Program Notes ² November 15, 2008 ² Springfield Symphony Orchestra Kyle D. Vanderburg studies composition under Dr.

Carlyle Sharpe at Drury University where he is finishing his BA in Music. He plays bassoon in the Drury Wind Symphony and Drury Chamber Orchestra. After finishing his BA he plans on attending graduate school to further his study of composition. It is said that the Austrian composer Gustav Mahler was so popular at the turn of the century, that when he would walk the streets of Vienna, cab drivers would slow down, and whisper to their passengers, ´Der Mahler!µ However, this fame was not from Mahler·s reputation as a composer of symphonies and vocal works, but rather from his talent as the director of the Vienna Opera. It was this fame that freed Mahler to write his substantial Symphony No. 5. This fame allowed Mahler to purchase a plot of land in 1899, upon which he built a house and a composing studio, where Symphony No. 5 was started. Events the winter after Mahler started his fifth symphony changed his life³and his symphony³substantially. At a dinner party he met Alma Schindler, who would become Alma Mahler in March of 1902. The fifth symphony acted as a type of communication between Gustav and Alma, with the fourth movement, the Adagietto, serving as a love letter from Gustav to Alma. The Dutch conductor Willem Mengelberg, in his personal copy of the Fifth Symphony, wrote: "This Adagietto was Gustav Mahler's declaration of love for Alma! Instead of a letter, he sent her this in manuscript form; no other words accompanied it.µ By the summer of 1902, the first draft of the fifth had taken shape. At this point, the symphony had evolved into an unusual five-movement work, despite the fact that this was Mahler·s most conventional symphony to date. The first and the second movement can almost be considered a whole, giving the symphony an almost four-movement structure. This time was one of the happiest times in Mahler·s life, and the theme of finding happiness is clearly reflected in this symphony. The symphony appears to start with a theme of anger and sadness, moving to love, and then finally, to joy. Without a doubt, this symphony lives up to Mahler·s own statement that ´A symphony must be like the world. It must contain everything.µ The connection between Gustav Mahler and Carl Maria Weber is stronger than one would expect. Yes, they were both renowned conductors and composers, but the link is deeper than that. Mahler was familiar with Weber·s work, recognized Weber as an influence, and completed Weber's unfinished comic opera Die drei Pintos, as well as made revisions of Euryanthe and Oberon. Weber was a prolific composer of operas, orchestral works, concert arias, masses, cantatas, and many other works. This is evident by the fact that his Clarinet Concerto No. 2 in E-flat major was written in the same year as his Clarinet Concerto No. 1 in F major, his Clarinet Concertino in E-flat major, a bassoon concerto, an opera, several chamber works, among others. However, what makes the clarinet concertos especially significant is the fact that both concertos were written for Heinrich Joseph Bärmann, considered one of the most virtuosic clarinetists of the romantic era. During this time, the clarinet was undergoing several major changes to key structure, embouchure, and construction, which allowed clarinetists to play chromatic passages with ease. The second Weber clarinet

concerto was written to show off what is capable on the clarinet, which it has been doing for the past 197 years.