REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Fertilizer recommendation integrating organic, inorganic and bio fertilizers ensure sustainability of yield, maintenance of soil health and conservation of natural resources. Keeping this in view the present study was plan to find out the effect of vermicompost, phosphorus with PSB on yield of summer green gram. The efforts are therefore being made here to review the research work done so far on relevant aspects at different locations. The literature compiled is narrated on the following major heads. 2.1 Effect of Vermicompost 2.2 Effect of Phosphorus 2.3 Effect of Phosphate Solublizing Bacteria (PSB) 2.4 Effect of interaction, if any
2.1 EFFECT OF VERMICOMPOST

Vermicomposting is an ecofriendly and an effective way to recycle agricultural waste. Application of vermicompost not only adds plant nutrients (macro and micro) and growth regulators but also improves the physical and chemical properties of the soil like water retention, porosity, etc., enhances the microbial population and carbon content of the soil. The response of different crops to vermicompost has been reported by many workers. But very little work has been done on response of green gram to Vermicompost, hence the efforts are being made here to review the work done on green gram and other pulses.

2.1.1 Effect on growth attributes The highest dry matter per plant were obtained with the application of 75 per cent N as urea along with 5 t ha-1 Vermicompost and it was at par with the application of N as Vermicompost (Srinivasa and Uma Mahesh, 1995). Reddy et al., (1998) conducted a trial on sandy loam soil at GKVK-, Bangalore and found that organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium had a significant influence on growth of garden pea. Application of 10 tonnes of vermicompost and recommended dose of NPK. (37.5 : 60 : 50 kg ha-1) recorded maximum plant height at harvest, days to initial flowering and number of branches per plant. Karmegam et al., (1999) conducted an experiment to find out the effects of Vermicompost on germination efficiency, shoot length, root length, number of root nodules, fresh weight and dry weight of green gram on 25lh, 50th and 75th day. The germination efficiency of green gram was observed 93.33% in the Vermicompost-applied pots compared to 84.17% in the control, i.e., biodigested slurry (BDS). The growth performance of green gram under Vermicompost was also significantly higher than the control. Mathur (2000) while conducting a field experiment at Hisar observed that application of 20 kg N ha-1 through Vermicompost significantly increased the growth of summer green gram in terms of plant height, dry matter, LAI and dry weight of nodules per plant than rest of the treatments.

Rajkhowa et al., (2000) Conducted an experiment at Jorhat, Assam to study the effect of vermicompost with three different levels (0, 2.5 and 5 t ha -1) on green gram nutrition. The results revealed that application of vermicompost showed significant positive effect on dry matter production in green gram. The highest dry matter per plant was obtained with the application of 75 per cent N as urea along with 5 t ha-1 vermicompost and it was at par with the application of N as Vermicompost. Rajkhowa et al., (2002) conducted a field experiment at Jorahat (Assam) to evaluate the effect of 2.5 t ha-1 Vermicompost alone or in combination with fertilizer and found the highest number of nodules per plant (24.33Nodules plant-1) in the Vermicompost treatment. Das et al., (2002) reported that application of Vermicompost showed better influence on dry matter per plant of green gram compared to other manures or chemical fertilizers used. Jat and Ahlawat (2002) conducted an experiment on sandy loam soil of IARI, New Delhi and found that application of Vermicompost @ 3 t ha-1 significantly improved the growth attributes (plant height, dry matter accumulation per plant, number and weight of root nodules per plant) of chickpea over no Vermicompost. Chakradhar and Jauhri (2003) evaluated the performance of four bioorganics viz., pressmud, compost, FYM and Vermicompost on chickpea ‘Pusa 372’ at IARI farm. Out of the four substrates, pressmud and compost based bio-

plant growth of chickpea. Dhane et al. Kumar et al. Anand.. It was at par with Vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 in term of dry matter per plant. 2..reported the highest seed yield per plant with application of 75 per cent N as urea along with 5 t ha-1 Vermicompost and it remained at par with application of N as Vermicompost. They observed that plant height and number of branches plant-1 increased significantly due to Vermicompost application up to 2 tones ha-1 over with out application.organic fertilizer showed significantly higher increase in nodulation. (1998) conducted a trial on sandy loam soil at GKVKBangalore and found that organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen. Reddy et al.2 Effect on yield attributes Srinivasa and Uma Mahesh (1995). (2003) reported that plant height and dry matter accumulation per plant of mungbean improved significantly with application of vermicompost @ 5 t/ha over control. (1996) conducted an experiment in Rabi season on groundnut cultivar Konkan in Maharashtra and reported that pod yield was significantly increased by application of vermicompost @ 1. Wagadre et al...5 t or FYM @ 5 t ha 1 with 25 kg N and 50 kg P2O5 ha-1. phosphorus . Vermicompost was found as effective as that of FYM. (2010) conducted an experiment involving vermicompost and phosphorus with PSB inoculation on summer green gram at Anand Agricultural University.1.

2.. Rajkhowa et al. Kerala on sandy loam soil. Das et al. (2000) Conducted an experiment at Jorhat..5 : 60 : 50 kg ha"1) recorded maximum number of pods per plant and the grain yield. The highest seed yield per plant was obtained with application of 75 per cent N as urea along with 5 t ha-1 vermicompost and it was at par with application of N as Vermicompost. number of seeds per pod and 100-seed weight over control. (2002) conducted a field experiment at Jorahat (Assam) to evaluate the effect of 2. Application of phospho-enriched Vermicompost significantly increased the yield contributing characters like number of pods per plant.5 and 5 t ha -1) on green gram nutrition.and potassium had a significant influence on various yield parameters of garden pea. Rajkhowa et al. Application of 10 tonnes of vermicompost and recommended dose of NPK. (2002) reported that application of Vermicompost showed better influence on number of pods and pod yield of green gram compared to other manures or chemical fertilizers used. . Kumari and Kumari (2002) worked on vermicompost enriched with rock phosphate in cowpea at Vellayani.. The results revealed that application of vermicompost showed significant positive effect on yield of green gram. Assam to study the effect of vermicompost with three different levels (0. (37.5 t ha-1 Vermicompost alone or in combination with fertilizer and found significant increase in yield of green gram over control and RDF alone.

FYM and Vermicompost on chickpea ‘Pusa 372’ at IARI farm. they concluded that the highest grain yield of Rabi sorghum and chickpea was obtained with 50 per cent N through organic manure + 50 per cent fertilizer N over sole fertilizer.) to study the effect of phosphorus and organic manures (FYM and Vermicompost) on the yield of chickpea. green manure and fertilizer N on nutrient status of soil and productivity of Rabi sorghum. From the results. It was at par with Vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 in term of grain yield. (2002) conducted an experiment at Dheulakuan (H. Chakradhar and Jauhri (2003) assessed the performance of four bioorganics viz. Application of Vermicompost @ 3 t ha-1 had significantly increased the yield attributes (pods per plant and 1000 grain weight) of cowpea along with yield and harvest index over no Vermicompost. compost and Vermicompost). compost. Tolanur and Badanur (2003) studied the effect of integrated use of organic manures (FYM. bio fertilizer and phosphorus on cowpea at IARI. . pressmud and compost based bioorganic fertilizer showed significant increase in yield of chickpea..P. The results revealed that the highest grain yield was obtained with 50 kg or 75 kg P2O5 applied with Vermicompost. Kanwar et al. pressmud.chickpea system in clay soil at Bijapur..Jat and Ahlawat (2002) investigated the effect of vermicompost. Out of the four substrates. New Delhi.

Among different sources. chemical fertilizers recorded higher number of pods per plant which were at par with cattle dung application. phospho-compost and poultry manure resulted in similar number of pods per plant which were at par with each other but significantly superior to control. They observed that number of pods plant-1.5 t/ha.. seed and straw yield (kg ha-1) of summer green gram increased significantly with Vermicompost application up to 2 t ha-1 over no Vermicompost application.5 and 9. (2010) conducted an experiment involving vermicompost and phosphorus with PSB inoculation on summer green gram at Anand Agricultural University. (2006) evaluated different sources of nutrients on pigeon pea at Bhopal. Anand. respectively.5 t Vermicompost ha-1 respectively. seeds per pod.. number of seed pod-1. Application of Vermicompost.. Ramesh et al. . harvest index and seed and straw yield of cowpea over control. (2003) reported that Vermicompost at 5 t/ha produced 16. pod length. Wagadre et al.5 per cent higher seed yield of mung bean compared to FYM at 5 t/ha and Vermicompost at 2.Netwal (2003) conducted a field experiment at Jobner during kharif season of 2001-02 and reported that application of Vermicompost @ 5t ha -1 significantly increased the pods per plant. 5 t FYM and 2. Kumar et al.

2. The results revealed that the highest crude protein was obtained with 50 kg or 75 kg P2O5 applied with Vermicompost. 5 t FYM and 2.P.87%).3 Effect on quality of seeds Mathur (2000) while studying the response of Rhizobium inoculation along with different sources of nitrogen on summer green gram at Hissar. Netwal (2003) conducted a field experiment on cowpea at Jobner during kharif season of 2001-02 and reported that application of 5 tones Vermicompost increased the protein contents of seeds over control. (2006) conducted a field experiment at Bhopal applying different organic manures (cattle dung 4 t/ha. Ramesh et al. Kanwar et al..25%) followed by Vermicompost (20.. Wagadre et al. (2010) conducted an experiment involving vermicompost and phosphorus with PSB inoculation on summer green gram at Anand .1..90%) and poultry manure (20.5 t/ha Vermicompost respectively. observed that application of 20 kg N through vermicompost significantly increased protein content of green gram over rest of the treatments. FYM and Vermicompost were equally effective in increasing the crude protein content of chickpea. Vermicompost 3 t/ha and poultry manure 2 t/ha) to Pigeon pea and found that highest protein content in seeds was recorded with application of cattle dung (21. (2002) conducted an experiment at Dheulakuan (H.) to study the effect of phosphorus and organic manures (FYM and Vermicompost) on crude protein content of chickpea.

2. and Mg. K. Results further revealed that increase in the dose of Vermicompost from 2. Protein content of seeds of green gram increased significantly with application of Vermicompost up to 2 tones ha-1 over no Vermicompost application. Among the treatments tried. . P and K content and their uptake by green gram with application of 20 kg N/ha through Vermicompost over rest of the treatments.5 to 5.1.. Kumari and Kumari (2002) studied the effect of enriched Vermicompost on the nutrient content and its uptake by cowpea at Vellayni (India). enriched Vermicompost showed its superiority over other treatments for nutrient content and uptake of major nutrients like N.Agricultural University. Ca. Yadav (2001) at Jobner found that application of 20 kg N through Vermicompost significantly improved the nitrogen and phosphorus content in seed and straw in cowpea over the same dose through urea and FYM. (2000) conducted an experiment at Jorahat (Assam) on green gram and reported significant increase in N and P content in plant due to addition of Vermicompost over control.4 Effect on content of nutrients and their uptake Mathur (2000) while conducting a field experiment at Hisar observed significantly higher N. P. Rajkhowa et al. Anand.0 t/ha brought significant increase in the content of plant nutrients. but the micronutrients uptake was not significantly influence by any of the treatments.

Anand. P and K content and uptake by seed and Stover of green gram increased significantly with vermicompost application up to 2 t ha-1 over no vermicompost application.. They observed that N. The results revealed that the highest nutrient uptake was obtained with 50 kg or 75 kg P2O5 applied with Vermicompost..5 t/ha Vermicompost respectively..1.P. P and K content in seed and straw and their uptake by cowpea over control. (2002) conducted an experiment at Dheulakuan (H.P and K over 100% NP and different combinations of chemical fertilizers. Vasanthi and Subramania (2004) from a field experiment on black gram at Madurai found the highest N.) to study the effect of phosphorus and organic manures (FYM and vermicompost) on the available phosphorus and nitrogen status in soil after harvest of chickpea. (2002) conducted an experiment at Dheulakuan (H. P and K concentration and uptake in the treatments that received vermicompost @ 2 t ha-1 along with 100% recommended level of N.P. (2010) conducted an experiment involving vermicompost and phosphorus with PSB inoculation on summer green gram at Anand Agricultural University. 2.) to study the effect of phosphorus and organic manures (FYM and Vermicompost) on the nutrient uptake of chickpea. 5 t FYM and 2.Kanwar et al.5 Effect on soil available nutrients Kanwar et al. The results revealed that the highest available phosphorus was obtained with 50 kg or . reported that application of 5 tones Vermicompost increased the N. Netwal (2003) conducted a field experiment at Jobner during kharif season of 2001-02. Wagadre et al.

FYM and vermicompost were equally effective in increasing the available phosphorus and nitrogen status of soil after harvest of chickpea. The organic manure addition had increased the nutrient (N. (2010) conducted an experiment involving vermicompost and phosphorus with PSB inoculation on summer green gram at Anand Agricultural University. Rajkhowa et al. available N. (2003) conducted a field experiment at Jorahat (Assam) pointed out that as compared to control.. compost and vermicompost). P and K) uptake besides improving the quality in term of protein content and status . P and K of Rabi sorghum and chickpea were obtained with 50 per cent N through organic manure +50 per cent fertilizer N over sole fertilizer. They observed significant increase in available nitrogen and phosphorus after harvest of green gram with application of vermicompost up to 2 t ha-1 over no vermicompost application. Wagadre et al. The foregoing review indicates that any source of organic manure (vermicompost) is equally effective in improving the yield and yield attributes of green gram crop. From the results. Tolanur and Badanur (2003) studied the effect of integrated use of organic manures (FYM.5 t/ha + 100% RDF significantly improved the organic carbon.. P and K status of soil after harvest of mungbean.75 kg P2O5 applied with vermicompost. application of vermicompost at 2. Anand.chickpea system in clay soil at Bijapur. they concluded that the highest soil available nutrients like N. green manure and fertilizer N on nutrient status of soil of Rabi sorghum.

Sarkar and Banik (1991) conducted an experiment on Gangetic alluvial soils of Experimental Farm. Baruipur (West Bengal). 2.2 EFFECTS OF PHOSPHORUS Phosphorus fertilizer occupies an important place amongst the nonrenewable input of modern agriculture. 2. .of soils after of crop. Calcutta University. It plays a vital role in development of nodulation. It also governs the maturation of crops and improves the protein content in legume crops. The results revealed that increasing levels of P 2 O 5 from 0 to 60 kg P 2 O 5 ha-1 increased number of nodules of green gram. indicated that the number of branches plant-1 increased significantly with application of 20 kg P2O5 ha-1. Application of 1-5 tones vermicompost ha-1 to Rabi and summer pulse under varying soil conditions has shown advantageous effect. it promotes the flowering and fruiting and aids in setting of pods. Rout and Ali (1983) working at IGFRI Jhansi. on cluster bean during rainy season of 1981. Madurai (Tamil Nadu). Crop recovery of added phosphorus seldom exceeds 20 per cent and this calls for ways and means for judicious management of phosphorus. They reported significant linear effect of phosphorus up to 50 kg ha-1 for plant height.1 Effect on growth attributes Vasimalani and Subramaniam (1980) studied response of green gram at varying levels of phosphorus on sandy loam soils of Agriculture College & Research Institute.2.

Jat and Mali (1992) studied the response of phosphorus on chickpea at Jobner (Rajasthan) on loamy sand soil and observed significant increase in branches per plant and nodule dry weight due to application of 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 over its lower doses (20 and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1).A Field experiment was conducted at Navasari. 40.. Gujarat on clayey soil by Patel and Patel (1991) on chickpea with three levels of phosphorus (0. Nagar and found that application of phosphorus @ 20. Raut and Kohire (1991) investigated the influence of phosphorus (0.K. Patel et al. Application of 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 was found superior to 25 P2O5 ha-1 and control in case of all growth parameters. 25 and 50 kg P2O5 ha-1) and they reported that application of 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 significantly increased the plant height over control and 25 kg P 2O5 ha-1 whereas. number of branches plant-1 were increased significantly up to 25 kg P2O5 ha-1. and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 significantly increased plant height and number of branches plant-1 over control. (1991) conducted an experiment at Varanasi. S. . (1992) conducted a field experiment on green gram on sandy loam soil at Gujarat Agricultural University.. 25 and 50 kg P2O5 ha-1) with Rhizobium inoculation on chickpea in vertisol at Parbhani (Maharashtra) and found the positive response to application of phosphorus with Rhizobium inoculation by increasing nodulation number and nodules dry weight. Raju et al. BHU on clay loam soil where in increase in phosphorus levels from 20 to 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 resulted in higher number of nodules and nodules dry weight of chickpea.

.S. Application of 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 significantly increased plant height. college. Baboo and Mishra (2001) took up a field experimental on sandy loam soil at Agriculture Research Farm of A. 20. Hyderabad to find out the response of phosphorus levels on green gram. (1997) conducted an experiment on cluster bean at Gwalior. Application of phosphorus @ 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 significantly enhanced plant height and branches plant-1.An experiment was conducted by Sharma and Singh (1997) on silt loam soil to find out the response of green gram to phosphorus levels. with four levels of phosphorus (0. . Bhadoria et al. Lakheoti on green gram and found that every increase in phosphorus level up to 90kg P2O5 ha-1 increased plant height and number of branches plant-1. 40 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1) and indicated that height and number of branches plant-1 increased significantly with application of phosphorus over control.2 to evaluate the response of summer green gram to phosphorus. Ram and Dixit (2000) carried out an experiment on silt loam soil having pH 8. Srinivas and Mohammed (2002) conducted a field experiment on sandy loam soil at the Student's Farm of College of Agriculture. branches plants1 . They observed that application of phosphorus @ 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 significantly increased dry matter as compared to control. Application at 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 registered maximum values for plant height and number of branches plant-1. Rajendranagar. leaves plant-1 and photo mass plant-1 over control.

Campus.2. Anand.. Anuja et al. 60 and 70 kg ha-1) and a constant dose of nitrogen. 2.(2007) carried out a field trial on vegetable cowpea cv..K.Luikham et al.5N: 90 P2O5 :5. Sasode and Singh (2008) conducted a field experiment on inceptisol at Collage of Agriculture. Imphal on clay type soil having pH 5. number of branches and dry matter production were recorded maximum with 60 kg P2O5 ha-1. They observed significant increase in plant height and number of branches plant-1 up to 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 over 20 kg P2O5 ha-1. Ganjibasoda. on greengram and found that application of different levels of fertility (37.0 Zn kg ha1 ) ) increased number plant height.N..V. TUX 944 for two seasons. Wagadre et al. 60 and 70 kg ha-1). Among the different treatments 70 P2O5 and 70 K kg ha-1 recorded highest plant height number of branches per plant . The results revealed that plant height.V.2 Effect on yield and yield attributes . three levels of potassium (50. (2005) investigated the effect of sources and levels of phosphorus on green gram at CAU. number of branches and dry matter production.6. dry matter accumulation and nodule dry weight . in India (Muzzaffarnagar) to find out the effects of three different levels of phosphorus (50. (2010) conducted an experiment involving vermicompost and phosphorus with PSB inoculation on summer green gram at Anand Agricultural University. J.

B.) by Parihar (1990) for two years with three levels of phosphorus (25. Rahuri (Maharashtra)..Tanpure and Mohite (1987) obtained higher grain yield (10.61 q ha-1) of green gram with application of 50 kg P 2 O 5 ha-1 as compared to control (9. New Delhi reported that green gram responded better at 30 kg P 2 O 5 ha-1 as compared to 0 and 15 kg P 2 O 5 ha-1 and noted 46 per cent increase in grain yield with 30 kg P 2 O 5 ha-1 as compared to no application of P2O5.01 q ha1 ) on medium black calcareous soils of Mahatma Phule Agricultural University. 50 and 75 kg P 2 O 5 ha-1) on sandy clay loam soil indicated linear increase in grain yield of chickpea with increasing level .(1988) from thirty field experiments on farmers field comprising of ustochrept soils varying widely in available phosphorus status came to the conclusion that green gram responded significantly to phosphate application only on soils rating low in available phosphorus and the increase in yield was significant up to 25 kg P 2 O 5 ha-1. The number of pods plant-1 as well as grain and straw yield were also higher with 30 kg P 2 O 5 ha-1over 0 to 15 kg P 2 O 5 ha-1. On a sandy loam soil of Meerut University. during 1977 and 1978 observed that grain yield.A. Research work carried out at Kharagpur (W. yield attributing characters and harvest index of green gram was increased with increasing level of phosphorus from 0 to 50 kg ha-1.I. Arya and Kalra (1988). Gupta and Rai (1989) while working at I..R. Meerut. Dhillon et al.

pods plant-1. Baruipur (West Bengal). Calcutta University. Raut and Kohire (1991) studied the influence of phosphorus (0.of phosphorus in the first year of study but it was found to increase significantly up to 50 kg P 2 O 5 ha-1 during second year. test weight. grains pod-1 were increased significantly up to 25 kg P2O5 ha-1. Pal and Jana (1991) observed progressive and significant increase in number of pods plant-1. pod length. The results revealed that increasing levels of P 2 O 5 from 0 to 60 kg P 2 O 5 ha-1 brought successive increase in grain yield. (1991) conducted an experiment at Varanasi. number of seeds pod-1 and test weight of green gram. Raju et al. Sarkar and Banik (1991) conducted an experiment on Gangetic alluvial soils of Experimental Farm. They found positive response to application of phosphorus with . Application of 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 significantly increased the number of pods plant-1. 25 and 50 kg P2O5 ha-1). straw yield. 25 and 50 kg P2O5 ha-1) with Rhizobium inoculation on chickpea in vertisol at Parbhani (Maharashtra). A Field experiment was conducted at Navasari. straw yield ha-1 and test weight up to 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 whereas number of seeds pod-1 and grain yield were significantly increased up to 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 on clay loam soil of Mohanpur (West Bengal). BHU on clay loam soil and reported that increase in phosphorus levels from 20 to 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 resulted in higher grain yield of chickpea. Gujarat on clayey soil by Patel and Patel (1991) with three levels of phosphorus (0. grain and straw yields of chickpea over control and 25 kg P 2O5 ha-1 whereas..

. Jat and Mali (1992) observed significant increase in pods per plant.Rhizobium inoculation. Jorahat.. 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 was superior to 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 and control for all yield parameters. test weight and grain yield of chickpea due to application of 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 over its lower doses (20 and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1). Faizabad on silty loam soils. At Jobner (Rajasthan). Higher levels over 20 kg P2O5 ha-1 had not advantageous in increasing the yield and yield attributes. An experiment was conducted by Chovatia et al. Rajkhowa et al. Singh et al. number of pods plant-1. pods plant-1 and 1000 seed weight increased significantly up to 20 kg P2O5 ha-1. grain and straw yield ha-1 and test weight were significantly higher with 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 as compared to 0 and 20 kg P2O5 ha-1. Phosphorus and Rhizobium also increased the yield of chickpea significantly with increasing levels of phosphorus. The yield attributes viz. Sharma and Singh (1993) conducted an experiment on green gram during summer seasons of 1989 and 1990 at Kumarganj. They observed that grain yield. (1992) conducted an experiment to asses the effect of sources and levels of phosphorus on summer green gram at Assam Agricultural University. (1993) obtained significantly higher grain yield with application of 40 kg P2O5 ha-1.. (1993) on clayey soil of Navsari at GAU to ascertain the effect of phosphorus on summer green gram.. pod length.. accounted 55 per cent increase over no application of P2O5 on sandy loam soil of Dholi (Bihar).

Saxena et al. An experiment was conducted by Sharma and Singh (1997) on silt loam soil to study the response of green gram to phosphorus levels.2%) over control. 20 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1). Application of 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 was significantly superior to 20 kg P2O5 ha-1 and the control in respect of grain yield. (1996) studied the effect of phosphorous and potassium on green gram at Kanpur. Shukla and Dixit (1994) carried out an experiment on sandy loam soil (inscptisols) to study the response of summer green gram to phosphorus levels. They concluded that application of 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 significantly increased the grain yield over 0 and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 on medium black soils. The grain and straw yield were significantly enhanced due to application of phosphorus @ 50 kg P 2O5 ha-1. . Application of phosphorus @ 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 increased the grain yield (17.. Patil and Jadhav (1994) found out the response of phosphorus and Rhizobium on green gram at Raigarh (Maharashtra). Soni and Gupta (1999) conducted a field experiment on green gram to study the effect of phosphorous levels (0. Phosphorous @ 60 kg ha -1and 20 kg K ha-1gave optimum seed yield.The results revealed that application of phosphorus @ 40 kg ha-1 gave higher yield than no application and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1.

52.5. Bichpuri. Agra. . They observed that application of phosphorus @ 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 significantly increased grain yield as compared to control.57 per cent over 0 and 20 kg P2O5 ha-1. Seed yield increased by 36. test weight. The soil was sandy clay loam with pH 6... They observed that application of 45 kg P2O5 ha-1 significantly increased grain and straw yield. Assam. Singh et al. (2001) during 1996-97 on loamy sand soil to find out response of chickpea to four levels each of phosphorus and bio-fertilizers.Ram and Dixit (2000) carried out experiment on silt loam soil to study the response of summer green gram to phosphorus. seed yield and straw yield over 0 and 20 kg P2O5 ha-1. Singha and Sharma (2001) carried out an experiment on a black gram at the Regional Agricultural Research Station Diphu. The levels of phosphorus showed significant increase in grain yield over control. (2003) carried out an experiment during summer season on sandy loam soil having pH 8.31 and 8.3 and 51. An experiment was conducted by Meena et al.2 % respectively with 30.3 to find out effect of phosphorus level on green gram at Raja Balwant Singh College.1. The grain yield was increased by 12. seeds pod-1. 60 and 90 kg P2O5 ha-1 over control. The results revealed that application of phosphorus @ 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 gave significantly higher pods plant-1.

length of pod number of pods plant -1 and 100 seed weight due to application of phosphorus @ 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 over control. (2004) conducted a field experiment at S.K. Shivakumar and Sidramappa (2004) had observed that application of 30 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 resulted in significantly higher grain yield compared to no phosphorus application. (2006) at teaching farm of B. An field experiment was conducted by Mitra et al. and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1). 60 and 70 kg ha-1) and a constant dose of nitrogen.A.V. 40.(2007) carried out a field trial on vegetable cowpea cv. Patel et al.. during summer season of 2003 and 2004 on green gram and found that the number of pods plant-1 .D.K. Anuja et al. in India (Muzzaffarnagar) to find out the effects of three different levels of phosphorus (50. Resulted revealed that increase in yield was found up to 60 kg ha -1.. Among the different treatments 70 . 60 and 70 kg ha-1). 1000-seed weight and yield were significantly increased by application of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1.U. TUX 944 for two seasons. S. The combination of broad bed and furrows with phosphorus fertilization was found to be ideal for achieving higher productivity in green gram.. three levels of potassium (50. Nagar (Gujarat)on summer green gram with 3 levels of phosphorus (20. Application of 40 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 gave significantly higher yield over 20 kg P2O5 ha-1.. number of seeds pod-1.C.Patel and Thakur (2003) observed significant increase in the green gram yield attributes viz.

. test weight. . seed and straw yield (kg ha-1). They observed that number of pods plant-1. seed pod1 . dry matter production.5N: 90 P2O5 :5.V. seed and straw yield (kg ha-1) of summer green gram increased significantly up to 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 over 20 kg P2O5 ha-1 application. The foregoing review on the effect of phosphorus on growth and yield attributes clearly indicates that application of phosphorus significantly increased the plant height.N. pod length.P2O5 and 70 K kg ha-1 recorded highest pod yield per plant and maximum harvest index.V. pod length. pod length. Campus. Sasode and Singh (2008) conducted a field experiment on inceptisol at Collage of Agriculture. J. Ganjibasoda.K. (2010) conducted an experiment at Anand Agricultural University. over control. pods plant-1. Anand. Wagadre et al. seed yield and straw yield. on greengram and found that application of different levels of fertility (37.0 Zn kg ha1 ) increased number of pods plant-1. number of seed pod-1.. number of seed pod-1. number of branches.

Soni and Gupta (1999) conducted a field experiment on green gram to study the effect of phosphorous levels (0.2. Meerut University.3 Effect on quality of seeds Arya and Kalra (1988) evaluated the response of phosphorus to summer green gram at Agricultural Research Farm. Sharma and Singh (1993) from Faizabad (Uttar Pradesh) found that phosphorus application @ 50 kg ha-1 increased the protein content significantly as compared with control and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1. Gujarat on clayey soil by Patel and Patel (1991) with three levels of phosphorus (0.2. Application of phosphorus @ 40 kg ha-1 increased the protein content. A Field experiment was conducted at Navasari. 20 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1). Application of 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 significantly increased the protein content of chickpea over control and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1. 25 and 50 kg P2O5 ha-1). Shukla and Dixit (1994) carried out an experiment on sandy loam soil (inscptisols) to study the response of summer green gram to phosphorus levels. Meerut on sandy loam soil. Ram and Dixit (2000) found that application of phosphorus @ 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 significantly increased protein content of summer green gram. Application of 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 was significantly superior to 20 kg P2O5 ha-1 and the control in respect of protein yield. They reported that protein content and total protein yield were increased with the application of phosphorus up to 50 kg ha-1. .

Campus. K and Fe by straw.V. Application of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 significantly increased uptake of N..V. Shukla and Dixit (1994) carried out an experiment on sandy loam soil (inseptisols) to find out the response of summer green gram to phosphorus levels. Application of 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 significantly increased P uptake as compared to control.2. Sasode and Singh (2008) conducted a field experiment on inceptisol at Collage of Agriculture.N. K by grain and N. They observed that application of 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 increased N and P uptake by the crop.Meena et al. Anand..K. Rahuri. J. 2. They observed that protein content of summer green gram increased significantly up to 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 over 20 kg P2O5 ha-1. Ram and Dixit (2000) investigated the effect of levels of phosphorus on summer green gram. on greengram and found that application of different levels of fertility (37. while working on chickpea with phosphorus levels and bio-fertilizers reported that increasing level of phosphorus significantly enhanced the protein content in seed. Ganjibasoda. (2010) conducted an experiment at Anand Agricultural University. (2001) at Jobner (Rajasthan ).5N: 90 P2O5 :5. . Wagadre et al..4 Effect on content and uptake of nutrients Tanpure and Mohite (1987) studied the response of phosphorus by green gram at Mahatma Phule Agricultural University. P.0 Zn kg ha1 ) increased protein content of seed.

Agra on summer green gram with levels of phosphorus (0. (2005) evaluated the response of phosphorus to green gram on clay loam soil at BCKV. Mandal et al. Ganjibasoda.P and K content and uptake by the crop. S. (2010) conducted an experiment involving vermicompost and phosphorus with PSB inoculation on summer green gram at Anand . college Research Farm. B. Campus. 35 and 45 kg) significantly increased N. J. 45 and 60 kg P 2O5 ha-1) at Jobner (Rajashthan) on lomy sand soil. on greengram and found that application of different fertility levels increased N. West Bengal. Sasode and Singh (2008) conducted a field experiment on inceptisol at College of Agriculture. P and K uptake over 0.. 60 and 90 P2O5 ha-1). P content in seed & Stover and N and P uptake in green gram seed over 15 and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1..N. P and K uptake by green gram.V. 30. 30 and 90 kg P 2O5ha-1in greengram crop. Bichpuri. indicated that the increasing level of phosphorus up to 45 kg P 2O5 ha-1 significantly increased N content in nodules and seed.. (2003) carried out an experiment on sandy loam soil at R. The results revealed that application of phosphorus @ 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 recorded highest N.V.. 15. Singh et al.30. The results inferred that application of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 increased N. P and K uptake by black gram over control at Assam. Wagadre et al.K. Singh and Pareek (2003) working on green gram with five levels of phosphorus (0.Singha and Sharma (2001) concluded that all the levels of phosphorus (25.

5 Effect on soil available nutrients Raju et al. 30.. 2. (1991) conducted an experiment on chickpea at Varanasi. (2003) evaluated the response of phosphorus (0. P and K content and uptake by seed and stover of green gram over 20 kg P2O5 ha-1. Application of phosphorus significantly helped to increase the available nitrogen and phosphorus up to 60 kg ha-1..Agricultural University. . Singh et al. Application of 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 significantly increased N. Wagadre et al. Sasode and Singh (2008) indicated that application of different fertility levels enriched the soil fertility in respect of available nitrogen and phosphorus after harvest of green gram.. (2010) concluded that available nitrogen and phosphorus after harvest of green gram increased significantly up to 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 over 20 kg P2O5 ha-1. (2005) concluded that application of phosphorus @ 60 kg ha-1 recorded highest available nitrogen and phosphorus in soil after the harvest of green gram.2.. BHU on clay loam soil and reported that increase in phosphorus levels from 20 to 60 kg ha-1 enriched the soil fertility in respect of available nitrogen and phosphorus after crop harvest. Anand. Mandal et al. 60 and 90 kg ha-1) with or without PSB on summer green gram.

glyoxalic.2. roots and root biomass in mungbean under alluvial soil. iron. 2.3. Phosphate solubilization by these microorganisms is brought by production of organic acids some of which have identified as malic. which may have favorable effect on plant growth. Hissar. TNAU and reported that seed treatment with phosphobacteria . They concluded that inoculation of green gram seeds with different strains of phosphorus solublizing bacteria significantly increased the dry matter production over control. except in strain MF24. HAU. Singh and Kapoor (1992) analyzed the result of a pot experiment conducted at the Department of Microbiology. The recent investigations have shown that they produce auxins and gibberellins. but also increase the efficiency of soluble form of phoshphetic fertilizers applied to soil. Ramamoorthy and Arokiaraj (1997) conducted an experiment at Bhavanisagar. These microorganisms not only solublizing insoluble soil phosphate. succinic.3 EFFECTS OF PHOSPHATE SOLUBLIZING BACTERIA (PSB) Several phosphate Solublizing microorganisms have shown stable and consistent capacity to dissolve insoluble phosphorus such as tricalcium. phosphobacteria are better suited in neutral to alkaline soil.1 Effect on growth attributes Gaind and Gaur (1991) reported that seed inoculation with PSB improved nodulation. aluminum phosphates and low-grade rock phosphates. citric and alphaketoglutaric acids. fumaric. bone meal etc.

recorded significant increase in plant height and number of branches plant-1 in green gram. Balachandran and Nagarajan (2002) conducted an experiment to study the effect of dual inoculation of Rhizobium and phosphobacteria with phosphorus on black gram in red lateritic sandy loam soil with pH 5. Vikram and Hamzehzarghani (2008) observed that inoculation of green gram seeds with PSB (PSB-14) recorded the highest nodule number.6 mg plant-1).. nodule dry weight. . number of nodules (31..3cm). plant height and nodulation of green gram var. ‘T44’. and found that application of phosphate solublizing microorganisms improved the seed germination. They noticed that the dual inoculation of Rhizobium and phosphobacteria recorded maximum plant height (48. A field experiment was conducted at Aligarh (Uttar Pradesh) by Perveen et al. Dundari and Suresh Kumar (2004) conducted a field experiment in Tamil Nadu and concluded that growth attributes of black gram viz.0 plant-1) and nodules dry weight (53. plant height and leaf area index were positively influenced by foliar spray of 2% DAP + seed and soil inoculation with phosphobacteria. Barethi (1998) observed that inoculation of cowpea seeds with PSB markedly enhanced the number of branches and dry matter production per plant as compared to no inoculation. shoot dry matter and total plant dry matter at 45 DAS.2 at Pudukottai (Tamil Nadu). (2002).

Where in application of phosphate solublizing microorganisms improved the seed yield of green gram var. (2010) conducted an experiment at Anand Agricultural University.5 per cent in 1990 and 1991 respectively. (1993) conducted an experiment on black gram during the rainy season of 1990 and 1991 and reported that application of phosphate solublizing bacteria significantly increased seed yield over control..5 and 22. Anand. The increase in seed yield was to the extent of 9. They observed that PSB inoculation increased the grain and straw yield. In a field experiment at Junagarh (Gujarat) on clayey soil. Surendra et al..2 Effect on yield and yield attributes Bardiya (1970) observed significant increase in yield of green gram due to inoculation of seeds with rock phosphate dissolving organisms. ‘T44’. (2002). A field experiment was conducted at Aligarh (Uttar Pradesh) by Perveen et al.. Ahmad and Jha (1977) studied the effect of PSB inoculation on chickpea at Pusa (Bihar) in acid loam soil. 2. .3. 1995). pod weight and yield over control (Mehta et al.Wagadre et al. inoculation of groundnut seed with P bio-fertilizers (Pseudomonas striata and Paecilomyces fusispores) significantly improved number of pods/ plant. They observed that plant height and number of branches plant -1 of summer green gram increased significantly by inoculation of seeds with PSB over uninoculation.

1 and 16..2 per cent higher over control at Pudukottai (Tamil Nadu).. 60 and 90 kg ha-1) with or without PSB on summer green gram. seed and straw yield (kg ha-1) over no inoculation. (2003) evaluated the levels of phosphorus (0. (2003) carried out a field experiment with black gram during Kharif season at Udaipur (Rajashthan). Wagadre et al. respectively over control. Anand. Inoculation of seeds with PSB increased the grain yield when compared to with out inoculation. The results revealed that the dual inoculation of seeds with PSB and Rhizobium recorded significant increase in grain and stover yields by 21.Balachandran and Nagarajan (2002) found that the dual inoculation of Rhizobium and phosphobacteria recorded the maximum grain yield of 670 kg ha-1. Singh et al. number of seeds pod-1.3 percent. and found that single or combined application of bio-fertilizers increased the pod yield in cowpea. Chattopadhyay and Dutta (2003) conducted two years field study in West Bengal to investigate the effect of bio-fertilizers (PSB and Rhizobium) on vegetable cowpea in alluvial soil. which was 126. Tanwar et al. Inoculation of seeds with PSB significantly increased the number of pods plant-1. . pod length. 30.. (2010) conducted an experiment to find out the response of P and PSB on summer green gram at Anand Agricultural University.

Jain and Trivedi (2005) observed significant increase in protein content by application of19.3 Effect on quality of seeds Ramamoorthy and Arokiaraj (1997) conducted an experiment at Bhavanisagar. The results revealed that the dual inoculation of seeds with PSB and Rhizobium recorded significant increase in protein content of seeds over control. Singh et al. Meena et al. (2010) conducted an experiment at Anand Agricultural University. They found that protein content of summer green gram increased significantly by inoculation of seeds with PSB over no PSB.66 kg P2O5/ha with PSB inoculation to soybean seeds. (2003) carried out a field experiment involving Rhizobium and PSB treatment in black gram during Kharif season at Udaipur.. TNAU where in seed treatment with phosphobacteria recorded significant increase in protein content of green gram. Tanwar et al. Rajasthan. Inoculation of seeds with PSB increased the protein content as compared to with out inoculation..3.. Wagadre et al. Anand. 60 and 90 kg ha-1) with or without PSB on summer green gram. (2003) evaluated the effect of phosphorus (0. (2001) reported that Rhizobium + PSB inoculation significantly increased protein content in seeds of chickpea over control from the studies conducted at Jobner (Rajasthan). 30.2. ..

Rasal (1996) concluded that seed treatment with PSB significantly increased P content of plants and P uptake by greengram over no inoculation. .2. P and K in green gram. P and S by clusterbean over no inoculation. (2003) evaluated the effect of levels of phosphorus (0. inoculation of mungbean with PSB significantly increased the phosphorus uptake by crop (Singh and Kapoor. Kumar (1998) observed that seed inoculation with PSB significantly improved the N and P content in seed and straw as well as total uptake of N and P in cowpea over control.4 Effect on content and uptake of nutrients In a field experiment at Hisar. Inoculation of seeds with PSB significantly influenced the content and uptake of N. Vikram and Hamzehzarghani (2008) recorded the highest P content and its uptake in root and shoot of greengram plants by inoculation of seeds with PSB (PSBV-113). 1992). Singh et al. 30.2. 60 and 90 kg ha-1) with or without PSB on summer green gram.. Singh and Pareek (2003) found that the dual inoculation with PSB and Rhizobium significantly improved the N and P content in seed and stover of mungbean over sole inoculation at Bikaner Nagar and Meena (2004) also reported that seed inoculation with PSB significantly increased total uptake of N.

60 and 90 kg ha-1) with or without PSB on summer green gram. 30. It is also observed that phosphorus application stimulates the bacterial growth thereby increasing nodulation and nitrogen fixation.3. FYM and Vermicompost increase the bacterial population with increased availability of organic matter. They found significant improvement in available nitrogen and phosphorus after harvest of green gram due to inoculation of seeds with PSB over the no inoculation. Anand where in inoculation of seeds with PSB significantly improved N.4 INTERACTION EFFECT It is well established fact that phosphate solublizing microorganisms increase the phosphorus availability in soils for better crop growth when they are inoculated with seeds or soil.. 2.Wagadre et al. . it is imperative to work out their interactive effect on the aspects to be studied. Wagadre et al. (2003) evaluated the effect of levels of phosphorus (0.. 2. (2010) investigated the effect of phosphorus and PSB on summer green gram at Anand Agricultural University. Therefore the efforts are made here to review the research work conducted on releavent aspects.5 Effect on soil available nutrients Singh et al. (2010) conducted an experiment at Anand Agricultural University. Hence. P and K content and uptake by seed and stover of green gram over control. Research findings have shown that incorporation of organic manures viz... Anand. The inoculation of seeds with PSB significantly increased the status of available nitrogen and phosphorus after harvest of green gram.

75 percent fertilizers + Vermicompost. FYM (10 t ha- . Pratap. Zn (25 kg ha-1). number of seeds pod-1 and 1000 seed weight by enriched vermicompost (Vermicompost + 30 kg P2O5 priming for 15 days) over alone vermicompost in cowpea.5t ha-1+ recommended fertilizers resulted in the highest yield. et al. Application of Vermicompost @ 2.2. Kumari and Kumari (2002) at Kerala observed maximum values for yield contributing characters like number of pods plant-1. Dahama and Poonia (2007) while investigating the effect of N (20 kg ha-1). An experiment was conducted during summer 1998 at Jorahat (Assam) by Rajkhowa.1 Interaction effect of Vermicompost and Phosphorus Reddy et al. Potash (20 kg ha-1).33 nodules plant-1) were obtained with 75 percent fertilizers + Vermicompost. Fe (5 kg ha-1). Application of 10 tones of vermicompost and RDF recorded the highest pod yield. 50 percent fertilizers + Vermicompost..4. P2O5 (30 kg ha-1). The highest number of nodules per plant (24. which was close to the yield obtained with the combination of Vermicompost with 75 or 50 percent recommended fertilizer rate. (2003) to study the effect Vermicompost alone and with fertilizers on the performance of greengram Cv.. (1998) reported that combined application of Vermicompost @ 10 ha-1 and RDF significantly influenced plant height and number of branches plant-1 at harvest in garden pea over alone Vermicompost and control.5 t Vermicompost ha-1. The treatments comprised of control 100 percent fertilizer (15 kg N + 35kg P ha-1) 100 percent fertilizer + 2.

2. .2 Interaction effect of Phosphorus and PSB Two years study (1994-95 and 1995-96) conducted by Yadav and Shrivastava (1997) at JNKV (Jabalpur) on gram revealed that the PSB inoculation combined with 40 and 50 kg P 2 O 5 ha-1 recorded significantly higher pod weight over P application alone. applied singly or in combination. Meena et al. Sonboir and Sarawgi (2000) reported that an application of PSB along with 30 and 60kg P 2 O 5 ha-1 significantly increased the yield of chickpea over without inoculation. on the performance of green gram cv. 100 seed weight. An experiment was conducted at Dharwad (Kamataka) by Rooge et al. They observed that inoculation with PSB in addition to phosphorus application @ 50 kg P 2 O 5 ha-1 had significant influence on number of pods plant-1. (1998) to study the effect of phosphorus with PSB on yield and quality of soybean.8 cm) with NPK + Vermicompost. New Delhi reported a significant interaction between PSB and P on chickpea.4.. seed and straw yields and harvest index. Phosphorus application @ 60 kg ha-1 with PSB gave higher yield. Application of phosphorus at both the levels (30 and 60 kg P 2 O 5 ha-1) produced significantly higher grain yield of chickpea when seeds were inoculated with phospho bacterial culture..1 ) and vermicompost (5 t ha-1). protein content. (2003) from IARI. RMG-62 at Bikaner (Rajasthan) reported that plant height at harvest was highest (43.