1) Describe the process of communication with the help of a diagram.

Communication is a systematic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings. Communication is an ongoing process that never cease and always in motion. Such symbols used while communicating can be verbal as well as non-verbal which in turn creates meanings , which is vital for communication. For such process of communication and to interpret it s meanings it goes through various stages, which can be shown with the help of a diagram.

Transmit the message Encodes it Idea Sender Decodes it Feedback Channel Perception Filter/Mental Filter Decodes it Receiver Encodes it

From the above diagram, we can tell that the Sender first of all thinks or generates an idea in his or her mind. Then the idea is brought together and is encoded which then forms a message that he or she wants to share or interpret to the Receiver . This message is then transmitted to the Receiver . When the Receiver receives the message that may be verbal or non-verbal, he or she decodes it. The process that takes place while decoding can be termed as Perception Filter or Mental Filter, where the Receiver analyzes the message to know whether this message is agreeable or acceptable and understandable by him or her. Then after decoding the message the Receiver encodes the answer to the message transmitted by the Sender as to give feedback to the Sender .

The feedback then is received by the Sender who decodes it to know what the Receiver thinks of the message. After that the Sender again sends another message to the Receiver . Thus, the cycle of communication continues on.

2) Describe the breadth of communication values. The breadth of communication values can be divided into 4 parts, namely i) ii) iii) iv) Personal Values Relationship Values Professional Values Cultural Values


Personal Values:

Personal Values refers to the personal identity we gain as we communicate with others. Here, self-concept plays a vital role which determines who we are and what labels others give us when communicating something about us. Communication with others not only affects our sense of identity but also directly influences our physical and emotional well-being. Therefore, communication is required for physical health, mental health and emotional health to enrich our personal values.


Relationship Values:

Communication is also a key foundation of relationships as all relationships are based on communication. The more we communicate the more we learn about others and the stronger bond is created. Such bond is created from building connections with others by revealing our private identities, listening to learn about them, working out problems, remembering shared history, and planning a future. Thus, relationship has constant communication, the more communication is seen the stronger the relationship.


Professional Values:

Communication is required in every profession for success or business. Some may require a lot of communication while others may not. Such importance of communication can be seen in professions such as teaching, business, law, sales and counseling, where talking and listening are primary.


Cultural Values:

Cultural Values are communicated to us by our parents or elders who give us an idea about our culture, the do s and don ts, or certain behaviors required by us. Good communication skills are necessary to express one s own ideas and be able to evaluate the ideas of others such as of our parents or elders. Thus to be able to follow that might seem wrong to us. All these help us to develop our cultural values, which are required for a healthy society.

3) What is Human Perception? Describe the different stages of Human Perception. Perception is an active process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting people, objects, events situations, and activities. Here, we actively work to make sense of ourselves, others, and interactions. We do this focusing on only certain things, and them we organize and interpret what we have selectively noticed. Thus, perception is how we construct meanings for a phenomenon by interacting with it. Perception has different stages, namely i) ii) iii) Selection Organization Interpretation



Selection refers to the phenomena that we narrowed our attention to and what we defined important at a certain period of time and thus were unaware of many other things going on around us. Which stimuli we notice depends on a number of factors. First, some qualities of external phenomena draw attention. For instance, we notice things that stand out because they are immediately relevant, or intense. Second, our perceptions are influenced by the activity of our senses. Third, change or variation compels attention which is why we may take for granted all the pleasant interactions with a friend and notice only tense moments. What we select to notice is also influenced by who we are and what is going on inside us. Our motives and needs affect what we see and don t see.



Once we have selected what to notice, we organize them in ways that make them meaningful to us. The most useful theory for explaining how we organize perceptions is constructivism, which states that we organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures called schemata. We use four types of cognitive schemata to make sense of perceptions, they are: a) Prototypes: They are knowledge structures that define the most clear or representative examples of some category. b) Personal Constructs: These are mental yardsticks that allow us to measure people and situations along bipolar dimensions of judgment. c) Stereotypes: These are predictive generalizations about people and situations. d) Scripts: They are guides to action based on what we have experienced and observed.



Interpretation is the subjective process of explaining perceptions in ways that let us make us make sense of them. After selecting and organizing a phenomenon we assign meaning to it by interpreting it as per what we have noticed or come to know about it. To interpret the meaning of others actions, we construct explanations for what they say and do.

4) What are the guidelines for enhancing communication? The guidelines for enhancing communication are as follows: i) Recognize that all perceptions are subjective:

Our perceptions are partial and subjective because we perceive from a unique perspective that is shaped by physiology, culture, stand point, social roles, and cognitive abilities. Phenomena have no meaning until we perceive them and define what they mean.


Avoid mind reading:

One of the most common problems in communication is mind reading, which is assuming we understand what another person thinks or perceives. When we mind read, we don t check with what the other person is thinking. Instead, we act as if we know what s on his or her mind which untimely causes miscommunication and can get us into trouble.


Check perceptions with others:

Perception checking is an important communication skill because it helps people to arrive at mutual understandings of each other and their relationships. To check

perceptions, one should first state what one has noticed. Then one should check to see whether the other perceives the same thing. Third, one should offer Alternative explanations of ones perceptions and finally should ask the other person to clarify how he or she perceives the behavior and the reasons for it.


Distinguish between facts and inferences:

One should be able to differentiate between facts and inferences while communicating. A fact is a statement based on observation or other data. Whereas, inference involves an interpretation that goes beyond the facts. If we don t distinguish them miscommunication may occur and cause harm to the person we refer the inferences to. So to avoid this tendency, we should substitute more tentative words. For instance, instead of saying, Clark s behavior is thoughtless we can say, Clark s behavior seems thoughtless .


Monitor the Self-serving Bias:

Self-serving bias involves attributing our success and nice behaviors to internal, stable qualities that we control and attributing our failures and bad behaviors to external, unstable factors that are beyond our control. Because this bias can distort perception, we need to monitor it carefully.

5) Write short note on Mind Reading. Mind Reading is one of the most prevalent problems in communication. Here, we assume that we understand what another person thinks or perceive which might be incorrect. When mind reading we don t check with what another person is thinking, instead we act as if we know what s on his or her mind. For those who have known each other for a long time may be able to mind read each other with great accuracy, which may be beneficial to them. But for the most part mind reading is more likely to harm them than help them.

When we mind read, we impose our perspectives on others instead of letting them define their feelings. This can lead to resentment and misunderstanding because most of us prefer to speak for ourselves. Therefore mind reading should be avoided for a healthy relationship and communication.

6) What is Self-Concept? How is Self-Concept formed? Self-Concept is the concept of who we are. It is our personal identity or the concept about ourselves formed when we communicate with others and how they see us as or how they label us. Self-Concept is not fixed firmly at one time and constant thereafter. Instead, it is a process that evolves and changes throughout our lives. Self isn t something we are born with. Instead, it develops only as we communicate with particular others and participate in social life in general. Therefore, self is formed when we start communicating with three kinds of communication, which are: i) Communication with Family members:

For most of us, family members are the first and most important influence on how we see ourselves. Because family interaction dominates our early years, it usually establishes the foundations of our self-concepts.


Communication with Peers:

A second major influence on our self-concepts is communication with peers. From childhood playmates to work associates, friends and romantic partners, we interact with peers throughout our lives. As we do, we gain further information about how others see us, and this refines how we see ourselves and thus form self-concept.


Communication with Society:

The third influence on our self-concepts is interaction with the society in general. As members of a common society, we are influenced by the values, judgments, and perspectives that the community holds and expresses to us.

7) Write a short-note on Self-fulfilling Prophecy. Self-fulfilling Prophecy is a phenomenon in which a person acts in ways that are consistent with how others describe him or her. It operates when we act in ways that bring about expectations or judgments of ourselves. The prophecies that we act to fulfill usually are communicated by others first. Because we internalize others perspectives, we may learn to label ourselves as they do and then act to fulfill our own labels. Also sometimes such labels that were once true may not be any longer, they might change with further communication with other different people who then pass on a new label for us.

8) How can you enhance your Self-Concept? We can enhance our self-concept by the following ways: i) Make a strong commitment to improve one s self-concept:

The first principle for changing self-concept is the most difficult and important. One must make firm commitment to cultivating personal growth. A firm commitment requires that we keep trying even if we don t see dramatic effects immediately. Because the self is a process, it is not formed in one fell swoop, and it cannot be changed in a moment of decision. We have to be willing to invest effort in an ongoing way.


Gain knowledge as a basis for personal change:

Commitment alone is insufficient to spur changes in who we are. In addition, we need knowledge of several types. First, we need to understand how our selfconcept was formed. Second, we need to know what changes are desirable and how to bring them about. Vague goals for self-improvement usually lead nowhere, because they don t invite concrete work toward change. Finally, others can provide models. If we know someone who we think is particularly skillful in supporting others, we can observe him or her carefully to identify particular communication skills.


Set realistic goals:

Although willpower can do marvelous things, it does have limits. We need to recognize that changing how we see ourselves entails setting realistic goals. Effective goal setting means targeting specific changes one seeks. To reach that specific change one should establish a series of realistic small goals to effectively reach it. Setting realistic goals and selecting appropriate standards of comparison are important in bringing about change in oneself.


Accept yourself as being in process:

A key foundation for improving self-concept is to accept oneself as being in process. It means we need to accept who we are now as a starting point. It is important to accept who we are today as a basis for going forward. The self that we are results from all the interactions, reflected appraisals, and social comparisons we have made during our lives. Only by realizing and accepting who we are now can help us move ahead and thus bring change.


Create a supportive context for change:

It is easier to change our views of ourselves when we have some support for our

efforts. We can do a lot to create an environment that supports our growth by choosing contexts and people who help us realize our goals. Because how others view us affects how we see ourselves, we can create a supportive context by consciously choosing to be around people who believes in us and encourages our personal growth without being dishonest about our limitations.

9) What are the factors that bring about changes in a culture? The factors that bring about changes in a culture are as follows: i) Invention:

It is the creation of tools, ideas, and practices. A frequently cited example of a tool is the wheel, which had far-reaching implications. Not only did invention of the wheel alter modes of transportation, but also it is the foundation for many machines and technologies. Similarly invention of medicines has also helped society to stay safe and healthy for a longer period of time. Such cultures also invent ideas that alter social life. For example, the concept of social diversity has helped us recognize and appreciate a variety of cultures and social communities. Diversity changes how we interact in educational, business, and social contexts.



Diffusion is borrowing from another culture. Obvious examples of diffusion are borrowing language and foods from other cultures. For example, the American language includes a number of words imported from other cultures. Similarly Chinese have traditionally enjoyed chow mein, but now it is not difficult to find a restaurant that serves chow mein in Nepal.


Cultural Calamity:

Cultural Calamity is adversity that brings about change in a culture. For example, war may devastate a country, destroying land and its people alike. Losing a war can alter a culture s self-image, reshaping it into one of conquered people. Cultural calamity may also involve disasters such as hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, and plagues. Any of these can wipe out countless lives and alter patterns of life for the future.



The fourth factor of cultural change is communication. A primary way in which communication propels change is by naming things in ways that shape how we understand them.

10) How can we improve communication between cultures and social communities? We can improve communication between cultures and social communities by, i) Resisting the Ethnocentric Bias:

First of all, Ethnocentrism is the tendency to regard ourselves and our way of life as superior to other people and other ways of life. Having such bias will encourage negative judgments of anything that differs from our own ways. So, we should resist such ethnocentric bias. Ethnocentrism can be reduced by adopting the perspective of cultural relativism, which recognizes that cultures vary in how they think, act, and behave as well as in what they believe and value.


Recognize that responding to diversity is a process:

One should first develop resistance which defies the value and validity of anything that differs from what is familiar. And slowly develop a tolerance to accept that difference and move on to try and understand them. When we understand them, we then start to recognize and respect them. Then finally we even start to take participation in them. Thus, one should recognize that responding to diversity is a process.


How can you enhance effectiveness in verbal communication?

We can enhance our effectiveness in verbal communication by the following ways: i) Engage in Dual Perspective:

Dual perspective involves recognizing another person s point of view and taking that into account as we communicate. Effective interpersonal communication is not a solo performance but a relationship between people. Therefore, awareness of others and their viewpoints should be reflected in how we speak.


Own your feelings and thoughts:

We often use verbal language in ways that obscure our responsibility for how we feel and what we think. We tend to blame someone else for the cause of that feeling. Our feelings and thoughts result from how we interpret others communication, not from their communication itself. Although how we interpret what others say may lead us to feel certain ways, others do not directly cause our responses. Therefore, we should take responsibility for ourselves by using language that owns our thoughts and feelings.


Respect what others say about their feelings and ideas:

For an effective verbal communication we should not disparage what others say about what they feel and think. Even if we don t feel or think the same way, we can still respect the other person as the expert on his or her perspective. We should avoid speaking for others when they are able to speak for themselves.


Strive for Accuracy and Clarity:

Because symbols are arbitrary, abstract, and ambiguous, the potential for misunderstanding always exists. But to minimize them and to strive for accuracy and clarity in verbal communication, we should be aware about the levels of abstraction and how to use a level of abstraction that suits particular communication objectives and situations. Such words are appropriate when speakers and listeners have similar concrete knowledge about what is being discussed. We should qualify generalizations for two types of language so that we don t mislead ourselves or others into mistaking a general statement for an absolute one.