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11

**VOLUMES AND SURFACE AREAS
**

In this lesson we will • Review the formula from Grade 10 • Learn the new formulae and apply them to mensuration problems Firstly, remember to think of volume as the amount of liquid or air that a 3-D shape can hold; and surface area as the exterior surface of the shape that you could paint. In Grade 10 you learnt that, in general, to work out 1. 2. Volume: we take the area of the base and multiply that by the height Surface area: we find out the area of each face seperately and then add the answers together to get a total.

**Here is a reminder of formulae from Grade 10: Shape Cube Volume V=
**

x

Surface area

(x × x) × x base area height SA = 6 × (x × x) square = 6x2 3 =x

x

Rectangular Prism

height

V=

l×b × h SA = 2lb + 2bh + 2lh base area height = 2(lb + bh + 1h) rectangle

breadth length

Triangular Prism

base h

V=

H

× H SA = two triangles + 3 rectangles 1 = 2(_b × h) + (x + y + z) H 2 area of height = b × h + (perimeter × H) triangular base

1 (_b × h) 2

z x y

Cylinder

radius

V=

height

pr2 × h SA = 2pr2 + curved rectangle area of height = 2pr2 + 2prh circular base =2pr (r + h) = pr2h

Page 158

b.5)2(30) = 3964.5)(30) 2 x = y. therefore they cancel each other out.05 cm3 2.b = 282.a Volume = half volume of cylinder 1 = _ (pr2 h) 1 = _ (p(3)2(20)) 1. = 1821.77 cm2 Can you see that although surface area is harder to evaluate. called an apex. Page 159 Page 1 Lesson 1 | Algebra .24 cm2 You are now ready to meet the shapes we study in Grade 11.b Surface Area = 6 square faces – circle where handle meets (x) + end shaded circle (y) + curved rectangle = 6x2 + 2prh = 6(15) + 2 p(2. • We study pyramids with regular polygons in their base so that their slanted sides are all congruent triangles. 74 cm3 1 1 Surface Area = 2(_ circles) + shaded rectangle + _ curved rectangle 1 1 = 2(_pr2) + (length × breadth) + _(2pr × H) 2 2 2 2 = 9p + 120 + 60p = 336. 20 cm 30 cm 15 cm 6 cm Example 2. 5 cm Calculate: a.Example Here are two quick examples to refresh your skills: 1. • The pyramid is named according to the shape of the base. the best way is to break it down into the sum of its parts? 2.a Volume = x3 = Volume of the cube + volume of the cylinder = 153 + p(2. the volume surface area of these 3-D shapes Solution 2 2 Solution 1. • A right pyramid has the apex directly above the middle of the base. The first family of shapes are called the Right Pyramids • These are 3-D shapes with a polygon as a base and triangular sides which meet at the top point.

let us look at the formulae for their volume and surface area. The volume of any pyramid is: 1 V = _ × area of the base × perpendicular height 3 Hopefully you will be able to see where the volume formulae come from: Look at this: 3× 3× and Can you see that by filling the cone three times over we could fill a cylinder provided they had the same radius and height.Triangular Pyramid apex Square Pyramid Hexagonal Pyramid We are also required to study: Cones – although we group these separately. Likewise 3 fills of the square based pyramid would fill up the square based prism. Maybe you can get your teacher to help you make models of these shapes and to demonstrate this by using sand or jelly tots. a cone is actually a pyramid with a circular base Now that we have introduced these shapes to you. Page 160 .

but the height of ▵ACD ^ AFG = q is the angle at which the face is slanting GF is called the apothem.The Surface Area of any Pyramid is: SA = the sum of the areas of the seperate faces = the area of the base + area of all the congruent triangles. A BCDE is the base of the pyramid AG is the height of the pyramid CD is the base of ▵ACD AF is the slant height of the pyramid. and it is perpendicular to the side. The Surface Area of a Cone is: SA = the area of the circular base + area of curved surface = pr2 + pr × (slant height) Surface area of a cone: circle base curved surface laid out flat We now need you to study the next two shapes carefully. Apothem of a hexagon Apothem of a square E H B G D F C G AB is the radius of the circular base AG is the height of the cone BG is called the slant height A B Page 161 Page 1 Lesson 1 | Algebra . so that you are familiar with all the terminology we will be using in the next exercises. An apothem of a regular polygon is just a line segment drawn from the centre to the midpoint of one of its sides.

91 cm3 • Surface Area = area of square + area 4 triangle We need slant height AC _ AC2 = 32 + (3√2 )2 (By Pythagoras) AC = 27 _ AC = √27 2 A 3√ 2 _ _ 1 ∴ SA = 6 × 6 + 4(_ × 6 ×√27 ) 2 = 98.35 cm2 B 3 C Notice that we could work out the angle that the triangles were slanted at.74° 3√ 2 _ θ 3 How wonderful is that! Example Example 2 Find the volume and surface area of a pyramid with a triangular base with each edge 6 cm and a height of 10 cm.96 cm3 Page 162 B 3 . _ 3√2 tan q = _ Since in ▵ABC 3 q = 54. A Solution Solution 1 • Volume = _ × area of base × h 3 _ 1 = _ × (6 × 6) × 3√2 3 _ = 36√2 cm3 3√ 2 _ B C = 50. Example Example 1 Find the volume and surface area of a pyramid _ with height 3√2 cm and a square base with sides all 6 cm in length.You are also going to need to know the Theorem of Pythagoras which states that for ▵ABG above: AB2 + AG2 = BG2 in order to work out the height. using basic trigonometry. 10 cm Solution Solution 1 • Volume = _ × area of base × h 3 To work out area of base triangle _ AB2 = 62 – 32 9√3 _ AB = √27 _ 1 1 ∴Volume = _ × (_ × 6 × √27 ) × 10 3 _ 2 = 30√3 A A C 6 cm √3 _ B 6 6 = 51. slant height or radius/apothem.

35 cm3 Example 3 Find the volume and surface area of a cone with diameter 8 cm and height 8 cm. we use radius = 4 cm 8 cm C 4 cm B • Surface Area = area of base circle + area curved surface = pr2 + pr (slant height) Now we need to use Pythagoras to get the slant heights: so now s2 = 82 + 42 s2 = 80 _ s = √80 _ SA = p(4)2 + p(4)(√80 ) = 162. If the ice cream melts.04 cm3 Remember if diameter = 8 cm. For example: a soccer ball. A half scoop of ice cream is paced on the cone.Or to work out the area of the base we could use the area rule from 1 Trigonometry so area = _(6)(6)sin 60° (equilateral ▵ has int. Remember that half a sphere is called a HEMISPHERE We now just need to give you the formulae for measuring the volume and surface area of a sphere. angle = 60°) 2 _ = 9√3 • Area base + 3 other ▵‘s _ _ 1 9√3 + 3 (_ × 6 × √103 ) = 106.66 cm2 4 cm 8 cm Spheres – this is a body bounded by a surface whose every point is the same distance from a centre point. For a sphere: 4 Volume = _ pr3 (where r is the sphere’s radius) 3 Surface Area = 4pr2 Example 1 An ice cream cone has a radius of 3 cm and a height of 12 cm.93 cm2 2 _ Slant height = √103 = 62. will it fit into the cone? Page 163 Page 1 Lesson 1 | Algebra Example . Solution 1 • Volume = _ pr2h 3 1 = _ p(4)2(8) 3 A 10 √3 _ Example Solution = 134. a tennis ball.

All you now need to do is practise applying these formulae: Activity Activity 1 Find the volume of these shapes (correct to 2 decimal digits) 1. 6 cm 12 cm 2.Solution Solution 1 Volume cone = _ pr2h 3 1 = _ p(3)2(12) 3 3 = 36 p = 113. 10 cm 3.5 cm 3.55 cm3 So yes.1 cm3 1 4 Volume scoop = _(_pr3) 1 4 = _(_ p(3)3) 2 3 2 3 12 = 18 p = 56. it will fit and will actually only half fill the cone. 20 cm 30 cm 15 cm 30 cm Page 164 .

If we take a cone and we remove the top of it by making a cut parallel to the circular base we get a small cone and a shape called a frustum. A √ 89 _ C B 5 20 cm Activity 2 Find the surface area of the shapes 1– 4 in Exercise 1. 1. Activity Activity 3 To finish off this module we are going to challenge you to use your knowledge to solve real life problems.4. Activity Page 165 Page 1 Lesson 1 | Algebra .

as shown below. 10 cm x 4. The pyramid of the sun of Teotihuacan in mexico is the third largest pyramid in the world behind the great Pyramid of Cholula and the Great Pyramid of Giza.2 m Page 166 .small cone frustum Ayanda wants to make a lamp shade. marked with x in the diagram. into a cylindrical container which is 30 cm high and 18 cm in diameter. Find the depth of the salt.5 m and the height is about 71. 6 cm The length of one side is approximately 223. It is a right pyramid with a base that is approximately square. How much material does she need? 10 cm 30 cm 25 cm 10 30 cm 20 20 cm 2. She covers the frustum with material. so that it takes up half the total volume of the pot. Abigail buys a new salt cellar in the shape of a cylinder topped by a hemisphere. She pours the salt into the salt cellar. Paul wants to put 1 200 steel ball bearings (which are spherical in shape) with a radius of 5 mm. The cylinder has a diameter of 6 cm and a height of 10 cm. She first makes a cone with dimensions as shown and then cuts off the top. Will all the bearings fit into the container? Show all your working. 5 mm 30 cm 18 cm 3.

to the volume of the original pyramid.3 4.3 above.6 m The ratio of the pyramid volume calculated in 4. Volume = volume cylinder + volume cone 1 = pr2h + _pr2h 1 = p(5)2(20) + _p 52(AB) 3 3 Need to find AB : AB2 = AC2 – BC2 AB2 = 89 – 25 AB = 8 1 = π(5)2 20 + _ π(5)28 200π = 500π + _ 1700 =_π 3 = 1780.1 4. Volume = volume prism + volume pyramid 1 = 30 × 30 × 15 + (_ × 30 × 30 × 20) 3 = 13 500 + 6 000 = 19 500 cm3 4. 1 Volume = volume cone + _ sphere 2 1 1 4 = _ pr2h + _ (_ pr3) 1 2 = _ p(3.75 m Height = 35.Calculate: 4.55 cm3 2.24 cm3 3 3 Page 167 Page 1 Lesson 1 | Algebra .4 The angle at which the slanted face is sloping By how much would the volume of material increase if the Pyramid was 1 m Higher/taller? The volume of material in a pyramid that has dimensions that are half the original ie: Length of square base = 111.5)2(10) + _ p(3.08 cm3 3.5)3 3 3 3 2 3 343 245 =_p+_p 12 6 833 =_p 12 = 218.2 4. 1 Volume = _ (volume of cone) 2 1 1 = _(_ pr2h) 1 = _ (p)(3)2(12) 6 2 3 = 18p = 56. Solutions to Activities Activity 1 1.

We do not need the circular base.14 cm2 55 (slant height) 20 Page 168 . Surface area = area of 5 surfaces of prism + area 4 triangles We need to know the height of each triangle.5)2 ) 2 = 193.43 cm2 1 Surface area = _ (4pr2) + curved area 2 1 = _ (4p(3.29 + 36 2 2 2 2 s (slanted height) 3 1 2. so we calculate it by the theorem of Pythagoras. 1 1 Surface area = _ circle + _ curved area + triangle 2 2 1 1 1 = _ (pr2) + _ (pr (s)) + _ base × h 2 2 2 __ 1 1 1 = _ p (3)2 + _ p(3)(√122 + 32 ) + _ (6)(12) 9 = _ p+ 58.5)2) + pr (s) 2 __ 49 = _ p+ p(3.5)(√100 + (3.47 cm2 3. = 108.Activity 2 1. We work out the surface area of the whole cone and then subtract the surface area of the small one. Big Cone SA = prs __ = p(20)√(55)2 + (20)2 = 3 677.05 cm2 Activity 3 We will get the surface area of the frustum 1. Surface area = base circle + curved bit + curved cone area _ = p(5)2 + 2p(5)(20) + p(5)(√89 ) = 855. Note: We can get the apothem as half the side length So in the triangle S2 = 202 + 152 S2 = 400 + 225 S2 = 625 S = 25 1 So surface area becomes = (30 × 30) + 4(30 × 15) + 4(_ × 30 × 25) 2 15 20 25 = 900 + 1800 + 1500 = 4 200cm2 4.

65 x = 6 cm So the salt will be 6 cm deep. 24 cm2 of material 10 2.75 q = 32.2 Now tan q = _ 111._p p 1 = _ p = _ @ 0.52cm3 6 6 3 8 2 Cylinder has volume = pr2h = p(9)2(30) = 2 430p = 7 634. 4. 1 4 Volume of salt cellar = pr2h + _ × (_ pr3) 1 4 = p(3) (10) + _ × _ × p(3)3 2 3 2 3.32 cm3 so 6 they will be able to fit in with lots of room to spare. 14 – 845.2 71.1 71. We are going to work in cm so first we change 1 5 mm → 0. 90 = 2 831. 2 3 = 108p @ 339.65 p(3)2x = 169.2 111.5 apothem is half the side length 71.5° Page 169 Page 1 Lesson 1 | Algebra .Little Cone SA = prs __ = p(10)√(25)2 + (10)2 = 845.65 cm3 We want to find x so that pr2x = 169.5 cm = _ cm 4 4 1 4 1 Each ball bearing has volume = _ p(r)3 = _ p(_)3 = _ p(_) 3 3 2 3 8 4 1 =_.75 233.29 cm3 So half the total volume = 54p or 169.90 cm2 25 (slant height) \ Frustum/ lamp shade needs 3 677.07 cm3 p Now 1 200 bearings will have volume 1200 x _ = 200p @ 628.

675 m3 148191.4 \ an extra 16650.4.75 m3 1 Volume = _ (111.4 8 ∴ratio 1: 8 Page 170 .2 1 Current volume = _ base area – h 3 1 = _(223.75)2 × 35.3 4.15 m3 4.125 = _ 1185533.675 1 __ = 0.5)2 × 72.4 m3 1 If increased height by 1 m = _ (223.6 3 = 148191.2 3 = 1202184.5)2 × 72.2 3 = 1185533.

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