Pavlov a. Russian founder of Classical Conditioning b. Winner of the 1904 nobel in medicine c. Dog Experiments d. US/UR e. CS/CR f. Transmarginal Inhibition II. Behaviorism a. No such thing as “the mind” b. Pshychology can be explained in terms of behavior rather than introspection c. Thorndike, Watson, Skinner are all proponents. III. Thorndike a. The Law of effect – Rewards and punishments effecting behavior. IV. Watson a. Founder of behaviorism b. 12 infants theory c. Fired for affair with student; so took a job in advertising d. Roslie Raner and Watson worked on little Albert in Johns Hopkins e. Little Albert – Hammer scares kid from the rat, so he’s scared of rat. f. Coined the term Coffee-Break V. Skinner a. Radical Behaviorism b. Inventions include i. Air Crib, - A baby tender ii. Teaching Machine, iii. Cumulative Recorder, iv. Skinners Box c. Pigeons (Project Pigeon) d. Beyond Freedom and Dignity e. Walden Two – Has to do with utopia f. Verbal Behavior (criticized by Chomsky) g. Rate of response h. Operant Conditioning (rewards and punishments) it is the opposite of classical conditioning. VI. Gestalt a. Mind must bbe viewed holistically or that the WHOLE IS GREATER THAN THE SUM OF ITS PARTS b. Pragnanz c. Phi Phenomena – lights moving d. Major theorists include i. Wertheimer ii. Koffka iii. Kohler iv. Stumpf VII. Piaget a. Cognitive theory of development – Genetic Epistomology. i. 4 stages are: 1. Sensorimotor (0-2) – Object Permanence 2. Pre-Operational (2-7) – Magical Thinking, motor skills 3. Concrete Operational (7-12) - Logic 4. Formal-Operational (12-adult) – Creative


ii. Ego-centrism – is in the first 2 stages. b. Was a zoologist before becoming psychologist; studied mollusks and albino sparrow. c. Experimented on his own children. Erikson a. Eith stages of “psychosocial development” b. Developed concept of “identity crisis” c. Childhood and society d. Psychobiographies: i. Gandhi’s Truth ii. Young Man Luther

IX. Freud a. Father of psychoanalysis (“talking cure”) b. Developed Concept of: i. Id, - Urges ii. Ego, - What happens in reality (driven by ego principle) iii. Superego - Logic, Morality c. Odeipus and Electra Complexes d. Little Hans, Anna O, Mahler, HD – All famous patients of his. e. Little Hans and Anna O are both in the Interpretation of Dreams f. Free association g. First a doctor; early studied eel genitalia and the spinal structure of fish. h. Supporter of cocaine i. Colab with Charcot and Breuer j. Wrote: i. Interpretation of Dreams ii. Totem and Taboo iii. Moses and monotheism iv. Civilization and its discontents v. Beyond the pleasure principle k. Jung and Adler were students of him. X. Jung a. Swiss b. Anima – Unconscious of Male that has a feminine side c. Animus – Unconscious of Female that has a male side d. Father of Analytical Psychology e. Fough with Freud on nature of libido; split was permanent when Freud came to Jung’s town but did not visit him, this was known as the Kreuzlingen Cesture. f. Fordham Lectures g. Terms i. Extrovert/introvert ii. Colective unconscious iii. Archetype iv. Anima/Animus h. Late in life studied Alchemy and UFOs i. Writings: i. Man and His Symbols ii. Memories, Dreams, Reflections iii. Seven Sermons to the Dead XI. Adler a. Swiss

b. Brith Order c. Feminism d. Member of the “Wednesday Society” until split with Freud in 1910 e. Sex drive was not the overwhelming motivation; instead motivated by “will to power” f. Nietzche and Adler influenced each other. g. “Inferiority Complex” h. “Individual Psychology” XII. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross a. On Death and Dying b. 5 Stages of grief i. Denial ii. Anger iii. Bargaining iv. Depression v. Acceptance XIII. Maslow a. Humanitic Psychology b. Started under Harlow at the University of Wisconsin c. Self transcendence is after self actualization d. Alderfer expaned this hierarchy in erg theory. XIV. Maslow’s Heirarchy of Needs a. Self Actualization – Moraltiy, Creativity, Spontaneity, Problem Solving, Lack of Prejudice, Acceptance of facts. b. Esteem – Self esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of other, respect by others c. Love/Belonging – Friendship, Family, Sexual Intimacy d. Safety – Security of body, employment, resources, morality, family, health, property e. Physiological – breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion XV. Stanley Milgram a. Small World Experiment – 6 degrees of separation. b. Obedience to Authority Experiment – after the nurenberg trials c. The lost letter experiment d. Familiar Strangers XVI. Stanford Prison Experiment a. Philip Zimbardo conducted in 1971 b. Students given roles of prisoners and guards c. Guards got ego and prisoners were depressed d. John Wayne was a brutal guard XVII. Lorenz a. Imprinting b. King Solomon’s Ring; Man Meets Dag c. Westermarck effect –reverse sexual imprinting XVIII. Kohlberg a. 3 stages of moral development i. Pre Conventional (self) ii. Conventional (Norm) iii. Post-conventional (ethical) XIX. Carl Rogers a. Leader of Humanistic Psychology b. Founded Client Centered Psychology c. Developed ideas of the “fully functioning person” and “19 propositions”







The Bell Curve a. Written by Hernstein and Murray b. Criticized by Gould who wrote “The Mismeasure of Man” Some Terms a. Cognitive Dissonance – stress that occurs when reality doesn’t match up with previously held thoughts or beliefs b. Learned Helplessness – someone comes to conclusion that they have no control over situation. Marked by feeling of futility and despair c. Psychometrics – measurement of knowledge and personality; psychological testing. d. Longitudinal Study – repeated studies of the same subjects over an extended period of time; e. Operand Conditioning – the use of consequences to modify voluntary behavior f. Classical Conditioning – the use of stimuli to affect involuntary behavior g. Biofeedback – Method that trains patients to control involuntary physiological processes. Intelligence Testing a. Francis Galton – Coined terms “eugenics” “nature vs nurture” b. Binet and Simon develop first test in 1905 c. Adapted by Terman of Stanford in 1916 d. Flynn Effect – rise of mean IQ socres over time. Personality Tests a. Projective Test – reveal ambiguous traits b. Myers Brigg test – gives 16 combinations c. Project tests i. Rorschach ii. Thematic Apperception Test d. Myers Brigg Test – places subjects into one of 16 personality types. August Comte a. First Sociologist (Ibn Khaldun) b. Coined “sociology” “altruism” c. Law of 3 stages – Theological, Metaphysical, Scientific. d. Founder of positivism e. Works: System of Positive Philosophy; The Positive Philosophy. Durkheim a. French Sociologist b. Works: The division of Labor in Society; Suicide; Elementary Forms of Religious Life; c. Organic of pre contractual solidarity d. Suicide i. Egoist ii. Altruistic iii. Anomic iv. Fatalistic e. L’anne Sociologique f. On the Normality of Crime Max weber a. German sociologist b. Advise Germany at Versaille and in Weimar Constitution; c. Term “Charisma” and studied what characterizes charismatic leaders. d. Proeststant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. e. Ancient Judaism; Religion of china; Politics as a vocation; Fryberg Adress

XXVII. McLuhan a. Canadian Sociologist b. Studied the effect of media on society c. Coined “the medium is a message” and “global village d. Works: Understanding Media; The Mechanical Bride; The Gutenberg Galaxy XXVIII. Sociology Terms a. Matrilineal/patrilineal – a society where lineage is traced through female/male b. Matriarchy /patriarchy – society where power is centered on female/male. c. Endogamy/Exogamy – marriage within/outside the social group. d. Oligarchy- rule by small group e. Autocracy – rule by one f. Aristocracy – rule by elite g. Plutocracy – rule by wealthy h. Democracy – Rule by the people i. Theocracy – Religious Rule j. Folkways – Societal norm whose violation would cause embarrassment; Coined by Sumner. Has to do with ethno centrism k. More – strongly held norm whose violation result in more severe reprucussion l. Taboo – actions that are so offensive lead to ostracism; cook, Polynesian m. Galton – cousin of Darwin. XXIX. Boas a. Father of American Anthropology b. Taught at Columbia; Students include Ruth Benedict, Margaret Mead, Zora Neale Hurston; Edward Sapir; c. Close with Levi Strauss d. Advocated Cultural Relativism e. Works: The Mind of Primitive Man; Race, Language, and Culture; f. Kroeber – student of his in the south west. XXX. Ruth Benedict a. Studied under Franz Boas and taught Margaret Mead b. Works: Patterns of Culture; The Races of Mankind; the Chrysanthemum and the Sword; Zuni Mythology; c. Studied Kwakiutl and Pueblo tribes as well as the Dobu culture of New Guinea. d. Chrysanthemum and the sword – about her time in Japan e. Marvin Oppler was a student f. Wrote poetry under the name Anne Singleton XXXI. Margaret Mead a. Works: Coming of Age in Samoa; Growing up in new guinea; Sex and Temperament; Three primitive societies; b. Wrote A Rap on Race with Baldwin c. Criticized by Derek Freeman d. Co-wrote American Episcopal Book of Common Prayer e. Blackberry Winter about love life, including affair with Ruth Benedict; f. Wore capes in public. g. Worked on Island of Tau – coming of Age in Samoa h. Taught Tim Ashe XXXII. Sapyere a. Student of Boas b. Wharf was a student of Sapeyere c. Sapeyere–Wharf Hypothesis talks about linguistic relativitiy (first identified by Humboldt).

XXXIII. Levi Strauss a. Anthropologist that studied cultures of South America, Brazil b. Friends with Boas c. Role of the “trickster” d. Works: The raw and the Cooked; Tristes Tropiques; The Savage Mind; Mythologiques e. Founder of Structural Anthropology XXXIV. Malinowski a. Polish anthropologist that stuied in Malanesia b. Lived and worked in Trobriand Islands c. Studied the Kula Ring, ceremonial gift exchange of islanders d. Works: Argonauts of the Western Pacific; Sex and Repression; Savage Society e. Taught Jomo Kenyatta; helped write preface of Facing Mount Kenya f. Structural Functionalism XXXV. The Golden bough a. By James Frazer b. Compares mythology and religion c. Aneas used the golden Baugh to get to hades XXXVI. The Hero with a Thousand Faces a. By Joseph Campbell b. Examines similarities between myths of various cultures XXXVII. Thor Hyerdahl a. Kon-Tiki expedition, showed that Polynesia could be settled from South America b. Norweigan anthropologist/explorer c. Research on Easter Island d. Other expeditions” Ra, Ra II, Tigris e. Kon Tiki Raft was made of Balsa wood f. Aku Aku : Secret of Easter Island g. Toamotu Islanders XXXVIII. Chomsky a. Worked at MIT b. Theory of Gernerative Grammar XXXIX. Sesperson a. The Great Vowel shift XL.Archeologists a. Bingham – discovered ruins of Machu Picchu b. Howard Carter – discovered tomb of king tut c. Schleimann – excavated Troy and Mycenae d. Arthur Evans – excavated the Minoan palace of Knossos XLI. Economic Laws a. Greshams Law – Bad Money Drives out Good b. Say’s Law – Supply Creates its own Demand c. Okun’s Law – there is inverse relationship between unemployment and GDP d. Law of diminishing marginal returns – each additional unit of variable input yields less and less additional output. XLII. Economic Terms a. Production Possibilities Frontier – graph that shows different quantities of two goods that economy could efficiently produce with limited resources b. Opportunity Cost – cost of passing up the next best thing when making decision c. Comparitive Advantage – explanation of how trade can benefit all parties d. FIAT money – money that has money because government says it does. e. Stagflation – inflation and rising unemployment

Consumer Price Index – economic indicator that tracks average price of “market basket of goods” g. Pareto Efficiency – where market can improve no more. No individual can be better off; named after an Italian economist. h. GDP vs GNP – gross domestic product measures output of particular nation while gross national product measures output of nationals of a particular country regardless of the actual location of that output. i. Monopsony – one buyer, many sellers. j. Closed shop – condition where union membership is requirement for employment k. Yellow Dog Contract – employment contract that forbit union membership. XLIII. Consumer Goods a. Inferior Good – Good whose demand rises as income decreases and vice versa (raman noodles) b. Giffen Good – inferior good whose demand rises with a rise in the price of that good (Irishi potatoe famine). c. Substitute Good – goods whose demands rise and fall inversely to each other (butter and margarine) d. Complementary Good – goods whose demands rise and fall with each other (hot dogs + buns) XLIV. Economic Curves a. Laffer curve – plots taxable income against tax revenue b. Lorenz Curve – Plots bottom % of households against the % of the total income they have c. Philips Curve – historical inverse relation between inflation and rate of unemployment; stagflation. XLV. Nobel Prizes in Economy a. 1969 – Frisch; 1st noble prize in Economics b. 1974 – Myrdal; wrote American Dilemma c. 1976 – Friedman – founder of Monetarism; won it with Schwartz. d. 1994 – John Nash; pioneer in game theory e. 1970 – Samuelson XLVI. John Maynard Keynes a. Member of the Bloomsbury Group b. British advisor at Versailles Conference (Economic Consequences of the Peace) c. Influential in the New Deal (pump priming) d. General Theory of Employment Interest and Money XLVII. John Kenneth Galbraith a. Canadian – born economist b. Liberal economist who worked with FDR, Truman, JFK, LBJ c. Ambassador to India under JFK d. Works: The New Industrial State; The Affluent Society; the great crash 1929 and Capitalism XLVIII. Friedman a. Advocated free market economy in television series “Free to Choose” b. Wrote “A Monetary History of the United States” with Anna Schwartz c. Nobel Prize in Economics in 1976 d. Chicago Boys / Chile e. Wrote “Capitalism and Freedom” XLIX. Ricardo a. Principles of Political Economy and Taxation i. Labor theory of value


ii. Comparative advantage b. Against corn laws c. Discussed Iron Law of Wages (but first explained by Ferdinand Lasalle) L. Miscellaneous Economists a. Colbert – French Finance Minister for Louis XIV b. Engels – Condition of the Working Class in England; Communist Manifesto c. Henry George – Progress and Poverty (about a single tax plan) d. Thomas Malthus – An Essay on the Principles of Population e. Francois Quesnay – Physiocrat; wrote Tableau Economique f. Hayek – The Road to Serfdom