# 01/07/1432

1
Assumption:
Surface is a diffuse emitter.
Example 12.5
Find:
1) Hemispherical total emissivity, c
2) Total emissive power, E
3) Wavelength at which spectral emissive power will
be a max
1) Hemispherical total emissivity
o
e
u
e
I
ì.e
dA
ˆ
O
ˆ n
de
e
, ,
, ,
cos
cos
e e e
b e e b e
I I
I I
ì ì
ì
ì ì
u
c
u
' = =
,
,
cos
cos
e e e
b e e e
I d
I d
ì
ì
ì
u e
c
u e
·
·
=
í
í
,
cos
b e e e
b
I d
E
ì ì
ì
c u e
·
'
=
í
0
0
1
cos
b e e
b
E d d
E d
ì
ì
ì
c u
c
e ì
t
ì
·
·
·
| |
'
|
\ .
=
í í
í
0
4
b
E d
T
ì ì
c ì
o
·
=
í
2 5
1 , 2 ,
0 2
4 4
b b
E d E d
T T
ì ì
c ì c ì
o o
= +
í í
2) Total emissive power
From Table 12.1
2 5
1 , 2 ,
0 2
4 4
b b
E d E d
T T
ì ì
c ì c
c
ì
o o
= +
í í
1 (0 2 m) 2 (0 5 m) (0 2 m)
F F F
u u u
c c c
÷ ÷ ÷
= + ÷

1
2 m 1600K 3200 m K T ì u u = × = ·
(0 2 m)
0.318102 F
u ÷
÷ =
2
5 m 1600K 8000 m K T ì u u = × = ·
(0 5 m)
0.856288 F
u ÷
÷ =
( ) 0.4 0.318102 0.8 0.856282 0.318102 c = × + × ÷
0.4 0.318102 0.8 0.53818 0.558 = × + × =
b
E E c =
4
T co =
4 2
0.558 5.67 16 207 kW/m = × × =
Maximum E
ì
may occur
in 0 < ì ≤ 2 um or 2 < ì ≤ 5 um.
3) Wavelength at which spectral
emissive power will be a max
Thus, maximum may occur at ì = 1.81 um or ì = 2 um
From Wien’s law
First check where maximum E
ìb
occurs.
,
,
cos
cos
e e e
b e e e
I d
I d
ì
ì
ì
u e
c
u e
·
·
=
í
í
b
E
E
ì
ì
=
b
E E
ì ì ì
c =
( )
max
2898 m K
1.81 m < 2 m
1600K
u
ì u u
·
= =
ì = 1.81 um
at ì = 1.81 um
From Table 12.1, ìT = 2898 um
.
K
at ì = 2 um
From Table 12.1, ìT = 3200 um
.
K
Maximum spectral emissive power occurs at ì = 2 um.
b
E E
ì ì ì
c = ( )
b
I
ì ì
c t =
5
5
b
I
T
T
ì
ì
tc o
o
| |
=
|
\ .
4
5
0.722 10
b
I
T
ì
o
÷
÷ = ×
4 8 5
(1.81 m,1600 K) 0.4 0.722 10 5.67 10 1600 E
ì
u t
÷ ÷
= × × × × × ×
2
54 kW/m m u = ·
4
5
0.706 10
b
I
T
ì
o
÷
÷ = ×
4 8 5
(2 m,1600 K) 0.8 0.706 10 5.67 10 1600 E
ì
u t
÷ ÷
= × × × × × ×
2
105.5 kW/m m u = ·
Peak emission
01/07/1432
2
dA
Absorptivity
Directional spectral absorptivity
dependence on the directional and spectral
distributions of the incident radiation, thus
not a material property except
ì
o'
( , , , )
i i
T
ì
o ì u o '
ì
o'
o
i
u
i
,
ˆ
i i
I
ì
O
ˆ n
,
( , )
cos
i i
i i
I
ì
ì u o
u
=
absorbed energy at and
Kirchhoff’s law
absorbed energy
emitted energy
in equilibrium
dA at T
u
de
I
ìb
I
ì
blackbody
at T
: no restriction
( , , , ) ( , , , ) T T
ì ì
o ì u o c ì u o ' ' =
cos
b
I dA d d
ì ì
o u e ì ' =
cos
b
I dA d d
ì ì
c u e ì ' =
Directional total absorptivity
directional-gray surface
( , , )
i i
T o u o '
,
cos
i i
I
ì ì
o u ' = absorbed energy at ì and (u
i
, o
i
)
o'
,
0
,
0
cos
cos
i i
i i
I d
I d
ì ì
ì
o u ì
u ì
·
·
'
=
í
í
,
0
,
0
i
i
I d
I d
ì ì
ì
o ì
ì
·
·
'
=
í
í
,
0
,
0
i
i
I d
I d
ì ì
ì
c ì
ì
·
·
'
=
í
í
0
4
b
E d
T
ì ì
c ì
c
o
·
'
' =
í 0
0
b
b
I d
I d
ì ì
ì
c ì
ì
·
·
'
=
í
í
i) when
, ,
( , , ) ( , ) ( , )
i i i i i b i
I C I T
ì ì
ì u o u o ì =
o c ' ' ÷ =
ii) when not function of ì
ì
c'
ì
c c ' ' ÷ =
o c ' ' ÷ =
Hemispherical spectral absorptivity
diffuse-spectral surface
( , ) T
ì
o ì
ì
o
,
,
cos
cos
i i i
i i i
I d
I d
ì ì
ì
o u e
u e
·
·
'
=
í
í
,
,
cos
cos
i i i
i i i
I d
I d
ì ì
ì
c u e
u e
·
·
'
=
í
í
,
cos
i i i
I d
G
ì ì
ì
c u e
·
'
=
í
1
cos
e e
d
ì ì
c c u e
t
·
' =
í
i) when only:
, ,
( , , ) ( )
i i i i
I I
ì ì
ì u o ì =
ì ì
o c =
ii) when independent of direction
ì
c'
ì ì
o c ÷ =
ì ì
c c ' =
Hemispherical total absorptivity
: diffuse-gray surface
iii) when ( , , , ) ( , , )
e e e e
T T
ì
c ì u o c u o ' ' =
, ,
( , , ) ( )
i i i i
I I
ì ì
ì u o ì = and
iv) when ( , , , ) ( , )
e e
T T
ì ì
c ì u o c ì ' =
, ,
( , , ) ( , ) ( , )
i i i i i b i
I C I T
ì ì
ì u o u o ì = and
ii) when
, ,
( , , ) ( , )
i i i b i
I CI T
ì ì
ì u o ì = o c ÷ =
( ) T o
o
,
0
,
0
cos
cos
i i i
i i i
I d d
I d d
ì ì
ì
o u e ì
u e ì
·
·
·
·
'
=
í í
í í
0
G d
G
ì ì
o ì
·
=
í
,
,
cos
cos
i i i
i i i
I d
I d
ì ì
ì
ì
o u e
o
u e
·
·
| | '
=
|
|
\ .
í
í
,
0
,
0
cos
,
cos
i i i
i i i
I d d
I d d
ì ì
ì
c u e ì
o
u e ì
·
·
·
·
'
=
í í
í í
0
0
cos
cos
b e e
b e e
I d d
I d d
ì ì
ì
c u e ì
c
u e ì
·
·
·
·
'
=
í í
í í
i) when ( , , , ) ( )
e e
T T
ì
c ì u o c ' =
o c ÷ =
Relations among
reflectivity, absorptivity, and emissivity
Kirchhoff’s law
for a directional-gray surface,
a) ( , , , ) ( , , , ) 1 T T
ì ì
o ì u o p ì u o ' ' + =
( , , , ) ( , , , ) T T
ì ì
o ì u o c ì u o ' ' =
( , , , ) ( , , , ) 1 T T
ì ì
c ì u o p ì u o ' ' + =
b) ( , , ) ( , , ) 1 T T o u o p u o ' ' + =
( , , ) ( , , ) T T o u o c u o ' ' =
( , , ) ( , , ) 1 T T c u o p u o ' ' + =
01/07/1432
3
for a diffuse-spectral surface,
for a diffuse-gray surface,
c) ( , ) ( , ) 1 T T
ì ì
o ì p ì + =
( , ) ( , ) T T
ì ì
o ì c ì =
( , ) ( , ) 1 T T
ì ì
c ì p ì + =
d) ( ) ( ) 1 T T o p + =
( ) ( ) 1 T T c p + =
( ) ( ) T T o c =
Example 12.7
Find:
1) Spectral distribution of reflectivity
2) Hemispherical total absorptivity
3) Nature of surface temperature change
b
E E c = G o
500 K
0.8
s
T
c
=
=
1) Spectral reflectivity
ì
p 1
ì
o = ÷
2) Hemispherical total absorptivity o
,
cos
i i
I
ì
u
,
cos
i i
I
ì ì
o u '
incident radiation in O at ì:
absorbed energy:
Why is the value of o (= 0.76) closer to unity ?
,
,
cos
cos
i i i
i i i
I d
I d
ì ì
ì
ì
o u e
o
u e
·
·
'
=
í
í
,
cos
i i i
I d
G
ì ì
ì
o u e
·
'
=
í
( ) ,
0
,
0
cos
cos
i i i
i i i
I d d
I d d
ì ì
ì
o u e ì
u e ì
o
·
·
·
·
'
=
í í
í í
0
G d
G
ì ì
o ì
·
=
í
6 8 16
2 6 8
6 12 16
2 6 12
0.2 500 1.0
0.76
G d d G d
G d G d G d
ì ì ì
ì ì ì
ì o ì ì
ì ì ì
o
+ +
= =
+ +
í í í
í í í = 5000 W/m
2
3) Nature of surface temperature change
Does the surface temperature increase or decrease?
b
E E c = G o
500 K
0.8
s
T
c
=
=
st in out g
E E E E = ÷ +
   
4
b s
G E G T o c o co = ÷ = ÷
8 4
0.76 5000 0.8 5.67 10 500
÷
= × ÷ × × ×
2
3800 2835 965 W/m = ÷ =
Since , the surface temperature will increase
with time.
st
0 E >

Example 12.9
Coals
Brick
wall
(diffuse)
Find:
1) Hemispherical total emissivity of the fire brick wall c
2) Total emissive power of the brick wall E
3) Absorptivity of the wall to irradiation from the coals o
Assumptions:
Spectral distribution of irradiation at the brick wall
approximates that due to emission from a blackbody
at 2000 K
spectral emissivity of brick wall
500 K
s
T =
2000 K
c
T =
01/07/1432
4
1) Hemispherical total emissivity c
From Table 12.1
Hence,
0
4
( )
b
s
s
E d
T
T
ì ì
c ì
c
o
·
=
í
( )
1 2
1 2
,1 ,2 ,3 4
0
1
b b b
s
E d E d E d
T
ì ì
ì ì ì ì ì ì
ì ì
c ì c ì c ì
o
·
= + +
í í í
1 2 1 2
,1 (0 ) ,2 (0 ) (0 ) ,3 (0 )
1 F F F F
ì ì ì ì ì ì ì
c c c
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= + ÷ + ÷

1
1.5 500 750 m K :
s
T ì u = × = ·
1
(0 )
0.000 F
ì ÷
=
2
10 500 5000 m K :
s
T ì u = × = ·
2
(0 )
0.634 F
ì ÷
=
( )
S
0.1 0 0.5 0.634 0.8 1 0. ( 6 ) 34 0.610 T c = × + × + ÷ =
2) total emissive power E
Coals
Brick
wall
(diffuse)
500 K
s
T =
2000 K
c
T =
4
( ) ( ( ) ) ( )
s b s s s s
T E T T T E T c c o = =
8 4 2
0.61 5.67 10 500 2161W/ ) m (
s
E T
÷
= × × × =
Since brick wall is diffuse, ( ) ( )
ì ì
o ì c ì =
( ) ( , )
b c
G E T
ì ì
ì ì ·
From Table 12.1
Thus, the brick wall cannot be regarded as a gray surface.
3) total absorptivity to irradiation from coal o
0.610 c =
0
0
( ) ( )
( )
G d
G d
ì ì
ì
o ì ì ì
ì ì
o
·
·
=
í
í
0
0
( ) ( , )
( , )
b c
b c
E T d
E T d
ì ì
ì
c ì ì ì
ì ì
·
·
=
í
í
1 2 1 2
,1 (0 ) ,2 (0 ) (0 ) ,3 (0 )
1 F F F F
ì ì ì ì ì ì ì
o c c c
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= + ÷ + ÷

1
1.5 2000 3000 m K :
c
T ì u = × = ·
1
(0 )
0.273 F
ì ÷
=
2
10 2000 20, 000 m K :
c
T ì u = × = ·
2
(0 )
0.986 F
ì ÷
=
( ) ( ) 0.1 0.273 0.5 0.986 0.273 0.8 1 0.986 0.395 o = × + × ÷ + ÷ =
The foregoing expressions for c and o may be used
to determine their equivalent variation with T
s
and T
c
0.610
0.395
S
c
: solar constant (flux of solar energy incident on a
surface oriented normal to the sun’s rays, when
the earth is at its mean distance from the sun)
f : correction factor to account for the eccentricity of
the earth’s orbit about the sun
u : incident angle of solar irradiation
Solar rays
Earth surface
Earth atmosphere
u
S
c
G
s,o
0.97 1.03 f s s
2
= 1353 W/m
c
S
,
cos
S o c
G S f u = · ·
ˆ n
The earth surface can not be considered as gray
Earth irradiation due to atmospheric emission:
sun
earth
T
S
= 5780 K
I
b,s
de
L = 1.50 ×10
11
m
R = 6.95 ×10
8
m
,
cos
c b s
S I d u e =
4 2
2
(cos 1)
S
T R
L
o t
u
t
= ~
( ) ( )
( )
4 2
16
2
2
22
5.67 57.8 6.95 10
= 1358 W/m
1.5 10
× ×
=
×
Because:
max
max
5780 K ~ 0.5 m
250 ~ 300 K ~ 10 m
S
E
T
T
ì u
ì u
= ÷
= ÷
4
atm sky
G T o =
01/07/1432
5
at earth’s surface
actual diffuse
in the earth’s atmosphere
Assumptions:
absorber surface diffuse
Example 12.11
: useful heat removal
flat-plate solar
collector
sky
10 C T = ÷ °
sky
G
( )
1/ 3
30 C, 0.22
s
T h T T
· ·
= = ÷

120 C
s
T =

2
750W/m
S
G =
0.1
0.95
S
c
o
=
=
u
q''
Find:
1) Useful heat removal rate per unit area,
2) Efficiency n of the collector.
u
2
[W/m ] q''
sky sky
G o
conv
q''
u
q''
1) Useful heat removal rate
S S
G o
E
sky
G
S
0.95 o =
0.1 c =
u
q''
: useful heat removal
( )
1/ 3
, 0.22
s
T h T T
· ·
= ÷
120 C
s
T =

sky
10 C T = ÷ °
2
S
750 W/m G =
in out
E E =
 
S S sky s c u ky onv
q G G q E o o '' + + '' + =
S S sky sky co v u n
G G q q E o o '' = ' ÷ ' + ÷
4
sky sky
, G T o =
sky
0.1 o c ~ =
( ) ( )
4/ 3
conv
0.22
s s
q h T T T T
· ·
'' = ÷ = ÷
4
s
E T co =
( )
4/ 3
4 4
S s u S ky
0.22
s s
G T T q T T o co co
·
= + ÷ ÷ ÷ ''
2
712.5 27.1 88.7 135.2 516 W/m = + ÷ ÷ =
2) The collector efficiency
2
u
2
S
516W/m
0.69
750W/m
q
G
n
''
= = =
sky
G
S
0.95 o =
0.1 c =
u
q''
: useful heat removal
120 C
s
T =

sky
10 C T = ÷ °
2
S
750 W/m G =
1) Since the spectral range of G
sky
is entirely different
from that of G
S
, it would be incorrect to assume that
o
sky
= o
S .
2) With a convection coefficient , the
useful heat flux and the efficiency are reduced to
and . A cover plate can
contribute significantly to reducing convection (and
radiation) heat loss from the absorber plate.
2
u
161W/m q'' = 0.21 n =
2
5W/m K h = ·
( ) ( )
1/ 3 1/ 3
2
0.22 0.22 120 30 0.986 W/m K
s
h T T
·
= ÷ = ÷ = ·
( )
1/ 3
, 0.22
s
T h T T
· ·
= ÷
01/07/1432
6
Reflectivity
Directional-hemispherical spectral reflectivity
dA
I
ì,i de
i
dI
ì,r
de
r
( , , )
i i ì
p ì u o '
,
,
( , , , , )cos
( , , )
( , , )cos
r r r i i r r
i i
i i i i i
dI d
I d
ì
ì
ì
ì u o u o u e
p ì u o
ì u o u e
·
' =
í
,
( , , , , )cos
r r r i i r r
dI d
ì
ì u o u o u e
·
í
,
( , , ) ( , , )cos
i i i i i i i
I d
ì ì
p ì u o ì u o u e ' =
,
( , , )cos
r r r r r
I d
ì
ì u o u e
·
=
í
,
( , , ) ( , , )cos
i i i i i i i
I d
ì ì
p ì u o ì u o u e
·
'
í
d
A
d
A
I
ì,r
I
ì,i
d
A
Hemispherical-directional spectral reflectivity
average incident intensity
d
A
I
ì,r
I
ì,i
( , , )
r r ì
p ì u o '
,
,
( , , )
( , , )
1
( , , )cos
r r r r
r r
i i i i i i
I d
I d d
ì
ì
ì
ì u o e
p ì u o
ì u o u e e
t
·
' =

í
,
cos cos
a i i i i i
I d I d
ì ì
u e u e
· ·
=
í í
, ,
1
cos , cos
a i i i a i i i
I I d I I d
ì ì ì ì
t u e u e
t
· ·
= =
í í
Reciprocity:
when is uniform over all
incident directions
,
( , , )
i i i
I
ì
ì u o
( , , ) ( , , )
r r i i ì ì
p ì u o p ì u o ' ' =
Hemispherical spectral reflectivity
dA
I
ì,i
de
i
I
ì,r
de
r
( )
ì
p ì
,
,
( , , )cos
( , , )cos
r r r r r
i i i i i
I d
I d
ì
ì
ì
ì u o u e
p
ì u o u e
·
·
=
í
í
,
( , , ) ( , , )cos
i i i i i i i
I d
G
ì ì
ì
p ì u o ì u o u e
·
'
=
í
(
,
( , , )cos
r r r r r
I d
ì
ì u o u e
·
í
)
,
( , , ) ( , , )cos
i i i i i i i
I d
ì ì
p ì u o ì u o u e
·
' =
í
01/07/1432
7
Hemispherical total reflectivity
,
0
0
( , , ) ( , , )cos
i i i i i i i
I d d
G d
ì ì
ì
p ì u o ì u o u e ì
p
ì
·
·
·
'

=
í í
í
0
G d
G
ì ì
p ì
·
=
í
,
( , , ) ( , , )cos
i i i i i i i
I d
G
ì ì
ì
ì
p ì u o ì u o u e
p
·
' | |
=
|
|
\ .
í
p A transmitting Layer with Thickness L > ì
Reflectance
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2 2 2 2
1 1
1 1 1
1 1
p t
p p t p
p t p t

÷ | |
= + ÷ = +
|
÷ ÷
\ .

Transmittance
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2 2 4 4
2 2
1
1 1
1
T
t p
t p p t p t
p t
÷
= ÷ + + + · · · =
÷
1-p
(1-p)t
(1-p)
2
t
p (1-p)t
p (1-p)t
2
p (1-p)
2
t
2
p
2
(1-p)t
2
p
2
(1-p)t
3
p
2
(1-p)
2
t
3
p
3
(1-p)t
3
p
3
(1-p)t
4
p
3
(1-p)
2
t
4
1 p
(1-p)(1-t)
p (1-p)t(1-t)
p
2
(1-p)t
2
(1-t)
p
3
(1-p)t
3
(1-t)
p
4
(1-p)t
4
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 4 4
1 1 1 R p p t p t p t

= + ÷ + + +· · ·

( )( )( )
( )( )
2 2 3 3
1 1
1 1 1
1
A
p t
p t pt p t p t
pt
÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ + + + + · · · =
÷
spectral transmittance
( )
2
2 2
1
1
T
ì ì
ì
ì ì
t p
p t
÷
=
÷
( )
2
2 2
0
1
1
G d
G
ì ì
ì
ì ì
t p
ì
p t
· ÷
÷
=
í
,tr
G T G
ì ì ì
=
total transmittance
Absorptance
p
1-p
1
(1-p)(1-t)
(1-p)t
(1-p)
2
t
p (1-p)t
p (1-p)t(1-t)
p (1-p)t
2
p (1-p)
2
t
2
p
2
(1-p)t
2
p
2
(1-p)t
2
(1-t)
p
2
(1-p)t
3
p
2
(1-p)
2
t
3
p
3
(1-p)t
3
p
3
(1-p)t
3
(1-t)
p
3
(1-p)t
4
p
3
(1-p)
2
t
4
p
4
(1-p)t
4
,tr
,
G
G
ì
ì
=
0
T G d
G
ì ì
ì
·
=
í
,tr
0
0
G d
T
G d
ì
ì
ì
ì
·
·
=
í
í
R + T + A =1
the amount of radiation energy streaming out through a
unit area perpendicular to the direction of propagation ,
per unit solid angle around the direction e, per unit
wavelength around ì, and per unit time about t.
ˆ
O
ˆ
I
ì
O
2 2
cos dA u
1 1
cos dA u
the amount of radiation energy intercepted by
dA
2
per unit wavelength, per unit time [W/um]
de
4
1 1
cos
d Q
I
dA d d dt
ì
u e ì
=
4
2
1 1
cos
d Q
d q I dA d
d dt
ì ì
u e
ì
= =
2 2
2
cos dA
d
r
u
e =
1
dA
2
dA
1
ˆ n
2
ˆ n
1
u
2
u
r
2 2 2
1 1 2
cos
cos
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d q I dA
r
ì ì
u
u =

 ( . T ) : diffuse-gray surface  ( . e . absorptivity. T ) ˆ I  .i )  I  . T )    ( . .i )  C ( i .i cos i d i   Relations among reflectivity. T )    ( .i     0 I  . e . . i)    I  . and emissivity   a)   ( . T )   ( .e . T ) G  b)  ( . i .i ( . T )   ( e . i .i cos i d i G   i) when I  . T )      ii) when   not function of          0   Eb d   0   I b d   T4 0 I b d       directional-gray surface    cos e d e   i) when I  . . T )   (T )     ii) when I  .i cos i d     Hemispherical spectral absorptivity   ( .   0    I b cos e d e d    0   0  I  . e .i ( ) only: diffuse irradiation        ii) when   independent of direction            diffuse-spectral surface   1 Hemispherical total absorptivity  (T )    I cos i d i d    0    .i (  .  i )  absorbed energy    I  b dA cos d d   emitted energy    I b dA cos d d    in equilibrium   ( . . . T )   ( . . T )  1 for a directional-gray surface. .i )  C ( i . i )  CI  b . i .i cos i d i d    0   G d             I  .i . . T )    ( .i 0  I  .01/07/1432 Absorptivity dependence on the directional and spectral distributions of the incident radiation. i . i ( . . T )  1 2 .i cos i     I cos i d  0   I  .i d  0 I  . . T ) and I  . . .i ( .i cos i Directional total absorptivity  ( i . i ( . .i cos i d i d  . .i cos i d i  I  . . i . T )    I cos i d i    I  . T )      iii) when   (  . .i ) I  b .i d     0    .i (  )  iv) when   ( . T ) : no restriction I  .i cos i d i d  0  I b cos e d e d   i) when   ( . T )    ( .i )  I  .  i . T )  absorbed energy at  and (i. .i cos i d i    I  . . T )   ( .i d  0 I  .i cos i d i      I  .i cos i d i       .i ( . e . e . T ) and I  . .i ( . T )  1       I  . T )  1   Kirchhoff’s law   ( .i ( . T )    ( .i  i ˆ  n i Kirchhoff’s law Ib blackbody at T  d I dA at T i dA    absorbed energy at  and ( i . i . . .i   I  .e . .i ) I b .i d  0   I  . T )     ( . thus  not a material property except    Directional spectral absorptivity   ( .

76  G d    G d    G d  2 6 12 = 5000 W/m2 Why is the value of  (= 0. the surface temperature will increase with time. E   Eb G Ts  500 K   0.8 Does the surface temperature increase or decrease?     E  E E E st in out g   G   Eb   G   Ts4  0.  (T )   (T )  (T )   (T )  1 Find: 1) Spectral distribution of reflectivity 2) Hemispherical total absorptivity 3) Nature of surface temperature change 1) Spectral reflectivity 2) Hemispherical total absorptivity  incident radiation in  at : I  .i i i 6 8 2 6 8 6 12 16   G d  G  0.7 c)   ( .67  108  5004  3800  2835  965 W/m 2 Find: 1) Hemispherical total emissivity of the fire brick wall  2) Total emissive power of the brick wall  3) Absorptivity of the wall to irradiation from the coals  Assumptions: Spectral distribution of irradiation at the brick wall approximates that due to emission from a blackbody at 2000 K  Since Est  0 .i cos i   1    absorbed energy:   I  .8  5. T )  1 d)  (T )   (T )  1 for a diffuse-gray surface.9 spectral emissivity of brick wall Brick wall (diffuse) G Ts  500 K Ts  500 K Tc  2000 K Coals   0.2 G d   500    d   1. i cos i d i   I  .i cos  i d i G  0       I  cos d  d      I  cos d d     i 0  .i cos i    0     I  .76) closer to unity ? 3) Nature of surface temperature change E   Eb Example 12. T )  1 for a diffuse-spectral surface.0  G d  16  0. 3 . T )    ( . T )    ( . T )    ( .i i       I  .8   ( .i cos  i d i .01/07/1432 Example 12. T )   ( .76  5000  0.

610 Thus. Tc ) Comments: The foregoing expressions for  and  may be used to determine their equivalent variation with Ts and Tc    0   ( )G ( ) d    0 G ( ) d  1    0   ( ) E b ( . 000  m  K : F(0 )  0.67  108  5004  2161W/m 2    .  (TS )  0.95   1016 1.3 1  F(0 )      2 From Table 12.95 × 108 m sun d Ib.986 2   0. the brick wall cannot be regarded as a gray surface.50 × 1011 m Sc  I b .5  0.986   0.   (  )    (  ) irradiation from the coal: G (  )  E b (  .1 0  1 E b d     .5 m TE  250 ~ 300 K  max ~ 10 m 4 Earth irradiation due to atmospheric emission: Gatm   Tsky : incident angle of solar irradiation 4 .395   0.5  500  750  m  K : F(0 )  0.5   0.634 2 Hence.03 The earth surface can not be considered as gray surface to the solar irradiation Because: TS  5780 K  max ~ 0.1 F(01 )    . Tc ) d  1 2     .273   0.61  5.8   6. Tc ) d    0 E b ( .634  0.395 1Tc  1.01/07/1432 1) Hemispherical total emissivity  2) total emissive power E Ts  500 K Tc  2000 K  (Ts )    0   E b d   Ts4  1  Ts4   .1  0. Environmental Radiation extraterrestrial solar irradiation Solar rays R = 6.o Earth atmosphere Earth surface TS = 5780 K L = 1.2  F(0 )  F(0 )     .97  f  1.273 1 2Tc  10  2000  20.2  E b d     .3 1  F(02 )      From Table 12.67   57.1 0.1 F(0 )    .8  1  0.634   0.2  F(02 )  F(01 )     .986  0.1 1Ts  1.5  2000  3000  m  K : F(0 )  0.5 2  10 22 f : correction factor to account for the eccentricity of the earth’s orbit about the sun 0.610 3) total absorptivity to irradiation from coal  Since brick wall is diffuse.1  0  0.3  E b d  1 2 2   Brick wall (diffuse) Coals E (Ts )   (Ts ) Eb (Ts )   (Ts ) Ts4 E (Ts )  0. s cos d  4  TS4  R 2  L2 2 (cos  1)  1358 W/m 2 Sc : solar constant (flux of solar energy incident on a surface oriented normal to the sun’s rays.000 1 2Ts  10  500  5000  m  K : F(0 )  0. when the earth is at its mean distance from the sun) Sc = 1353 W/m 2 = 5.8  1  0.273  0.s earth  ˆ n Sc GS .610 0.o  Sc  f  cos  Gs.

95  Ts  120 C q : useful heat removal  S G S  sky G sky q conv 4/3 E u Comments: 1) Since the spectral range of Gsky is entirely different from that of GS. Assumptions: steady-state absorber surface diffuse 1) Useful heat removal rate   Ein  Eout    SGS   sky Gsky  qconv  E  qu   qu   SGS   skyGsky  qconv  E 4 Gsky   Tsky .01/07/1432 Spectral distribution of solar radiation Directional distribution of solar radiation at earth’s surface actual diffuse Scattering of solar radiation in the earth’s atmosphere Example 12.  sky    0.22 Ts  T  Ts  120 C flat-plate solar collector  1/ 3  qu : useful heat removal Find:  1) Useful heat removal rate per unit area.1 G S  750 W/m 2 G sky Tsky   10 C 1/ 3   0. h  0.69 GS 750 W/m 2 G S  750 W/m 2 G sky Tsky   10 C 1/ 3   0.22  Ts  T  ky 4/ 3   Ts4 q u  712.1  S  0.95  Ts  120 C q : useful heat removal u 2) The collector efficiency q 516 W/m 2  u   0. it would be incorrect to assume that  qconv  h  Ts  T   0. h  0.986 W/m 2  K 5 .1 T .2  516 W/m 2 2) With a convection coefficient h  5 W/m 2  K. h  0. A cover plate can contribute significantly to reducing convection (and radiation) heat loss from the absorber plate.22 Ts  T   S  0.22 Ts  T  E   Ts4 sky = S .22  Ts  T  1/ 3  0.1 T .21 .95 T  30 C.5  27. h  0.1  88. qu [W/m 2 ] 2) Efficiency  of the collector.  qu   SGS   Ts4  0. the useful heat flux and the efficiency are reduced to  qu  161W/m 2 and   0.11 Gsky Tsky  10C G S  750 W/m 2   0.22 Ts  T   S  0.22 120  30  1/ 3  0.7  135.

 i )cos i d i  d i   average incident intensity    ( . I  a  1   I  . i .i )cos r d r     ( .i ) I. i .i ( .r ( . i .i ) I  .i ( . r .i d A d A     ( . i . i . i .01/07/1432 Directional-hemispherical spectral reflectivity    ( . r .i ( .r )cos r d r  I a cos i d i   I  .i )cos i d i G 6 . i ) I  . r )d r   I  . i . r .i cos i d i Reciprocity: when I  . i . r . i ) I  .i )cos i d i       ( . i . i .r I. r .r ( . i ) is uniform over all incident directions Hemispherical spectral reflectivity   ( ) I.i )   dI  .i )cos i d i      ( .r   (  . r . i . i .i ( .i ( . i .r )cos r d r  I  .  r ) I.r ( .i d i Reflectivity dI.i )     I  .r ( . i . i )cos i d i  dI  .i ( .r dr dA    ( .i cos i d i .r ( .r dr dA     ( .r ( . r .i ( .r )cos r d r  I  . i . r .i di I. r .i )cos i d i 1     I  .r )    ( .r )  I  .r .i cos i d i  I  a   I  .i )cos i d i I.r . i .i ) I  .i )cos r d r I  .i ( . i .i d A d A Hemispherical-directional spectral reflectivity  I.

i )cos i d i  G      (1-)2  (1-)(1-)  (1-)22  2(1-)2 3 (1-)2(1-)  (1-) (1-)2 3 (1-)24 3 (1-)4 (1-)3(1-) 4 (1-)4         (1-)3 3 (1-)3 2 (1-)23 Reflectance 2 R   1  1     2 1   2 2   4 4          G d   0 G    1    2  2     1 2   1   1     2    1   2 2  1   2 2    1        Transmittance T    1    1   2 2   4 4      2    1    1   2 2 2  1-   (1-)2  (1-)22  2(1-)2 3 (1-)24 3 (1-)4 4 (1-)4  (1-)(1-) (1-)(1-) (1-) 3 (1-)3(1-) (1-)2(1-)  (1-)3 3 (1-)3 2 (1-)23 the amount of radiation energy streaming out through a ˆ unit area perpendicular to the direction of propagation  . G .i ( .tr  . i . i . per unit time [W/m] d dA2 cos  2  (1-) (1-)2 Absorptance A   1    1    1     2 2   3 3       1   1    1    R + T + A =1 spectral transmittance T  dA2 2 r ˆ n2 ˆ n1 I  d 4Q dA1 cos1d d  dt d 4Q  I  dA1 cos 1d  d  dt d 2 q  total transmittance T    1     G . per unit wavelength around .tr  T G 2 2 G 1     2   1        G d 0 G . i .01/07/1432 Hemispherical total reflectivity  A transmitting Layer with Thickness L >   1- (1-)(1-) (1-)  0      ( . i .i ) I  . and per unit time about t.i ) I  .tr d  0 T G d  0 1  2 2  2 ˆ I  1 dA1 cos  1 d  dA2 cos 2 r2 dA2 cos 2 r2   0 G d    d 2 q  I  dA1 cos1 G G dA1 7 . the amount of radiation energy intercepted by dA2 per unit wavelength. per unit solid angle around the direction .i ( . i )cos i d i  d      0 G d      ( .