2010-11 HOTEL FIRE SAFETY

PROJECT

DILEEP KUMAR B Sc 2ND YEAR COUNCIL ROLL: 092861

HOTEL FIRE SAFETY
INTRODUCTION
Goals:
To ensure that hotel employees are knowledgeable in emergency response and fire prevention.

Objectives:
Employees should be able to:  describe the emergency procedures for their hotel in case of fire.  identify common fire hazards and how to prevent them.  demonstrate the correct manner in which to assist in guest evacuation.  identify special situations or individuals that may require an emergency response different than the standard response.

flames and heat and leaving evacuation routes clear. two minutes to get out alive. Causes The major causes of fires in hotels are smoking materials. 3) Many guests may not speak English and/or may have difficulty understanding oral or written directions.) Critical Life Safety Features 1) Smoke detectors in every room save occupant·s lives. etc. If a fire starts in a guest room. electrical. the occupant has. stairwell doors) save lives by confining the smoke. cigarette in mattress. on average. It is imperative that these doors are not blocked or propped open. cooking fires and arson. Hazards Common fire and life safety hazards to watch for include: Missing/broken fire safety equipment Locked exit doors Accumulated trash Blocked stairways Open fire doors Burned out exit lights Human Error Many major hotel fires have shared several characteristics of human error: 1) delayed notification of the Fire Department 2) delayed notification of guests 3) uncorrected hazards (electrical. 2) Self-closing doors (fire doors.FACTORS FOR HOTEL FIRES Complexity Hotel fires are more complex than many other occupancies because of: 1) High occupancy loads 2) Guests· unfamiliarity with the building. . A smoke detector will give the necessary warning to facilitate escape.

This includes those who work weekends and nights. another copy kept at the fire alarm panel. become familiar with your facility·s fire and life safety systems. and easily available to all employees. the Seattle Fire Department requires that you maintain an Emergency Operations Plan for your facility. A copy is to be filed with the Fire Marshal·s Office. It is important for your hotel to have an updated fire emergency plan. Become familiar with your facility·s fire and life safety systems.FIRE RESPONSE PLANS Have a fire emergency plan. Prior to your program. as well as their location and use: Manual pull alarms Smoke detectors Exit doors & stairwells Sprinklers Fire extinguishers Fire alarm monitoring service Voice alarm system/Intercom Fire doors . This plan should be in writing. If your hotel is a high rise. Know which of the following your building has.

If the alarm sounds. trapping occupants.WHEN A FIRE HAPPENS. even if the initial source is unknown. if you determine that there is no fire. Any delay will allow a fire to grow and further endanger the building occupants and property. 2) elevator shafts may fill with smoke. call 102 and relay this information. and 3) the elevator needs to be available for the use of arriving firefighters. Treat every alarm as though it is a real emergency.. nearest cross street. DO NOT silence the alarm until given permission to do so by Fire Department personnel or by the emergency operator. call the Fire Department immediately. The caller should not hang up until told to do so by the emergency operator. Occupants must exit by way ofstairwells only.. any specifics known. After calling the Fire Department. address. location. even if the initial source is unknown. Do not use elevators. DO NOT reset the alarm until the Fire Department arrives and has investigated the source of the alarm. . Never wait to investigate the situation before notifying the Fire Department. The reason is three fold: 1) elevators may fail during a fire. All fire alarms are to be investigated by the Fire Department. It is imperative that every alarm is treated as though it is a real emergency. but rather a malfunction of your equipment or a false alarm. Remember your emergency number It·s important for employees calling 102 to be able to give the following information: nature of the problem. or a fire is suspected. Elevators should never be used by building occupants during a fire emergency.

but don·t see or smell fire. as well as the basics of extinguisher operation. Review your facility's Emergency Response Plan Make sure all employees have access to a copy of your facility·s written emergency response plan. Seal the room. they should create an area of refuge. number and location of fire extinguishers within your facility. or hang something in the window. sizes and maintenance requirements of your extinguishers.If trapped. Stay low under smoke. Do not break windows. Fire extinguishers Fire Code requirements specify the size. open the window a crack. These requirements help establish a protection level appropriate for the hazard class of your building. Use wet cloth to stuff around cracks in doors and seal up vents to protect against smoke. create an area of refuge. Flames and smoke can come back in from the outside. The freshest air is near the floor. Signal for help. Make sure you know the types. If guests or staff are unable to leave the building. breath through your nose only. Use the telephone. Review the procedures as a group and make sure that they are clear to everyone. 2) see smoke coming from under a door. If you need air. Most importantly staff should understand the need for quick evacuation and calling 102 immediately. Discuss what to do if a fire is discovered Staff should understand that their quick response is important if they: 1) discover a fire. Keep a wet cloth over your nose and mouth. 3) hear the fire alarm. .

etc. laundry. What can you identify and what precautions should be taken? Have staff from different areas identify hazards common to their work area (kitchen.. Everyone have the opportunity to physically run through the procedures. Have a drill within a month of your program in order for staff to practice the emergency response plan.) Hold a fire drill. Studies indicate that unless adults actually practice safety behaviors.Discuss your building·s fire and life safety systems. housekeeping. elevators.? Discuss hazards of your facility. they very well may not be able to perform them correctly when the need arises. etc. fire doors. night staff. manual pull alarms.smoke detectors. stairwells. and how they work? Which of the following does your building have and what is their importance in a fire. Does everyone know what and where they are. Discuss your building·s fire and life safety systems. . Discuss hazards particular to your facility. sprinklers.. alarm system. maintenance.

You knock harder. You don·t know where the fire is. What procedures should you follow? What if some guests refuse to evacuate this late in the evening? . What do you do? 4) The fire alarm goes off on the floor.smoke filters into the restaurant where hotel guests are having dinner. Guests do not seem to be coming out of their rooms. Keeping in mind that a cigarette burn can smolder for hours before actually igniting the mattress or upholstery. You smell smoke from a room at the end of the hall. Guests wander out into the hallway to see what happened. What do you do? Take this a step further . What do you do to assist this individual in a safe evacuation? 8) It is late in the evening and you are delivering room service. You make the bed and go into the hallway to get towels from your cart. As soon as you smell the smoke. What do you do to assist in the safe evacuation of hotel guests? What if some guests do not speak English? 5) You enter a room and discover a cigarette was carelessly tossed into the wastepaper basket and it is smoldering. 1) You are making up a room. what do you do? 7) The fire alarm has sounded and as people come out into the hallway you direct them to the nearest stairway. What do you do? 3) You are in the kitchen and a grease fire breaks out.SCENARIOS Use the following scenarios to stimulate discussion on emergency response procedures. your cart is in the hallway. As you knock on the door the fire alarm sounds. the alarm goes off. A hotel guest exits his room in a wheelchair. Some hotel guests open their doors and sleepily look in the hallway. What should you do? 2) You are staffing the front desk in the hotel lobby when you receive a call from hotel personnel that there is a fire. What do you do? 6) As you are making a bed in one of the guest rooms you discover a cigarette burn in the bed sheet.

2. Holes in sheet rock walls or ceilings. Non-functioning in-room smoke detectors. 13. Smoke doors at elevators and corridors that do not close and seal. Accumulation of dryer lint. 2. 4. Faded or eroded fire lane striping and stenciling. 1. Missing room numbers. Fire Extinguishers. Missing ceiling tile. Fire Extinguishing Systems in kitchen hoods³every six months. 3. 2.Hotel Inspections The following items require annual inspections Contractors: 1. 11. The following items require inspections by Licensed Contractors: 1. 12. Disconnected or leaking gas fired appliance vents. exit doors. 5. Potholes in the fire lanes. Disconnected or leaking dryer vents. Trimming or removing landscaping that block fire hydrants. Boilers³check boiler certificate for expiration date. Stairwell doors that do not open easily and those that do not self close and latch. Fire Pumps. 4. 3. fire department connections. . Laundry chute doors that are no longer self closing and latching. The following items require maintenance on an as-needed basis: Non-functioning exit lights and emergency lights. 14. Exit doors that do not open easily or are blocked. 10. y Any deficiencies noted during these annual inspections must be corrected as soon as possible. 9. Fire Alarm Systems. Fire Sprinkler Systems. 7. 15. 8. 6. or addresses.

ceilings. Storage in excess of exempt amounts must be in an approved cabinet. Remove all extension cords being used in lieu of permanent wiring. 2. Repair damaged electrical conduit and associated straps. 4. within 36 inches of any electrical panel. 3. 3. 5. boiler rooms. Chemical storage containers must be sealed and labeled. 2. electrical rooms. 4. Remove electrical cords through walls. Storage Maintenance: 1. Remove all storage that is less than 18 inches below a fire sprinkler head. exit hallways. or obstructing fire protection systems controls.Electrical Maintenance: 1. or doorways. Remove storage from stairwells. Cover all open electrical boxes or equipment. Place pool chemicals off the floor and away from incompatible storage. . Storage in excess of 10 gallons must be in an approved cabinet. Remove excessive storage of maintenance chemicals such as paint or gasoline.

because they are in unfamiliar surroundings. A minute later. In the live fire at the abandoned hotel. the department staged a controlled "live burn" at an abandoned hotel to show how quickly a fire can turn deadly. extinguishing the remaining light and oxygen. it can be even more disorienting than at home. low enough to kill.How to Survive a Hotel Fire When people are caught in a hotel fire. In 1980. with the help of the Sheraton Yankee Trader hotel. the smoke had covered the ceiling of the hallway and begun to descend. at a normal 21 percent of the air before the fire. The volunteers were told that they would be participating in a show about survival. a fire at the 26-story MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas killed 85 people. a fire at the Las Vegas Hilton killed eight more. . each time testing the reactions of 16 volunteer guests. Primetime staged two demonstrations with the help of the Fort Lauderdale Fire-Rescue Department in southern Florida. To demonstrate the dangers. the department used theatrical smoke to simulate two fires. shattering mirrors and the TV screen. In the first. the heat inside the room was reaching temperatures as high as 950 degrees. a high-rise on the city's beachfront. A 1993 fire at Chicago's residential Paxton Hotel killed 20 people. The oxygen level. then the desk and soon the ceiling. In the second. By that point. often asleep. Within 30 seconds. thick black smoke had filled the room and started seeping into the hallway. had decreased to 12 percent. a trashcan fire caused by a discarded cigarette took just seconds to engulf the bed. but they did not know there would be a simulated fire. A few months later.

the hallway was a . Leave your belongings ³ every second counts. Leave your room key where you can find it When you go to sleep. If the door is not hot. check the floor plan on the back of the door that shows the location of the fire exits. fire safety officers suggest the following tips: Check the hallway when you arrive As soon as you arrive in your room. In the experiment at the Sheraton Yankee Trader. not minutes. If you hear an alarm. wasting precious time as they debated what valuables to take or gathered up watches. Stay low! If there is smoke in the corridor. open it If the door is not hot.With the difference between life and death often a matter of seconds. stay low. Go out into the hallway and count the doors to the closest exits so you will be able to find them in the dark and smoke of a fire. test the room door with the back of your hand to see if it is hot. In the hotel. fanny packs and so on. which could indicate there is fire in the hallway. none of the 16 guests inspected the hallway when they arrived. leave your room key on the bedside table so you can find it quickly. open it cautiously and if you have visibility ³ at least near the floor ³ make your way to the nearest exit. If you leave. many of the volunteers took their time leaving. take your key but leave your belongings If you leave the room. temperature checks showed that just outside the room where the fire was burning. In Primetime's simulation. take your room key in case you have to return. check the door for heat If the fire alarm goes off.

the 16 guests stayed in the smoke-filled hallway when they found the exit was blocked. put wet towels under the door and call 9-11 to report your location. If there is too much smoke. If you try to get to the exit but find that it is blocked or the smoke and heat are too much. But at the top of the hallway it was 137 degrees ³ hot enough to induce third-degree burns. Stay near the window but don't open it. in just five seconds.. seal the doors with wet towels and fill the tub with water. If blocked. In the experiment at the Sheraton Yankee Trader. down to the bone.the call buttons may take you to a floor filled with smoke or flames Tip to travaller It's a good Idea to always pack a flashlight in your suitcase. they might have died. Remember. "They should be back in their rooms defending their place. If the theatrical smoke used in the simulation had been real. You may need it to guide yourself through smoke or darkness.safe 87 degrees near the floor. return to your room. Never use Elevator Walkdown the corridor and find fire exit.It is safer to wait inside your room than inside a smoke-filled hallway. yelling and banging at the door instead of returning to their rooms. never use the elevator in a fire . ." said Division Chief Stephen McInerny of the Fort Lauderdale department. If you can't see your way to the exit. stay in your room. and wait for help. return to your room.

Just remember to STOP.)620(21(&$7&+(621).where you are DROP .5( If you should catch on fire: STOP . If a co-worker catches on fire. DROP and ROLL.to the floor ROLL . possibly saving your life. smother flames by grabbing a blanket or rug and wrapping them up in it.:+$772'2.around on the floor This will smother the flames. That could save them from serious burns or even death. .

but don't wait for an emergency to discover that window can't be opened.you'll be raining glass down on rescuers and people exiting the building. try to ventilate the room. never open a closed door without feeling it first.)75$33('. look for a nearby phone and call the fire department. If breathing is difficult. Cracks around the door can be sealed with masking tape if necessary. If trapped./'.1*%8. If none exists./'. wave for attention at the window. use wet towels to seal the space under the door and prevent the entry of smoke.1*  If you're trying to escape a fire. Don't panic.1$%851. If the door is hot. +2:72(9$&8$7($%851. If in a dorm room. seal the cracks around the doors and vents with anything available. DON'T break it out. try another exit. giving them your exact location.:+$772'2.1*%8. Use the back of your hand to prevent burning your palm. If on an upper floor and your window is of a type that CANNOT be opened. If you can't contact the fire department by phone.1* .

Once outside the building. +2:7286($1(0(5*(1&<$&7. The last one out of the room should not lock the door. Proceed to the exit as outlined in the Emergency Action Plan. report to a predetermined area so that a head count can be taken. Never go up. proceed down to the first floor. up-to-date Emergency Action Plan for hotel is essential in case . Once in the stairwell. NEVER use elevators under any circumstances. Most enclosed stairwells in buildings over two stories are "rated" enclosures and will provide you a safe means of exit. The best air is close to the floor. cover your mouth and nose with a damp cloth to help you breathe. don't panic descend stairs slowly and carefully. a stairway will be your primary escape route. Stay low to avoid smoke and toxic gases. Locking the door hinders the fire department's search and rescue efforts. just close it. NEVER. so crawl if necessary. If possible.213/$1 A written. If you work in a building with multiple stories.

including who is in charge of the evacuation. Make sure you read and understand your department's/dorm's Emergency Action Plan. they should not be used for any kind of storage. such as verifying that all students/faculty/staff have evacuated. Let the drill be used to find problems before a fire happens. CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES CLASS A . then make the necessary changes.of emergency. All workers who might need assistance during a fire should be identified during planning. Emergency Action Leaders should be assigned specific duties. The plan should contain information about evacuation from the facility. should EACH be assigned an Emergency Action Leader to guide them to safety. Fire drills should be scheduled to test the Emergency Action Plan. Primary and secondary escape routes should be outlined for every area of the building. Since stairways are the primary escape route in multiple story buildings (elevators should NEVER be used in fire emergencies). Disabled workers and those with known medical problems such as heart disease or epilepsy.

paint thinners and propane. These metals burn at high temperatures and give off sufficient oxygen to support combustion. CLASS D Certain combustible metals. such as appliances. such as magnesium. kerosene. panel boxes and power tools. Class B ² Flammable liquids or gases: Don't refuel gasoline-powered equipment in a confined space. especially in the presence of . paint. They may react violently with water or other chemicals. such as wood. cloth. rubber and some plastics. and must be handled with care. titanium. CLASS C Energized electrical equipment. HOW TO PREVENT FIRES Class A ² Ordinary combustibles: Keep storage and working areas free of trash Place oily rags in covered containers. CLASS B Flammable or combustible liquids such as gasoline. potassium and sodium.Ordinary combustibles or fibrous material. switches. paper.

however. Don't refuel gasoline-powered equipment while it's hot. Class D ² Flammable metals: Flammable metals such as magnesium and titanium generally take a very hot heat source to ignite. Some extinguishers are marked with multiple ratings such as AB. once ignited are difficult to extinguish as the buring reaction produces sufficient oxygen to support combusion. even under water. Class C ² Electrical equipment: Look for old wiring. Heat from an uncovered light bulb can easily ignite ordinary combustibles.5((.6+(5 All ratings are shows on the extinguisher faceplate. Keep flammable liquids stored in tightly closed. Never install a fuse rated higher than specified for the circuit. Utility lights should always have some type of wire guard over them. BC and ABC. Report any hazardous condition to your supervisor. Class D exinguishing agents are available (generally as a dry powder in a bucket or box) which can be quite effective.7.an open flame such as a furnace or water heater. covering the burning metal with sand can help contain the heat and sparks from the reaction. self-closing. worn insulation and broken electrical fittings. Don't misuse fuses. . +2:72. but these agents are rare on the campus. Pour from storage drums only what you'll need.'(17.)<7+(3523(5). Investigate any appliance or electrical equipment that smells strange. spill-proof containers. These extinguishers are capable of putting out more than one class of fire.1*8. Unusual odors can be the first sign of fire. In some cases.

.Squeeze trigger while holding the extinguisher upright. S ....Sweep the extinguisher from side to side. It is an acronym for three important items: Testing. .. Inspection and Maintenance.A.. Class C extinguishers have only a letter rating to indicate that the extinguishing agent will not conduct electrical current.... There are nationally recognized standards that dictate how often TIM should occur for sprinklers and other fire safety equipment.. A . S .Aim the extinguisher nozzle at the base of the flames..S. Class D extinguishers carry only a letter rating indicating their effectiveness on certain amounts of specific metals.... TIM.Pull the Pin. inspected and maintained by qualified technicians... Fire safety equipment that is present may be of no use if it is not regularly tested. "P. Hotels with high-quality fire protection will have records of TIM. covering the area of the fire with the extinguishing agent.Class A and B extinguishers carry a numerical rating that indicates how large a fire an experienced person can safely put out with that extinguisher. Class C extinguishers must also carry a Class A or B rating...S... HOW TO USE A PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER Remember the acronym."² P .

including hands-on instruction on how to operate portable extinguishers Smoke detection and alarms. We are more likely to stay in buildings that are several generations old. with units in every room including common areas and all non-guest rooms. A system of interconnected smoke detectors should be installed. If they are installed in compliance with nationally recognized standards. and that is why we refer to TIM throughout. Who is responsible for notifying the fire department (this should always be done as a backup measure. An example is a Central Station Alarm company that has an Underwriters Laboratories certificate. The importance of TIM cannot be understated. Details about the building's fire equipment. It is also important that the alarm system be monitored off-site by a qualified organization. the alarm system will alert guests who are at risk. with fire safety equipment that is as old as the building. A verbal statement that "we give everyone regular training" should be suspect. Travelers may be fortunate enough to stay in a brand new hotel from time to time. Staff training. and any hotel that does not adequately document TIM is neglecting its fire safety responsibilities. The items covered in the plans should include such things as: Each employee's responsibilities in a fire emergency.Fire investigations abound with reports of equipment that did not operate or was improperly adjusted. Some alarm . Every employee should receive periodic formal training and practice on what to do in a fire emergency. What the various fire alarm signals mean. but this is the exception to the rule. A hotel with quality fire protection will have copies of their training plans and records of who attended each session. even when the system is monitored). The records should document the orientation and continued training of every employee.

systems are connected directly to the fire department. When inquiring about the company that monitors the fire alarm system. Modern fire alarm systems can be very complex. ask for documentation that the company has standing orders to call the fire department without delay. so the documentation should be readily available. Standpipes When you enter a hotel stairway and see a large pipe with a hose connection on it at each floor. "Wet" standpipes. Dry standpipes can be clogged by debris placed there by vandals. First. there is no water in them. some of them are "dry. All the duct systems must include fire stopping dampers. The fire officer in charge will use it to monitor all of the building controls and can manually operate some equipment. inspection and maintenance is the only way to make sure that they will work as designed in a fire. To get water to higher floors. This reduces the amount of hose that they need to carry up the stairs. Duct Smoke Detectors All air handling duct system must be equipped with duct type some alarms Connection between Air handling units and alarm systems All the air handling units must be programmed due to fire alarm. Do not accept verbal statements about the specific policy between the hotel and alarm company. They are installed in hotels. such as smoke control devices.They must be stopped whenever a fire alarm actuates." that is. They need regular attention by qualified technicians. the fire department hooks up its hoses to the standpipe connection on the outside of the building and pumps water into it. which is even better. are less prone to vandalism because the miscreant would get doused with . There are instances where hotels have advised the alarm company to call the hotel so an employee can check for an actual fire before notifying the fire department. which reduces the time it takes to set up and attack the fire. so regular testing. those that have water present. so that the firefighters can hook up their hose near the fire. Any quality fire alarm company will have this in writing. This is a protected area where the fire alarm panel is located. The control station also has a communication system so the officer can send voice instructions throughout the hotel. you are looking at a fire department standpipe. TIM for standpipes is very important for two reasons. In large hotels. the building codes now require a Fire Department Control Station. especially in high-rise buildings. Equally important is documentation on TIM. This is unacceptable and can lead to tragedy. Hotels may not have this item as part of the alarm system if they were built prior to the requirements being placed in the building code. at least those higher than three stories.

That is also why stairways are so spartan. These devices need to be regularly checked to make sure they are set at the correct pressure. but this means that the pressure on the lower floors may be higher than firefighters can safely handle. Standpipes in these buildings are connected to a fire pump that will start if water flow is detected in the standpipe or sprinkler system. For this reason. they have stringent requirements that do not allow any combustible material at all . The lights will automatically go on when the system detects an electrical failure. Check for TIM. The second reason primarily applies to to high-rise hotels. e. Emergency egress system Every building should be built in compliance with a nationally recognized building code.thus the lack of carpeting or even linoleum.water and set off an alarm. Emergency lighting that complies with nationally recognized standards will be connected to a separate power supply that is backed up by an emergency generator. And storage of anything. then multiple that pressure by magnitudes. When the pressure at an outlet is too high for safe use. The pumps must be powerful enough to supply adequate pressure at the highest floor. To get an idea of the pressure. a pressure-limiting valve will be installed at the outlet. the building should have emergency lights installed in all corridors and public rooms. i. with no decoration or carpeting. be it combustible or not.. it . If the setting is too high or too low for an effective fire stream. The building codes are based on the principle that the corridors and stairways are a vital part of the egress system. Sometimes the fire originates in the electrical system. Have you ever noticed the metal labels on the edge of corridor doors and the doorways? They are there to document that the items comply with the additional protection requirements for egress paths. Because stairways are such a critical part of the egress path. then the firefighters can be seriously delayed in attacking the fire. If you see these rules violated. These codes contain minimum standards for the emergency egress system. so they are required to have added protection that will theoretically last long enough to allow everyone to evacuate. Emergency lighting A fire may cause the building's electrical system to fail. is forbidden in stairways. think about how your garden hose creates a pressure that pushes you backwards. the pathways that provide evacuation routes from every part of the building to the outdoors at ground level.

" the passive system of barriers that slows down the progress of a fire and smoke. because meeting participants must climb up stairs in the same direction smoke and flames will travel. We mention walls and ceilings because holes in walls or missing ceiling tiles defeat the required compartmentation. Hotel basement meeting rooms may not be a wise choice. Any coverings on walls and ceilings should be limited to materials that will not contribute to the rapid spread of flames or development of a lot of smoke. A hotel employee may be tempted to replace a broken sign with one that has no direction arrow . A rule of thumb is that 50 to 300 persons require two exits.000 persons should have four . with an arrow going the wrong way. the walls and ceilings of the egress paths are part of the added protection. That is why all doors should have self-closers. Exits &Exit signs. Rooms above the seventh floor are more hazardous because fire ladders may not reach that high. TIM is important. These doors can be held open by approved devices. Door wedges are a no-no. Along with the doors. It is very easy for exit lights to burn out over time. They should have records of TIM. and just as easy to neglect replacing them. Doors that are propped open or ones that do not shut automatically and latch tightly are signs that the hotel is neglecting its fire safety responsibility. visit all of the service areas as well. When inspecting a hotel.000 need three exits and more than 1. In large hotels. It is easier for the staff to neglect a hole or missing tile in areas were guests don't go. The meeting room should have adequate exits. you may find doors across the corridor that divide the building into smaller fire compartments. even the guest room doors. Those that are not near an exit door will have an arrow showing the direction to the nearest exit.means that the hotel is not vigilant or is neglecting its fire safety responsibilities. Exit signs that comply with nationally recognized standards will be visible from any place in the corridor. and their importance to the fire safety system is often overlooked (or worse. These are basic items. They might make this mistake because they don't know what the installation standard requires. These items combine to be the "compartmentation.or just as bad. The devices are usually magnets that automatically release if the fire alarm panel activates. not understood). That is why we repeat the reminder that only qualified technicians should work on any fire safety system Meeting Rooms A general rule to keep in mind is that street-level meeting rooms are the easiest to evacuate. Again. Three hundred to 1.

elevators should be clearly marked to prevent use in a fire. The air is blown in from the exterior. This should definitely be present in buildings with atriums (where the rooms surround an open courtyard). Installers follow a nationally recognized standard that dictates what type (based on the type of fire expected at that location). However. a fan operates when the fire alarm panel receives a signal from a fire detector or sprinkler. The instructions use icons to make them clear to someone who has not used one before. Extinguishers are more effective in the hands of experienced users. hotel employees should receive periodic hands-on training on how to use them. and this creates a positive pressure in the stairway.or more exits. Not only make sure that the hotel floor plan is visibly posted. Stairway Pressurization. The exits should be brightly lit. depending upon the type of fire expected. The experience also teaches employees the limits of the extinguisher. It is easy for these systems to go out of balance over time. Portable extinguishers are designed to control or extinguish small fires. Seating or exhibit arrangements should allow enough aisle space for quick evacuation. Portable Fire Extinguishers. A kitchen area will have units designed to put out grease fires. In pressurized stairways. For example.by furniture or curtains and be easily opened. You should familiarize yourself with exits and escape routes. Remember TIM. It is easy to use portable extinguishers. But there is another reason why employees should be trained. They should never be locked or chained. Ask about TIM. keeping smoke from creeping into the stairway and blocking the egress path. Knowing when to . Hi-rise hotels should have pressurized stairways. not blocked. Stairs should have emergency lighting. They are placed throughout a hotel to be readily available when someone finds a fire. their location. Hallways. Notice that the extinguishers are placed in wall cabinets or are hung on the wall at a height that makes it easy for an average-sized person to remove. An exception is a hotel where the stairways are open to the outside. and size. Different locations will require different types. and periodic training increases expertise. Very large buildings will have systems that automatically pressurize certain areas and depressurize others to contain smoke or exhaust it outside. Smoke control systems. but also walk the entire escape route. the corridors will have units for extinguishing paper and other similar combustibles. exits and stairwells should be clear of obstructions.

Premature notification of guests due to false or nuisance alarms always concerns hotel management because they don't want to inconvenience guests. That is why we stress the importance of TIM. Alert guests on higher floors to prepare for an order to evacuate. If it was over a year ago. Fire Response Plan. modern alarm systems have voice notification features that allow hotel employees to alert only those guests who are in immediate danger. Have you ever noticed the paper tags hanging on each extinguisher? They indicate when the unit had its last TIM. size and layout of the building ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .use it and when to call the fire department without delay is a valuable lesson that all hotels should be teaching to every employee. The lack of a written plan or a refusal to show it are a cause for concern. Examples are orders to notify the manager before taking action. There is no valid reason for a hotel to tolerate false or nuisance alarms. then the hotel is not keeping up on its TIM responsibilities. while the individual tags document when the last TIM was conducted. First. Second. and the fire alarm system was installed in compliance with nationally recognized standards (and TIM'd). There are two things to consider here. 15th and 16th floors to evacuate. A hotel with quality fire safety will have a written plan that describes every employee's responsibility in a fire or other emergency. The specific evacuation message will vary by the type. For example. if the hotel has replaced outmoded technology. Also be concerned if the instructions call for delaying the notification of guests or the fire department. Modern smoke detectors are smart enough to quietly notify the monitoring company if they need servicing or are becoming too sensitive. or orders to first investigate a fire alarm before calling the fire department or notifying guests. the employee might be instructed to: Notify the guests on the 14th. false or nuisance alarms are rare. The hotel should have a record of the periodic visits by an extinguisher technician. if a smoke detector on the 15th floor operates.

I would like to express my great gratitude towards my subject faculty. Without her help I could not have presented this project upto the present standard. Date : DILEEP KUMAR Council Roll: 092861 TABLE OF CONTENTS . Pusa. Ms._________________ and who has given me much suggestion. New Delhi. I also take this opportunity to give thanks to all others who gave us support for the project or in other aspects of our study at Institute of Hotel Management. support and help.

Introduction Factors for Hotel Fires Classification of Fire Fire Response Plans When Fire Happens« Scenarios How to Prevent Fire? Hotel Inspections How to Identify the Proper Fire Extenguisher? How to Survive a Hotel Fire? What to do If Someone Catches On Fire? What to do If Trapped In a Burning Building? How to Vacate a Burning Building? How to use an Emergency Action Plan? .