ê·ÓÔ‡Ó ¿Óˆ Û ¤Ó·Ó ·Ó·ÏÔÁÈÎfi ¯¿ÚÙË ‹ Ì›· ̷Τٷ, fiˆ˜ ÔÈ ·Ú¯·›Â˜ Ô‰ÈΤ˜ ·ÚÙËڛ˜
Î·È Ù· fiÚÈ· ÂÈÎÚ·ÙÂÈÒÓ. £¤Ì·Ù·, fiˆ˜ Ë ‰È·ÛÔÚ¿ Î·È Ë
ÂÍ¿ψÛË ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜, Ë ‰È¿‰ÔÛË ÂÚÁ·ÛÙËÚ›ˆÓ Î·È Î·ÏÏÈÙ¯ÓÈÎÒÓ ÌÔÙ›‚ˆÓ, ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙ÔÓÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ÔıfiÓË ÂÓfi˜ ˘ÔÏÔÁÈÛÙ‹ Î·È Ë ·Ó¿Ï˘Û‹ ÙÔ˘˜ ·Ú¤¯ÂÈ Ó¤· ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈο ÛÙÔȯ›·
ÛÙÔ˘˜ ÂȉÈÎÔ‡˜. ∂›Û˘, Ë ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›· Ô˘ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›ٷÈ
ÌÔÚ› Ó· ·Ó·ÓÂÒÓÂÙ·È ‰È·ÚÎÒ˜ Ì ¯·ÌËÏfi ÎfiÛÙÔ˜ Î·È Â˘ÎÔÏ›· ÛÙËÓ ÂÂÍÂÚÁ·Û›·, οÙÈ Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ ÈÛ¯‡ÂÈ ÛÙȘ ·Ó·ÏÔÁÈΤ˜
ÌÔÚʤ˜ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·Û˘, ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡Ó ·fi
ÙËÓ ·Ú¯‹ (.¯. ÌÈ· ̷Τٷ).
∏ ¯Ú‹ÛË ÙˆÓ ˘ÔÏÔÁÈÛÙÒÓ ÛÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ ÙÔ˘ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÔ‡ ·ÔÙÂÏ› Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›· ·È¯Ì‹˜ Ì ڷÁ‰·›· ÂͤÏÈÍË, Ô˘ ı· ÂÈÙÚ¤„ÂÈ ÛÙÔ˘˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ÔÚÁ·ÓÈÛÌÔ‡˜ ηٷگ‹Ó Ó· „ËÊÈÔÔÈ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙÔ ˘ÏÈÎfi ÙÔ˘˜, ÒÛÙ ·˘Ùfi Ó· Â›Ó·È ‰È·ı¤ÛÈÌÔ ÛÙËÓ
ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÎÔÈÓfiÙËÙ· Î·È ÛÙÔ Â˘Ú‡ ÎÔÈÓfi, Î·È ÛÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ·
Ó· ÌÂÏÂÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó, Ó· ÂÂÍÂÚÁ·ÛÙÔ‡Ó Î·È Ó· ÔÙÈÎÔÔÈ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÌÂ
ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ÙˆÓ ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙˆÓ ÁÚ·ÊÈÎÒÓ ÔχÏÔη ‰Â‰Ô̤ӷ, ¤ÓÓÔȘ Î·È Â˘Ú‹Ì·Ù·, ·Ú¤¯ÔÓÙ·˜ ¤ÙÛÈ ÌÈ· ÈÔ ·ÓÙÈÏËÙ‹ ÌÔÚÊ‹ ÙÔ˘ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡ ·Á·ıÔ‡.8

7. ΔÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙÔ ÌÔÓÙ¤ÏÔ ÙÔ˘ ı¿ÙÚÔ˘ Ù˘ CLVNIA, Ô˘ ¤¯ÂÈ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁËı› Ì «laser scanner».

APXAIO§O°IA & TEXNE™ Ù¯. 109

™∏ª∂πø™∂π™
1 ∞ӷʤÚÔ˘Ì ÂÓ‰ÂÈÎÙÈο οÔȘ ‰ËÌÔÛȇÛÂȘ Ì ۯ‰ȷÛÙÈΤ˜ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂȘ, Ô˘ ·Ô‰›‰Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈ΋ ÂÈÎfiÓ· ÙˆÓ ÌÓËÌ›ˆÓ Ô˘ ·ÓÙ›ÎÚÈÛ·Ó ÔÈ
ÂÚÈËÁËÙ¤˜, ηıÒ˜ Î·È ÚÔÛ¿ıÂȘ ·Ó·Û‡ÛÙ·Û˘ ÙÔ˘ ·ÚÂÏıfiÓÙÔ˜: ∫.™.
™Ù¿ÈÎÔ˜ (ÂÈÌ.), •¤ÓÔÈ ¶ÂÚÈËÁËÙ¤˜ ÛÙËÓ ∂ÏÏ¿‰· (15Ô˜-20fi˜ ·ÈÒÓ·˜), ÂΉfiÛÂȘ
∫fiÙÈÓÔ˜, ∞ı‹Ó· 2006Ø T. Bowie, The Carrey Drawings of the Parthenon
Sculptures, Indiana University Press, 1971.
2 ∏ °·ÏÏÈ΋ ∞Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ™¯ÔÏ‹ ¤¯ÂÈ ·Ó·Ûο„ÂÈ ÙÔ˘˜ ¢ÂÏÊÔ‡˜, Ë °ÂÚÌ·ÓÈ΋ ∞Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ™¯ÔÏ‹ ÙËÓ OÏ˘Ì›·, Ë ∞ÌÂÚÈηÓÈ΋ ∞Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ™¯ÔÏ‹
ÙËÓ ∞Ú¯·›· ∞ÁÔÚ¿. ™ÙËÓ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ ÙÔ˘ μÔÚÂÈÔ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈÎÔ‡ ∞ÈÁ·›Ô˘ ¤¯ÂÈ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈÔÔÈËı› Ë πÙ·ÏÈ΋ ∞Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ™¯ÔÏ‹ ÛÙËÓ ¶ÔÏÈfi¯ÓË Î·È ÙËÓ ∏Ê·ÈÛÙ›· Ù˘ §‹ÌÓÔ˘, ÙÔ °ÂÚÌ·ÓÈÎfi ∞Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎfi πÓÛÙÈÙÔ‡ÙÔ ÛÙ· ª¤ÛÛ· Ù˘
§¤Û‚Ô˘, Ë ∞ÁÁÏÈ΋ ∞Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ™¯ÔÏ‹ ÛÙË £ÂÚÌ‹, ÙËÓ ÕÓÙÈÛÛ· Ù˘ §¤Û‚Ô˘
Î·È ÛÙÔ ∂ÌÔÚÈfi Ù˘ Ã›Ô˘.
3 πÛÙÔÛÂÏ›‰Â˜ Û¯ÂÙÈΤ˜ Ì ÙÔ ı¤Ì· Ù˘ ÂÈÎÔÓÈ΋˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜ Â›Ó·È ‰È·ı¤ÛÈ̘ ÛÙÔ: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/archaeology/virtual/links.html.
4 ΔÔ ª·˘ÛˆÏÂ›Ô Ù˘ ∞ÏÈηÚÓ·ÛÛÔ‡ ¿Ú¯ÈÛ ӷ ÎÙ›˙ÂÙ·È ÙÔ 353 .Ã. ÚÈÓ ·fi
ÙÔ ı¿Ó·ÙÔ ÙÔ˘ ª·‡ÛˆÏÔ˘, Û·ÙÚ¿Ë Ù˘ ∫·Ú›·˜, Î·È ÔÏÔÎÏËÚÒıËΠ·fi ÙË
Û‡˙˘Áfi ÙÔ˘ ∞ÚÙÂÌÈÛ›·. º·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ÔÏÔÎÏËÚÒıËΠÛÙ· ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ÙÔ˘ ∞ÏÂÍ¿Ó‰ÚÔ˘. ÷ڷÎÙËÚ›ÛÙËΠ¤Ó· ·fi Ù· 7 ı·‡Ì·Ù· ÙÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘ Î·È ¤‰ˆÛ ÙÔÓ
fiÚÔ «ª·˘ÛˆÏ›Ի ÁÈ· οı ϷÌÚfi Ù·ÊÈÎfi ÌÓËÌ›Ô. ∫·Ù¿ ÙÔÓ ¶Ï›ÓÈÔ, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ·˜ ‹Ù·Ó Ô ¶˘ıÈfi˜, ÁÈ· ÙË ÁÏ˘ÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ‰È·ÎfiÛÌËÛË ÂÚÁ¿ÛÙËÎ·Ó ÔÈ
ÁχÙ˜ μÚ‡·Í˘, §Âˆ¯¿Ú˘, ΔÈÌfiıÂÔ˜ Î·È Ô ™Îfi·˜ ηÈ, Û‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙÔÓ
μÈÙÚÔ‡‚ÈÔ, Ô ¶Ú·ÍÈÙ¤Ï˘ ¯ˆÚ›˜ ·˘Ùfi Ó· Â›Ó·È ÔÚıfi. Œ¯ÂÈ ‰Â¯ı› ÔÏϤ˜ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂȘ ·ÔηٿÛÙ·Û˘, ·fi ÙȘ Ôԛ˜ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙ÔÓÙ·È ÔÈ ‰‡Ô ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfiÙÂÚ˜. O ÏfiÁÔ˜ Ù˘ ‰È·ÊˆÓ›·˜ ÙˆÓ ÂȉÈÎÒÓ Â›Ó·È Ë ¤ÏÏÂÈ„Ë ÙÔ˘ ÚˆÙ·Ú¯ÈÎÔ‡ ÌÓËÌ›Ԣ, ηıÒ˜ ·˘Ùfi ‰È·Ï‡ıËΠÁÈ· ÙËÓ Î·Ù·Û΢‹ ÙÔ˘ ÊÚÔ˘Ú›Ô˘ Ù˘
fiÏ˘, ÛÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ÂÓۈ̷ÙÒıËÎ·Ó ÔÏÏ¿ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈο ̤ÏË. μÏ. °. ª·Î·Ï¿Î˘, ∞fi ÙÔÓ ºÂȉ›· ˆ˜ ÙÔÓ ¶Ú·ÍÈÙ¤ÏË, ∂ΉÔÙÈÎfi˜ O›ÎÔ˜ ∞ÊÒÓ ∫˘ÚȷΛ‰Ë, £ÂÛÛ·ÏÔÓ›ÎË 1990, Û. 85-86.
5 ΔÔ ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· ÙˆÓ ÚÒÙˆÓ ÂÎÙÂÙ·Ì¤ÓˆÓ ·Ó·ÛÙËψÙÈÎÒÓ ÂÚÁ·ÛÈÒÓ ÛÙ· ÌÓËÌ›· Ù˘ ∞ÎÚÔfiψ˜ ·fi ÙÔÓ ¡. ª·Ï¿ÓÔ ÛÙȘ ·Ú¯¤˜ ÙÔ˘ 20Ô‡ ·ÈÒÓ· Î·È Ù˘
ÂÎ ÙˆÓ ˘ÛÙ¤ÚˆÓ ·ÔÌ¿ÎÚ˘ÓÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ˘ÏÈÎÒÓ Û˘ÓÙ‹ÚËÛ˘ Â›Ó·È ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎfi.
6 OÈ ıÂÌ·ÙÈÎÔ› ¯¿ÚÙ˜ Â›Ó·È È‰È·›ÙÂÚ· ‰È·‰Â‰Ô̤ÓÔÈ ÛÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ÙˆÓ °ÂˆÁÚ·ÊÈÎÒÓ ™˘ÛÙËÌ¿ÙˆÓ ¶ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈÒÓ, ηıÒ˜ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙Ô˘Ó ÂÍÂȉÈÎÂ˘Ì¤ÓË
ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›·, .¯. ÙÔ˘˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÔ‡˜ ¯ÒÚÔ˘˜ ÙˆÓ ÎÏ·ÛÈÎÒÓ ¯ÚfiÓˆÓ, ÙˆÓ
‚˘˙·ÓÙÈÓÒÓ ¯ÚfiÓˆÓ, Ù· ÌÓËÌ›· ÁˆÏÔÁÈÎÔ‡ ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓÙÔ˜ Î.¿.
7 ∫ÙËÌ·ÙÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ ÂÈÁڷʤ˜, ÏËÚÔÊÔڛ˜ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ·Ú¯·›Ô˘˜ Û˘ÁÁÚ·Ê›˜
ÁÈ· ·Ô„ÈÏÒÛÂȘ Á˘, ÂÈÛ·ÁˆÁ‹ Ó¤ˆÓ ηÏÏÈÂÚÁÂÈÒÓ, Ê˘ÛÈΤ˜ ηٷÛÙÚÔʤ˜
(ÛÂÈÛÌÔ›, ÏËÌ̇Ú˜), ÂίÂÚÛÒÛÂȘ Î.¿.
8 ™Â ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ Î·Ù‡ı˘ÓÛË ÎÈÓÔ‡ÓÙ·È ÔÏÏ¿ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÈο ÚÔÁÚ¿ÌÌ·Ù· Ù˘
∂˘Úˆ·˚΋˜ ŒÓˆÛ˘, fiˆ˜ ÙÔ 3D MURALE, «3D Measurement and Virtual
Reconstruction of Ancient Lost Worlds of Europe», ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ÂÚÂ˘Ó¿ Î·È ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ› ¤Ó· Û‡ÓÔÏÔ ·fi ¯·ÌËÏÔ‡ ÎfiÛÙÔ˘˜ ÔÏ˘ÌÂÛÈο ÂÚÁ·Ï›· ÁÈ· ηٷÁÚ·Ê‹, ·Ó·Î·Ù·Û΢‹, Έ‰ÈÎÔÔ›ËÛË, ÔÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛË ·Ú¯·›ˆÓ ÎÙÈÚ›ˆÓ, ÙÌËÌ¿ÙˆÓ ÎÙÈÚ›ˆÓ, ·Á·ÏÌ¿ÙˆÓ, ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜, ÛÙڈ̷ÙÔÁÚ·Ê›·˜, ÁˆÌÂÙÚ›·˜ ‰¿ÊÔ˘˜, «texture» Î·È «material texture», Ì·˙› Ì ̛· ‚¿ÛË ‰Â‰ÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÁÈ·
ηٿÏÏËÏË ·Ôı‹Î¢ÛË Î·È ·Ó¿ÎÙËÛË Ù˘ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋˜ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›·˜.
¶ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚ˜ ÏËÚÔÊÔڛ˜ ÛÙËÓ ËÏÂÎÙÚÔÓÈ΋ ‰È‡ı˘ÓÛË ÙÔ˘ ÚÔÁÚ¿ÌÌ·ÙÔ˜: http://dea.brunel.ac.uk/project/murale/.

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Virtual Archaeology and the Contribution
of Three-Dimensional Graphics
to Archaeological Research
Yannis Kourtzellis
The recording of archaeological data and the study and
representation of archaeological or historical sites, articles
and landscapes by means of computer and threedimensional graphic programs is called “virtual archaeology”. The use of computers and three-dimensional
graphics in the field of civilization, being an edge technology, enables the cultural bodies to digitize their material
for scientific and public use and, in a successive stage, to
study, process and visualize complex data, notions and
finds, thus providing a most comprehensible form of the
cultural commodity. The article comprises the definition
and objective of virtual archaeology, as it has been designated by the international bibliography, as well as the
contribution of three-dimensional software graphics and
modern techniques of data collection to the reinforcement
of archaeological research.

Ù¯. 109 APXAIO§O°IA & TEXNE™