What is immunization and how does it work ?

Immunization is a way of protecting the human body against infectious diseases through vaccination. Immunisation prepares our bodies to fight against diseases in case we come into contact with them in the future.

Babies are born with some natural immunity which they get from their mother and through breast-feeding. This gradually wears off as the baby's own immune system starts to develop. Having your child immunized gives extra protection against illnesses which can kill.

The schedule recommends that the vaccinations should start when the baby is 1 1/2 months old. But what should be done if the baby is brought late for vaccinations? Should vaccination still be started?

Yes, definitely. Even if the baby is brought late for vaccinations, she should still receive all the vaccinations. While it is the best to follow the ideal immunization schedule, on no account should the baby be denied vaccinations, even if she is brought late for them. But every attempt must be made to complete full immunization, before the age of 1 year.

My friend's baby, who was given the B.C.G. injection about two months ago, has developed a small blister at the site of injection. Is this a cause for worry?

Please reassure your friend that there is no cause for worry. This is a normal reaction after the B.C.G. injection. About 4 to 6 weeks after B.C.G. injection a small lump called a papule appears at a site of the injection which may later break, giving out a whitish discharge. This will heal in about 10 to 12 weeks after the injection has been given and will leave a scar. Only if the discharge continues

should the doctor be consulted. These are normal. We have already discussed the side effects of the B. Hence it is very important to take the baby for the vaccination at the correct time and to make sure that all the vaccinations are given. he or she will recover fully. If so. . What are the side effects of vaccinations? Only very few infants and children develop side effects after a vaccination. doses and 1 measles injection. injections. of paracetamol. Ordinarily common illnesses like a cold or a diarrhea are not impediments against getting your child vaccinated.P. After the D. a slight delay does not matter.P. Sometimes it is not possible to take the baby for the second and third vaccinations after precisely a month.P.T. After the measles injection.C. the infant may have pain at the site of the injection and may even develop fever. a doctor should be consulted immediately. People giving immunizations are trained to deal with allergic reactions and if the child is treated quickly. In that case the baby may be given 1/2 a table or 1/2 a tsp.C. Continue the vaccinations as per the schedule and complete the course as soon as possible. Very rarely.G. injection.without the wound drying up. measles like rashes may appear. 3 D. The child will be fully protected only after she has received 1 B. injection. should the whole course be repeated? No.T. Also if the baby develops high fever or loses consciousness.G. 3 O. children can have allergic reactions straight after immunization. Are there any reasons why my child should not be immunized? There are very few reasons why a child should not be immunized.V.

HIV or AIDS. for example. He has had a severe reaction after eating eggs. He is taking any medicine which affects the immune system. Each vaccine is continually checked even after it has been introduced and action is taken if it is needed. If a vaccine is not safe it is not used. Only after the have been found to be safe that they are introduced for general vaccination programs. y y IDEAL IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE FOR THE INFANTS (Recommended by the Ministry of Health. or is having. children who have had fits in the past can be immunized. for example. immunosuppressants (given after organ transplant or for malignant disease) or high-dose steroids. How do we know that vaccines are safe? Vaccines like all other medicines under go extensive and rigorous tests regarding their safety. where you must let your healthcare provider know of your child¶s conditions. treatment for cancer. of INDIA) . He has any illness which affects the immune system.There are certain situations though. Following are some of them: y The child has a high fever. He has had a bad reaction to another immunization. Searchvt. (With the right advice. or Has had convulsions (fits) in the past.) y y y y He has had.

P.2 (dose) D.T. (injection)* At 11/2 months D.T. .3 (injection) and At 31/2 months O.2 (injection) and At 21/2 months O.P.P. Booster (dose) .T.3 (dose) At 9 months Measles (injection) D.V.B. .P.P.T. .V.P. .P.1 (dose) D. Booster (injection) and 16 to 24 months O.1 (injection) and O.C.V. .V.G.P. .

risk of serious illness. as they have never been exposed to it earlier. you must still get it. .C. Consult your health worker regarding this.G. Children are highly susceptible to develop infections. viruses and killed bacterias. What is the basic principle of Immunization? Ans. This stimulation is done by introducing attenuated(weakened) strain of specific bacterias. she should be given the B. Is natural immunity better than vaccine induced immunity? Ans. No. with natural disease. Q. Q. * Even if you are late for an injection/dose. Immunization is safer way to get immunity. Why is Immunization recommended mostly in early childhood? Ans. Aim of Immunization is to prevent the person from getting the disease when they are exposed to it for the first time in life as certain illness may be crippling or fatal. disability and death are high. Basic principle of active immunization involves stimulating the host to produce its own antibodies to the agent that causes disease.* If the infant has been delivered in a hospital/clinic. Q. injection at birth.

Q. no immunization is 100% effective but if infection does occur. Q. DPT and OPV can be given on the same day. BCG. it will be mild. Q.Q. Can BCG. Pulse Polio immunization helps to replace the wild virus (disease causing virus) by vaccine virus in community. Is it true that Immunized children still may contract one of the diseases? Ans.Yes. Pulse Polio Immunization means intermittent polio immunization drive inthe community or region to vaccinate all susceptible children irrespective of their previous immunization status. What are the contraindication to Polio vaccination? Ans. Contraindication to Polio are very few like immuno compromised host. shock and encephalitis may also occur rarely. DPT and OPV vaccine may be administered simultaneously? Ans. What is pulse Polio Immunization? Ans. Q. What are the side effects. Progrinive murological disease. Q. Q. What are the contraindications to DPT vaccine? Ans. Many countries like Brazil. Can breast-feeding can be given just before or soon after Polio vaccine administration? . Yes. complications of DPT vaccine? Ans. Cuba and Israel have eradicated polio disease by adapting pulse polio approach. uncontrolled conculsick and severe reaction to first or subsequent close of DPT are contra indication to this vaccine. severe diarrhoea and and acute febrile illness. Fever and local pain are the common side effects of DPT vaccine but complication like convulsions.

MMR Vaccine can be given along with other vaccines like DPT. Q. Local tenderness may occur mild fever may occur . Polio vaccine should be administered after one month of an attack of measles. Q. Q. MMR Vaccine provides protection against measles. MMR Vaccine protects from which diseases? Ans. Ideal age for MMR vaccine is between 15-18 months of age. Who should be given MMR Vaccine? Ans. All three diseases are highly infectious and can lead to serious complications. MMR Vaccine protects from which diseases? Ans. Yes. Q. Can Polio vaccine be given to a child who has recovered from Measles? Ans. Breast-feeding can be given just before or soon after administration of Polio vaccine. Q.Yes. Q.Ans. mumps and Rubella. What are the side effects of MMR Vaccine? Ans. All three diseases are highly infectious and can lead to serious complications. but at different sites. Can MMR vaccine be given along with other vaccines. MMR Vaccine provides protection against measles. mumps and Rubella. However. it can be given upto 5 years of age if not given earlier. It is a very safe vaccine. Can Polio vaccine be given to a child who has received Immunoglobin? Ans. Q. The administration of Polio vaccine should be delayed by at least 6 weeks after administration of immunoglobin. OPV etc. Ans.

MMR Vaccine protects from which diseases? Ans. Does this child prevention? Ans. Can measles vaccine be given with Polio vaccine. measles can occasionally occur after measles vaccination 10-15% children fail to seroconvert after measles vaccine given at 9 months of age. Yes. A 3 months old infant is in contact with his elder sibling who is suffering from measles. infants upto 5-6 months of age have adequate level of maternally derived measles antibodies. Q. Ans. MMR Vaccine is contraindicated for immunocompanised hosts. Q A 3 months old infant is in contact with his elder sibling who is suffering from measles. What are the contraindication to MMR vaccine? Ans. which protect them against the disease. Yes. Does this child prevention? . Q.upto 5-6 days of vaccination some children may develop rash and lymphnode enlargement. It is also contraindicated in children having severe (anaphylactic egg allergy). Measles vaccine can be given Polio vaccine. fever or diarrhaea can he get MMR? Ans. Q. Yes the child can get MMR vaccine. MMR Vaccine provides protection against measles. Q. mumps and Rubella. If a child is having cold. Can measles occur after measles Immunization? Ans.No. All three diseases are highly infectious and can lead to serious complications. Q. cough. Q.

infants upto 5-6 months of age have adequate level of maternally derived measles antibodies. pertusis and tetanus) DPT (1st dose) HB (2nd dose) OPV ( second dose) 10 weeks DPT (second dose) OPV (2nd dose) DPT(2nd Dose) . OPV HB (Against heptitis B) OPV (1st dose) OPV (first dose) 6 weeks DPT (Triple vaccine against diptheria. BCG.Ans. No. which protect them against the disease Vaccination Schedule Age of the child Govt Schedule IAP Schedule BCG(Against Tuberculosis) At Birth OPV (Against Polio) This dose of vaccine at birth is called the zero dose.

OPV (third dose) 14 weeks DPT (third does) OPV (3rd dose) DPT (3rd dose) 6-9 months ---------------------- HB ( 3rd dose) 9 months Measles Measles OPV (4th dose) OPV (fourth dose) 15-18 months DPT (fourth dose) DPT (4th dose) MMR (vaccine against Measles. Mumps and German Measles (rubella) 5 years DT (5th dose) (only for diptheria and tetanus) OPV (5th dose) DPT (5th dose) TT 10 years TT (against tetanus) HB TT 16 years TT RECOMMENDED IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE FOLLOWED IN INDIA .

Sl No. Age Disease Vaccination Remarks 1 AT BIRTH HEPATITIS B HEP B VACCINE -I 2 AT BIRTH POLIO ORAL PV 0 DOSE 3 BIRTH TO 6 WK TUBERCULOSIS BCG 4 4 -6 WEEKS HEPATITIS B HEP B VACCINE -II DIPHTHERIA 5 6 WEEKS PERTUSIS TETANUS POLIO DPT-I OPV -I DIPHTHERIA PERTUSIS 6 10 WK TETANUS POLIO HEPATITIS B DPT-II OPV-II HEP B VACCINE III* *DELHI GOVT RECOMMENDATION 7 14 DIPHTHERIA DPT-III *DELHI GOVT .

III HEP B VACCINE IV* RECOMMENDATION 8 24 WEEKS HEPATITIS B HEP B VACCINE III* *IAP RECOMMENDATION 9 9- POLIO OPV-IV MEASLES 12MTHS MEASLES 10 15-18 MTHS MUMPS MEASELES RUBELLA MMR* DIPHTHERIA 11 18 MTHS PERTUSIS TETANUS POLIO DPT ± BOOSTER I OPV ±V *RECOMMENDED BY DELHI GOVT & IAP ONLY 12 24 MTHS TYPHOID TYPHOID* *IAP RECOMMENDATION DIPHTHERIA 13 4-5 YR PERTUSIS TETANUS POLIO DPT BOOSTER ± II OPV -VI .WEEKS PERTUSIS TETANUS POLIO OPV.

OTHER AVAILABLE VACCINES 14 6 WEEKS H influenza B HiB *IAP RECOMMENDATION 15 10 WK H influenza B HiB 16 14 WK H influenza B HiB *IAP RECOMMENDATION 17 18 MTHS H influenza B HiB *IAP RECOMMENDATION 18 24 MTHS HEPATITIS A H A VACCINE-I SUGGESTED VACCINATION 19 30 MTHS HEPATITIS A H A VACCINE -II SUGGESTED VACCINATION 20 12 MTHS CHICKENPOX VARICELLA VACCINE SUGGESTED VACCINATION 21 24 MTHS MENINGOCOCCAL A&C MENINGOCOCCAL VACCINE SUGGESTED VACCINATION 22 12 PNEUMOCOCCAL PNEUMOCOCCAL IN SPECIAL .

TWO LIVE VACCINES SHOULD BE GIVEN EITHER . PLEASE CHECK THE EFFICACY OF INDIVDUAL VACCINES BEFORE IMMUNIZATION. MINOR UPPER RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS ARE NO CONTRAINDICATIONS OF IMMUNIZATIONS. III. NO VACCINE IS 100 % EFFECTIVE. II.MTHS VACCINE CIRCUMSTANCES 23 12 MTHS INFLUENZA INFLUENZA VACCINE IN SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES ON GOING VACCINATIONS 24 10 YEARS TETANUS TT EVERY FIVE YEARS 25 5 YEARS TYPHOID TYPHOID EVERY THREE YEARS 26 5 YEARS MENINGOCOCCAL A&C MENINGOCOCCAL VACCINE EVERY THREE YEARS 27 NID¶S & SNID¶S POLIO ERADICATION PULSE POLIO AS PER GOVT DIRECTIVES IMPORTANT: I.

V. IV. FOLLOW POST VACCINATION INSTRUCTIONS AS ADVISED. VI.SIMULTANEOUSLY AT DIFFERENT SITE AT THE SAME SITTING OR AT LEAST ONE MONTH APART. VACCINATION SCHEDULES DIFFER IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES ACCORDING TO THEIR NEEDS. IMMEDIATELY. AND REPORT ADVERSE REACTIONS IF ANY. . PULSE POLIO VACCINATIONS / OTHER IMMUNIZATIONS ON NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION DAYS ARE DIFFERENT FROM ROUTINE VACCINATIONS AND SHOULD BE FOLLOWED AS PER THE INSTRUCTIONS IN THE NATIONAL INTEREST.