The N¯ satyas, the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion ∗ a

Asko PARPOLA

Swing low, sweet chariot, coming for to carry me home...

Abstract In “classical” Vedic religion, the N¯ satyas or A´vins are deities of secondary impora s tance, mainly associated with healing. Their cult had largely been absorbed into the cult of Indra and his sacred drink Soma. Thus they were worshipped in such minor components of the Soma ritual as the offering of hot milk called gharma or pravargya, and morning litanies called pr¯ taranuv¯ ka and asvina´astra. That these horse-related gods a a s ¯´ were formerly more important deities is suggested by the prominence of the horse and chariot in such “pre-classical” rites as the a´vamedha and v¯ japeya. s a
∗ Revised version of the paper read at the Kansai session of the 50th International Conference of Eastern Studies on Saturday 28 May 2005 at Kyoto International Community House. The abstract will appear also in the Transactions of the International Conference of Eastern Studies, vol. 50 (2005). — An earlier draft of this paper, entitled “On the cult of the twin gods associated with the horse-drawn chariot”, was presented at a mini-seminar on “Vedic religion from the perspective of Eurasian archaeology and linguistics”, organized by Jan Houben and Arlo Griffths on the occasion of the 65th birthday of Professor H. W. Bodewitz at the University of Leiden on 12 November 2004. I thank the T¯ h¯ Gakkai and my Leiden colleagues for their invitations and o o hospitality. I am grateful to Werner Knobl for his copious critical comments. Jorma Koivulehto’s constructive criticism helped me to improve some of my proposals for new Proto-Aryan loanwords in Finno-Ugrian languages and to delete some others. Yasuke Ikari’s comment likewise helped me to eliminate an irrelevant argument. Petri Kallio has given me some bibliographical references and an advance copy of his (and Ante Aikio’s) review of Katz 2003. Stanley Insler has with great generosity summarized his not fully published explanation of the divine name M¯ tari´van and allowed me to communicate it. The following recent (August 8, 2005) comment from a s Stanley Insler, which has given me cause to elaborate on the A´vins’ connection with the chariot, deserves to be s quoted here in full: “As to the A´vins, if they stem from very ancient times, I see no difficulty in assessing them as s horsemen (from pre-chariot days). For the RV there is no doubt that they possess a chariot, but please note that their chariot is often drawn by animals other than horses, attesting to the fact that we are in the midst of an ever shifting mythology. In general, this is the great problem of Rigvedic mythological interpretation. Ancient names of gods survive, in part with some (often dim) memory of their original functions. But to a large degree, the gods are reworked into an ever changing framework of shifting ritual and political conditions. As Agni and Indra rise to prominence in the pantheon, the other gods fall into the shadows of memory and myth, and the whole business becomes a hodge-podge of mythic references and new attributions, which are for the most part vexingly difficult to sort out. I struggle with this problem all the time.” — I thank Masaaki Hattori, Muneo Tokunaga and Akihiko Akamatsu for their kind invitation to publish this paper in the Journal of Indological Studies.

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Journal of Indological Studies, Nos. 16 & 17 (2004–2005)

In the Rgveda, the N¯ satyas are worshipped especially by the K¯ nva and Atri poets resia a. ˚ dent in Gandh¯ ra, the K¯ nvas associated with the earlier immigration wave of Indo-Aryan a a. speakers. The gharma vessel seems to be connected with the ‘face urn’ of the Gandh¯ ra a Grave culture (c. 1600–900 BCE). This suggests that the N¯ satyas may have had a fua nerary function. Vedic texts indeed contain previously unnoticed evidence associating the N¯ satyas with a funerary chariot race. Such a funerary race is attested in the Greek and a Baltic traditions. Archaeology and Proto-Aryan loan words in Finno-Ugrian languages spoken in northeastern Europe have enabled locating the emergence of the Aryan branch of the IndoEuropean language family in southeastern Europe (the Poltavka, Abashevo and SintashtaArkaim cultures). Its diffusion can be followed in the Eurasiatic steppes and through Central Asia (Bactria and Margiana Archaeological Complex) to Syria (Mitanni kingdom) and to South Asia (Gandh¯ ra Graves). a The horse-drawn chariot was centrally involved in this emergence and diffusion of Proto-Aryan speakers. The two-man team of warrior and charioteer was deified, and the mythology of these divine twins spread together with the chariot from the Proto-Aryans to Proto-Greeks and Proto-Balts. Loanwords in Finno-Ugrian languages, too, suggest that the N¯ satyas were important divinities for Proto-Aryan speakers. a Proper names associate Mitanni kings with the chariot. It is argued that Mitra and Varuna are “abstract” deities created by Proto-Indo-Aryans under Assyrian influence c.1900 . BCE and that they replaced the N¯ satyas in the royal function. Earlier the N¯ satyas, like a a the Dioskouroi in Sparta, were models of dual kingship. The twins represented dualistic cosmic forces, day and night, birth and death. As márya, they were warring youths and wooing bridegrooms, and thus also functioned as gods of fertility and birth. Archaeology and the prehistory of the Aryan languages Several terms related to wheeled vehicles can be reconstructed for the Indo-European protolanguage. Therefore, its speakers knew this technical innovation datable to c. 3500 BCE. With the chronological and geographical starting point supplied by the earliest finds of heavy carts and waggons pulled by oxen — not horses —, one can attempt a systematic and holistic correlation between archaeological cultures and linguistic groups in order to trace movements of peoples and contacts between them that can explain the historical distribution of the Indo-European languages and their contacts revealed by loanwords and other indications of interaction. On such a basis, the Proto-Indo-European language can

The N¯ satyas, the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. Parpola) a

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be located in the Pontic steppes north of the Black Sea, where it started disintegrating around 3500 BCE.1 The Pit Grave culture (c. 3500-2800 BCE) extending from the Danube to the Urals probably had Proto-Graeco-Aryan as its language. In the west, it was succeeded by the Catacomb Grave culture, where an early form of Proto-Graeco-Armenian may have been spoken. The Catacomb Grave culture was flanked in the east, between the lower Volga and the Urals, by the Poltavka and Abashevo cultures where Proto-Aryan seems to have developed, split into two dialects. There is one very important support for the Aryan affinity of the language mainly spoken in the Poltavka and Abashevo cultures and their successors. These cultures partly extended to the forest zone of central Russia, occupied by the Volosovo culture where, in all likelihood, a late form of Proto-Finno-Ugrian was spoken. Several Finno-Ugrian languages are still spoken in this area as minority languages, alongside Turkic and Russian which arrived here in medieval times. Eventually, the Volosovo culture prevailed linguistically, absorbing the Aryan-speaking upper class minority. About one hundred early Aryan loanwords have been identified in Proto-Finno-Ugrian; I will take up some of them later on. Late Proto-Aryan was probably the language of the succeeding Sintashta-Arkaim culture, dated to c. 2200-1800 BCE. This culture controlled tremendously rich copper mines in the southern Urals — at Kargaly, shafts sometimes 90 metres deep yielded two million tons of copper ore during the Bronze Age. Bones of hundreds of animals slaughtered for sacrifice indicate that the people were very rich also as pastoralists. Their numerous fortified ceremonial centres have the shape of a wheel, while aristocratic graves contain the earliest known evidence of horse-drawn chariots. Some of these Sintashta-Arkaim graves are radio-carbon dated to c. 2000 BCE, using samples taken from the skulls of buried horses.2 The chariots had both plank-wheels and spoked wheels.3 Origin and dispersal of the horse-drawn chariot Whether the horse-drawn chariot originated in the steppes (in the Sintashta-Arkaim cul1 On the central thesis of this section, see especially Anthony 1995 and its critical review by Raulwing (2000: 79-85). On the correlation of archaeology with the prehistory of the Indo-European languages, see Mallory 1989 and Carpelan & Parpola 2001; and with the Aryan languages in particular, also Parpola 2002a, 2002b. These publications contain detailed documentation for this section. 2 Anthony 1998: 106; cf. Raulwing 2000: 90; Littauer & Crouwel 2002: 45. 3 Cf. Gening et al. 1992; Anthony & Vinogradov 1995; Raulwing 2000: 86-95 and 123-126; Epimakhov 2002.

Hiebert 2004 [2005]: 298. Cf. 1550-1350 BCE). Cattani 2004 [2005]: 312.). 2000 BCE) or Late Bronze Age (c. Carpelan & Parpola 2001: 138. the upper course of the river Don. mid-Volga.). and its later development of organized chariotry and chariot-warfare.4 but Stuart Piggott has suggested a reasonable compromise that may settle the dispute: “[T]he natural habitat of the wild horse and its early domestication was on the South Russian steppe. 2004. see Parpola 2004 [2005]. The criticism of Littauer and Crouwel (1996) tabulated by Raulwing (2000: 124-126) amounts to pointing out that much information on the Sintashta-Arkaim vehicles is missing and that the available data suggest they “cannot yet be true chariots” but admittedly are “proto-chariots or spoked wheeled carts”. and then create the chariot. and the southern Urals. Piggott (1983: 103f. 16 & 17 (2004–2005) ture) or in the Near East is a debated issue. steppe pottery called Piggott 1992: 37-68. cf. 7 See Bobomulloev 1997. s 10 Cf. which a sophisticated political setting alone could make possible. Sarianidi 2001: 432: “apart from the common funeral ceremonies. along with a horse-topped bronze rod or sceptre. Littauer & Crouwel 2002: 45-52.4 Journal of Indological Studies. southern Ukraine.) and Anthony & Vinogradov (1995) summarized in Raulwing 2000: 120-123. and Kuznetsov 2004. and especially Raulwing 2000. 1800-1550 BCE). more exactly its Dzharkutan phase dated between 2034 and 1684 BCE. A disturbed aristocratic grave that recently came to light in Tajikistan contained two horse-bits and two pairs of cheek-pieces of the Sintashta-Arkaim type. This suggests that Proto-Indo-Aryan speakers had become the elite layer of the BMAC culture in southern Central Asia before spreading to the Indian subcontinent. Nos.8 which is the first culture of northern Pakistan a to have the domesticated horse.10 During the Final Bronze Age (c. Moorey (1986: 211ff.” 9 The characteristic “face urn” of the Gandh¯ ra Grave culture seems to be related to the gharma or pravargya a vessel of the Vedic ritual and with the A´vin cult. and pottery typical of the Bactria and Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC).9 Steppe ceramics are rare at the BMAC sites in the Togolok period (c.. the graves at the Gonur necropolis [in Margiana] and the Swat graveyard manifested similar ceramic complexes which represent the late variation of the BMAC.”5 There is important new evidence for the steppe origin of the proto-chariot. 8 Cf. 6 See Penner 1998.6 Cheek-pieces for chariot horses have been introduced from the south Russian steppes also to southern Central Asia. Here the first experiments were made in light spoke-wheeled vehicles. Penner 2004: 63f. a technological reservoir on which Mesopotamia could draw. yet are found in room fill within BMAC architectural contexts. The numerous new finds of related cheek-pieces concentrate in Rumania. The Mycenaean cheek-pieces for chariot-horses can be traced back through eastern Europe to prototypes in the south Russian steppes. 5 Piggott 4 See . Mallory (1989: 41f.7 The BMAC pottery is the source of the ceramics of the Gandh¯ ra Grave culture of Swat. 1992: 48..

19 Cf.21 from where Assyrian merchants operated a lucrative tin trade with Central Asia — the realm of Gubaev et al. Parpola) a 5 “Incised Coarse Ware” (ICW) has been recognized on the surface of most of the main BMAC sites (including Auchi. Lombardo 2004 [2005].. Mallory 1989: 227-231. too. and the III C stratum (c. The ICW closely resembles the ceramics of the Tazabag”yab culture of Choresmia. .8.”14 Another extension of the BMAC15 is in the Gorgan plain of northern Iran. Kuz’mina 1994.20 Seals depicting a horse-drawn chariot dated to the beginning of the second millennium have also been found in Syria and Anatolia. 28-29. Tienshan and the Kopet Dagh mountains. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. Togolok-1. from the Urals to the Altai. also Carpelan & Parpola 2001: 96ff. 131ff. 1900-1750 BCE) is considered to represent the BMAC. Cattani 2004 [2005].18 Ghirshman connects the trumpets with the Near Eastern evidence. 18 Cf.12 The Andronovo complex continues the Sintashta-Arkaim culture and is distributed widely over the Central Asian and South Siberian steppes. Littauer & Crouwel 2002: 15-21.16 This seal. surrounding practically all known BMAC sites. Ghirshman 1977: 10-19. the BMAC had trade relations with Syria around 1900-1750 BCE. where Tepe Hissar has yielded a cylinder seal depicting a horse-drawn chariot. and the BMAC type trumpets17 of Tepe Hissar III C were the principal reasons why Roman Ghirshman suggested that the Proto-Indo-Aryan-speaking elite which ruled the Mitanni kingdom of northern Syria 1500-1300 BCE came from northeastern Iran. 15 Cf. 129. nor would they deny its fundamental genetic association with its western neighbours in the Pontic-Caspian. Parpola 2002a: 87f. 10. and so far 340 steppe people camp sites have been identified in Margiana. there is clear evidence of the parallel presence of both the BMAC and Andronovo traditions and of their mutual influence in southern Central Asia during the Late Bronze Age. the 20th century BCE. 14 Mallory 1989: 227. 12 Cf. 16 Cf. 8 showing a bas relief of Ramses III from Medinet Habu in Egypt. Ghirshman 1977: 30-31 with fig. The horse and the camel are known from a number of BMAC seals and other objects as well. 1998. Cf. 21 Cf. Togolok-21 and Gonur). the southwestern Late (Alakul Phase) variant of the Andronovo complex. Taip. if any. now dated to c. 13 Cf. The seal is attributed to stratum III B. archaeologists would deny a general Indo-Iranian identity for most of the bearers of the Andronovo culture.11 In metallurgy. Littauer & Crouwel 2002: 279 & pl.13 “Few.19 As shown by the appearance of Egyptian and Syrian motifs on BMAC seals and the appearance of the Bactrian camel on Syrian seals. according to which chariot horses were trained to the accompaniment of trumpet signals. 17 See now Lawergren 2003. with further references. 20 Cf.The N¯ satyas. Hiebert 1994: fig. 11 Cf.

Oberlies 1992. which is widely agreed to go back to Proto-Indo-Aryan *marya. Nos. some generally recognized.‘young man’ + the Hurrian nominal suffix -nnu. The chariot was a prestigious and effective new instrument of war and sport. Macdonell 1897: 49-54.23 The A´vins as the deified chariot team s The cult of the N¯ satyas alias A´vins is not of Proto-Indo-European origin. 1899. After c. Latvian saules meita ‘maiden u a e or daughter of the sun’ and Lithuanian saules dukryte ‘daughter of the sun’). Zeller 1990. Farnell 1921: 175-228. the A´vins are called several times ‘sons of heaven’. Harris 1906. Bergaigne 1883: a s II. 54-70.25 There are other common features. Together with the chariot. sons of the Sky God).g. Lüders 1959: II. 1993. 339-374. the last quarter or the end of the third millennium BCE. Raulwing 2000: 113-116 with uptodate bibliography. Alalah. Placing the origin in the steppes of southeastern Europe best explains the distribution of the early chariot lore among the Aryans. 26 For the Aryan N¯ satyas alias A´ vins. . all these three sets of equestrian twins have a sister or wife or bride associated with the dawn or called the daughter of the sun (Usas or . 22 Cf. see Muir 1874: V. Myriantheus 1876. Helén¯ ‘torch’ in Greece. For the Baltic 23 Cf. Lithuanian Dievo s¯ neliai) in the pree u Christian religion of the Balts. Pirart 1995-2001. some not. 329f. Renou 1967. III. Nilsson 1955: I. and to the horse-riding ‘sons of the God’ (Latvian Dieva d¯ li. but goes back to the times when the horse-drawn chariot evolved. Moreover. 25 Cf. 24 I would like to maintain that this phrase refers exclusively to the A´ vins — the one contested case will be s discussed below. as is somea s times maintained. It relates them historically to the horse-riding divine twins of early Greece aa who are called the Dioskouroi. Bethe 1905.. that is. Hillebrandt 1927: I. Ward 1968: 10ff. 1500 BCE. 431-510.e. 234-257.. Baunack 1896. Geldner 1928: 21-23. the mythology and cult of the deified chariot team also spread... Ugarit and Nuzi in Syria and Amarna g ˘ ˘ in Egypt use for ‘chariot warrior’ the term mariannu. which was quickly adopted by the elites of neighbouring peoples.. 16 & 17 (2004–2005) the BMAC — in 1920-1850 BCE. Mayrhofer 1966: 15ff. In the Rgveda. divó náp¯ t¯ or s aa ˚ 24 dívo nap¯ t¯ . and in the Baltics. 5-20.22 Similarly. too. Raulwing 2000: 117f. and developed it to chariotry after they had taken over the rule of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni and made the Assyrians their vassals.26 Mayrhofer 1996: II.6 Journal of Indological Studies. For the Greek Dioskouroi. Greeks and Balts. e. Gonda 1974: 34-58. Güntert 1923: 253-276. 1974: 14ff. 406-411. Akkadian documents of archives in Hattuša (Bo˘ azköy) in Anatolia. S¯ ry¯ in India. Burkert 1985: 212-213. see Eitrem 1902. many of the hippological terms in the handbook for training chariot-horses written in Hittite by a Mitannian called Kikkuli have a sound Proto-Indo-Aryan etymology. Oldenberg 1917: 207-215. ‘youths of Zeus’ (i. There is indeed every reason to believe that it was the Proto-Indo-Aryan speakers who introduced the horse-drawn chariot to the Near East.

but these twins are either not associated with both horses and the dawn. but throughout the previous thousand years it had embodied for much of the known world monarchy in motion. then India. 27 Piggott 1992: 48. hunting and its counterpart. also ibid. the development of the light two-wheeled chariot drawn by paired horses as a piece of technology and as an institution within the social order as an emblem of power and prestige. founder of the Persian Achaemenid dynasty. China and the Levant.. Let him mount only chariots or mules and honour his kingly head. when the Dioskouroi first make their appearance:28 “The beginnings of regal horse-riding were tentative. Parpola) a 7 The A´vins of the Rgveda move in a chariot. Biezais 1975. but the Greek Dioskouroi and the Baltic s ˚ ‘sons of the God’ are horse-riders. 41: “. barbarian northwest Europe and the Mediterranean and North Africa westwards to Spain by the seventh century BC. we come to the beginning of one of the great chapters of ancient history. These peoples all shared economy and military structure based on the mastery of the ridden horse and the use of the bow. in 539 BC.. King of Mari. Mycenaean Greece follows. in the Hittite world and the Caucasus. see Mannhardt 1875.. By the seventh century BC momentous re-alignments of power were taking place.. and new people with a tradition of mobile horsemanship from the west Asiatic steppe were establishing themselves in the ancient centres of authority. Excepting Michalski. In addition. but soon in Egypt. . Germanic.The N¯ satyas. not only in the ancient Near Eastern Akkadian world from soon after 2000 BC. cf. gives him advice on this matter — ‘Let my lord not ride horses... O’Brien 1997. Babylon conquered by Cyrus. The tribes known to the Assyrians as the Ishkuzai and Gimirrai (the Scythians and Cimmerians) were raiding the Caucasian kingdom of Urartu from the time of Sargon II (721-705) . Chariotry was to play its part. these and some other authors (as well as Güntert 1923: 262-3) also compare the divine twins of several other Indo-European peoples (Celtic.. The difference is understandable. Thenceforward the monarch as a warrior on horseback became the accepted convention in the ancient Orient. As a widespread symbol of élite transport for monarch and nobles the chariot.. In much of the ancient world. if he did not appear in a chariot. In the early second millennium a well-known letter to Zimri-Lin. the earliest mention of the Dioskouroi is in the 8th or 7th century BCE inscription of the sacred rock of the city of Thera. Michalski 1961. the chariot drawn by a pair of horses was “the vehicle of prestige — the only approved conveyance for the chieftain and his noble entourage in ceremony and ritual..’ .” 28 According to Bethe (1905: 1088). in Britain finally by the second century BC. or one may suspect an influence of the Graeco-Roman Dioskouroi/Dioscuri. in some form or another. and the mystique of chariotry. there are useful comparative studies: Wagner 1960. was to lose its prestige in favour of the ridden steed by the first millennium BC. barbarian and at least partly ‘God’s sons’. Ward 1968.. In the ancient Near Eastern tradition the king. however. Niniveh was destroyed by the Medes in 606 BC. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. But . Slavic). throughout the second millennium BCE. warfare”27 . might on occasion ride on a mule or a donkey. cavalry was taking over chariotry in Assyria by the ninth century BC and the king Shalmaneser III (858-823 BC) is depicted as riding on horseback. But the situation changed in the early first millennium BCE.

Iliad 8.. G.and -mant. 31 Debrunner (1954: 332-335) notes that the suffix -ín.810). The Greek warriors shown on seventh-century vases carry light spears and do not attempt to fight from horseback.”29 M. hippeîs e d’ hippêas. The use of the chariot in ceremony and war dwindled.. These Assyrians use the weapon they used in the chariot and... but still greatly inferior in numbers. consistently represented by Homer as chariot warrior and driver. Cf. [1970] in Littauer & Crouwel 2002: 63f. das Wort geht also auf die tüchtigen Wagenlenker..... the s 30 Littauer 29 Piggott . Nos. To support his thesis. Littauer has shown that P. also Güntert (1923: 259): “Das Wort s a´vín. The Iliad’s horsemanship and chariot warfare is therefore that of late Mycenaean Greece as imagined by the poets of five centuries later.competes with -vant. such as one would expect to find wherever horses were used for any purpose. used either of 1992: 69-71. any more than did their chariot-borne ancestors of the Bronze or Iron Age who are illustrated in art and literature.. (translated by Plath 1994: 113 as follows: ‘Fusssoldaten vernichteten zwangsläufig fliehende Fusssoldaten. Wagenkämpfer die Wagenkämpfer’).and is preferred in characterizations of living beings. presents abundant pictorial evidence for such pairs from the late seventh century on. Greenhalgh (1973) is wrong in his thesis that “the ‘Homeric Hippêes’. translated directly from the chariot: the bowman and the driver. But these are casual and sporadic riders.. who still holds the reins of both horses. riding as well as chariot-driving took place in the Olympic Games from 648 BC. L.”30 s Vedic a´vín. no matter how awkwardly at first.. he cites the appearance of horseback riders .59 pezoí th’ hippêés te. with the men on foot and their leaders on chariots. die im Wettfahren s die schöne Sonnentochter errangen.8 Journal of Indological Studies. And a warrior with as much armor as the Greek warrior carries was more apt to have come out of a chariot than to have started mounted. 11. including proper names like A´vín-. thus continuing their chariot-fighting tradition.150-151 pezoì mèn pezoùs ólekon pheúgontas anágk¯ i. A... they persist in fighting mounted. but this evidence does not extend to the Geometric period. By the seventh century cavalry was becoming a component in Greek armies and soon riding was accepted as part of the necessary education of a young gentleman. in the Bronze Age.” 32 Cf. 16 & 17 (2004–2005) nomadic in origin.. The weaponry is clear in the case of the of Assyrian mounted warriors of the ninth century — though these are not in fact a ‘very important arm alongside chariotry’ (44). A.ist völlig klar: ‘der Rosse besitzt’. A similar contrast prevails in Vedic India: “In the earliest Vedic texts the fighters appear grouped by clans (ví´). actually consisted in the Dark Age of mounted pairs.‘possessed of horses’31 seems to correspond to Homeric hippeús and hippót¯ s (in Homer always in Epic nominative hippóta). both riders with cramped and unhorsemanlike seats.. In the Iliad hippeús denotes ‘one e who fights from a chariot’ (opposed to pezós ‘fighter on foot’)32 (2. a warrior (who dismounted to fight) and a squire. These warriors always go in pairs..

also Scharfe 1989: 193: “Riding was known even in the time of the Rgveda but was still uncommon. 40 Cf.17. Proto-Iranian speakers seem to have invented the stirrup — made of rope chariot fighter is regarded as superior [Atharvaveda 7. Zimmer 1879: 295-296.62. The Yaz I culture in turn seems to have come from the steppes of Ukraine and southern Russia and appears to signal the arrival of Proto-Iranian speakers to Central Asia.”39 This textual evidence agrees with the archaeological testimony for the arrival of mounted nomadism to the Indo-Iranian borderlands. in peace as well as war. but references to riding are very few. the chariot is used in battles.66. but never to riding con˚ tests. and the image of riding men inspired ridicule: ‘The men have ˚ spread their thighs like women in childbirth. just like in ˚ Homer aph’ hípp¯ n ‘from the horses’ always means ‘from the chariot’. . where RV 1.2 and elsewhere) refers to a chariot. Baudh¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra 15. 34 Cf.24. They are generally grouped with the . Oineus. Falk ˚ (1994: 93-94) has found only two passages (RV 1. Zimmer 1879: 294-295..36 This does not mean that riding was unknown to the Rgvedic ˚ ˚ people. which succeeded the BMAC around 1350 BCE.61. but unorganized. there are many references to chariot racing. as a force antithetical to the main strength of the army. T. indeed..1]” (Scharfe 1989: 197). Tydeus.34 In the Rgveda. Zimmer points out that in the context of battle and racing.8. 365-366.The N¯ satyas. and Atharvaveda 11.10.24 are quoted. 35 Cf. cavalry. also of ‘one who drives in a chariot-race’ (23. Liddell & Scott 1940: 833b s. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A.. 15. Zimmer 1879: 291-292. the car-men. Jarrige and Santoni 1979: I. árvat¯ ‘with horse’ a (in RV 1. hippeús and hippóta are honorifics of several heroes (Peleus. o 37 Cf. not to horseback riding as interpreted by Grassmann. hippeús. Nestor. noblemen who according to Linear e B texts (PY Sa 787. Cf. 270). 361. the meanings ‘horseman.162..’ [RV 5. Horse-back riding is so common.33 In Homer.9. elephant-riders.162. ¯ ´ ´ a u u 39 Hopkins 1889: 206-207. but cavalry or riding in a battle is never mentioned in the Rgveda. but finds other ˚ interpretations for them possible or even probable.3]” ˚ 38 Cf. Patroclus) and as such may go back to the companions (equeta > hepét¯ s) of the Mycenaean king (wanaks). for the cavalry-men are mainly conspicuous through falling off their horses.16. quite often from fear alone. that we are rather surprised at the indifferent riding displayed.1ff. Parpola) a 9 ‘the driver’ or of ‘the hero who fights’ (12.17 and 5. ˚ he mentions five further places in the Rgveda which have been suspected to refer to riding.163.61. Terracotta figurines of horse-riders are known from the first two strata of Pirak near the Bolan Pass in Pakistani Baluchistan.38 The chariot mains tains its prestige and importance over cavalry even later in India: “In the Epic age we have.35 Similarly.262).v.40 They are relatable to the Yaz I culture of southern Central Asia. 33 Cf.37 Even the sacrificial horse of the Vedic a´vamedha is yoked to a chariot immediately before its immolation. cavalryman’ and ‘groom’ are attested from later texts. L. Webster in Wace & Stubbings 1962: 457. Apastamba-Srautas¯ tra 20. 36 Cf. 790) had chariots. 1.2-3) which unambiguously refer to riding. B. rider.

die rasch wie die Wagenlenker zur Stelle waren. who drove the horses and took care of them and assisted in other ways as well: “the driving of the chariot with its trained and mettlesome pair of horses demanded a skilled charioteer. les différences qu’on peut déceler entre les deux divinités ne rentrent pas dans le cadre de cette explication... the chariot warrior mostly shot arrows from the car. der andere stammt von einem sterblichen Manne.. They spread to Siberia as well.”45 The existence of a two-man team associated with the chariot46 in the Sintashta-Arkaim culture of the southern Urals (c. 42 Cf. La religion védique II.44 and the charioteer.42 The A´vins and the Dioskouroi are twins. s Although I had come to this idea independently. while in Greece the warrior fought on foot and used the chariot for transport. mais de rang différent. Ganz s sekundär scheint mir die Deutung auf Morgenstern und Abendstern. Nos. who summarizes and gently rejects the proposal: “Cornelius voyait dans les A´vins le cocher et le s guerrier noble sur le char de guerre hypostasiés en divinités — l’équipage d’un char consiste de deux personnes. who concentrated on fighting or hunting.. Their dual number seems to be largely due to s their being the divinized chariot team. die aus lettischen˚ Liedern erschlossen wird. so ist das zeichnerische Abkürzung: gerade der Bogenschütze auf diesen Bildern braucht ja beide Hände für die Waffe und kann sich nicht mit den Zügeln abgeben.: Bergaigne.. gemeinindogermanisch sein. Parpola 2002a: 68. qui pourtant est la moins artificielle qu’on ait proposée jusqu’à présent. Da diese Genealogie bei Griechen und Indern übereinstimmt. 1500 to c. — Wenn auf manchen alten Abbildungen des Streitwagens der Wagenlenker weggelassen ist. Here the close team-work necessary between high-ranking warrior and passenger meant that the two were often of equal social status. it is not a new one. s s sans parler des passages qui semblent indiquer qu’il y avait à l’origine deux chars des A´vins [fn. Die Besatzung eines Streitwagens bestand nämlich regälmässig aus zwei Männern. the team may have consisted of the aristocratic owner of a one-man proto-chariot and his groom. Sie sind die himmlischen Nothelfer.. the chariot warrior. 1). der Stand des Götterpaares auf dem Streitwagen. In the meanwhile.” 44 In India.. 43 Explaining the A´ vins as the divinized chariot team is one of the leading themes of the present paper. Den Indern erschienen sie als die beiden Kämpfer auf einem Streitwagen. so wird sie und mit ihr ihre Voraussetzung. 45 Piggott 1992: 47. Here the warrior was buried together with his weapons and his car at the Littauer 1981 (reprinted in Littauer & Crouwel 2002: 439-451).10 Journal of Indological Studies. Cattani 2004 [2005]: 312-313). Daher wurden auch die Nothelfer. 2200-1800 BCE) is suggested by a burial at Sintashta (see fig. Das hat zu der Sage geführt. auf welchem beide Göttessöhne standen. 243] Die A´vin auf dem Streitwagen RV VIII 5.. but has already been proposed by Friedrich Cornelius (1942: 64-65 and 243) — of course. 28. dem Wagenlenker und dem Fechter. 509]. 16 & 17 (2004–2005) or thong and/or wood and not preserved archaeologically41 — and therewith mounted warfare. . [p.43 The chariot team normally consisted of two men. 1000 BCE led to the formation of the long-lasting Scythian/Saka culture of the Eurasiatic steppes. stets als ein Paar geschaut.” Yet Cornelius has been completely ignored in subsequent studies of the A´vins. except by Stig Wikander s (1957: 78). 46 Initially. 2002b: 246-248. whether for solemn parade and festive or ritual display.. 1350 BCE (cf. dass die Himmelssöhne Zwillinge von verschiedenen Vätern seien: nur der eine ist Sohn des Himmelsgottes. Eher könnte der Morgenstern als der Wagen gedacht gewesen sein. which c. 81-83. his conclusion about the Proto-Indo-European origin of the A´vins and the chariot needs adjustment: “Neben dem Himmelsgott tritt am klarsten das Götterpaar der beiden s ‘Himmelssöhne’ hervor. Ceci expliquerait et l’équivalence des A´vins et leur différence (voir plus bas). new radiocarbon dates have put the beginning of the Yaz I culture down from c. Der Wagenlenker war gewöhnlich auf Erden von geringerem Rang als der Streiter. 41 Cf. or for the more risky exploits of hunting or war.. p. — Mais.

the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. 154 fig. Parpola) a 11 Figure 1: Reconstruction of the burials 10 and 16 in the area SM south of the Great Kurgan at Sintashta.The N¯ satyas. After Gening et al. 72. . 1992: I.

transl. Mayrhofer 1996: II.301-350 and 638-642. 7.16) has savyasthas¯ rath¯. has¯ rath¯ and Atharvaveda 8. 2005. 6. he does so because he ‘bears in mind the rule’.. ˚ 50 A similar case is the elliptic plural Castores ‘Castor and Pollux’ of Latin (which lacks the dual) for the Greek dual tô Kástore (cf. Nos. for the two A´vins ı ´ are of the same womb. 5. of the same womb (standing-place).8 and 5. he “prepares a cake on two potsherds for the A´vins. Insler 1996: 183.8. and so are the chariot fighter [savyasthár-] and the driver [s¯ arathi-] . Eggeling 1894: III. 53 Cf. t a´ . since they stand on one and the same chariot: hence s it is for the A´vins”.3. a u ¯ . The corresponding passages of a t a ı .17. 30. a ı ı a . while Kastor was good at taming horses (hippódamos). based on the name of just one member of aa 50 ´ asaty¯ . The M¯ dhyandina redaction of the SatapathaBr¯ hmana has the compound savyas. The meaning of the words sú-makhaand makhá-.54 In the Rgvedic verse just quoted the “victorious ˚ lord of Sumakha” appears to be the chariot-warrior. ‘ever must the man of the war-car be guarded’. .9. 125ff.55 e description in Gening et al.‘safe return home’51 and belongs to the same team.1. 48 Satapatha-Br¯ hmana ´ a 47 Detailed . too.3. 51 Cf. N¯ Proto-Indo-European root *nes-52 as the Greek agent noun Nést¯ r — known from Homer o as a hippóta and a masterly charioteer53 — and refers to the charioteer’s task of bringing the hero safely back from the battle. the charioteer and the chariot fighter are expressly equated with the A´vins. if confused. 62. 49 RV 1. o 52 Cf.3. 39. ‘In battle the knight.g. 39. munificent’ — a characteristic expected in a victorious warlord). a . 2001: 114.4.is debated. Frame 1978: 96-99. h¯ s candrám¯ h s¯ ı.9. Güntert 1923: 259. or. .2. 5. hrs¯ rath¯ in 5. . n.1. differentiates between the two A´vins: “one of you is respected as the s ˚ victorious lord of Sumakha. arathih. but this context suits the old etymology that connects them with Greek mákh¯ ‘battle.7. 288 (the other principal meaning suggested by some contexts is ‘bountiful. 54 Cf. .is a derivative of *nasatí.48 Of the Greek Dioskouroi. just like n¯ ´ asatya. 55 Cf. In the Indian epics. 1992: I. 3). Got¯ 1991: 980. Cf. The Rgveda.4.3. Cf. and when the charioteer risks his life in saving his master.t a . too.1 a. . Eitrem 1902: 6.4 jisnúr v¯ m anyáh súmakhasya s¯ rír divó anyáh subhágah putrá uhe.181. LIV Add. derived as it seems to be from the charioteer member of the a the pair. the king goes to the house of his charioteer s s s (samgrah¯tár-). 16 & 17 (2004–2005) bottom of the grave. ˚ the K¯ nva redaction (7.1.23 índrah savyas.8 and 7. transl. and the other as the fortunate son of heaven”. Poludeukes was good at fistfighting (pùks agathós). “[t]he rule of protecting the knight is formal. while another man was buried together with a pair of horses and a burning fireplace in an upper chamber. in the royal consecration.4.49 This passage suggests that divó náp¯ t¯ is an elliptic dual. ´ ´ ´ savyes.12 Journal of Indological Studies. Oberlies 1993: 172 n. 144-155. LIV 1998: 409-410. ´ a . Mayrhofer 1996: II.8. must be guarded by the charioteer’. Iliad 3.47 In the Vedic religion. Iliad 23. -makhas.. Güntert (1923: 258): ‘kampftüchtig?’.9. with references).. one was a fighter and the other took care of horses: according to their standing Homeric attributes (e. further Taittir¯ya-Br¯ hmana 1.3.2.237). When. Mayrhofer 1996: II.” (Hopkins 1889: 196. combat’ and makhésasthai ‘to fight’.1. .

56 For example. we must make three divisions. xxxix. may all go very.. the king of Mitanni. is separated by various grades from those around him. For your household. 13 The Amarna archive of Egypt has preserved 44 letters of the fourteenth century BCE where the rulers of Egypt. Assyria. very well”. comprising not only the family or clan but hired troops. There seems to be a certain personal familiarity between these ‘followers’ and their knight. pad¯ nug¯ h — stand the nearer ‘followers’ of the a a.. supposing him to be a prince or high noble. Of these. we find knights or kings standing at the head of whole hosts. usually one knight each at the sides of the car. his friend it may be. These are no humble followers. explainable only on such an assumption.. for your horses. those immediate followers representing what remains a. and stand to them in a merely formal relation. ç¯ ra. of the clannish corps of an older age.. and the foot-herd behind. in a letter from Tušratta. 57 EA Moran 1992: xvi. They are of no importance ˚ except as a mass. Babylonia.57 In the great epics of India. for your warriors.. Mitanni.. It is an honorable office for young knights so to ‘guard the wheels’ of a great champion. 19 = BM 29791. and for whatever else belongs to you. but socially beneath him. for your country... He is the captain of a large family body. Alašia (Cyprus) and Hatti (the Hittite country) correspond with each other more or less on the basis of equality. In nearest proximity is the charioteer. anug¯ h or anucar¯ h .... the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. The great importance attached to the chariot by the kings is evident from the fact that it is. But between these two — the family friends or near relations guarding the wheel. The knights pay little attention to them. But in the vast hosts depicted in the Epic. for the rest of your wives. Moran 1992: 43. addressing each other “brothers”. a.. along with horses.. xxiii. although. but his equals in rank.. to Nimmureya the king of Egypt. for my sister. The well-born knight. for your sons. often his inferiors in age.. transl.. sometimes v¯ra (though this may not imply u ı nobility). for your chariots. regularly included in the stereotyped salutation formula. The 56 Cf. The knight is the head of his clan. Around him are certain followers and retainers. this formula has the following wording: “For me all goes well. First and nearest stand his ‘wheel-guard’.The N¯ satyas. Arzawa (to the west of Cilicia). . Parpola) a The A´vins and dual kingship s From the beginning chariot was one of the foremost symbols of royalty. These bhrta or mercenaries form the third group behind the knight. the situation is very similar: “The knight of the war car: A few words in regard to the personal position of the knight of the chariot. For you may all go well.. knight.

´ a a a. u a a.62 A Syrian seal from the early half of the second millennium BCE shows a chariot pulled by two horses and driven by a charioteer behind whom stands another man. 61 Piggott 1992: 47. 73. for which cf.10. 16 & 17 (2004–2005) knight in his chariot is equal to an army.63 In most texts describing the Vedic horse sacrifice. . the sacrificial horse is escorted during its year-long roaming abroad by an army 4 x 100 men of different social classes. . Gautama-Dharmas¯ tra 10. . with charioteers not armed for battle.67 300 heralds and headmen not armed for battle.8. 1889: 203-205. Taittir¯ya-Br¯ hmana 3. 64 Cf. u a a. a a. ”58 The importance of the chariot as a symbol of nobility is clear from the above quotations. who drive on off-track 58 Hopkins 59 Cf. . The four different kinds of chariot teams are the following: (1) 300 royal princes armed for battle who are clad in bronze mail on both sides.10.1 tr¯ni sat¯ ny ar¯ jñ¯ m samnaddh¯ n¯ m asamnaddhas¯ rath¯n¯ m vitataa u ´ u ı.10. 95. a a a ı a. Piggott here quotes Akkadian and Egyptian evidence of the second millennium BCE.1. a a a . u u 65 V¯ dh¯ la-Srautas¯ tra 11. also the illustrations in Littauer & Crouwel 2002: 55.5.1. . Falk 1994: u a a. while the victorious soldier could take all other booty.16. there are 4 x 300 chariot teams a u ´ u and 4 x 300 footmen.14.13-14. signifying ‘victory’” suggests military use. a a 68 V¯ dh¯ la-Srautas¯ tra 11. ¯ ´ u 67 V¯ dh¯ la-Srautas¯ tra 11. 59 We have also seen that “the chariot crew was normally two”60 and that “the two were often of equal [aristocratic] status”61 .. Frequently we find thousands running from one mounted hero. Apastamba-Srautas¯ tra 20. The vehicle of a defeated adversary went to the king.. var¯ th¯ n¯ m triyog¯ n¯ m. 69. Mycenaean paintings show two men in a chariot. a ı a.5. driving chariots not covered with overshields and yoked with two horses.68 300 meat carvers and charioteers.64 The most detailed description of this army is given in V¯ dh¯ la-Srautas¯ tra 11. driving chariots covered with overshields and yoked with three horses.. . a ı a a u .5. . noble’ in Apastamba-Srautas¯ tra 20. a u ´ u ı. ´ a u a . 60 Piggott 1992: 57.4. 76.5.ı a a a a ı a .‘powerful. while “the motif of ‘vanquished enemy beneath the team’s hooves’ . Littauer & Crouwel 2002: 59. .. 96. driving chariots covered with overshields and yoked with four horses. a 66 These are called ugra. Cf. with charioteers armed for battle.65 (2) 300 non-royal warriors66 armed for battle.14 Journal of Indological Studies. ¯ . 62 Cf. Baudh¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra 15. ´ a a a. though here a u ´ u the army is only protecting the horse during the night preceding the first day of the actual horse sacrifice.1 tr¯ni sat¯ ni s¯ tagr¯ man¯n¯ m asamnaddh¯ n¯ m asamnaddhas¯ rath¯n¯ m a u ´ u ı.20-21 jet¯ labhate s¯ mgr¯ mikam vittam / v¯ hanam tu r¯ jñah. ¯ ´ a˙ a ´ ´ S¯ nkh¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra 16.10.2-4. 78-81. ´ ´ Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 13. Nos. 75 on each of the four sides of the horse. 63 Littauer & Crouwel 2002: 28-29. According to the V¯ dh¯ la-Srautas¯ tra.2. each group of 300 is divided into four batches.1 tr¯ni sat¯ ni r¯ japutr¯ nam ubhay¯ lohakavac¯ n¯ m samnaddh¯ n¯ m sama a a. naddhas¯ rath¯n¯ m vitatavar¯ th¯ n¯ m caturyuj¯ m.

. indignation .. and passes his time in the stable.” (Hopkins 1889: 195) According to the Sanskrit epics. a 70 Hopkins 1889: 195. accurately describes the largest chariot used”: “for each car were two polehorses. especially the Dioskouroi (cf. cf. and princes in distress adopt this mode of life by preference.‘off-track cart’.. . One kingly knight sometimes drives for another.1 tr¯ni sat¯ ni ksattrsamgrah¯t¯ nam vipathapatt¯n¯ m [read: vipath¯n¯ m]. suggests the meaning ‘not˚ broad’ = ‘narrow’ = one-man chariot.3.. the Buddhist tradition parallels the universal emperor wielding supreme polit[a]vitatavar¯ th¯ n¯ m dvi-yog¯ n¯ m. though this ideal “probably .. The a . Thus Nala becomes chief hostler. as Krishna for Arjuna and Çalya for Karna. a a 69 V¯ dh¯ la-Srautas¯ tra 11. 72 Cf. and Nakula takes service as a horseaa trainer. 15 .. and the horses had gilded trappings.. a . see Wagner 1960 and Ward 1968: 50ff. and driven by one driver apiece (p¯ rsnis¯ rathi). also Odyssey 16. ¯ . Sanjaya. He only served for political purposes. the knight is a a his own driver.. Each car was accompanied by ten or by fifty elephants. the dialogue shows the position of the ordinary charioteer to be properly that of a high servant. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. Benveniste (1993: 310-312) considers (w)ánaks (Mycenaean wa-na-ka) as the most important royal title of the early Greeks. . cf. But the social position of the charioteer is.. According to Herodotus (5. Farnell 1921: 186.”70 Having thus argued for the connection of the chariot and kingship and for the normally two-man occupation of the chariot.69 The Indian epics Mah¯ bh¯ rata and R¯ m¯ yana contain exaggerations describing “all the a a a a . açvaç¯ l¯ . cf. which appears to have denoted a local chief or a respected man rather than a king.. the vipathá. On ı a ı a a u ´ u ı. cars” as chariots drawn by four horses and driven by three charioteers.The N¯ satyas. u a a. . Nilsson 1955: I. as far as I can see. directed by one driver (dhuryayor hayayor ekah . 188. hemabh¯ nda. Wagner 1960: 235f. the old charioteer.. their images accompanied the two kings of Sparta on war expeditions. Among the Dorians of Sparta and Peloponnesos in general.72. in an address to Zeus Dodonaios). ˚ ´ a˙ a ´ vipathá-. however. Burkert 1985: 212. 217-218. Unlike basileús (originally gw asileús). 71 Cf. “Often. as seen from Çalya’s .233 Zeû ána.cart of eka-vr¯ tya in Atharvaveda 15. if not a corruption u of vipathá. . .. I think that among the features that the A´vins share s with their Greek counterparts we should even include the dual kingship.2.. 203-205. Sparreboom 1983: 151f. Parpola) a carts [yoked with one horse]. The reading viprthu in S¯ nkh¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra 14. fastened to the axle-end (p¯ rsni).. rath¯). a.73 In India. ´ a ı r. one inferior to the knight’s in the war-car.71 and they were widely worshipped in Greece as “the two kings” (ánake)72 . For dual kingship among early Germanic tribes.10. 407. the Dioskouroi were counted among the greatest gods. a suggestion not made before. a battle-cars were ‘like guarded cities’. and two outside horses ı .1. (w)ánaks is applied even to gods. shares his old king’s hermitage. Bethe 1905: 1098ff. in particular the Mah¯ bh¯ rata.75). 73 On the dual kingship of Sparta.. Of kings the charioteers were not thought unequal to high station.. Bethe 1905: 1088.

78 RV 10. 16 & 17 (2004–2005) ical power with the buddha. . ˚ 80 Cf. ˚ (v¯ japeya) is a sacrifice of the Br¯ hmana.¯ aa s 81 Cf.74 The idea of such a dual kingship manifests itself above all in the integral connection of ksatrá. amítr¯ m apab¯ .80 both before a and after the v¯ japeya.1.75 This dual kingship is associated with the chariot76 and therewith the A´vins for. of Warren 1896: 43). vol.11 sá v¯ esá br¯ hmanásyaiva yajñah / yád enena b´ haspátir áyajata bráhma hi ´ ´ a a .‘sacred power’. the charioteer and purohita of Indra. a. . It also indicates that Gotama renounced the option of political power in becoming a Buddha. a S¯ ndily¯ yana and Gautama prescribe different rituals in 8. ˚ ˚ ´ ´ ´ yudh¯ jáyann asm¯˚ a akam edhy avit¯ ráth¯ n¯ m. ˚ p¯ pam karavad iti.” 75 Cf. And he. Standing u ˚ behind the chariot.. but if he leaves the household life and retires from the world.103. hands over the bow and the quiver to the king. the Satapatha-Br¯ hmana states that “this a . In the battle hymn called ápratiratha-. L¯ ty¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra 8. also Piggott 1992: 56: “As for its use and social status.16 Journal of Indological Studies. Harvey (1990: 16) notes:“This paralleling a of a Cakkavatti and a Buddha is also made in relation to other elements of Gotama’s life. 47ff. the king ˚ of gods. the priesthood”. the sacrificer was supposed to perform the savá. he will become a Buddha. and indicates the idea of a Buddha having universal spiritual ‘sovereignty’ .13-14. a . ˚ It seems that the v¯ japeya sacrifice was prescribed for the royal purohita. their charioteers so that they could oversee that the king did not commit any sin”. I. .79 a .” (Introduction to the J¯ taka.1. and roll back the clouds of sin and folly of this world. is asked to “fly around” in his chariot. ˚ ´a.12) details the royal purohita’s duties in the battle.77 The ¯s a A´val¯ yana-Grhyas¯ tra (3. the sacrificer announces that he will a ´ win the race with the help of Brhaspati. Rau 1957: 117ff. ˚ b´haspátir bráhma hi br¯ hmanó. p. the puróhita-.11. ˚ Brhaspati is brahman. acs cording to the Jaimin¯ya-Br¯ hmana (3..4 b´ haspate pári d¯y¯ ráthena raksoh¯ ´ ´ ˙ r ı a a˘ adham¯ nah / prabhañján sén¯ h pramrnó a .. Brhaspati. . ¯ . ´ a. “formerly the kings’ chief priests used to be ı a . the two concepts being represented by the king and the royal chief priest. a . .81 a ˚ 74 Thus 64 brahmins tell Gotama’s father King Suddhodana: “You will have a son.174. . will become a Universal Monarch. In the chariot race of the v¯ japeya sacrifice.11. and bráhman.94). and the Br¯ hmana is brahman. warding off enemies and helping our chariots. a a a 79 Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 5. inasmuch as Brhaspati sacrificed with it. over humans and gods.78 In Rgveda 2.‘political power’ .. ´ a. .12.. he makes the king put on the coat of mail. r a . in which the king ˚ asks Brhaspati to help him roll over his rivals.11. a r . . 76 Cf.... brhaspatisavenaiva purast¯ d uparistac ca pariyajeteti dh¯ nañjayyah. L¯ ty¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra 8. . Hopkins 1889: 95-106.wielding supreme spiritual power.rite of Brhaspati. slightly modified transl.. Nos. for a a . Then the purohita mounts the chariot and makes the king repeat the hymn Rgveda 10. Brhaspati is often mentioned as an excellent charioteer and winner of ˚ ˚ races.1 yam br¯ hmana r¯ j¯ na´ ca puraskurv¯ran sa v¯ japeyena yajeta. blesses the weapons and the chariot with its horses. if he continues to live the household life. the Vedic ratha was certainly the prerogative of chieftains (‘kings’) and their entourage of archer-warriors. a u ı a . Gonda 1966: 62ff. ˚ which the purohita recites next.94 pur¯ r¯ jabhyah purohit¯ eva rath¯ n samgrhnanty aupadrasty¯ ya: ned ayam ı a a a a a . the priesthood. Scharfe 1989: 112ff. Indeed.” 77 Jaimin¯ya-Br¯ hmana 3. a u a a . a .24.

cf. a . himself a wise and experienced charioteer. 688-9.157. .1: r¯ j¯ nau s a aa punyakrt¯ v iti aitih¯ sik¯ h.87 There is a problem with the dual kingship of the A´vins proposed here. 11 in the A´vin hymn Rgveda 10.4.. 6. once “the two sons of heaven” are addressed as kings (r¯ j¯ n¯ ). lay thou up in thy mind cunning of every sort.1. a .9. ´ priesthood is the conceiver. a .82 The charioteer83 and the royal priest were expected to be wise and crafty. 8..1.´ . . to the end that the prizes escape thee not. in bringing the car rapidly about. 88 In the view of ancient experts of old legends. . 712. Geldner notes that while the dívo nap¯ t¯ elsewhere are aa the two A´vins. sa´akaiva bráhm¯ kart¯ ksatríyah.90 However.5cd dívo nap¯ t¯ vidáthasya dh¯bhíh ksatrám r¯ j¯ n¯ pradívo dadh¯ the. s am s . ˚ 89 RV 1. cf. 84 The king and his brahmin purohita are equated with “will” (krátu-) and “intelligence” (dáksa-): “and the . aa a . .5. the A´ vins had been kings.6c átho ha ksatrám ádhi dhattha ugr¯ . 91 RV 3. and a´vin¯ in the second half of this verse. 7. ˚ 83 In 82 Cf. 93 RV 10.87. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. King Nestor.91 aa a In his discussion of this verse. Murray 1934: II.. is the address in the first half of verse aa .88 although they are mentioned as bestowers of royal s power89 — especially because they make the king’s chariot victorious. In his book.12.39. .5. very wise’.The N¯ satyas. Wherefore come. and he suggests that Mitra and s Varuna are meant instead. and in the s epic times. but the men know not how to devise more cunning counsel than thine own self.4. aa ı .93 As s s a ˚ Pañcavimsa-Br¯ hmana 17.. aa a ˚ 92 Geldner 1951: I.und Atharvaveda (1960).73. Hopkins (1889: 197) notes on the basis of the epics: “The art of the driver consisted not alone in driving well and fast.301ff. Parpola) a 17 and it was by performing the brhaspatisavá. transl. 380. 178.6. gives counsel to his son Antilochus who takes part in the chariot race at Patroclus’ funeral games: “The horses of the others are swifter. so as to attack the antagonist with such speed from all quarters that the chariot seemed to advance from all sides at once. a . Iliad 23.92 R¯ j¯ nau ‘O two kings’. Bernfried Schlerath finds no evidence for the A´vins being themselves kings. .2.. His true art consisted in wheeling and turning.sacrifice that Brhaspati became the purohita ˚ ˚ of the gods. Taittir¯ya-Br¯ hmana 2. Mayrhofer 1992: I.6.38.11 ná tám r¯ j¯ n¯ v adite kúta´ caná n¯ ho a´ noti duritám nákir bhayám / ´. and keeping the car straight.3.11. 8. and the noble is the doer” (Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 4. 517). .63.5-6. RV 1. plans or arts.85 The A´vins are also called purudámsa(s)s ˘ 86 ´ ‘having many skills’ which is etymologically related to the Greek epithet polud¯ es en¯ ‘having many counsels. s Das Königtum im Rig. Y¯ ska.. In the Rgveda.” 86 Cf. Maitr¯ yan¯ Samhit¯ 4. a . a .. it became the proper name of one of them. a ´ s¯ a a . 270).ı ı a .” (transl. ˚ 90 Schlerath 1960: 10-12. by cunning doth charioteer prove better than charioteer..1 krát¯ dáksau ha v¯ asya a u .5. ˚ Zeller 1990: 78. ´ ´ mitr¯ várunau . for this indeed was but the foundation of his science. dear son. “this attribute ˚ ˙ often refers to their skill in chariot driving”. Eggeling 1885: II. Weber 1893: 768-770. 85 Gonda 1959: 115 with copious references. a a a.39. Nirukta 12.84 Dasrá‘having marvellous skill’ is one of the most distinctive epithets of the A´vins. 87 See Schmitt 1967: 159-161. they do not seem to fit the context here. ˚s a yám a´vin¯ suhav¯ rudravartan¯ purorathám krnutháh pátny¯ sahá // a ı a .10. 172.

515f. . Ward 1968: 26f. 98 See Parpola 2002a: 87-90. ‘accompanied by Mitra and Varuna as well as by Dharma’. 99 On the Adityas. to speak with truth’ (*uerh1 . the highest god: they can be compared to the advisors surrounding the great king.13 shows that they were regarded as protectors a a of the truth: “they are true and not false (na-asatya)”. In RV 8. On Mitra and the meaning of his name. Geldner94 suggested that this half verse was originally ¯ composed for an Aditya hymn and relates to Mitra and Varuna.120. . see especially Brereton 1981. and Indra. says Aurnav¯ bha. An s ˚ etymology of the name N¯ satya quoted by Y¯ ska on Nirukta 6.35. 1380 BCE. 192. when Assyrian traders operating from Syria and Cappadocia imported tin from Central Asia. 16 & 17 (2004–2005) the first half also addresses Aditi. Farnell 1921: 193. 96 The meaning and etymology of Varuna’s name is a much debated issue (cf. . 1973: 347) has suggested that váruna. Brereton 1981: 63ff. Ideological influence is evidenced by the Syrian and Egyptian motifs adopted in seals of the Bactria and Margiana Archaeological Complex. Mayrhofer 1996: II. “they are promotors of the truth”. Around 1380 BCE. a double which s . verse 13. a e o 97 The N¯ satyas are. and virtues are aspects of Aššur. 228. oath’ (Avestan urv¯ ta-). [spoken] truth’ and is derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *ver. Mitra and Varuna are . including miTra-. true speech’. expressly invoked in verse 9 of the A´vin hymn Rgveda 6. the A´vins are invoked to guard against the breach of a treaty.‘sagen’ in LIV 1998: 630f.35. . see also especially Brereton 1981: 16ff. the two A´vins are mitr¯ a.). . where deified social principles . . see especially Narten 1982. a a a ¯ a . Güntert 1923: 271.101 The Assyrian religion is likely to have influenced ProtoIndo-Aryan religion during the late 20th and early 19th century BCE. . The Dioskouroi. 1951: III.(n. Latin v¯ rus ‘true’. . too. says . The Indo-Aryan speaka . 101 Cf. Mayrhofer .g.62. Güntert 1923: 194. The dual deity Mitra-and-Varuna seems to be a double of the A´vins. Nos. a ¯ a . ˚ vant¯ utá dhármavant¯ .96 Thus these personified social concepts — im. . ¯ 100 On the Am@ša Sp@ntas.18 Journal of Indological Studies. of c.probably ‘oath. LIV Add.. Indra and the N¯ satyas as their oath divinities. 94 Geldner 95 Cf. together with Mitra and Varuna. are aspects of the highest god Ahura ¯ Mazd¯ . s ˚ Mitra and Varuna as doubles of the A´vins s .) is ‘contractual alliance. primary meaning of mitrá.. 2001: 174) and is etymologically related to vratá.97 In Zarathuštra’s s religion. . ers therefore had all these deities in their pantheon before they entered South Asia. ´ s avárunaAccording to the K¯ nva hymn Rgveda 8. The a a . I have suggested98 that the personification of the Vedic Adityas99 and the Avestan a Am@ša Sp@ntas100 was inspired by the Assyrian religion. Greek eré¯ ‘I shall speak’ etc. 1996: II. the Mitanni Aryans invoked Mitra and Varuna.12 and 1. cf.‘solemn ¯ promise.originally meant ‘true speech. 354f.‘to speak solemnly. aa were oath deities. a . such social principles.8. Agr¯ yana (saty¯ v eva n¯ saty¯ v ity aurnav¯ bhah / satyasya pranet¯ r¯ v ity agr¯ yanah). pact of friendship’95 and of váruna. portant for illiterate tribal societies — were associated with the A´vins. oath deities sworn by in the Mitanni treaty a . Paul Thieme (e.

if indeed they can be interpreted as *savyašth¯ tár.108 The Rgveda109 and later Vedic and Epic texts contain numerous ˚ proper names which refer to the chariot or its parts and to the horse.3 a´vín¯ v adhvary¯ Aitareya-Br¯ hmana 1. a s a . both denoting ‘chariot warrior’.. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. ı ¯ . an¯ u¯ a ı ¯ . Taittir¯yau. 686. sambharatas. fig.4: 68. 104 See Parpola 2002a: 77f. 105 Cf.106 ı a´ a´ might characterize their owners as caring for chariot horses. a ..1. describes the relationship between Mitra and Varuna as that prevailing between the king .5 a´vínau hí dev¯ am adhvary¯ ast¯ m.9. 109 Cf. the knights are classified as ‘those that have chariots’. 3. Parpola 2002a: 78. 107 Cf. an¯ .110 102 I have mentioned this hypothesis briefly in earlier papers (Parpola 2001. etc. ‘superior chariot-men’. . and his priest.2 & Gopathas a u. a .and *prasth¯ tár-..g. 2004 [2005]). ´ ˚ 110 See Velze 1938: 89-91.‘one having an impetuous chariot’ provides a widely ac. ´ ´ Aranyaka 3. ´ s a u.ı u.10 a´ vínau vaí dev¯ am ´ ´ s a s a .3.” . as Vrkaratha .2.in RV 1. 106 Cf..1: 107. as the deified chariot-team corresponding to the Dioss kouroi.7. ˚ cepted example. Srutáratha..12 asvinau v¯ adhvary¯ .and Priyáratha.13.102 The Satapatha-Br¯ hmana (4.17. ´ ´ ´ ´ s a s 110.36. 103 Schlerath (1960: 108) apparently did not understand this relationship to constitute a dual kingship: “Nach dem Vorbild von Mitra und Varuna sollte man auch ein irdisches Doppelkönigtum gelegentlich erwarten. These terms were also employed as proper names.8. seem to be the original deities of dual kingship. Katha-Samhit¯ 28. Parpola) a ´ early on overtook the A´vins’ royal function..6.1: 131.7 and 5. such as *Pr¯t¯ sva and *Priy¯ sva. 2.is in charge of the Vedic pravargya offera ing to the A´vins. Mitanni Aryan kings bore such 19 names as Sauštattar and Parsatattar.” ˚ . where double burials of the chariot warrior and the charioteer or groom are in evidence (see above.1.5.4.122. The association of the chariot with royalty was retained among the Proto-Indo-Aryans of Mitanni as well as the Vedic and Epic Indo-Aryans. a ´ ´ adhvary¯ 4. 1). Proper names are also made by forming ratha into the end of a compound. “[t]he chariot gives the honourable title of rathin and atirathin to the knight. Maitr¯ yan¯ Samhit¯ 1. 1992: I.18.8.5: 159.priest who along with adhvaryú.9. Mayrhofer 1974: 23f.104 King Tušratta / Tuišeratta = *Tvaišaa a ratha = Rgvedic tvesá-ratha. s adhvaryavam. Schmitt 1967: 244. Vedic texts equate the A´vins with this priestly pair. s Br¯ hmana 2.18 a´vín¯ dhvary¯ TB 3.4) actually s a . u a u .1 a´vín¯ dhvary¯ SB 1. ‘very superior chariot-men’.105 Some other Mitanni proper names. 210: 15 a´vín¯ u. e. 108 Cf. also Hopkins (1889: 183). The chariot was a most prominent status symbol in the Sintashta-Arkaim culture. . but the evidence for it is presented more fully in this paper.1 & Taittir¯ya-Aranyaka 5.13-15 a´vinau vai dev¯ n¯ m bhisaj¯ v a´vin¯ v adhvary¯ tasm¯ d adhvary¯ gharmam a a a.6: 170.103 Yet the A´vins.2.8: a u ¯´ . *Prasth¯ tár.10 a´ vín¯ dhvary¯ 4. Cf.‘chariot wara rior’ suspected to be the proper name of a Mitanni king is part of the title of the pratiprasth¯ tár.2.. according to whom in the Indian epics.2.2.107 where the s s adhvaryu’s title suggests that he originally functioned as the charioteer concerned with the way (ádhvan-). 9.The N¯ satyas.

RV ˚ 1. 688-691.3b (´vetám . Nos. a s . while in ı r´ı ˚ ´ Rgveda 7. the same is said of the sun’s horses. Their Theban counterparts. both names o meaning ‘bright.3 bhadr¯ á´v¯ harítah s¯ a s a ˚ uryasya . av¯ ı .5 tán mitrásya várunasy¯ bhicákse s¯ ´ a u . Lüders 1959: II.9. ı 116 RV 6. the sun). the sun’s ı .20 Journal of Indological Studies. shining’.. and from west to east at night.” He adds: “In the last two lines. a a a.1d˚ví vartete áhan¯ ı .58. which may refer to the seven rays of the sun (cf. ˚ ´ ¯ a yám á´v¯ sah suyújo váhanti). 114 Some verses of the Rgveda suggest that the sun is the chariot of the A´vins. because its dark side is turned toward men. or to the seven months of the year. or to the seven heavenly rivers.). s náyant¯ sud´s¯kam á´vam). Cf. In the asvina´astra to the A´vins...”116 The colour terms here used of day and night. Pythia 1. The Dioskouroi are called leúkippoi ‘possessing white horses’.1ab áha´ ca krsnám áhar árjunam ca ví vartete rájas¯ vedy¯ ´ . Muir 1874: V.” We shall return to this movement of the sun later on. are “the two white colts of Zeus” (leuk¯ p¯ o Diós).9). árjuna. Zethon and Amphion.105. the poet describes the movement of the sun from east to west during the day. . 115 rájas¯ is elliptic dual.246 Lámpon kaì Phaéthonth’.47. ˚ ˚ ´ gatam ráthena s¯ uryatvac¯ .9ab téna n¯ saty¯ s a a . ˚ u heaven. ˚av¯ ´ ´ ´ ´ 1. Güntert 1923: 261 & 269f. ´ s Lampetí¯ and Phaéthousa. ˚ ´ ´ ´ a 3.47.. uryo r¯ pám krnute dyór upásthe / anantám anyád rú´ad asya ˚ ´ . RV 1. . black. pári dy¯ aprthiv¯ yanti sadyáh.9.3cd). 240f. According to Homer (Odyssey 23.. the fire) According to the Rgveda. Kirfel 1920: 20f.185.115. In Rgveda 7. and these two forms are connected with Mitra and Varuna. ˚ ˚ ˚ cakríyeva. the white day sun and the black night sun. . Eitrem 1902: 42ff. Seven is a rather unnatural number as chariot horses. the chariot˚of the A´vins and its various parts are often said to be golden (cf. Parpola 2004 [2005]: 114f.115.113 Here the sun is conceived of as one divinity having two forms. The mightiest warrior of the P¯ ndavas is Arjuna. who likewise ` ´ are twin sons of Zeus and horsemen. Nagy 1979: 198-200. RV 1.107. ˚ of the chariot team in the Mah¯ bh¯ rata. RV 10. . the sun is further said to show the colours of Mitra and Varuna in the lap of heaven: his one appearance is infinitely white.. 113 RV 1.‘white’ and krsná. a a u .8cd rátho ha v¯ m rtaj¯ ádrij¯ tah pári dy¯ aprthiv¯ y¯ ti sadyáh. cf. o ‘possessing white colts’ (Pindar. whose name .66). as the names for the daughters of the sun-god H¯ e elios. .7cd áto ráthena suv´ t¯ na a gatam s¯ kám s¯ ´ ´ ´ ¯ ra a .. . hoí t’ ¯o E¯ pôloi ágousi). Arjuna’s charioteer is the wise and crafty Krsna.132) also mentions the feminine equivalents of these names. uryasya ra´míbhih. S¯ rya takes on the (visible) appearance of Mitra and Varuna (for it) to be seen. One would expect the original number to have been two. it is invisible.37. the chariot of the A´vins goes around the heaven and earth s ˚ 111 ¯´ in one day. Brereton (1981: 54) translates this verse as follows: “In the lap of p¯ ajah .g.112 s s In another verse of this latter hymn. RV 1.. whose name means ‘white’. .˚ krsnám anyád dharítah sám bharanti. are connected with the two members .e. Kirfel 1920: 20).1ab) “the white day and the black day” — (the pair ˚ of) light and darkness115 — manifestly turn around. s ˚ According to the Rgveda (6. shining without limit. his horses roll (back) up. the goddess Dawn is said to drive a beautiful white horse˚(i.1. when its bright side shows. 114 Cf. The one face of him (is) . s ı abhih. ˚ ˚ chariot is usually pulled by seven horses. when. . On this basis it seems o ol¯ likely that the A´vins were conceived of as the pair of horses yoked to the sun’s chariot. and perhaps this is an s older image of them than the chariot team of warrior and charioteer driving the sun’s chariot.4cd she has ascended a chariot drawn by well-yoked horses (¯ ad rátham svadháy¯ yujyám¯ nam asth¯ a a . s . The other. the dark one. ˚ AV 7. Burkert 1985: 212. Cf.78. Güntert 1923: 269f.‘black’. the other one is . In the Rgveda. the chariot of the Dawn is pulled by two male colts called Lámpos and Phaéth¯ n. Homer (Odyssey 12. e. once leukóp¯ loi s a . 16 & 17 (2004–2005) The A´vins and Mitra-and-Varuna as the day sun and the night sun (the moon or s . ˚ 112 RV 111 RV . mentioning only the darkness as one of the two sides of the sun (cf.77.. cf. just like the chariot of the sun (cf.

uncovering: [thee] pressed together s u . die alle Wesen .3. which belonged to the first immigration wave of the Rgvedic Aryans. . 122 Atharvaveda 13. the A´vins are asked to s ˚ come with their chariot manufactured by the Rbhus. while rájas¯ are ‘the two realms’.¯ Kau´ikas¯ tra 66. after a reference to the alternation of the black day and the bright day.120 In Rgveda 10. . . Renou (1960: 303) points out that this verse continues ideas of the Rgveda. s who according to Rgveda 10.13). their association with the red s dawn119 as their sister-wife is most natural: the three are mentioned together for example in Rgveda 7. “Es ist somit ı ı zu übersetzen: (die Usas).3. . which is quicker than the mind and ˚ at the yoking of which is born the daughter of the sky (i. like a king ´ ´ s s a (defeats his enemy): áha´ ca krsnám áhar árjunam ca ví vartete rájas¯ vedy¯ .63. a note on RV 5. cf. the strong . which are different from each other.3.1a. . those worthy of worship (the gods or ancient sages. ˚ Balar¯ ma.1c vivartáyant¯m rájas¯ sámante.24): “Of thy rush-work (íta) I unfasten what was tied on. . RV 5. a u . — Cf. while it becomes Varuna when born. by Varuna let Mitra in the morning open out” (transl. ˚ Dunkel kommt. RV 3. it is said that the newly˚ born fire defeated with his light the darkness. and put together the black and the red colour (nákt¯ ca cakrúr usás¯ vír¯ pe krsnám ca várnam arunám ca sám dhuh). . where the Vasisthas praise Usas as one who turns around the darkness . Sieg (1923: 11) takes sámante not as an adjectival attribute ˚ of rájas¯ but as a substantive referring to the day and night. a ˚ ´ j¯ ˚ divá ubhé áhan¯ sudíne vivásvatah. 7.9. also Ward 1968: 62-63. 729. the two contiguous ones..39. / vai´v¯ naró j¯ ı abhih ayam¯ no ná a . .39. .1. ˚ 120 RV 7. 528). .3. ´ ´ r¯ av¯ tiraj jyótisagnís tám¯ msi.” 121 RV 10. The early vaisnava trio of Balar¯ ma (called just R¯ ma a a a . ˚ 1917: 182-184. ı ı ˚ of the two sides of the sun (cf.3cd).1ab tvám agne váruno j¯ . ˚ ´ agnír bhavati yát sámiddho. A´vins and their sister-wife. mentioning only the darkness as one ı. Whitney 1905: a . in the morning. Geldner˚(1951: II.17.” In my opinion this is confirmed by RV 6. the white day and the black day = night). .. In . and ˚ which therefore probably worshipped the A´vins in preference to Indra.3. where the fire is said to ˚ become Mitra when it is kindled (in the morning). offenbar macht. ˚ have created the night and the morning.2 is the father of the A´vins. a II. Originally Krsna’s teammate was undoubtedly his elder brother. in my opinion. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. where. fire. ˚ and the light. and their sister whom the elder brother marries — duplicated a a . transl. is an early variant of Parpola 2002c.117 The Y¯ davas worshipping this trio are descended from s a the Yadu clan. Krsna. ayase yát tvám mitró bhavasi yát sámiddhah. opposes Indra in the Govardhana myth.80. Laksmana and S¯t¯ — actually seems to go back to the trio of the two a ıa .12 a téna y¯ tam mánaso jáv¯yas¯ ´ ´ ¯ a ı a rátham yám v¯ m rbháva´ cakrúr a´vin¯ / yásya yóge duhit¯ s s a a .3. ˚ 119 According to RV 1.7cd. the deities of the agnihotra sacrifice — which. ayate ı . . yajñíy¯ sah mentioned in b) a .80. the fire god Agni has during the day and night: “This Agni becomes Varuna in the evening. aj¯ a a. Whitney 1905: II. 118 Krsna 117 Cf.e.4a mitró . in the Mah¯ bh¯ rata). . ‘die da die beiden Nachbarinnen die beiden Räume wechseln lässt. ˚ In the Atharvaveda (13. rising.9..5. who is white in colour.118 s If the white day and the black night are the two A´vins.5) comments on the identification with Varuna: “Wohl weil er aus dem . he becomes Mitra. Parpola) a 21 means ‘black’.1. .37. Oldenberg .”122 Thus Mitra and Varuna are the sun and the .12.. RV 6.18 (pronounced while letting down the door.13 sá várunah s¯ yám agnír bhavati sá mitró bhavati pr¯ tár udyán.121 Vivasvant is the sun-god. Here rájas¯ is elliptic dual.. ˚ .44.The N¯ satyas. a .73. Mitra and Varuna are connected with the two forms that . . RV 10. cf. also Atharvaveda 9.. ˚ by the trio of R¯ ma.e. the dawn) and Vivasvant’s two beautiful days (i.

3 atrim ı a .10 a a a a .9: 129. uryo j¯ yate pr¯ tár udyán..1. .4 maitrám v¯ áhar v¯ run´ r¯ .”125 Both Mitra and Varuna126 and the .alias pravargyà-.9 ahar vai mitro r¯ trir varunah. 126 Cf. . ´ 11.312: 130. . a . ´ a . The only possible exception might be RV I 115.22 Journal of Indological Studies. 2000a.3.8: . 209) notes that although the contrast between Mitra and Varuna was built up systematically after the Rgvedic period. Katha-Samhit¯ a .7: 56. While the RV emphasizes their similarity.2 mitrám áhah. 446. ´ ´ tir¯ya-Samhit¯ 2. the rising sun and the moon are not infrequently seen together in the sky in the morning.2.8.81.6.6ab m¯ rdh¯ bhuvó bhavati náktam agnís tátah s¯ ´ ´ u a a a . Kirfel 1920: 24 and Whitney 1905: I. v¯ run¯ r¯ .1: tat k¯ v a´ vinau / . .13 agner v¯ adityo j¯ yate. 53).4. .7. to s Agni (Fire) and S¯ rya (Sun). .. Veda. . 1. Tait. and “[t]his opposition emerges entirely within the young . .19 ahor¯ tré vaí mitr¯ ´ a . 127 Cf.ı a a s a a a s . Besides.81. Güntert 1923: 280). this type is that between Mitra/light and Varuna/dark”. also Y¯ ska.4. u a a ´ s ¯ ´. a . a . though they are connected with the Dioskouroi in the classical (but not the earliest) Greek tradition as well as with the ‘sons of God’ in the Baltic folk songs.4.13). ¯ atrih ı ´ a avárunau. Cf. ´ atrih várunasya s¯ yám.´ .13 (cf.4:49.10. a . Pañcavimsa-Br¯ hmana 25. “The most frequent opposition of a . the very concept of ‘complementary’ involves ‘difference’.8.7. Maitr¯ yan¯ Samhit¯ 1.¯ [= mitr¯ varunau] / ahar vai mitro r¯ trir varunah. a a .10: 157.7. a . ˚ 129 Atharvaveda 7. 6. . above on ˚AV 13. .10 ahor¯ tré v¯ a´ vín¯ .1 ahor¯ tré vaí mitr¯ ı a . .1 maitrám v¯ áhah. The sun and the fire — the day sun and the night sun — thus seem to be the cosmic and atmospheric phenomena that the two A´vins as the dual kings were originally conceived s of as representing. ¯ atrih ı ´ atrir várunah. but also ideas and conceptions ˚ prevalent among the Indo-Aryan speakers who came to South Asia before those associated with the family books of the Rgveda (cf.8: 27. . Nirukta 12.1.123 The agnihotra is performed at sunset and sunrise. and for instance Oberlies (1998: 192 n. well have existed in Rgvedic times already. Jaimin¯ya-Br¯ hmana 1.3 .1: 69. Cf. ´ ´ ı ´ mitró ’har ájanayad váruno r¯ . it may . a a¯ a . the agnihotrá-. Atharvaveda 7. a ı a a ahor¯ trau vai mitr¯ varunav ahar mitro r¯ trir varunah. ˚ exercise complementary authority as kings. ´ 128.5” (p. cf. .88. of him is the rising sun born in the morning.1ab p¯ rv¯ parám carato m¯ yáyaitaú sí´ u kr¯ antau pári y¯ to’rnavám. the morning and evening star are much less significant phenomena to qualify as royal symbols. Taittir¯ya-Br¯ hmana 1. not because they are the opposites of each other. a development that could have taken the gharmá. Maitr¯ yan¯ Samhit¯ 3.1.10. Nos.4. the moon could conceivably represent the nocturnal counterpart of the day sun. a ahor¯ tr¯ v ity eke.13-14 áhar vaí mitró r¯ a . see van Buitenen 1968 and Houben 1991. 1.128 s a . the Atharvaveda and˚ the Yajurveda reflect not only post-Rgvedic development.. 2.3 & 2. a a 128 Brereton (1981: 45-62 and 127-149) argues that in the Rgveda “Mitra and Varuna are paired because they . as other scholars have suggested (cf. ıd a . However. this can be seen as a natural later development with these deities of the dawn and dusk.124 In Rgveda 10.129 In comparison to the sun and moon. .88.8. The wording leaves ˚ no doubt about the connection between this verse and AV 13.11 & 2. in addition.5. 125 RV 10. Aitareya-Br¯ hmana 4. two A´vins127 are equated with day and night in the Br¯ hmana texts.5. see Dumont 1939 and especially Bodewitz 1976. 1.10. the YV and the Br¯ hmanas contrast them” (p. a . . 3. also AitareyaBr¯ hmana 8.28.10. for the translation. .3.33-34 ahor¯ tre eva te a a . . gives a characterization of the sun and moon (to whom the hymn is addressed) that rather well fits in with the youthful A´vins: “these two playing young ones by their magic power move eastwards and s westwards around the ocean”. .7-8 ahor¯ tré vaí mitr¯ a avárunau. 124 For 123 For . . 49). .14 & (without accents) Kapisthala-Katha-Samhit¯ 6. Instead of the fire.3. “Agni is the head of the earth in the u ˚ night. 16 & 17 (2004–2005) the gharma offering to the A´vins. .ı a avárunau. Parpola 2002a).5. It was not recognized in the RV.20-21 & 4.3: 52.2-3 v¯ run´ r¯ .14: 84.

Gonda 1959: 80-81. on the same lines is Got¯ 1991.9. 23 Agni is the divine priest. o 131 RV 1. the Tazabag”yab Andronovo people of Choresmia. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. and especially the critical observations of Hillebrandt (1927: I. cf. who had the Soma-drinking Indra as their 130 On the astral identifications. and their language was early Proto-Iranian. also RV 3.‘driver. from the root vah.1 and elsewhere hótar.2-3 rath¯ adhvar¯ am. in press. convey by carriage’. Taking first over the rule of the Bactria and Margiana Archaeological Complex. the promiscuous primeval couple. called a´vayújau.‘offerer’. 60-64) with the reply of Güntert (1923: 266-276.132 ‘Fire’ is therefore called váhni.131 the purohita of the gods. 92. but would nevertheless like to offer the following as my present understanding of the main outlines of Indo-Iranian religious history. the D¯ sas spread to South Asia during the a final phase of the Indus Civilization. ´ ´. a 133 See Parpola 2002b.5. The D¯ sas were followed. They have also been equated with the zodiacal stars of 130 Gemini.133 the first wave of Aryan speakers apparently came to Central and South Asia during the latter half of the third millennium. also Sparreboom 1983: 17.4 adhvaryú. .134 Their religion fused with the Harappan religion ´ ´a to become the foundation of Saiva-S¯ kta Tantrism. Around 1700 BCE. While s this early wave of Proto-Indo-Aryans were ruling the Bactria and Margiana Archaeological Complex. they were in close contact with the Assyrians. 132 Taittir¯ya-Samhit¯ 2. the twin brother of Yam¯. and the chief deity of their pantheon was Yama. who meanwhile had developed the horse-drawn chariot. In India. 134 Cf.5. As Agni conveys the offerings to the gods. by a wave of Proto-Indo-Aryan a speakers. 86. s . he is “the charioteer of the rites”. As I have argued in detail elsewhere.9. 2005). ı ır an ¯ . also Parpola.4 brahmán-. Bethe 1905. in Central Asia and beyond. and in whose religion the A´vin twins had replaced the earlier twins.The N¯ satyas. cf. I do not pretend to have solved all the old problems. These were the D¯ sas later encountered by the Rgvedic a ˚ Aryans.and RV 4. in order to show that the reconstruction suggested here has considerable heuristic power. and took over their royal function. Vicissitudes of the pattern in the history of the Indo-Iranians The above-sketched pattern has undergone some changes over the course of time. who became the ruler of the dead. the Bactria and Margiana Archaeological Complex declined due to desiccation and the arrival of another branch of Proto-Indo-Aryan speakers.‘to drive in a chariot. the ı first man and first king. charioteer’. Ward 1968: 15-18. Parpola) a place independently in Greece and the Baltics. a different astral identification took place: the A´vins were associated with one of the calendrical asterisms consisting s s of two stars. Macdonell ˚ ˚ ˚ 1897: 96-97. and the dual deity Mitra-andVaruna came into being as a double of the A´vins.1. cf.

a etc. but may also have been reimported by the Proto-Iranians. whose supreme symbol is fire. the P¯ ru u and Bharata clans. who quickly overpowered their predecessors in the Vedic area of South Asia — while Proto-Tantrism continued outside the Vedic area. a The importance of Varuna (cf.and Vedic medh¯ go back to Proto-Aryan *mnz-dh¯ (cf. Parpola 2002a: 56-61).137 In Zarathuštra’s pantheon. Nos. The sorcery elements of the a . and Anu and Druhyu tribes) is ˚represented by the K¯ nvas and A˙ girases. Koivulehto notes that “the IE -uof the second syllable could not be replaced by the corresponding FU -u-. vocabulary. the Atharvaveda agrees well with the assumption that this collection continues traditions of the first wave of the Rgvedic Aryans. since their onomastics a. By the time of the second Rgvedic immigration around 1300 BCE. 378. ´ ‘wisdom’. originally. with Avestan references. who had meanwhile developed mounted warfare and thereby gained military supremacy. as a loanword *asera ‘lord. 137 Cf. Kobayashi 2004: 153). because labial vowels could not. ´ ´ a aa. . and since their poetry. occur except in first syllables. likewise Yima of the older D¯ sa a .136 . although I did so until recently (cf.g.138 adom’. cf. and Mitra-and-Varuna were restored to power. Stanley Insler (1998: 16-17) has shown that ¯n the principal authors of the Atharvaveda were the K¯ nvas and the A˙ girases. Indra had become a regular member of the Proto-Indo-Aryan pantheon by the time the Mitanni Aryan rule started in Syria. The second Rgvedic wave was probably mobilized by the arrival of a fresh wave ˚ of Aryan speakers to Central Asia and Iran from the north. differs from the family books (cf. seem to go back to the earlier D¯ sa tradition (cf. and the ˚ evidence suggests that. in whose religion the cult of the A´vins (including S¯ mavedic songs. at this phase. They eventually superseded Proto-Indo-Aryan speakers everywhere except in South Asia. the cognate word. the pravargya s a and ˚ agny¯ dheya rituals) and their doubles Mitra-and-Varuna was still important. Asura ‘lord’. There was still a power struggle going on between Indra and the older Proto-Indo-Aryan gods when the first wave of Rgvedic Aryans came to South Asia in 1600 BCE. e. Joki 1973: 253. with its (S¯ mavedic) strophic structure. In the Veda. Zarathuštra’s reformation led to religious upheavals in Iran. a. I should like to clarify that I no more reckon with an “Atharvavedic wave” coming to South Asia before the traditionally assumed two Rgvedic waves.24 Journal of Indological Studies. Bloomfield 1899:74) in . 135 hand. a 136 Cf. Asura Varuna became Ahura Mazd¯ . Thieme 1960: 308. Koivulehto 2001: 247.. ‘Lord Wisa . 16 & 17 (2004–2005) leading deity. Parpola 2002b). like Saiva-S¯ kta Tantrism. prince’ in Proto-Finno-Ugrian (the Volgaic and Permic languages). The pair of MiTra and Ahura is the Avestan counterpart of Vedic Mitra-and-Varuna. Mayrhofer 1992: I: 147f. ˚ Indra had established his supremacy in this incoming group of Old Indo-Aryans. agrees with the Mitanni Aryans. still ˚ Parpola 2004). Renou 1960) and of the royal rites of the purohita (cf. the A´vins and Mitra-and-Varuna still had the upper s . medh¯ 135 Cf. ´ ´a Atharvaveda. the principal epithet of Varuna. Mayrhofer 1996: II. around 1500 BCE. Parpola 2004 [2005]. goes back to Proto-Aryan and is attested . however. I maintain that within the Rgveda. the s¯ man singers par excellance.” 138 Both Avestan mazd¯ . layer. namely the Proto-Iranians. the first wave of immigration (connected with the Turva´a s ¯n and Yadu. Indra lost his supremacy there. which had survived at least in Nuristan.

Carpelan & Parpola 2001: 125. one with s ˚ ´ ´ ´ ´ aritr¯ . Koivulehto 1999: 216. cf. sam).1c. cf.. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. Krick 1982: 304. Joki 1973: 339. Parpola) a 25 is connected especially with Agni. ˚ ˚ ‘Lord of the Song’. .116. on certain occasions. On account of the palatalized sibilant the word was borrowed from Proto-Aryan or Proto-Indo-Aryan rather than Proto-Iranian.(RV 10. MiTra is a warrior god wielding the vazra as his weapon. MiTra’s name eventually came to mean the sun.142 Varuna. occupies the slot of MiTra. . RV 7. Lüders 1951. In the Avesta. cf. who points out that Agni is “called Asura (9 times) and ‘wise’: vi´vávedas (10 times. the vájra-wielding Indra. Ap¯ m Nap¯ t is another name of a. Güntert 1923: 273f. l.is also an epithet ı a ı r ˚ ˚ of Agni. 143 Cf. médhira (8 times.8) and médhya. a hundred oars (RV 1. ‘son of the waters’. Brhaspati or Brahmanaspati. s ´ vi´vavíd 4 times).9).144 In Iran. Narten 1982: 61 and 123.): ProtoIndo-European *wag’. Macdonell 1897: 97. have a ship. nocturnal sky conceived as a heavenly ocean or rivers. 139 For Agni’s wisdom.3-4.91. too.11.‘to be(come) powerful’. Two competing etymologies have been proposed for Proto-Aryan *vajra (cf. s . cf. In the Veda. . Varuna is the night and fire . side140 of the dual divinity Mitra-and-Varuna alias Day sun-and-Night sun alias Sun-and. avam atasthiv¯ . In any case. the slayer of Vrtra. médhira and prácetas”.9 sa v¯ eso ’pah pravi´ ya varuno bhavati.. the purohita of the gods. fire.ı the waters.143 .‘wise’ (RV s a a ˚ 5. while “Varuna is also called s a . and ˚ the creation of the dual deities Indra-Brhaspat¯ and Indr¯ gn¯ (b´haspáti. RV 8. as M¯ tari´van. ˚´ ˚ veda váruno yáth¯ dhiy¯ a a). is called Ahura and a ι is coupled with MiTra in the Avesta. Indra’s charioteer is Brhaspati. — The A´ vins. According to RV 10.141 while in the Veda. where depalatalization took place. In addition. the sun becomes Varuna after it has entered a . .88. ee . 145 Cf. V r Traγna.95. I: 51f.. is connected with the waters as their lord. 147 Cf. 142 Cf. painted with the colors of the ancient God Victory (*Vrthraghna). the solar god of the day. there is no sound reason for the ‘suspicion’ that ‘Mithra has taken the place of Indra’ ˚ (Güntert).139 As we have seen. 492.. Ap¯ m pati — not least as the ruler of the a.goes back to Proto-Aryan is cons firmed by its presence in Proto-Finno-Ugrian as *va´ara ‘hammer. axe’146 . the priest of the gods). 320f. . 777. in the shape of a wild boar. Atar est le compagnon fidèle de Mithra. Saami and Mordvin.” ¯ 141 Yašt 13. . 140 Cf. Güntert (Arische Weltkönig 57) has drawn attention to the fact that Mithra is — partly. also Benveniste & Renou 1934: 72 n. . That *vajra. a the fire god Agni and is conceived of as a horse-shaped sun-fire in the waters. Cf. . Thieme (1957: 34): “H.145 ˚ the chariot warrior.2). was originally an epithet of Indra himself. Gonda 1959: 85-91. vi´vávedas. Fire. a . In the Veda. sumedh¯ 4 times) and prácetas (21 times)”.52.ı . Perhaps it would be better to say: they are both. cf.. According to the Kaus¯taki-Br¯ hmana (18.12. Agni is medh¯ k¯ rá. Findly 1979. n. This agrees with the fact that Apam Nap¯ t. too. Mayrhofer. Mayrhofer 1996: II. and in front of him runs the god of victory. 3: “En outre.The N¯ satyas.” 146 The etymon is attested in Finnic. like Varuna (ví´vam˚sá a s s . Schmidt 1968: 239. which Varuna crosses in a boat. Agni knows everything.5d sat¯ am n¯ am ¯ ˚a 144 Kaus¯taki-Br¯ hmana 18. I should add — painted with the same colours as the Vedic Indra.147 Brhaspati’s becoming a separate purohita-figure. whose kingship thus also comprised the priestly function.c. and especially Güntert 1923: 289 and Kuiper 1976: 34f.1. . was undoubtedly in imitation of Mitra-and-Varuna.‘to break’ (cogently argued by Watkins 1995: 408-413) and PIE *weg’.

proposed that M¯ tarí´van.3ab (m¯ ´ ´ ı atal¯ kavyair yamó ángirobhir b´ haspátir rkvabhir v¯ vrdh¯ náh).14. Occasionally Varuna too is said .148 One of the three occurrences in ˚ ´ the Atharvaveda149 mentions the chariot-brought immortal medicine known to M¯ ı that atal¯ is in the waters150 . above.153 M¯ ı. which M¯ tal¯ knows — that Indra made enter into the waters. ˚ ˚ 152 Cf. a . for 156 Stanley Insler read a paper on this topic in 1985 (cf. which a a.190.2) he is a form of a s ˚ Brhaspati (the purohita and charioteer of Indra). and once (RV 1. which is attested twice in the G¯ th¯ s.23 yán m¯ ´ ı ´ atal¯ rathakr¯tám am´tam véda bhesajám / tám índro apsú pr¯ sayat. Nos. ave´ . Macdonell 1897: 51. ˚ remedy.157.5 (M¯ ı was born out of m¯ y¯ 11. ˚ In several passages M¯ tarí´van is the name of Agni. Whitney 1905: a ı II. Weber 1892: 787. r .is a hypocoristic abbreviation of M¯ tarí´van-. ´ ´ atal¯ a a).‘master’. and he has a close connection with the waters. it resembles the Rgvedic verse (by Medh¯ tithi K¯ nva) 1.152 Bhesajáa .” (transl. ˚ other etymologies (excluding that of Insler). M¯ ı is a divinity r ´ a a .). “The immortal ı r . a a The compound formation has an exact parallel in pr¯ tar-ítvan-. so Insler conluded that in some a s 148 In RV 10. where the latter part is a a similar -van.is a s ¯ s a folk-etymological transformation of earlier *Atarí´van. see Mayrhofer 1996: II. ¯svara.24.14. RV 3.9. 151 RV 1. . 643). n. but this paper has not been printed so far.5. to my mind convincingly. In about one third of the occurrences of the name M¯ tari´van..11c m¯ tarí´ v¯ yád ámim¯ta m¯ tári ‘he (Agni) became M¯ tari´ van when he was formed in his a s a ı a a s mother’. atal¯ ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ mentioned besides Yama and Brhaspati.14. ˚ ´ M¯ ı with the Kavyá-. whose name is derived from kaví.¯se ‘to master. ˚ 150 AV 11. í´van-. .‘to go’..derivative of the root i. Stanley Insler has. The rest of this paragraph is based on Insler’s formulations received by e-mail (cf.). Hillebrandt 1927: I.6a yuvám ha stho bhisáj¯ bhesajébhir.19a apsv àntár am´ tam apsú bhesajám. ´ ‘medicine’ and the chariot associate M¯ ı with the A´vins.23.. each of these three associated with a different group of forefathers. who brought the hidden fire (Agni) to men from heaven or who produced by friction the hidden Agni. ı´ ı´ ı´ etc. the medicine in the waters” — this is recited at the v¯ japeya rite before the chariot-race.29.‘poet’. 155-160. chariot-brought. RV 1.. when the horses are bathed in water..‘lord’. . who is menatal¯ a s tioned 27 times in the Rgveda (mostly in books 1 and 10) and 21 times in the Atharvaveda. starting with that offered in the Rgveda.23. In the form M¯ ı. 18. atal¯ 149 Atharvaveda 8. rule’. The latter part of the compoud. ˚ 151 mentions “the nectar in the waters. it is preceded by a word ending in -m. Otherwise M¯ tari´van is mostly spoken a s ˚ of as an Indian counterpart of the Greek Prometheus.‘master of fire’.‘to master’. 157 Otherwise the root occurs in Sanskrit only in the reduplicated form: ¯s. 346. n. 16 & 17 (2004–2005) ´ Indra’s charioteer in the Epic is called M¯ tali.47ab (= RV 10.157 s s it has a direct equivalent in Avestan isvan.26 Journal of Indological Studies. ˚ to possess medicines (cf. 155 Cf. this name is attested a atal¯ for the first time in the funeral hymn Rgveda 10.154 Most explanations of M¯ tari´van’s name..6. Watkins 1995: 256.6. asa s ˚ sume it to be a compound where the first part is the locative singular of the word m¯ tára 155 156 ‘mother’. p. 154 See Macdonell 1897: ˚71-72.23.3ab). has preserved the original unreduplicated root i´.9a). the divine charioteers and atal¯ s ´ divine physicians. 153 Cf. RV 1.1.1.

r ná ˚ 163 Cf.141. Macdonell 1897: 140f. where agní. a s a m¯ tarí´v¯ . . ˚ bh´gavo ˚ rátham.‘fire’ has completely supplanted *¯ tar-.e.in Avestan (apart from one name).is considered etymologically related with the word r ˚ ˚ bhárgas.10 úd astambh¯t samídh¯ n¯ ´ ´ ı a akam˚ rsvó agnír bhávann uttamó rocan¯ am / yád¯ bh´ gubhyah an¯ ı r . 27 . 10.14ab etám v¯ m stómam a´ vin¯ v akarm¯ ´ . In this specific case.184. the charioteer (of the sacrifice). .271.in the Rgveda show quite clearly that the original a s ˚ meaning of the word had been lost.. However.6ab anyám divó m¯ tarí´ v¯ jabh¯ r¯ ´ ´ ¯ a s a a amathn¯ d anyám pári syenó ádreh.39.. ˚ with the Homeric Phlegúai or Phlégues ‘name of a people’ is rejected as unlikely. phlogós) ‘flame’ and phlég¯ ‘burn.ı ˚ 160 Cf.3ab hiranyáy¯ arán¯ yám nirmánthato a´vín¯ . ı .164 a s ˚ This latter myth has a close parallel in the Greek myth of the nectar-bringing eagle of Zeus and in the Nordic myth of Odin. kindle’. The a ¯ different uses of the word m¯ tarí´van.93.162 The word bh´gu.124) compares with the following gloss of Hesychius: phlegúas = aetòs ksanthós ‘fiery red’. M¯ tari´van s a s ˚ 160 brought the fire.1 váhnim ya´ ásam. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A.¯ s a a r ataksama . RV 1.1b devásya ˚bhárgah sáhaso yáto jáni.163 M¯ tari´van’s theft of Agni is coupled with the eagle’s theft of Soma in Rgveda 1. apart from the precious reminiscence of the theft of fire by M¯ tarí´van.159 According to the Rgveda. a. *¯ tara s a a ‘fire’. there is no myth among the Iranians about the theft of fire from the gods because fire is the creation and protected offspring of Ahura Mazd¯ . 164 RV 1. just as atar. which characterizes Agni when it is born out of power (i. a The etymology of M¯ tarí´van’s name suggests that it goes back to Proto-Aryan times.6. these words seem to have a cognate in Greek.The N¯ satyas. sam¯dhé.‘to steal. ˚ 159 Cf. whose name is likely to have originally meant ‘robber’. The reason for this reworking was that the first part of the compound. ˚ ´ pári m¯ tarí´v¯ gúh¯ sántam havyav¯ . a ˚ s a a aham ı ˚ . had become obsolete in the Vedic language. Watkins 1995: 256 n. a s The myth has a close parallel in the Greek myth of Prometheus.60.5. Parpola) a original verse line there existed the sequence . RV 4. to Bhrgu.has replaced agní. a ´ . s . 162 Cf. r a s a . ˚ 161 Cf.m *¯ tarí´v¯ that was reinterpreted as . who in the shape of an eagle carried off the mead — which corresponds with the honey-beer originally connected with the A´vin cult rather s Narten 1960. 158 Cf. see e. furthermore. The Bhrgus are not only a priestly clan closely associated ˚ ˚ with the fire as its discoverers for mankind. . but are also mentioned as chariot-builders in the Rgveda. Mayrhofer 1996: II.158 M¯ tari´van’s double association with the a s a s origin of the fire and with the chariot (as Indra’s charioteer) is parallelled by the chariotdriving A´vins’ association with the fire-drill.‘effulgence’..93...20b bráhm¯ karma bh´ gavo ná rátham. the fire-drill). On the Bhrgus. . rob’ that is often used in connection with M¯ tarí´van. RV 3..16. It is unreasonable to expect that every compound in Vedic has a cona s gener in Avestan and vice verse.implies affinity with Greek phlóks (gen. particularly as the Avesta is a much smaller corpus. where the old comparison . etymologically related to the root math. RV 1. connection with bhárgas.g. s a RV 10. M¯ tari´van also kindled the a s ˚ 161 hidden fire for the Bhrgus. bharad bh´ gave m¯ tarí´ v¯ .. which Pokorny o (1959: I.

the purohita of the gods. 166 Cf. 170 Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 12. the dual kingship.1. v¯ japeya [which is a sacrifice of the Br¯ hmana and of Brhaspati. who goes to war. thus Sambara (= Yama). ´ suggests dual kingship.3. below. the herald. sam-gír. Nos.172 In the u . one becomes the samr¯ j. 173 Cf. a a . 174 The change was probably conditioned by conceptions about kingship prevailing in South Asia before the ´ arrival of Indo-Aryan speakers. For he who performs the royal consecraa u tion becomes the king. at note 208.9. Weber 1892: 766-7.173 That u Varuna and Ahura Mazd¯ eclipsed Mitra in kingship becomes understandable through the a . . following.5. and the office of the king is the lower. Varuna has preserved his old title samr¯ literally ‘co-ruling’.3. the situation was reversed.11]. By performing the a . According to the Satapatha-Br¯ hmana (5. 16 & 17 (2004–2005) than with Indra’s drink Soma. Macdonell 1897: 114.2 ná kám caná pratyávarohati. ı a .g. e. 165 Cf. His connection with the charioteer s . 2004. ´ a . is apparent from an episode in the royal consecration: when the king goes to the house of the s¯ tá-. consecration (r¯ jas¯ ya) is only for the king. Cf. the chariot warrior as the ‘mundane’ king was the ‘elder brother’ and more important than his charioteer and priestly adviser. and unsuited for kingship is the Br¯ hmana.g. . 167 Traditionally.4 asand¯ ´ ´ ´ a ıvad vái s¯ ajyam.has been understood in an emphasizing meaning ‘fully. Weber 1892: 766-770. the charioteer gives the hero advice and encourages him in battle by singing of the feats of his ancestors. a and the same was probably the case with the Harappan “Proto-Mahisa”. Parpola 2002b. etc. completely’ and the ´ compound sam-r¯ is translated in the dictionaries as ‘universal or supreme ruler. amr¯ ¯ . s ´ aj-.. 171 Cf..1. Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 5.— and the samr¯ stands for a the senior king. assenting’. and this fits well to the title of the priestly member of .. 172 Cf. Rau 1957: 108-109. the main deity of the D¯ sas.8. 798. However. and a that of the samr¯ j the higher.166 the diurnal counterpart of the fire associated with the night in the dual deities of Mitra and Varuna and the . who becomes a a ´ ´ is not supposed to stand up in front of anybody169 — the symbol of the samr¯ ajaj-. hence s¯ tá.1. ajFormally there is no reason why sam. 168 Cf.28 Journal of Indological Studies. the ‘younger brother’.1. SB 5.3.1. over the course of time.could not have been originally used in the basic meaning of ‘(together) with’ — cf. These two diametrically a Kuhn 1859. samr¯ is the throne170 . The horse (á´va-) is often said to belong to Varuna. e. “the royal a . A´vins. 169 Taittir¯ya-Br¯ hmana 1. . the yuvar¯ ja’s ruling father who stays at home.12-13).174 The chariot warrior. was associated with death. Rau 1957: 108-109. paramount lord or sovereign’. cf. ´ ajis the king in his youthful aspect — he is the yuvar¯ ja..means both ‘charioteer’ and ‘bard’.167 a title which in itself .165 The eagle is likely to be the sun.171 he offers to Varuna and gives a horse as a sacrificial gift. the preverb sam. Indian epics. ˚ ´ cf. Originally.”168 The performer of the v¯ japeya sacrifice.‘agreeing together.

originally Mitra represented kingship and Varuna priesthood. The Dioskouroi and A´vins as saviours and funeral gods s The A´vin twins and Mitra and Varuna thus stood for the two sides of kingship and s . one member of the priestly pair specifically connected a with the A´vins.3 (in contradistinction to Indra who slays Vrtra ˚ with his mace). patih . priesthood (cf. probably denotes the chariot s a warrior and is attested as the name of one Mitanni king.. samr¯ . in Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 11.— may be reflected in the preverb práti in the title pratiprasth¯ tár-. . In the Veda. . consecration as varunasavá-). .. and enjoy equal honours with the Gods”. the ruling power.4. 179 Cf. Varuna continues being called samr¯ it is Mitra who is connected with the ruling power . and the setting old sun. *prasth¯ tár-. According to Homer. ´ ´ Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 4.The N¯ satyas.g.298-304. . 180 Odyssey 11. the Dioskouroi “have this honour from Zeus. domain of the royal purohita. 178 Cf. ´ ´ (várunah samr¯ . darkness and Varuna are all connected with death. However. worshipped in the evening in a seated posture. . worshipped in the morning in a standing posture. transl. .. .177 As argued above. and he thereafter drives off in a chariot to capture a hundred cows. Parpola) a opposite aspects or phases of kingship — warrior and ruler —175 are symbolized by the rising young sun. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. e. in the royal consecration. albeit in the nether world.68. Thus. mitráh ksatrám ksatrápatih). and Mitra the purohita and bráhman-.1-6).180 Corresponding to the idea that one of the 175 Cf. Heesterman 1989. the second part of his title. There can be no doubt whatever that Mitra’s characteristic rôle is that of a king and not that of a priest: the evidence of the RV is overwhelming and confirmed as genuine by the Avesta”. ´ aj-. In the Atharvaveda. the 29 youthful crown prince (pratihita-) is given a bow and arrows as his patrimony by his father the king. ´ From Varuna’s being the samr¯ in the sense of the ruling king (cf. 81ff. 177 Thieme 1957: 8 n. Heesterman 1957: 129f. “On the other hand Varuna at at . the sun and the fire.179 That the two A´vins were connected not only s . tive of ksatrá-.1. 2. Renou 1960: 301. is called a vípra ‘[sacred] poet’ in RV 6. . 176 Cf.10-11.. Varuna is a master of magic.4.176 The crown prince’s title pratihita. .. Rodhe 1946: 58ff. with day and night but also with life and death as early as Proto-Aryan times is suggested by the Greek evidence. . . of the solar god. .3. they pass from death to life and life to death on alternate days. also the royal aj. day and night.178 which was the . while a a .— which is parallel to puróhita. Farnell 1921: 181. he came to be considered as the king and the representa. night.

and that this is due to common heritage is shown by the fact that. too. . live. the ocean from which Bhujyu is saved probably also symbolizes death. . ´ ´ am a apag¯ ... .39. the Buddhist comparison ˚ a person or being as consisting of just the five khandhas to a chariot of consisting of various parts put together in a functional relationship (see Milindapañha 25-28. Bethe 1905: 1091-2. ´ .. uryam ná dasr¯ támasi ksiyántam / subhé rukmám ná a ´ . 182 Cf. . . 16 & 17 (2004–2005) Dioskouroi is immortal. in both countries. and the other mortal and belonging to the deceased. .30 Journal of Indological Studies. dar´atám níkh¯ tam úd upathur a´vin¯ ˚ a a ¯ 186 RV 1. they were also invoked by people in peril at sea.112.¯ .ı Cyav¯ na.181 In Greece and India. the dug-up Vandana is compared to a dug-up hidden treasure. At the same time. as “healers” and “saviours”. Samyutta-Nik¯ ya 1. Baunack 1899. Warren 1896: 129-133. The A´vins dug Vandana up from a pit.119. Zeller 1990: 67f. 184 RV 1. the equestrian twins were conceived of as saviours. his regeneration out of the ground (also: womb) is compared to the skilful repair of an old chariot that threatens to fall into pieces. the A´vins were largely psychopomps and revivers of the dead. ˚ 188 RV 10. . Vandana and several other persons whom the A´vins rescued from distress or a s rejuvenated. Vandana had become decrepit with old age. though they were lying buried as if dead. 183 “Le trait qui.186 The A´vins lifted Vandana up so that he s could see the sun. a a a . ham úd dar´at¯ upáthur vándan¯ ya.117. a ¯ . Kaks¯vant. a . the A´vins were often funerary divinities efs fecting the regeneration of the dead can be seen from the help they rendered to Vandana. 11cd yád vidv¯ s¯ nidhím iv¯ ´.e. This is quite plausible.185 In another hymn.135. he rested like the sun in darkness.183 That. Harvey 1990: 52).7 yuvám vándanam nírrtam jaranyáy¯ rátham ná dasr¯ karana sám invathah / ksétr¯ d a vípram ´ ´ a a . sometimes one is depicted with a white horse and the other with a black horse. as saviours. ˚ ˚ janatho vipanyáy¯ prá v¯ m átra vidhaté damsán¯ bhuvat. ul s ad ¯ a ˚ 187 RV 1.182 even though the Vedic people no longer had direct contact with the sea. Les ancêtres des Grecs et des Aryens habitaient probablement des territoires peu éloignés de la mer. transl. grave. . avec une singulière clarté révèle l’origine commune des Dioscures et des A´ vins.184 Vandana had been buried and was like one who sleeps in the lap of the goddess of destruction (i. s˚ .5b úd vándanam aírayatam svàr drsé. the A´vins dug him up like s a buried ornament of gold.e. vraisemblablement les bords septentrionaux de la Mer Noire” (Michalski 1961: 11). beautiful to look at. s . Zeller 1990: 62-68. Michalski 1961: 11. est leur s activité comme sauveteurs des hommes en détresse sur mer .e. Nos. . ´ am .).188 i.187 i.. The rejuves nation accomplished by the A´vins is several times compared to the renovation of an old s chariot. 185 RV 1.8c yuvám vándanam rsyad¯ úd u˚ ´ ´ ad ¯ pathur.189 Eitrem 1902: 6. s a vándan¯ ya. belonging to the celestials. 181 Cf..116. In other words. . represented by night and the ocean of the nocturnal sky (cf. a dead person).5 susupv¯ sam ná nírrter upásthe s¯ ´. ˚ 189 Cf. s A funerary function for the A´vins is suggested by the stories of Atri.

s Rgveda 1. but Willem Caland. left turns were generally considered inauspicious or associated with funerary ceremonies”. (your) ass won a thousand (cows)194 190 See Gening et al. 1992. a left turn is a u made at the turning post in the chariot race of the v¯ japeya rite. 194 One thousand well-nourished cows plus one hundred is the price of the race in Rgveda 10.116: “O you two who had triumphed with (your) strong-winged (horses) urged ˚ to a fast course or through the incitements of the gods. just as in the Greek funeral a race. performed by riders on the day of the burial. 1914: 484-6. In the athletic contests in honour of the dead hero.192 He did.6-8). find ´ some indirect evidence: according to the Baudh¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra (11. 506.102. when describing the funeral of Patroclus. The prize consisted either of money placed on the top of the goal post. divided and placed at certain intervals along the route. The chariot. but in a different way. On this occasion.The N¯ satyas. or of property of the deceased. and the most important of these contests was the chariot race described at length in this song. however. ‘Siamese twins’ of whom one held the reins while the other used the whip. when he was beaten by the sons of Aktor. reports (verses 171-2) that four horses were cast upon his pyre. 192 Sparreboom 1983: 78 (1985: 73). ˚ 191 Caland . King Nestor tells of another funeral chariot race. belonged to the pre-Christian traditions of the Baltic people as well. The burial day ended in a drinking bout.193 I believe that a reference to a funeral chariot race has survived in a hymn to the A´vins. 193 Sparreboom 1983: 50 (1985: 45). and was probably assumed to take the dead hero to the other world. In the 23rd song of the Iliad. Evidence for funeral horse races in India One would expect a funeral chariot race to have survived in ancient India as well. Marcus Sparreboom. in his doctoral dissertation on Chariots in the Veda. Parpola) a Funeral horse races in Greece and in the Baltics 31 In the Sintashta-Arkaim culture of the southern Urals. unquestionably the best expert on Vedic funeral customs and on Vedic ritual in general. could not quote a parallel from India. too. deceased aristocrats were buried with their horses and chariots. his belongings were divided as victory prizes. Willem Caland191 has drawn attention to the fact that a comparable horse race. Homer. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A.5 & 9. was involved in the funeral.190 The chariot was thus intimately involved with burial rites. although “in the Vedic ritual. actually maintained that “a connection with funeral ceremonies cannot be demonstrated for Indian racing practice”.

For ¯ her they made a share herein. 197 Geldner 1951: I. They . They followed after Usas.. ‘Give way. agním manye pitáram the house. have.2 v¯lupátmabhir asuhémabhir v¯ dev¯ am v¯ j¯ tíbhih sa´ ad¯ n¯ / tád r¯ ´ ´ ´ ı.203 to the sun. among others. 202 Pirart 1995: I.. . 201 Zeller 1990: 111. 195 RV 1. ‘Agni is the hotar. t a repeated mention of Agni would cause the sacrificer to fall into the (funeral) fire (agnim apatsyat¯ti).7. followed by Gonda 1981: 99). we two . Agni took the lead first.’” (Gonda 1981: 99). since the last words of this stanza.’ They said coming to agreement ‘Let us run a race for it.197 Renou. Pirart. 6. The Rgveda specifies that the A´vins won a thousand with their ass in Yama’s prizes ˚ contest. ¯ ´ ´ diví sukrám yajatám s¯ uryasya ‘(I revere) the shining. would guarantee that . born by that one of the Dioskouroi twins who is the o “tamer of horses”.13 agnír hót¯ grhápatih sá r¯ a etc. therefore the ¯ beginning (verse) is addressed to Agni in the Açvina. The context is the ‘praise to the A´vins’ (¯ svina-´astra-). h¯ -. the turning pillar of the race). but curiously no scholar seems to have interpreted the phrase ´ “Yama’s prize-contest” (¯ j¯ yamásya pradháne) as referring to a funeral chariot race. commented upon this verse. 108. therefore at the Açvina (Çastra) (a litany) to Agni is recited.’ ‘Be it so’. 200 Witzel 1984: 257. ´ ¯s a a ´ aj¯ yamásya pradháne jig¯ ya. he replied. as an alternative first verse. his who wins shall it be’. is derived from the same Indos European root as the name Kást¯ r.32 Journal of Indological Studies. ‘Let me have a share here.199 Witzel200 . 161. As these deities were running the race. Zeller201 and Pirart202 . 125. .195 S¯ yana. Nos. let this be mine. in various ways. aa though Yama is the god of death and the Yama hymns of Book X were used in funeral ´ rites. ˚ The Aitareya-Br¯ hman˚ (4.. the Açvins followed him. 153. ‘Let me have a share here.. Gonda.196 Geldner. a . to him they said. 98-100.‘to triumph’ used here of the A´vins with regard to the chariot race. to her they said. 16 & 17 (2004–2005) in Yama’s prize-contest. which contains a thousand s a´ s verses: “The gods did not agree as to this [praise of a thousand verses]. It seems ı ¯ ´¯ a that this verse is also considered inauspicious in contrast to the approved verse. Oldenberg. O N¯ satyas”. however. because the a. which is characterized as sant¯ ‘appeased. the lord of the house (grhapati). we two will win this. holy (face) of the sun in heaven’. will win this.198 a a .116. and had started. she replied.7s a . makes the significant observation that the verb sad.’ ‘Be it so’ (they said). he would reach the goal (k¯ s. This verse is rejected. the lord of the house. 203 “Because the gods made the course from Agni.’ ‘Be it so’.. Such a race won by the A´vins with asses is described in Aitareya-Br¯ hmana 4. calmed down’ (‘propitious’ is the translation of Keith 1920: 203. ‘Let this be mine. 199 Gonda 1981: 55. however.3.. the initial stanza of this ´ litany is addressed to that god: RV.15. a an¯ . the lord of a aj¯ ˚ . They made the course from Agni. a u asabho n¯ saty¯ sahásram a a ¯´ . 9. which some authorities prescribe. For him they made a share herein. therefore at the Açvina (a litany) to Usas is recited.7) mentions RV 10. 198 Renou 1967: 12.a ˚ agním apím.’ ‘Be ¯ it so’ (they said). ‘Give way. a ¯a ˚ 196 Oldenberg 1909: I.

20)”. In that the Açvins ¯ won the race the Açvins attained it. Oldenberg 1917: 332-3.. recite the offering verse!” (S¯ nkh¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra 9. O generous one’. They say ‘In that ¯ there are here recitations to Agni. therefore has he virility and possesses a double seed. The author of the Aitareya-Br¯ hmana (4. is obviously not regarded as the equal of the three other gods. P¯ raskara-Grhyas¯ tra 3. the Açvins attained. ‘Let me have a share here.is recited at the dawn ending an ‘over-night’ (atir¯ trá-) Soma sacria ¯´ fice.. 6. He prefers only three metres. Keith 1920: 202-4. the form of Usas.10f.18)” a u (Gonda 1981: 99-100). The text stresses the generative power of the ass.26f. when dawn . May they be delighted.”205 s The asvina-´astra. is clear from the praisa formula prompting the hotr priest to recite the offering . the Açvins attained it.devoted to S¯ rya. only the horse and the goat are involved in fetching the clay for a . tr. the Açvins attained it. Usas and the A´vins. has replaced the sun-god.. ˚s verse for the Soma drought of the overnight service: “Let the hotr worship the A´vins .1. there is a ruddy glow. transl. With an ass chariot the Açvins won. therefore it as neighing aloud and resounding is the symbol of lordly power. in discussing the division of the asvina-´astra. This additional deity s .’ ‘Be it so’. to Usas. in the S¯ rya division (SS. which is a counterpart of the asvina-´astra-. race.31.7-9. to whom is devoted the prag¯ tha 7.20... By means of a mule chariot Agni ran the race. Agni together with his red horses.24. On the other hand. who would be expected in this contest taking place in the morning. passim). his energy spent. then why do they call it the Açvina?’ . notwithstanding the repeated admonition not to pass over him in recitation (AiB. as he drove on he burned their wombs. 206 A Vedic student who has violated his vow of chastity should sacrifice an ass to Nirrti. Night represents death.. a . therefore they conceive not. May the A´vins do thus.20. With ruddy cows Usas ran the race. therefore at the Açvina (Çastra) (a litany) to Indra is recited. With a horse chariot Indra ran the .. accept s s ´ a˙ a ´ gracefully.. Notice that no mention is made of the number of the metres to ¯s ´ ´´ be used for Indra.. and dawn represents rebirth. the A´vins together with their wonderworks.28. ‘We will win this. the Açvins attained. Parpola) a 33 followed after Indra. Caland u ˚ 1953: 243). Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 6.204 to him they said. u .3. to Indra. The Açvins won the race. they did not dare to say to him ‘Give way’.. but they did not take the strength of his seed.The N¯ satyas. Therefore they call it the ¯ Açvina. the ass and a ´ the goat (cf. (It is) because the Açvins won the race. may they drink Soma. he replied. neither Indra nor S¯ rya are included among the gods of the morning litany u (pr¯ tar-anuv¯ ká-).5. S¯ rya together with dappled horses. therefore is his speed outworn. and this seems to be the reason why the A´vins s drive a chariot pulled by asses in the funeral race of Yama. . — The a u clay for making the ukh¯ pot used in˚the agnicayana ritual is fetched with three animals.. 9. he whose back is ghee. in that the Açvins won. Usas together with the red ˚ (cows). For him they made a share herein. at a crossroad. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A.’ ‘Be it so’ ¯ (they said). “rejects the statement of others who say that in reciting to the Sun one should use seven metres as in the recitations to Agni. 205 Aitareya-Br¯ hmana 4. a a s a ¯´ . he is here the least swift of all beasts of burden. therefore they call it the Açvina . the horse. Hotr.20.. therefore. A´vS. has come. one that has lasted a whole day (here representing a full life) and continued throughout the following night.9-10). in this version of the myth. 4. for it is connected with Indra. He has to dress himself in the skin of the ass and eat a piece of the sacrificial victim cut out of its penis (cf. 9.1-11.12.206 204 That Indra. “which is quite naturally to be recited after s u ¯´ ´´ sunrise (SS.32. the goddess of ˚ destruction. Gonda 1980: 290). be drunk.

transl. S. Eggeling 1894: III. he should recite.1b yuñj¯ am a´vin¯ rátham).20). . transl.13.13).2. Just as in this world s a cart or a chariot. . Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 6.73. also RV 1.ı . ˚ ´ s a ráthe. a a .3. a . a .16) states that “the ass is the most virile animal of all” (sárvesam pa´un¯ . with (V¯ j. 209 Cf. transl.).3. a .7. With this chariot of the gods he attains in safety the world of heaven. 1900-1300 BCE).. he thereby lays vigour into ´ the ass” (Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 6. gardabhó v¯ryàvattamah). so he attains in safety the world . This verse.63. The Aitareya-Br¯ hmana explains the thousand verses a .46. Birds are connected with the A´vins. a ´ ´ ´ ˙ ´ yuñj¯ am r¯ ath¯ ˘ asabham yuvám. which flies to heaven.suits well the funeral context. RV 10. but should be a a s ´ a˙ a ´ also valid for the asvina´astra. ath¯ ˚ 207 Kaus¯taki-Br¯ hmana 18. ´ s ¯ am the Maitr¯ yan¯ Samhit¯ (3. a bird. He should call (making a posture) as of an eagle about to fly up.85. 211 as follows: “A thousand [verses] should be recited for one desiring heaven. Keith 1920: 147. — ‘upon this course. a .. asabham . V¯ jasaneyi-Samhit¯ 11.17. for “the Açvina is ¯´ .6. ˚ 210 Cf. ´ ¯ a. In this context. goes (well).. the chariot of the gods.3.. is . for the horses pulling their airborne chariot are compared to birds.1. civilization and in the Cemetery H culture of the Punjab (c.23).1. because the Rgveda Br¯ hs a ˚ manas introduce its exposition by associating it with the marriage of Soma (the Moon) . . here it is said of s ´ the he-ass that it “whilst being one. the world of heaven is at a distance of a thousand journeys of a horse hence.”208 The Suparna bird. 204). a .ı 208 Aitareya-Br¯ hmana 4. doubly impregnates” (cf. Keith 1920: 446. Suparna is a bird.”207 These conceptions are behind the ritual prescriptions concerning the way ¯´ of reciting the asvina-´astra: “Having eaten of ghee. when oiled. “Then [he addresses] the ass.¯.210 s The number one thousand is connected with the sun.. XI.7: yuñj¯ am r¯ s ath¯ .. ‘Yoke ye two the ass. a . (cf. transl. the securing. s a a a . and the Solar Maiden: “Now when Savitr gave S¯ ry¯ to Soma.. of heaven. like it becoming a winged one. is modified from an address to the A´vins in RV 8. 16 & 17 (2004–2005) ¯ s The symbolism of the asvina-´astra.”212 The A´vins as gods of regeneration and marriage s ¯´ The funeral context of the asvina-´astra has gone unnoticed. which is said to have a thousand rays — often understood as cattle. Cf. Oldenberg 1917: 76f.34 Journal of Indological Studies. to the Adhvaryu and the Sacrificer. he made over u a ˚ to his daughter whether she was Praj¯ pati’s (or his own) on marriage this thousand (of a making the gharma pot of the pravargya ritual of the A´vin cult. Nos.7c and 8. since it is the same except for some modifications (cf.. S¯ nkh¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra s u ¯´ 9. (they serve) for the attainment of the world of heaven.123. ye showerers of wealth!’ . Keith 1920: 202. too. cf. RV 6. In the Indus . the king. the . (The Çastra) should include the Suparna [the ‘good-feathered’ bird]. Varuna’s messenger at the seat of Yama209 and thus connected with death. . so he when oiled goes. the going to (the world of heaven).4... also Gonda 1981: 91f.6: 7. a 211 This˚is said in connection with the morning litany (pr¯ taranuv¯ ka) addressed to the A´ vins. the peacock seems to have been assumed to carry the dead to heaven.’ he says this ı a .7ab a v¯ m váyó ’´ v¯ so váhisth¯ abhí práyo n¯ saty¯ vahantu. 212 Aitareya-Br¯ hmana 2.

even S¯ ry¯ S¯ vitr¯. a a Cyavana made the A´vins rejuvenate him: Cyavana was thrown into water (or: pool of youth on the Sarasvat¯). who had assumed the shape of a stallion. the mother of the divine twins. the A´vins are asked to place an embryo in the wife s ˚ by means of a golden fire drill. Keith 1920: 444-5. Tokunaga 1997: 266-7. Finally. Jaimin¯ya-Br¯ hmana 3. transl. ´ yajeyeti. so that he may be born in the tenth month. a-. which figures prominently in Vedic rites of human fertility: material representing a seed is inserted into one of the nostrils of the wife (right nostril if one desires a boy child. a a. The husband enters the wife. they said. translation modified from that of Keith 1920: 300. the marriage context is also very relevant here.´ . The myth is fully related in the Brhaddevat¯ (6. The embryo is equated with the fire — the embryo of the waters hidden in the a´vattha wood.1-2. they ran the race.The N¯ satyas. . Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 4.”215 It seems no accident that the Rgvedic verses which tell about the birth of the A´vins s ˚ start with the words: “‘Tvas. The angered sage caused . left if a girl child). Cyavana.2-3.1. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A.7.t ´ a problems for Sary¯ ta. and yet are included in the Yama songs of the Rgveda ˚ related to funerals and ancestor worship.214 Regeneration implies re-entering the womb: “A son is a light in the highest heaven.17. She became pregnant with the A´vins when sniffing the s seed of her husband.120-128. a sage decrepit with old age lay ghostlike on the ground.”213 Actually. who gave his beautiful daughter Sukany¯ to the sage in atonement. having become renewed in her. 7. the King. but in haste had emitted his seed on the ground. Similarly. 216 RV 10. . Parpola) a 35 verses) that was in the possession of these deities. according to Aitareya-Br¯ hmana ´ ´ a . Caland 1919: 251-257 with further a ı a . ‘Let us run a race for this thousand’. . a-citi-). Tokunaga 1997: 118-120). then the Açvins were victorious by means of the ass.is folk-etymologically explained to have got its name because the fire stood 213 Kaus¯taki-Br¯ hmana 18.ı gave his daughter to Soma. having become a germ (he enters) the mother.1. the bright-shining sun-god Vivasvant.t ˚ comes together on such news”. Cf. for her all the gods came as groomsmen. ed.t of the clods. sahasrena a a. What is less than a ¯ thousand is not the Açvina. s ı and he emerged young again.127 — 7.7): “Praj¯ pati a a a . . u assumed the shape of a mare.5.184. The s ´ ı fire-drill consists of a female plank of sam¯ wood and of a male stick of a´vattha wood — s s and a´vatthá. for the conclusion of funeral rituals aiming at rejuvenation and the attainment of heaven coincides with the beginning of new life in the impregnation which takes place at a wedding. Keith 1920: 202). 214 The mythical explanation of the cup of Soma offered to the A´ vins at the morning pressing (¯ svinagraha-) s a´ also links marriage and rejuvenation. Through Sukany¯ . for her u a a ı ¯ wedding ceremony he made this thousand (of verses) which they call the Açvina (Çastra).13. therefore he should recite a thousand or more” (transl. references. a ˚ ˚ see further Bloomfield 1893: 172-188. and ´ a was offended by the people of Sary¯ ta M¯ nava — they threw clods of earth at him (the word los. kum¯ r¯m j¯ y¯ m vindeya. he sacrificed with a thousand cows (the same number that the A´vins s won in the race).216 Sarany¯ . is also used of the earthen ‘bricks’ of the funeral monument. had . The birth of the N¯ satyas is here folk-etymologically connected with the nose (nas. In RV 10. used here a . he is born in the tenth month./ a n¯ s-). . 215 Sloka verses of the Sunahsepa legend recited at the royal consecration. r arranged marriage for his daughter’ — this whole world . the Aitareya-Br¯ hmana (4. He thus got all his three wishes fulfilled: punaryuv¯ sy¯ m. a ı. los.

16 & 17 (2004–2005) s (-tthá. Nos. of whom one is immortal and the other mortal. n. Mayrhofer ´.”219 Bodewitz comments: a. and who visit both the heavenly abode of the gods and the nether world in turn. I agree with Thomas Oberlies (1993) that they are very much “gods of the middle position. Nirukta ¯ 2. these are mentioned in the dual and would thus have four arms.7. Because this cosmic mountain was used as the turning-post (k¯ sth¯ ) in the chariot-race of the gods.. “According to Caland. at the junctures between night and day.. 6 the mountain probably is the sun.”221 a.. or space in between”.5c b¯ húbhy¯ m agním ayávo ’jananta ‘the Ayus generated the fire with their two arms’. themselves and decided on the matter by means of a chariot race. too. had.7c té b¯ húbhy¯ m a a. therefore that (mythical) mountain is called a stick (k¯ stha). liminal passage. eyes. also TB.(f. 1. the cosmic mountain.. 1) suggested that in India. because they made the mountain the turning-post. they are like the Dioskouroi.5 on k¯ sth¯ being identified with suvarga loka. whether the beings having those parts stood in the singular. a ´ ´ In Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 12.. dual or plural: cf.24.. cf.14. This concerns the ¯ appropriation of the ajya lauds: “They said: ‘Let us compete in a chariot-race for them and make the mountain the turning-post. 220 K¯ sthá. the seers) [produced] in the rock the fire that was fanned with their two s ¯ arms’.. Krick 1982: 158-9.. their white-and-black appearance unites these opposites. etc. a . or death and life: Janus-like. They appear in the morning and evening. 221 Bodewitz 1990: 235. a. the speakers of Vedic Sanskrit generally spoke of body parts that come in pairs (hands. according to Aristarchus. Murray 1925: II. as Werner Knobl has pointed out to me.) ‘turning post’ may have the same or different origin. four arms and four legs (cf. This seems to refer to the fact that this cosmic hill was a. On the N¯ satyas’ connection with the nose. therefore it is also called the a. RV 10. the axis mundi. “The mountain” as the turning post and the axis mundi The Jaimin¯ya-Br¯ hmana contains another case where the gods did not agree among ı a . Iliad 23.) in the dual. a a.1. Bodewitz 1990: 61.218 In this.. 22. . In my opinion giri without further qualifications denotes the primordial hill. ˚ dhamitám agním á´mani ‘they (i. a 1992: I. the two A´vins are equated with the two nostrils (n¯ a s asike a´vínau) — but the s . s s 218 The twin sons of Aktor..< -sthá-) in it one year in the shape of the horse (á´va-). though a s a a s .6.’ . a stick (k¯ sth¯ [sic for k¯ stha]220 ). Weber (1892: 773.3. saving people by helping them make s the dangerous. a. .638-642). the A´vins may have been understood to be one person: the often recurring s ritual formula devasya tv¯ savituh prasave ’´vinor b¯ hubhy¯ m. who beat Nestor in a funeral chariot race (cf. n. 174-6. later mostly identified with Meru. as. also regarded as the worldtree and used as the stick in the churning of the ocean. same chapter also equates the two ears with the two A´vins and the eyes with the two cups of the A´vins. a a ¯ ˚ ı 219 Jaimin¯ya-Br¯ hmana 1..217 The A´vins are deities of both death and (re)birth. Auswahl.36 Journal of Indological Studies. a Cf. one body with two heads. 540-1). RV 2. 345f. see Parpola 2004 [2005]: 123f.105.9. speaks of just two arms of the A´vins.(n. However. transl.) ‘stick’ and k¯ th¯ . a 217 Cf.15 probably equates aditya and k¯ sth¯ on account of the identity of sun and axis mundi.e.

224 Cf. since according to it. .226 This conception can be traced back to the Rgveda: ˚ particularly clear is the earlier cited verse RV 1. in Taittir¯ya-Aranyaka 1.und untergehenden Sonne oder der Tages. Speyer 1906. In my opinion. and their disappearance behind the mountain in the evening. RV 10. the idea of a world mountain is also present in the conception of a turning post as the axis mundi. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A.115. with this comment: “Der Gegensatz der kommenden und wider gehenden. 227 See Sieg 1923: 3ff. covering with their hands s ´ the sukra. day above.” 223 Mah¯ meru a 222 Cf. weiss niemand etwas Sicheres von dem wieder Gehenden”. Von Letzter weiss man nichts Gewiss.7cd a yán náksatram dádrse divó ná ´ ´ ¯ ´ púnar yató nákir addh¯ nú veda. also der auf. night above. ı ¯ . Sieg 1923: 1-2. Sieg 1923. who a impersonate the two A´vins: they go around the sacrificial stake. because Mount Meru is mentioned just once in the Veda. south of Mount Meru) in the morning. chariots in circles around the world mountain Meru.44. the sun and the moon never really rise or set.224 However. too.The N¯ satyas. thus he makes evening below. This is enacted in the Vedic ritual by the adhvaryu and pratiprasth¯ tar priests. that they think of him ‘He is setting’. Parpola) a 37 In the Epic and Pur¯ nic cosmography. 226 Cf.. 225 Transl.7. verily having reached the end of the day.und Nachtsonne. it turns its bright side downwards (towards the earth) in the morning in the east. Again in that they think of him ‘He is rising in the morning’. ˚ ˚ III. . with further references. the sun and other heavenly bodies drive heavenly a. 334) translates: “Wenn das kommende Tagesgestirn (noch) nicht sichtbar geworden ist. Keith 1920: 193. just like the s sun. verily having reached the end of the night he inverts himself. it turns this bright side upwards (towards the sky) in the evening in the west.”225 The sun (or the single wheel of the sun’s chariot) is understood to have a bright side and a dark side. Geldner (1951: a . whence no one sees yonder sun and moon when they go forward (eastwards).227 . According to the Aitareya-Br¯ hmana (3. in a very late text. which speaks of the bright and dark ˚ sides of the sun as visible forms of Mitra and Varuna.5. they uncover Kirfel 1920: 129f. The A´vins complete their circuit (vartís-) around the world in one day.cups of Soma. he inverts himself. so lange sie nicht wieder als das Tagesgestirn sichtbar wird. which are explained to represent the sun and the moon: “thereby they make them invisible. 228 Cf.. thus he makes day below. their apparent risings and settings are caused by their appearance to the view of the inhabitants of the Bh¯ ratavarsa (who live a .111.4).and manthin. “The (sun) never really sets or rises.3.228 Having gone round to the front (of the stake). this Vedic conception is partly similar to the later theory.223 and because the Vedic people had a different astronomical conception that excludes the theory of the world mountain. In a .222 This idea of the world mountain is supposed to have come from the ancient Near East.

´ a a . a . for the Mistress of the inimical North. Setälä 1932: 129-146. 521. Heinrich Lüders saw a striking parallellism between Väinämöinen’s opening the mountain of the north with a magic song and thus releasing the heavenly luminaries. Kemppinen sees the maiden of the North. master of magic songs and a water deity. having the rotating starry heavens as its cover. 524-560.2. This magic mill grinding out all kinds of riches was created by a heroic smith.1. and offer them while standing in front: thereby they make them visible. 177. on the one hand.1.ı 230 For a typological analysis of the original folk songs. 322-332. cf. 232 Kemppinen 1960.234 ˚ Early Aryan loanwords in Finno-Ugrian languages and the N¯ satya cult a The Finno-Ugrian languages have a considerable number of early Aryan loanwords. 8.18 and Kaus¯taki-Br¯ hmana 7. 2003.2. 1948: 47.6. the maiden of gold made as her substitute by the smith. a .18. Koivulehto 1999. whose beautiful daughter is wooed by him and his brother Väinämöinen. see Kuusi 1949 (in Finnish with a German summary). The Mistress of the North followed the boat of the robbers.3: 81. 16 & 17 (2004–2005) (the cups). Nos. . epitomized in Lönnrot’s Kalevala. the Katha-Samhit¯ (27. 510-537. have the Sampo as one of their central themes. The most widely supported interpretation sees in the Sampo a world pillar that rose from the northern mountain to the pole star.230 The magic mill Sampo shares with the vault of heaven the standing epithet kirjokansi ‘having a decorated lid’. .4.235 229 Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 4. Anttonen 2000: 166-9. also Satapatha-Br¯ hmana ı a . 561-575).2-3). ´ 18).1 = 8. 235 See Joki 1973. the treasure fell into the sea and broke into thousands of pieces. In the ensuing struggle.ı . 234 Lüders 1959: II. Sieg 1923: 3.231 The two hero brothers have been compared with the Dioskouroi (who rescue their sister Helen) and the A´vins: they woo and rescue the solar maiden s 232 locked in the northern mountain. eventually in the shape of a giant eagle carrying warriors on her back. The Sampo was locked up by the Mistress in the rocky mountain of the North behind many locks.229 The Finnic folk epics of the Sampo and related themes The pre-Christian epic songs of Finnish folk poetry. 283-284. and the Sampo all as symbols of the sun which was locked in the mountain of the North in winter.1. Kirfel 1920: 25f. the maker of the sky and its luminaries. 20) and the Taittir¯ya-Samhit¯ (6.. a . . Harva 1943. 8: 147. 231 See Setälä 1932: 242-4. 2001. fleeing by boat. but the epic heroes of the south came and stole it.233 and the opening of the cave of Vala and the release of the light and the cows by Brhaspati or A˙ giras using the sacred song or n ˚ expression of truth (rta-). Ilmarinen.. 233 Lüders 1959: II.38 Journal of Indological Studies. Similarly Maitr¯ yan¯ Samhit¯ (4.10. Caland 1912: 119f.6. whence every one sees yonder sun and moon when they go backwards [westwards]”.6. a . transl. As many others (cf. Eggeling 1885: II.

Koivulehto 2001: 248. for their slaves. Joki 1973: 283-5. Joki 1973: 297. the word for ‘hundred’. 237 Cf. like *merya-. The word could not become *metu in Proto-Finno-Ugrian. husband’ (cf.85.244 That it indeed came from Proto-Aryan and not from some other branch of IndoJoki 1973: 311. Carpelan & Parpola 2001: 111f. can only come from the Aryan branch.g.239 This word is important for the early history of the A´vin cult. s a a a a. the Dawn. *asura. 236 Cf. u a Honey. Mayrhofer 1996: II. Koivulehto 2001: 248.2b máryo ná yósam abhy èti pa´ c¯ ´ s at.. . both as a ‘(chariot) warrior’241 and as ‘lover.The N¯ satyas.8a ánu tv¯ rátho ánu máryo arvann. ˚ márya. while its cognate in Saami means ‘south’: these northernmost Finnic peo´ ¯ ple took their southern neighbours as war-captives and used their ethnic name. for the Near Eastern chariot warriors s were called ma-ri-ia-an-nu. too. lit. and I am citing them throughout also as evidence for the antiquity of the a cultic features concerned. go to the man’). RV 1. Koivulehto 2001: 247f. Carpelan & Parpola 2001: 114f. D¯rghatamas’ horse hymn RV 1. before the late Proto-Aryan sound change of Proto-Indo-European *e into *a. 239 Cf. It goes back to Merya in the Old Russian “Nestor’s Chronicle” and to early Proto-Aryan *meryo-. Arya-. was borrowed. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. I discovered one more previously unrecognized o o Proto-Aryan loanword in Finno-Ugrian and could include this new finding (and several less successful leaps to this direction) in a new version submitted on the 8th of May 2005. Carpelan & Parpola 2001: 112f. for immediately after submitting the first version of the present paper to the T¯ h¯ Gakkai on the 28th of April.236 Modern Finnish orja means ‘slave’.‘mortal.is used of a ‘young man’. The word is also an appellative meaning ‘man. Katz 2003: 123f. and today have ethnic names with an Aryan etymology.> PFU *asera). man’). also marlan kajaš ‘(woman) to marry.115. (the meaning ‘mortal’ given here is incorrect. Joki 1973: 280. because *u was restricted to the first syllable (cf. 238 This insight proved to be powerful heuristically. Thus the Cheremis call themselves Mari. ı a ˚¯ 242 E. 241 Cf.163.240 In the Rgveda. s modern Finnish sata.242 The chariot-driving A´vins are the husbands.238 Finno-Ugrian peoples of the Volga-Urals region were once ruled by an Aryan-speaking elite. from early Proto-Aryan *medhu-. beer and the N¯ satyas a Proto-Finno-Ugrian *mete ‘honey’. ˚ 244 Cf.8c s¯ ry¯ a a´ vín¯ var¯ 9b a´ vín¯ st¯ m ubh¯ var¯ ´ ´ ´ ´ u ay¯ s a a. ˚ 243 RV 10. Parpola) a 39 For instance. which contains several diagnostic sounds having divergent developments in different branches of Indo-European: Proto-Finno-Ugrian *´ata. English slave similarly comes from the ethnic name of Slavs.. 240 Cf. 2005. . 330 (references to skepticism concerning this etymology are also given). this word coming from Mitanni Aryan. lovers or wooers243 of the sun’s daughter s S¯ ry¯ .237 One of my major new insights put forward in the present paper is that many of the loanwords taken over from Proto-Aryan into the Finno-Ugrian languages are related to the cult of the N¯ satyas. wooer’. suggests derivation from Proto-Aryan *mártya.

a . which in the Aryan branch alone (cf. .f. 16 & 17 (2004–2005) s European.‘what is left over’. Rgvedic máks. 737. Hillebrandt 1927: I. ˚ a a ı ı máksa. “Drinking this.45. ´ participle.9c) has madh¯ cchista-.251 This is suggested also by the facts that the A´vins were offered a drink of hot s 245 The critical edition of the R¯ m¯ yana (5.> *makš. Carpelan & Parpola 2001: 115-125. with the prefix ud. Cf. attested in the R¯ m¯ yana (5.f.. Nos. Aikio & Kallio. Sanskrit ci-) has the meaning ‘to collect. s . Mayrhofer 1996: II. 287). and beeswax one of its principal trade products.. corresponding to Sanskrit sis.60. s . also madhu´esa. They have [in their chariot] a skin[bag] filled with honey.248 After the chariot race of the v¯ japeya rite. (cf. 8-9. but cf.t Komi si´).106. 481-491. P¯ li makkhik¯ .‘wax’ recorded in the Sabdakalpadruma.21 cp. In Khotanese Saka.added to the past a a . who in turn was not aware that this had been done still earlier by Katz (2003: 224. pile’..).not known from any Iranian language.6) and are a compared with bees (10.3 mádhvah pibatam madhupébhir asábhir utá priyám ¯ . Rgvedic máksik¯ . especially RV 4.‘beeswax.40 Journal of Indological Studies. a drink also associated a a with the A´vins. a kumiss. cf. the divine purohita and charioteer...ı a the funeral monument has been completed. Udmurt su´ < *´u´t. Honey-beer was the only kind of alcoholic drink in Russia until the days of Peter the Great. sur¯ was (mare’s or any other) milk fermented with honey. Prakrit macch¯ f.. honeycomb’. where Komi ma goes back to Proto-Permic *mo from Proto-Finno-Ugrian *mete. is shown by the Komi compound ma-si´ ‘beeswax’.249 Another rare occasion when sur¯ is consumed in Vedic ritual is a a the sautr¯ man¯ rite.. The mid-Volga region has been famous for its honey-forests. Younger Avestan maxš¯ f. 251 Cf.. a a. They only are said to be fond of honey (madh¯ yu. in press).40. had been briefly proposed earlier by Blažek (1990: 43).”. cf.250 Iranian evidence suggests that. we were not aware that the same etymology for Mari šište ‘wax’ etc. — The traditional Proto-Aryan reconstruction is *mekš. hur¯ means ‘fermented a . 10.246 s “Of all the [Vedic] gods the A´vins are most closely connected with honey (madhu). á. Sparreboom 1983: 48f.60. 248 Macdonell 1897: 49-50. a a . m¯ dhv¯) or u a ı 247 drinkers of it (madhup¯ )..10 ed. (1985: 43). in ProtoAryan times.. 245 Gorresio) in a description of the drunken revelry of the monkeys in the honey-forest Madhuvana. r . past participle of the verb sis. s says Baudh¯ yana. ´s ´ . All v¯ japeya charioteers receive an abundance of alcoholic sur¯ . for *mekši-..10). the a brahman priest who represents Brhaspati. receives a ˚ golden vessel full of honey. Mayrhofer 1996: II. u .t in Sanskrit madhu-´is. which appears to come from Late Indo-European *mekþi from Proto-Indo-European *metkw i < *medh(u) ‘honey’ + the verbal root *kw i-. with which they are mentioned in many passages.f. The Komi compound has an exact counterpart ´.112. ´ a u 250 Cf. ˚ a ´ ¯ mádhune yuñj¯ th¯ m rátham / a vartaním mádhun¯ jinvathas pathó d´tim vahethe mádhumantam a´vin¯ . which Baudh¯ yana prescribes to be celebrated when the erection of a . they sit down enjoying themselves and being exalted”. a.f. Caland 1896: 162.¯ ˚ etc. Mari šište.? and .11: 79. in other words.(cf. Cf. 247 Proto-Finno-Ugrian has *mekše ‘bee’ from early Proto-Aryan *mekši. Carpelan & Parpola 2001: 114f. 246 Cf. transl. hoard. The latter part of the compound s ´ s s s is Proto-Volga-Permic *´išta ‘beeswax’ (Mordvin šta. They give honey to the bee (1. s a ˚ 249 Baudh¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra 11.

u a a a. . 256 Cf. a ac ad s a˘ a a. . the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. Hillebrandt 1927: I. 303). An Atharvaı a a vedic hymn ascribed to Brhaspati (who is mentioned repeatedly in it).comes from the Old Indo-Aryan root *vaj. 2005. 404-5. . Joki 1973: 317. with the milk of the herbs and with progeny and riches (verse 70). ann¯ dyak¯ masya. .gibt es keinen Anhalts2 punkt”).denotes a drink. 255 Cf. 3. 5. 260 In the marriage hymn Atharvaveda 14. 540f. Mayrhofer 1996: II.116. when offered to the A´vins and to Mitra and Varuna. 737. a . the bride is commanded to win v¯ ja being girded threefold with a the milk of the earth. a In Vedic times. Aryan (*yeva) into Proto-Finno-Ugrian (*yüwä). too. 482). Joki 1973: 265.41.. and the sur¯ is purified with a filter made of horse hair. 117. in Komi there is also the compound ma-sur ‘honey-beer’.1: 1.) ‘ritual drink offering’ in Vedic. 254 Cf. The main prize of the v¯ japeya is v¯ 259 vigour or power generating new life and a 260 ´ aja. sur¯ was beer made of germinated rice and barley. 253 Cf..7cd k¯ rotar¯ chaph¯ á´ vasya v´ snah satám kumbh¯ m asiñcatam súr¯ y¯ h. p¯ nam vai p¯ rvam a a . mentions in verse 5 súr¯ m mádhu a ˚ which corresponds to Avestan (V¯d¯ vd¯ t 14. and the Avestan text N¯rangist¯ n expressly states that hur¯ is made of mare’s milk. The last quarters of the verses are idenad ˚ a a ´ a˘ u a tical except that the latter has mádh¯ n¯ m instead of súr¯ y¯ h (cf.255 Finnish peijas from Proto-Finno-Ugrian *paiyas denotes a ‘ritual drinking bout in connection with marriage. 10.254 Sur¯ . ´ ¯ a s a a s a ˚ ˚ 259 For an exhaustive study of v¯ ´ aja. Hillebrandt 1927: I.‘to be powerful’.‘to be(come) powerful’. u . LIV 1998: 601-602 (“Für den Ansatz *h weg’ .2. and that the Soma drink. madhupéya-. e. The A´vins are also said to have produced one hundred vessels of sur¯ from the hoof of s a 253 the horse. ı e a a a @ ¯ 252 Cf. RV 1. 258 RV 10. RV 1.34.(m. see Hintze 2000. Koivulehto 2003. Mayrhofer 1996: II. which is food. . which has become péya. . Mayrhofer 1996: II. u . 257 Cf.258 s V¯ ja ‘generative power’ and the new year feast a ´ aja-. Baudh¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra 18. Komi sur) ‘beer’. 261 Cf.as prize. and bear-killing’. .261 mare’s milk’.g. a is of Indian origin. from Proto-Indo-European *weg’. 85-119. r¯ pam v¯ jah.256 Twelve péya. a . 4. has been borrowed into the a Permic languages of the Urals as *sur (Udmurt sur.. S¯ nkh¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra 15. 450ff.3d -áta a y¯ tam madhupéyam a´ vin¯ . V¯ attested only in nominal and verbal derivatives.257 As a neuter noun. a peya.51 m¯ s¯ n¯ m eva r¯ pam pey¯ h samvatsarasya a a u aa a u . of course. Mayrhofer 1996: II. RV 1.. and the word for ‘barley’ has been borrowed from early Proto. 6 tayor ubhayor aptyai. a. Carpelan & Parpola 2001: 127. v¯ jena yaksyam¯ nah ´ a˙ a ´ ´ u a a a a a. especially pp. 41 . Koivulehto 1999: 223.252 s . purast¯ t samvatsaram peyair yajñakratubhir yajate. had to be mixed with milk and honey. p¯ nam vai pey¯ h / annam v¯ jah. ¯ . ˚ ˚ ´ s ´˙ ´ saph¯ á´vasya v¯ jíno ján¯ ya satám kumbh¯ m asiñcatam mádh¯ n¯ m. It goes back to Proto-Aryan *paiya-s.6. but beer was probably also made of barley in Proto-Aryan times. a honey drink of which the A´vins partake. funerals.offerings are to be performed during the year preceding the v¯ japeya sacrifice. a. Barley is sacred to Varuna. 2. Rice. saradi v¯ japeyah. ´ ath¯ nnam. ´ .The N¯ satyas. a . . Parpola) a milk mixed with honey in the pravargya or gharma ritual.11b devébhir y¯ tam madhupéyam a´ vin¯ .17) huraii˚ v¯ maδ¯ uš (cf.6cd ´ ´ ´˙ r.

269 In RV 1.267 Its purpose would have been to infuse the nature with new generative power. 38. wenn sie˚ mit am .e. called casala. ı ´ ˙ .6. ˚ ˚ ´˚ ´ casalavantah sváravah prthivy¯ “Wie die Hörner der gehörnten (Tiere)˚ sehen die Pfosten aus.42 Journal of Indological Studies. . ˚ dem Knauf versehen auf der Erde (stehen)” (Geldner 1951: I. Sparreboom 1983: 16. ´ a . he touches the top-piece made of wheat.271 The ˚ original meaning is thought to be the disk-like front part of a boar’s snout. . ˚ v¯ japéyena yájate. After the chariot race of the v¯ japeya. The combination of the sun and food as a the prize or goal of the v¯ japeya has led to the suggestion that the race was originally part a of the new year celebrations at winter solstice. This meaning is certain in Maitr¯ yan¯ Samhit¯ 1.2. 2001: 249. O gods!”263 “And as to why he touches the wheat: wheat is food.10ab srng¯ n¯véc chrngínam sám dadrsre ´´ ˙ a.(from Proto-Indo-European kw ekw lo-). The Finns have celebrated kekri in late autumn at the end of the agricultural year with feasting.12 atha godh¯ an upa sprsati / svàr dev¯ aganméti. .6b casalam yé a´ vay¯ p¯ ´ ´ s u aya táksati /. games and prognostications about the new year. the sacrificer’s) sacrificial post is the sun over there” a . 36. RV 3. the year is compared to the (solid disk-)wheel (cakrá-). 268 Cf. Vilkuna 1968: 244-259.1.´ attested twice in the Rgveda. where it is said that “this earth was in the begina .1.8.266 The v¯ japeya is to be performed in the autumn.¯ ¯ In the v¯ japeya. 270 Cf. 266 Cf.and made of wheat.28.1. .¯ . 16 & 17 (2004–2005) ´ The v¯ aja. 265 Cf.269 In Saami. 263 Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 5. cf.262 and the sacrificer ascends it. from earlier *kekräj.as the prize and goal of the v¯ japeya is represented by the top-piece of the a ´ ¯ a sacrificial stake. 33. cycle’. *kekrä developed into geavri meaning ‘a circular thing’. circle. 271 RV 1. a 262 According to Aitareya-Br¯ hmana 5. cf.162.3.ı . .264 a a The v¯ japeya texts emphasize the v¯ ja’s identification with food. Biardeau 1989).¯. saying “We have reached the sun. Ascending the sacrificial stake instead of the turning post may represent a syncretistic a a u . the top-piece of the sacrificial pillar is called casala-. both times in connection with the sacrificial pillar.2.268 Kekri. Rau 1983: 22f. “his (i.˚Koivulehto 2000. 346). svàr hy èsa gachati yó ´ ´ ´ a a um¯ . Thite 1968: 31-34. Gonda 1966: 86.265 and all growth and a a vegetation on the earth depends upon the sun.270 Casala and Finnic *kärsä ‘pig’s snout’ . This word is a . transl. . .164.¯ . ‘wheel. wins food. a 264 Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 5. Nos. Having reached the top. for v¯ ja-peya is the same as anna-peya (food and drink)”. a protoform of Sanskrit cakrá-. Eggeling 1894: III. borrowed from early Proto-Aryan *kekro. is a derivative from Proto-Finno-Ugric *kekrä. absorption of the rituals that prevailed in South Asia before the arrival of the Rgvedic Aryans.48. since the sacrificial ˚ stake played an important role in those rituals (cf. 267 Kuiper 1960: 240. a ladder is erected against the sacrificial post. (asau v¯ asy¯ dityo y¯ pah).13. and he who offers the V¯ japeya.

280 Cf.¯ the snout). most suffixes have front and back vocalic variants in Finnish (e. ´ ´ ´ Maitr¯ yan¯ Samhit¯ 1.´ ¯ . . cf. one must use soil dug up by u.11 t¯ em¯ sá iti var¯ há új jagh¯ na.< early Proto-Aryan *cerš. of the eight book of the Rgveda — representing the first immigration wave of the Indo˚ Aryans. Mordvin and Mari (in the Volgaic languages the meaning is ‘brushwood. she was dug up by a boar called Em¯ sa. 273 Cf. who was her husband. sometimes there is semantic divergence . see Biardeau 1989: 42. SKES I (1955): 162. with cognates in Estonian. LIV Add (2001): 100. the beginning the earth had just the measure of a span. RV 8. For a drawing of the y¯ pa and the casala (which does resemble u .2.1. Krick 1982: 145-155. the meanings ‘to plough’ and ‘to dig up soil with snout (as pigs do)’ are ¯ recorded throughout the language family. a derivative (with the suffix . 278 Cf.34. scrape’. seem to go back to the K¯ nvas.276 According to the corresponding passage of the Katha-Samhit¯ (8. The gharma offering seems to have started with the K¯ nva family a a.ı . avat¯ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ¯ var¯ hávihatam up¯ agním adhattá im¯ evá tán n¯ ar¯ d – asy¯ enam m¯ ay¯ m ádhy¯ a asy¯ am ap¯ a .ı avad vái var¯ hásya casalam t¯ ıyám ágra as¯d . The gharma pot is the vessel in which heated milk is offered to the N¯ satyas. Praj¯ pati. I .m. among whom the A´vin cult prevailed. to draw furrows’.11). sò ’sy¯ h pátih praj¯ ´ ´ ´ a am u. ¯ . would like to suggest Finnish karhi < *karši ‘harrow made of logs ˚ breaking off branches’. cf. branches’). LIV (1998): 347f.77.). where soil thrown up by the boar must be used. 279 Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 14. The myths concerning the boar Emusa s . a aya a atr¯ . Mayrhofer 1992: I. 275 For the Proto-Dravidian root *ulu. sometimes the meaning remains the same./ kars. ‘the last furrow of a field’). ˚ 282 On account of the vowel harmony (considered to be a Proto-Finno-Ugrian feature). Parpola) a 43 ning as large as the snout of a boar”272 . cf.2.10 and Krick 1982: 151 n. SSA 1 (1992): 312.6.3: 90. -pa / -pä. also Old Indo-Aryan krsí.274 The pig’s habit to scratch the earth is often compared to ploughing. cf. ‘ploughing.275 The Maitr¯ yan¯ Samhit¯ (1. .279 Correspondingly. 688.3) speaks of the a . For a translation and commentary see Krick 1982: 149f. row’.g. ˚karhia. a . Praj¯ pati in the shape of a boar brought up in his mouth (mukha)277 when diving to the a ´ bottom of the primeval ocean.‘to drag.278 According to the Satapatha-Br¯ hmana (14.13).. karhita by ‘to harrow. -lla / -llä.281 a. in a . a boar’s snout and the earth in the context of the establishment of sacred fires.4-6 y¯ a . Hittite gul-ša-an-zi ‘they incise’. . ..¯ the story and thus confirms the meaning ‘snout’. and 319f. and formation of front and back vocalic word pairs is common in Finnic. 319f. Greek télson n. 281 Cf.2). Krick 1982: 152.from Proto-Indo-European *kw els. apatih. 276 Cf. a a a.f.¯ -¯ la-) of the root cars. With the meaning ‘pig’s snout’ the word can be ´ explained as a dissimilatory development of earlier *carsala-. a adhatte – tásm¯ d esa a . *kerš.6.< .yád a ¯ ı . 277 Biardeau (1989: 43) points out that the word múkha. a . 274 Cf. Mayrhofer 1992: I. 393 with further references. n. to draw furrows.‘to drag. etc.‘to draw furrows’ (cf. field’ (RV 10.in the other variant of ´ . As a possible new Proto-Finno-Ugrian loanword from Proto-Aryan karš.1. Krick 1982: 154. a 280 a boar for making the gharma pot. Avestan karša.goes back to Proto-Aryan *carš. atr¯ a ´ ´ ´ var¯ h¯ vímradata – esá hy àsy¯ m¯ am bibhárti. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. the size of the earth was in the beginning as much as the creator god . Proto-Finno-Ugrian *kärsä ‘pig’s snout’ is probably a front vocalic variant282 of earlier 272 Cf.The N¯ satyas. 538f.273 Indo-Aryan cars. . ‘fura . plough’. Burrow & Emeneau 1984: 67 no.‘mouth’ corresponds to casala.

is unapproachable. Yašt 10.‘pig’s snout.with *-rs. Within the Finno-Ugrian family. no extra-Finno-Ugrian source has been proposed for the word before. Macdonell 1897: 41. Cf. iron tendons. the pillars of life. and iron jaws. 106. as he (= V r Traγna = boar) catches up with the opponent(s).´ . speckle-faced. which is conceived of as a demon286 — the boar seems to have been appreciated in the Bactria and Margiana Archaeological Complex. the etymon is found only in the Finnic branch. castrated hog’ and Mordvin uro´.121.¯ ˘ a ´ ´ ´ ´ ı .3-8) while dealing with the casala in connection with the making of the sacrificial pillar. Estonian kärss (gen. Avestan karša. the opponents) down with a toss (of his head): he does not even think he has struck. Lydic kärz(ä) ‘pig’s snout’. . 283 Jorma Koivulehto has (orally) suggested that the replacement of Proto-Aryan *-rš.4: a .288 compare also the half-Iranian (with Iranian Mihira a (cf. 514f. Koivulehto 1999: 216.61. Vepsian kärz ‘pig’s snout’. Yet the Maitr¯ yan¯ Samhit¯ (3. as it exits in Balto-Slavic as well (on the RUKI rule. Votyan kärsä ‘pig’s snout. 288 Cf. Finnish tyhmä ‘stupid’ and tuhma ‘naughty’). even the vertebrae. n.99. 108). the hair. 284 Finnish kärsä ‘(pig’s) snout’ (attested since 1745). 490). 109.yád ı a . beset by passion — simultaneously by manly valour —. which during its peak phase has produced among other things a magnificent ceremonial mace head depicting the boar —.m. and the blood of men false to the contract. s urozi ‘castrated hog’ is reconstructed as *(v)ora´ ‘boar’ and this is derived from early s Proto-Aryan *vor¯ zha ‘boar’. Nos.¯ ˚ 287 Cf. to my knowledge. The word has been borrowed from Finnic into Russian (kyárzya.6.in ProtoFinno-Ugrian can best be explained by assuming that Proto-Finno-Ugrian at this stage did not yet have the phoneme *š. has iron hind feet. the Avestan text ibid. Benveniste in Benveniste & Renou 1934: 35. kyárza ‘pig’s snout’) and from Finnish into Saami (gœrsse ‘pig’s snout). 16 & 17 (2004–2005) *karsa283 from Proto-Aryan *karša.11. because Indra raised it as a vajra against Vrtra: índrasya casalam – yé vái dev¯ .44 Journal of Indological Studies. he knocks them (lit.287 o ˇι a ι The popularity of this image in later Iran and Armenia is attested in the numerous names containing the word ‘boar’ (var¯ z).7. cf. male boar with sharp fangs and sharp tusks. 1. Gershevitch 1959: 107. e. beak of a vessel’.drujam mašy¯ nam). This is a new etymology. . .” (Transl. now Kobayashi 2004: 149). ˚ .´ . cf. Mayrhofer 1996: II.. he cuts to pieces everything at once. 285 Cf. in the Avesta the god of victory. SSA 1 (1992): 478a. a n a ˘ a´ ı atyámanyanta tésam v¯ etád yád upáris.77. runs in the shape of a boar (var¯ za) in a front of MiTra and cuts down men false to the contract (miTr¯ .70-72 “Grass-land magnate Mithra we worship . ac casalasy¯ n˚ .¯ ˙ ˙ ˙ ´ ¯ ¯ a ˙ gulim¯ trám k¯ ryàm – a˙ gulim¯ trám hí tád ágr¯ as¯d – a .. ˚ a .g. mingling (lit. yát táto várs¯yah kury¯ vájro bh¯ tv¯ yájam¯ nasya pa´un ávatis. Ingrian kärsä ‘(pig’s) snout. nor has he the impression he is hitting anybody. an iron tail. Joki 1973: 296. iron fore-feet. the springs of vitality.284 Another word connected with the pig has been borrowed from Proto-Aryan into ProtoFinno-Ugrian: the protoform of Finnish oras ‘boar. SKES II (1958): 262b. agressive. grim.. 67. hed – índro vái vrtr¯ vájram údayachat – ad u a a s¯ t aya . kärsa) ‘pig’s snout’. ‘furrow’) from early Proto-Aryan *koršo. a a ˘ a´ ı sò ’vl¯yata – tásya v¯ etád ánunadyai yác casalam prthum¯ trám k¯ ryàm – prthum¯ trám hí tád ágr¯ as¯t . but the RUKI rule seems to be very early. 8. t¯ .285 While in the Rgveda Indra has an inimical relation with a´ ˚ the boar.. 286 Cf. at least not in this cluster (for *š. also ibid. 69 (Cyrus as a beast more ferocious than the ee ee ee . s¯ dhy¯ yajñám ah a a . he who mingles) together on the ground the bones. a animató ’grhnat tásm¯ d animató – yád índra udáyachat tásm¯ d aindrám. 10. V r Traγna. Karelian kärsä ‘(pig’s) snout. ˚ ˙ ´ ¯ ¯ a .9. Sammallahti 1988: 482.ı a ˚ 119. the brains. and strong.< Proto-Indo-European *kw olso-.10.¯ ´ ˘ ´ ´ to Indra. says that it belongs . until he has smashed even the vertebrae. RV 1. hollow of a pipe or ladle’. furrow’ (cf. . in front of whom flies Ahura-created V r Traγna in the shape of a wild. a boar that kills at one blow. another alternative is to assume that the word was borrowed so early that the RUKI rule did not yet apply (*karsa). beak of a vessel’.

292 Baudh¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra 10. who lived in northwest a India around AD 600.54.50 athaitasminn evaik¯ da´ e ’hni dv¯ da´ ay¯ hna upakalpayata .¯ s ı .¯ iot. transl. among other things “he offers five oblations on the front part of the chariot [rathamukhe] respectively with the [five] formulas [recorded in Taittir¯ya-Samhit¯ ı . 294 Cf.¯ the chariot) has copper fixed to it.The N¯ satyas.. e. is fixed to the tip of the pole at the very front of the char.. rope. “(The word) casalamukh¯yam (means) ‘for the sake of the offerings at the front of the chariot’: ı . this is the meaning”.” The commentary translations are mine.289 On the twelfth day. i.¯ ı ı a ı plains the term casalahom¯yam as follows: casalahom¯yam / lohabaddhatv¯ n mukham casalavad bhavat¯ti . the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. Baudh¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra 10. 441).4.¯ a´ . One is Proto-Finnoa Ugrian *re´mä ‘rope’ from early Proto-Aryan *re´ mi.¯ a casalam ucyate / mukhahom¯ rtham ity arthah (Caland 1913[-1923]: III.35. index p. ´˙ s s ´˘ ı˙ a˘ ˚ 45 . a. the fire is carried forward while the apratiratha ..54. . . Koivulehto 2001: 250 (cf...21a (to the A´ vins) ra´ m¯mr iva yachatam adhvar¯ m úpa.. ı .¯ . a second hotar priest for reciting the battle hymn called ápratiratha. later takes the place of V@r@Traγna).g.¯ copper. “Because the front (of .293 Old Indos c s Aryan ra´mi.291 Different kinds of offerings follow. where the offerings s . this means that the top-piece.¯ are prescribed).¯ . ´ a u 291 Cf.. on the eleventh day of the fire-altar ritual.¯ hymn is recited290 and the chariot is made to roll forwards. 693. also Mayrhofer 1996: II. The offerings which are performed there are called casala offerings. RV 8. Caland refers to chapter 10. there are other early Finno-Ugrian loanwords from Proto-Aryan that can be associated with the chariot and thereby with the cult of the N¯ satyas. .¯ . and a chariot for the sake of the offering upon the casala.¯ the word casala denotes the tip of the chariot provided with a ‘snout of the chariot’.¯ s tion on the front (of the chariot). Thus the boar symbolized by his snout always goes in front of the chariot-warrior. 60. Baudh¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra 10. cord’. bhuvanasya pate . Bhavasv¯ min’s commentary (Vivarana) exa a a . ratham casalahom¯yam . as usual. 25) called Mah¯ gnisarvasva comments: casalahom¯yam rathamukhahom¯ rtham a . casala.7. ı . the sacrificer a u should procure for the rituals of the twelth day.50). Kashikar 2003: II. s Volga-Finnic *warsa ‘foal’ has been considered as a relatively young loan ¯ wild boar) and 72 (Atar.51. index p.¯ . The Indian tradition has preserved an indication of how the god of victory in the shape of a boar goes in front of MiTra — the original chariot-warrior. .¯ 290 Cf. . among other things. . a 3.¯ the sake of these (offerings) is the casalahom¯ya (chariot). . . Some other chariot-related terms in Proto-Finno-Ugrian Besides *kekrä ‘wheel’ and *kärsä ‘pig’s snout’ as the copper front-plate of the chariot pole.. The chariot (to be procured) for . The “excellent bh¯ sya on the agnipra´na (X)” (Caland a.e.. it is for the sake of the liba. ´ a u 293 Cf.‘string. ¯ a. index p. On analogy with the sacrificial pole. . a hot¯ ram apratirathasy¯ nuvakt¯ ram .. united with (a plate of) . ratha´ casalahom¯yah (Caland 1913[-1923]: III. the fire.”292 . beginning with]. it is ‘provided with a casala’ and called casala. Krick 1982: 336f. Parpola) a < MiTra) proper name of the famous astronomer Var¯ ha-mihira. According to the ´ Baudh¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra (10. 60). a 1913[-1923]: III. dvit¯yam ´ a u a s a s¯ a ı . ı . ¯ rathacasalaval lohabaddham rath¯ gram casala´abdenocyate / tatra kriyam¯ na hom¯ s casalahom¯ h / tadartho a .denotes ‘rays of the sun’ and ‘reins’ connected with the charioteer and the 294 A´vins. 289 Cf.

Mayrhofer 1992: I. 308 Cf. 302 Mayrhofer (1992: I.306 A necklace of gold or silver.. and says that day by day Nada takes Yama southwards. all meaning ‘convex’. 366f.3. kupare. where Nala serves as King Rtuparna’s charioteer with the adopted name B¯ huka (he a a a .297 s I would like to propose a possible new etymology for Finnic kupera ‘convex’. has already been proposed among others by E. Horsch 1966: 26f.301 The leader of warring bands had a chariot. Sparreboom 1983: 152 and 56f. Nos. .10..11. SSA 1. e SSA 1 (1992): 444. . for I see that a B¯ huka’s horsemanship is equal to Nala’s.28) as the proper name of Kubera Vai´ravana.11 and the Katha-Samhit¯ 10. The first part of these bahuvr¯hi compounds a ı . Joki 1973: 337. is given to the adhvaryu priest in the horse sac.” (transl. cf.. bull.denotes the convex railing of the ubara-. riches. Mayrhofer 1996: II. he wondered about B¯ huka’s horsemanship.1ab a v¯ m rátho ródas¯ badbadh¯ nó hiranyáyo v´ sabhir y¯ tv á´ vaih.. other refera . such as Finnish kupa..1. kupertaa etc. 366f. a s . southern fire.4. ˚ is here “deformed” like Kubera).1. ¯ ´ a˙ a ´ ´ u u 296 This 295 Cf. 304 Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 2. a a Or could it possibly be King Nala. Mayrhofer 1996: II.. Apastamba-Srautas¯ tra 18. Mayrhofer 1992: I. nada-.5. niská-. u 302 which corresponds to Natakuvera in P¯ li. and the association with a chariot is visible from the name that Kubera’s son has according to Epic sources: Nalak¯ bara.. van Buitenen 1975: II.69.. 16 & 17 (2004–2005) from Iranian (Scythian) — comparing Ossetic wyrs.307 The sacrificial gifts regularly given at the v¯ japeya also include 17 niskas. RV 7. but does not connect them with the chariot railing. a ‘Is this M¯ tali. . kuber. The oldest attestations are Maitr¯ yan¯ Samhit¯ 2.12-15. Koivulehto 1999: 226f. .?’ .1-2 equates King Yama with the g¯ rhapatya fire and Nada Naisidha with the ´ a a .ı a . ı a r. nala-.) cites these names. Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 13. Mah¯ bh¯ rata 3. a . the chief of robber bands. Yes. 306 Cf. Krick 1982: 438.is first attested in the Atharvaveda (8. later the Hindu god of s .: “The k¯ bara is the heavy curved top or rail of the framework which u ran around the front and two sides of the platform of the car to protect the occupants standing on it”. urs ‘stallion’ — on account of -rs-. and his skills are wondered at by his own old charioteer: “When V¯ rsneya heard a .298 namely ´ ´ ubara.7-8. 300 Cf. 305 Cf. Ingrian kupp¯ ra.295 but *kärsä ‘snout’ suggests that *warsa could be a similar a borrowing from Proto-Aryan *vrsan-/*vršan. Cf.4. having the general sense of something round or convex (cf. rifice. 299 As the Indo-Aryan words are etymologically unexplained. ´ a . nala. 1992: 443f..303 This word is involved in the proper name of King Nada Naisidha of the . 297 Cf. N.296 The ˚ ˚ etymon is used of the virile stallions that pull the chariot of the A´vins.‘reed’. the charioteer of the King of the Gods? For I find the same great talent in the valiant B¯ huka. the loan direction might also be the opposite. . 575f. .. Joki 1973: 337.308 a . denotes the material of which the convex chariot railing was made: nada-. 385f.).305 the latter is a . . . Karelian kupera..304 corresponding to the Epic king Nala Naisadha. ences in Rau 1983: 28. Mayrhofer 1996: II. ´ Satapatha-Br¯ hmana.‘male. the roar of the chariot and saw the driver’s control of the horses. 8.2. stallion’.46 Journal of Indological Studies. The variant form kúbera. kúbera-. which is rare in early Finno-Ugrian. cf. 352).3. B¯ huka knows the same tricks that Nala knew. on the Finno-Ugrian side there are other apparently related words.69. Setälä and Jalo Kalima.299 The word k¯ Old Indo-Aryan k¯ 300 chariot-box. famed for his skills as a charioteer. 301 Cf. 303 Cf. S¯ nkh¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra 15.3. .. a 307 Cf. ˚ ˚ 298 Finnish kupera (attested since 1791). ´ ¯ a.

Sampo originally denoted the world pillar: a related word. where mention is made of charioteers ˚ ´ ¯ ahas¯ (váhnayah) and their vehicle (v¯ a) — words fitting the ajya lauds which derive their . . boundary stone. 309 name from the chariot race (¯ jí-) of the gods. 312 See EA 25 in Moran 1992: 73f. sampas. but rejected the comparison on account of the *š problem.6. ˚ Mitanni Aryan words that have been etymogically identified in the Akkadian documents of the Near East: mani-nnu ‘necklace’ has the same Hurrian suffix -nnu as the earlier discussed mariannu. .1-3.´ . . therefore a . 39 (pieces of) gold leaf. 48. the Sampo.and glosses it with sraj-. 311 Cf.312 Old Indo-Aryan niská.instead of plain niska.2. Rau 1974: 52f. Maní. among many other gifts on the occasion of his wedding with Tušratta’s daughter.105 quoted above (cf. Lydic nišk(e).” ˘ 313 The etymon is attested only in the Finnic branch (Finnish niska. Livonian n¯’sk) and as a Finnish loanword widely in Saami (North ı Saami nis’ke ‘neck’. . is Finnic *sampas (Finnish sammas.‘wearing a niska on one’s neck’) vs. . Mayrhofer 1996: II. it with me on several occasions. and if we can explain the . . 314 Cf. . .1 and Jaimin¯ya-Br¯ hmana 1.310 The text uses the expression niska.‘wearing a mani necklace on one’s neck’) is one of the few ı . . ˚ Old Slavonic griv˘na ‘neck-ornament’.‘necklace’ (cf.] purast¯ d bibhrati. the king of Egypt. from early Proto-Aryan. and so has been griv˘na. the garland is worn in front (on breast). .10-12 corresponding to Rgveda 8. Rgveda 1.The N¯ satyas. . meaning ‘pillar. 293. cut: 37 genuine lapis lazuli stones. 310 Jaimin¯ya-Br¯ hmana 2. substitution of Proto-Aryan *š with Proto-Finno-Ugrian *s in the same way as in *kärsä < *karša-. 54. note 219). . world pillar’.mani. SSA 2 (1995): 224-225. and 1992: I.122. etc. a ı a .311 The Mitanni king Tušratta describes in detail over 20 maninnu necklaces that he has sent to his son-in-law Nimmureya.313 The difference in meaning (Proto-Indo-Aryan ‘neck-ornament’ vs. 509. *kekrä. . Mayrhofer 1996: II. we have a Proto-Aryan loanword in Finnic *niska ‘neck’.goes back to Proto-Aryan *niška-. Estonian niska [< Finnish].12) states that it belongs to Indra and symbolizes the necklace. Niská. An example: “1 maninnu-necklace. . ı a.. Vepsian nišk. Finnic ‘neck’) is parallelled by Proto´ ı Aryan *gr¯v¯ ‘neck’ (cf. a 3.12 ı a 309 Cf. also Rgvedic niská-gr¯va.14 mani-gr¯vá.‘chariot warrior’. ˙ maham indra ya ojasety aindram bhavati / niskasya haitan mane r¯ pam / tasm¯ n a ˘ .314 ı The world pillar and the churning of the milk ocean We have seen that Proto-Finno-Ugrian had borrowed the word for wheel. the necklace i. Karelian niska. This is important for interpreting the magic mill of the Finnish folk epic. of monetary unit. ´ Votyan niska. cf. Koivulehto has considered the etymology and discussed . . the Jaimin¯yaa ı Br¯ hmana (2.e.). the centerpiece a genuine hulalu-stone mounted on gold. The word has been linked etymologically to Sanskrit niská. pole. a . : sraja ed. While prescribing this laud. . Pañcavimsa-Br¯ hmana 7. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. u niskam manim srajam [srajam most mss.by Blažek (1990: 41) without further comment. Parpola) a 47 ¯ The third ajya laud of the mah¯ vrata rite is to be sung on the verses Jaimin¯ya-Samhit¯ a ı .has been used in Vedic India also as a kind ı .

48

Journal of Indological Studies, Nos. 16 & 17 (2004–2005)

Estonian sammas, sambas). Its derivation from Proto-Aryan *stambha-s ‘prop, post, (cosmic) pillar’, first suggested in 1930, is now widely accepted.315 The Sampo was understood to be a a magic mill grinding out any grain and other material wealth for its owner. Martti Haavio has compared the Sampo to the Indian epic and pur¯ nic myth of the churning of the milk ocean, in which the cosmic mountain was a. used as the churning stick and all sorts of treasures were produced.316 Above, I have already quoted Henk Bodewitz to the effect that the turning post (k¯ s. h¯ -) of the divine a. t a chariot race represents the cosmic mountain as the churning stick (k¯ s. ha-) of the cosmic a. t ocean. The chief product from the churning317 of the milk ocean was the nectar of immortality. The Vedic domestic ritual describes a ceremony of receiving honoured guests, called arghá-.318 That this ceremony goes back to Proto-Aryan times is suggested by the Finnish compound arvovieras ‘honoured guest’, with Proto-Finno-Ugrian *arva ‘price, value’ from Proto-Aryan *argha ‘price, value’.319 The guest was offered a drink which consisted of sour milk (dádhi-) and honey (and ghee); its name madhuparká- or madhumantha- suggests it was churned.320 This drink can be connected with the horse and the A´vins. A famous horse of the s Rgvedic period is Dadhikr¯ van: its name contains the word dádhi- ‘sour milk’. The a ˚ same word is found in the name of Sage Dadhyañc, whom the A´vins decapitated and s revived with a horse’s head, so that he would be able to teach them the secret of “honeyknowledge”, madhu-vidy¯ . This secret amounted to reviving the dead, and probably ina volved a drink of immortality containing honey and sour milk. In the Finnish folk epic, the mother of a dead hero asks the bee to fetch honey from the highest heaven so that she can revive her son. A unique grave in the mid-Volga region near Samara contained a human skeleton, which had the skull of a horse instead of a man. This archaeological find from the Sintashta-Arkaim horizon — probably representing the Proto-Aryan culture — parallels the Vedic myth of Sage Dadhyañc.321

315 Cf. Kalima 1930; Mayrhofer 1996: II, 753f.; Koivulehto 1999: 230. Kalima and Koivulehto point out that original st- has been replaced with s- also in some very old Baltic and Germanic loanwords in Finnic. 316 Haavio 1967: 189-203; cf. Anttonen 2000: 168. For the pur¯ nic myth of amrtamanthana, see Rüping 1970. a. ˚ 317 The A´ vins are associated with churning (manthana-) also by fire-churning or fire-drilling, which symbols izes the generation of offspring. 318 Cf. Hillebrandt 1897: 79. 319 Cf. Joki 1973: 251; Koivulehto 1999: 216. 320 Cf. Hillebrandt 1927: I, 476-7. 321 Cf. Anthony & Vinogradov 1995; Carpelan & Parpola 2001: 121f.

The N¯ satyas, the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. Parpola) a The turning post of the chariot race as the world pillar The v¯ japeya sacrifice culminates in a chariot race. The sacrificer touches the two a wheels and ascends the chariot with the formula, “At the impulse of God Savitr, may I ˚ win v¯ ja through the v¯ ja-winning Brhaspati”. At the same time, the brahman priest puts a a ˚ his arms on the wheel and ascends it. This chariot wheel had been placed horizontally on the top of a post consisting of a chariot axle and fixed in the ground at the starting point of the race, on the border of the sacrificial area. The brahman priest recites the formula, “At the impulse of God Savitr, may I ascend the highest vault through the v¯ ja-winning a ˚ Brhaspati”. When the race starts at noon, the brahman priest sings the v¯ jin¯ m s¯ man322 a a. a ˚ and either he himself or some assistant turns the chariot wheel on which he is sitting three times sunwise.323 Here the formula equates the rotating chariot wheel on the top of a chariot axle expressly with the highest heaven, to which the brahman symbolically ascends. We obtain a model corresponding to the conception behind the magic mill of the Finnic poems, the cosmic pillar supporting the rotating, star-decorated vault of heaven, Finnish sampo from

49

Proto-Aryan *stambha-. The Vedic concept of “world pillar” or “axis mundi” is associated with the verb sta(m)bhand its variant ska(m)bh-. In the long Skambha hymns of the Atharvaveda (10,7-8), the cosmic pillar, which props heaven and earth apart from each other, is praised as the ultimate principle behind everything and identified with the bráhman. The noun stambha- is also used of the axle of the chariot.324 In the Jaimin¯ya-Upanisad-Br¯ hmana, the atmosphere separating heaven and earth is ı a . . compared to the axle keeping the two wheels apart.325 According to the Rgveda, Indra ˚
322 Gr¯ megeya-G¯ na 11,2,30 on S¯ maveda 1,435 = Jaimin¯ya-Samhit¯ 1,42,9 (not in the RV): avir mary¯ a a a a ı a ¯ ¯ . a ˚ v¯ jam v¯ jino agman. a . a 323 Cf. Baudh¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra 11,8 g¯ yati brahm¯ v¯ jin¯ m s¯ ma / tam ya eva ka´ ca parikarmy avestayati / ´ a u a a a a. a s ¯ .. . ¯ ´ a dh¯ vanty ajisrtah; Apastamba-Srautas¯ tra 18,4,3 c¯ tv¯ le rath¯ ksakrtim k¯ s. ham nikh¯ ya tasminn audumbaram a u a a a .¯ ¯ . a. t . . . ˚ s¯ . rathacakram ˚saptada´aram pratimuñcati, 8 devasy¯ ham savituh prasave brhaspatin¯ v¯ jajit¯ v¯ jam jesam ity a . a a a a . . . . ˚ 10 tasya cakram trih pradaksinam audumbaram rathacakram brahm¯ rohati, 9 tam aha v¯ jin¯ m s¯ ma g¯ yeti, a a a. a a ¯ . . . . . . ´ u. ¯ aa avartayati, 11 vartam¯ ne brahm¯ g¯ yati. L¯ ty¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra 5,12,9 p¯ rvenagn¯dhr¯yam sth¯ na nikh¯ t¯ a a a a. a u u .¯ ı ı . ¯ sy¯ t, 10 daksinena m¯ rj¯ l¯yam antarved¯ti sandilyah, 11 tasy¯ m audumbaram saptada´aram rathacakram a a aı ı ´¯ . . a s¯ . . . . . . pratimuktam sy¯ t, 12 tadabh¯ ve yat kim ca rathacakram, 13 tasmin b¯ h¯ adadhy¯ d devasy¯ ham savituh prasave a a u¯ a a . . a . . satyasavaso brhaspater v¯ jino v¯ jajito varsis. ham adhin¯ kam ruheyam iti, 14 rathesv ajim dh¯ vatsv avir mary¯ a a a . a a ¯ . .t . ¯ . ˚ iti g¯ yed ... 18 parivartayan g¯ yet parivartya g¯ yed g¯tv¯ v¯ parivartayed g¯ yato v¯ nyah parivartayet. a a a ı a a a a . 324 Cf. án-aksa-stambham ‘so as not to interfere with the axle-tree’ in Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 3,6,4,10-11 (cf. ´ a . . Eggeling 1885: II, 164; Sparreboom 1983: 156). The noun viskambha- denotes a ‘beam running parallel to . the axle of a cart’ in Paippal¯ da-Atharvaveda 20,26,5-6; Pañcavimsa-Br¯ hmana 6,5,14; L¯ ty¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra a a a. a . ´ u .´ . 1,9,23, and Dr¯ hy¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra 3,1,21 (cf. Sparreboom 1983: 74f. and 149). a a . ´ u 325 Jaimin¯ya-Upanisad-Br¯ hmana 1,20,3 tad yath¯ k¯ sthena pal¯ se viskabdhe sy¯ t¯ m aksena v¯ cakr¯ v evam ı a a a. . a´ . aa a . . . . a

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Journal of Indological Studies, Nos. 16 & 17 (2004–2005)

“has with his might separated from each other heaven and earth, like the wheels are separated by the axle”.326 Here the demiurge separating heaven and earth from each other is Indra, but the Rgveda ascribes this same feat to many deities. I discovered this by ˚ going through all the numerous occurrences of the verbs sta(m)bh- and ska(m)bh-, with or without the preverb vi- ‘apart’. The association with the chariot, however, suggests that this feat originally belonged to the A´vins, to whom Vasistha prays in the Rgveda thus: s .. ˚ “May your golden chariot, forcing apart the two worlds (heaven and earth), come here with virile horses!”327 If the axle of the A´vins’ chariot is the world pillar keeping heaven s and earth apart, the A´vins should be driving around so that the wheels of their chariot s are horizontal, parallel to level ground. This would be in accordance with the world view according to which the sun’s single wheel turns its luminous side towards heaven during the night and towards earth during the day. According to Rgveda 1,185,1d, “day and ˚ night turn around like two wheels”,328 and in the Mah¯ bh¯ rata, the two wheels of Krsna’s a a .. ˚ chariot are compared to the sun and the moon.329 The sun and the pillar In the chariot race of the gods — won by the A´vins — the course was from Agni, s the fire, to S¯ rya, the sun. The Rgveda also speaks of “races which have the sun as u ˚ 330 their prize” , and the chariot of the A´vins is called “sun-finding”331 . The goal in s ´ . . h¯ -), which the Br¯ hmana texts equate with the as a the v¯ japeya race is the turning post (k¯ t a a . world of heaven.332 In many Rgvedic hymns, the sun is the cosmic pillar.333 The sun ˚
etenemau lokau viskabdhau, “As two leaves might be propped apart by means of a peg, or two wheels by means . of an axle, so these [two] worlds are propped apart by means of this [atmosphere]” (transl. Oertel 1896:98). 326 RV 10,89,4cd yó ákseneva cakríy¯ sác¯bhir vísvak tasthámbha prthiv¯ utá dy¯ ´ ´ a´ ı ım am. . . . ˚ a s ˚ 327 RV 7,69,1ab a v¯ m rátho ródas¯ badbadh¯ nó hiranyáyo v´ sabhir y¯ tv á´ vaih. ´ ¯ a. ı a r. . . ˚ s ˚ 328 RV 1,185,1d ví vartete áhan¯ cakríyeva. Cf. RV 6,9,1ab áha´ ca krsnám áhar árjunam ca ví vartete rájas¯ ı ı .. . ˚ ˚ ˚ ´ vedy¯ . . abhih 329 Mah¯ bh¯ rata 5,81,15 “The chariot shone like the blazing Doomsday fire and traveled like a bird, with two a a wheels resembling sun and moon to adorn it” (transl. van Buitenen 1978: III, 359). — I would like to compare the sun and the moon as chariot wheels to the round plates made of gold and silver, which are placed above and beneath the gharma vessel (that represents the sun) in the pravargya ritual sacred to the A´vins; these two s surrounding plates have counterparts also in the royal rites of the Veda. 330 svàrm¯lhesv ajísu, RV 1,63, 6; 1,130,8; 1,169,2; 8,68,5. See now Hintze 2000: 78-81; 84; 133. ı. . ¯ . ˚a 331 RV 7,67,3d svarvíd¯ vásumat¯ ráthena. a ˚ 332 Cf. Taittir¯ya-Br¯ hmana 1,3,6,5 v¯ ´ ´ ´ ´ ı a ajino v¯ . dh¯ vata k¯ . . h¯ m gacchatéty aha / suvargó vái lokáh k¯ . . h¯ / ajam a ast a . ¯ . . ast a ´ ´ ´ ´ suvargám evá lokám yanti / suvargám v¯ eté lokám yanti yá ajím dh¯ avanti / pr¯ añco dh¯ vanti / pr¯ n iva hí a a˙ ¯ . . . a . suvargó lokáh. . 333 RV 9,74,2a speaks of the sun as “the supporting, well-raised pillar of the sky” (divó yá skambhó dharúnah . . ˚ ). The two Agni hymns, RV 4,13 and 4,14, have an identical last fifth stanza in which it is wondered ` sv¯ atatah . ˚ how is it possible that the sun does not fall from the sky, though it is not fastened nor bound – as the pillar of ´ the sky it protects the firmament (án¯ yato ánibaddhah kath¯ . a ayám nyà˙ n utt¯ nó ’va padyate ná / káy¯ y¯ ti n˙ a a a .

. he raises his arms336 and recites the formula. ˚ ´ ródasyoh). a .116. Satapatha-Br¯ hmana 5. “We have come to the heaven [or: the sun.. ´ s svadháy¯ kó dadar´a divá skambháh sámrtah p¯ ti n¯ a . man v¯ j¯ ny àkram¯t and RV 9.2cd.8b k¯ . 338 Cf.The N¯ satyas. cf.2cd. mann a v¯ jy àkram¯t sasav¯ The term k¯ . cf. RV 1. In RV 10. . .11: 80.6.45. 342.5. “Rising high by means of fuel.1c k¯ . u 337 Taittir¯ya-Samhit¯ 1.335 The v¯ japeya sacrificer climbs the sacrificial post after his victorious a race. Their occurrence 51 in connection with the st¯ pas makes one suspect that they are survivals u of an ancient tradition of erecting a turning post for a funeral chariot race near the funeral monument. a akam).12-14. 337 we have become immortal. Inevitably. Baudh¯ yana-Srautas¯ tra 11. ars ˚ ˚ derived from the root kars. In RV 3. “the sky became fixed like a well-erected pillar” (sth¯ eva súmit¯ drmhata ´. After Agrawala 1964: fig. had árvat¯ jáyant¯ / ví´ve dev¯ ánv ars a . ˚ ˚ dyáuh). alltägliche. 6-7 antam gatv¯ b¯ h¯ udgrhnati suvar dev¯ m aganm¯ mrt¯ ´ ˙ a u a a u a˘ a a ¯ . cf.74.2d. transl. ˚ (raises a pillar to prop up the roof). 334 According to RV 5. mev¯ tis. Agni has made his light shine upwards like Savitar. becoming the highest of all lights” (úd astambh¯t samídh¯ n¯ ı a akam rsvó ’gnír bhávann uttamó . Agni is the head of the sky and ´ ´ ´ the navel of the earth: he became the hub of ˚ these two worlds (m¯ rdh¯ divó n¯ u˚ a abhir agníh prthivy¯ áth¯ bhavad a a . one is reminded338 of “A´oka’s pillars”. when Rgveda s ˚ 1.is a´ ı ı ars ı an.. Agni has propped up the ˚ ´ vault of heaven.1. propping up the light of the sun.10ab..e. which are called stambha-339 and s have the solar “dharmacakra” on the top (see fig.” The v¯ japeya in many ways emphaa sizes the image of the sun or wheel at the top of a post. .¯ ˚ ˚ abh¯ ma. For the phrase describing the reaching of the goal. ˚ 339 Cf. According to RV 4. also the ‘thousand-spoked wheel’ (sahasr¯ ra-cakra-) on the top of the spine (meru-danda-) equated a . The V¯ r¯ ha-Grhyas¯ tra prescribes a tree or a caitya aa u ˚ (i. ˚ ´ ´ a a amanyanta hrdbhíh sám u sriy¯ n¯ saty¯ sacethe.2. un a . a uryasya k¯ . gang. the hub of heaven (i. man.” 335 Cf. Mayrhofer . Parpola) a seems to become the cosmic pillar at sunrise.2ab.and refers to a furrow drawn on the ground at the goal of the race.. 1992: I. sondern wie Grassmann und Oldenberg richtig erkannt haben. the Brhad-Aranyaka-Upanisad. to the gods. Keith 1914: 108. ˚ ´ rocan¯ am). Having reached the top. when its light separates heaven and earth.59. and accordingly the rising sun should represent the turning post in the chariot race won by the A´vins.t a ı s a . the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A.17 speaks of the goddess Dawn as ascending the chariot of the A´vins after these had won the chariot race for her marriage. like a builder arat¯ ı .116.334 This fits the idea that the sun in its daily course turns around at sunrise and sunset.36. 50) in his introduction to the hymn notes: “Das Hauptthema ist der Sonnenauf. 2). der erste Sonnenaufgang nach langer Regenzeit und trübem Himmel. ˚ars ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ¯ a RV 9.. In fact.17 a v¯ m rátham duhit¯ s¯ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ¯ a. a´ ´ méteva dh¯ mám stabh¯ yad úpa dy¯ u .3. Agni as the sun) shines an¯ ´ with the Vasus (¯˚rdhvám bh¯ núm s¯ u a . 6b. . Bareau 1975: 177. a am). which in its rudiments can be traced back to ¯ . it coms pares her to one who has victoriously reached the goal with the horsechariot. he has raised his smoke to the sky to prop it (¯ rdhvám bh¯ núm savitév¯ sren u a . and Geldner (1951: I. . uryasya stabh¯ yán divó vásubhir aratír ví bh¯ ti). with the cosmic mountain Meru in the microcosm of Tantric Yoga.. 336 Cf.e. In RV 1. suvah]. ´ ı a a . a a .9e. . a funeral monument) as appropriate marks for the bridegroom to make a sunwise Figure 2: Reconstruction of the top of A´oka’s s pillar at Sarnath.7. aber nicht der gewöhnliche.

setting the wheel of law rolling. ˚ ˚ vopatis.. in which Brhaspati is prayed to for help ˚ and victory. by means of a human chariot. 3).343 The newly lighted fire is a Figure 3: The cakkavatti r¯ j¯ with his inaa signia including the dhammacakka on top of a pillar in a relief of a st¯ pa at Jagu gayyapeta. . this means that ı a . ı a . 343 For a thorough description and discussion of this episode.52 Journal of Indological Studies. the brahman priest rolls a chariot wheel (or alternatively a whole chariot) forwards so that the wheel turns around three times. equal to a cakkavatti r¯ j¯ . . agny¯ dheya. see Scharfe 1987. the royal priest of the gods. iti pr¯ ñcam pray¯ pya pradaksinam avrtya yath¯ rthalaksanyam vrksam caityam aa u a a a ¯ . when he takes the bride and the nuptial fire to his own house after the wedding. ˚ . Cf. mounts a divine chariot.8 rathacakram pravartayati / manusyarathenaiva devaratham pratyavarohati. where Nestor points out the turning post to his son Antilochus as being a dead tree trunk flanked by two white stones. Sparreboom 1983: 70-71.345 340 V¯ r¯ ha-Grhyas¯ tra 15. .4 . personifying Brhaspati. Krick 1982: 327. After Agrawala 1964: fig. . the sacrificer. 342 On the term cakravartin. 16 & 17 (2004–2005) turn with his chariot after an eastward start. Andhra Pradesh (c.326-333). 97.t 341 Cf. The term cakravartin for the universal emperor342 is connected with the Buddha in the story of his first sermon which equalled the dharmacakrapravartana. the brahman priest mutters battle hymns. 345 Cf. a sign marking an old funeral or previously used as a turning post.1. . . . 1989: 51-55. taken in a procession from the g¯ rhapatya hearth a ¯ to the ahavan¯ya hearth. also Caland 1899. where it is to be placed ı upon the hoofprint made by the young horse that leads the procession. Simultaneously. 100 BCE). This is obviously related to the turning of the wheel on which the brahman priest is sitting.6. whose insignia include the dharmaaa cakra on the top of a pillar (see fig. ˚ A similar episode is also known from the ´ Vedic ritual of establishing the sacred srauta fires. According to the Taittir¯ya-Br¯ hmana.341 The funeral monument and the chariot wheel The st¯ pa is the funeral monument of the Budu dha as the spiritual emperor. . 344 Taittir¯ya-Br¯ hmana 1.340 This has a parallel in the Iliad (23.. . Nos. . see Krick 1982: 301ff. . .344 While rolling the wheel. heta.as denoting the world ruler and as a reminiscence of the nomadic lifestyle of the early Indo-Aryan speakers.

Baudh¯ yana-Sulbas¯ tra 16. as given by Yama and as first yoked by Trita and as (its chariot) first mounted by Indra. not a funeral monument. — I do not deny that Kuwayama’s thesis has considerable likelihood. á.349 In a later version of this myth the word used for the pit. Since these st¯ pas were only u constructed during the first two centuries of the Christian era (excepting the st¯ pa of N¯ g¯ rjunakonda.351 In the K¯ nva hymn to Varuna.6. at 351 Cf.106. covered him with a chariot wheel (rathacakrenapidh¯ ya) and went away. a 347 On 346 Cf. which are not found in the earlier st¯ pas.13 — 10. Trita see.184. Kuwayama considers these round st¯ pas as loans from Augustan Rome — similar circular u u tombs of stone or brick were built in Imperial Rome and its provinces.6 also ˚ ˚ in a similar situation. RV 1. Rgveda 1. Trita and his two brothers. the nave in a wheel. ..6 yásmin ví´ v¯ ni k¯ a cakré n¯ ´ ´ ´ s a avy¯ abhir iva srit¯ / tritám j¯ t¯ saparyata ´ a ı .¯ was saved when he supernaturally saw the Traita song and praised Parjanya with it.348 Trita’s case ˚ is similar to that of Vandana and others saved from a pit or distress by the N¯ satyas. ´ ´ ı a u a u . but only a builder of a fire altar was entitled ´ s¯ to a funeral monument. RV 8. 353 Cf.2. Parpola 2002b: 310-312. they left Trita in the well.1. ı a . Macdonell 1897: 67-69. 348 Cf. n. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. but saved from distress by Brhaspati. as a. is from the early third century) and since there are some striking structural similarities (concentric circles of walls. 350 Geldner (1951: I. and has a Proto-Aryan background.350 is understood as a well. Parpola) a While the horse leads this procession carrying the fire. 5.163. and a the pit here denotes the grave. a thick outermost wall and a wheel-like plan comprising a hub with spokes). 136) points out that the assumed composer of RV 1. Hillebrandt 1927: II. los. only used by the easterners a . the sacrificer recites verses of the praise hymn to the victorious horse who is brought to be sacrificed. ¯ Trita Aptya.105. Taittir¯ya-Samhit¯ 5.. 354 Cf. Trita descends into the well 53 and gives water to his brothers. Krick 1982: 306-311. k¯ pa.The N¯ satyas. appears in the Rgveda ˚ as a companion of Indra..t ´ layout was.346 ˚ In this hymn. 352 Macdonell 1897: 68.105.347 According to Rgveda ˚ 1. 11-12. and Kuwayama 2002: 44-68 & pl..354 It is true that the rathacakra-citi is a fire altar (for one who wants to annihilate foes). u Ekata and Dvita. “Trita is described as one in whom all wisdom is centred.105.7. which u a a .11.17 tritáh k¯ ´ ´ an sa r ¯ . 307. . thrown into a pit. also for an annotated translation of the hymn. M¯ nava-Srautas¯ tra 10.17.3. ˚ ˚ 349 Cf.. Trita was put down in a pit. Hillebrandt 1929: II.4.”352 He is like the brahman priest (Brhaspati) sitting upon the chariot ˚ wheel.3. Some ancient st¯ pas have the ground plan of the wheel.41. roam thirsty in a desert and find a well.353 The chariot wheel is one u of the Vedic citis. Jaimin¯ya-Br¯ hmana 1. Cf. the horse is praised as having been created by the Vasu gods out of the sun. e. But after the two had slaked their thirst. This splendid horse arises from the womb of the waters.7. Watkins 1995: 464-468. mentioned in this hymn as the yoker of the horse. which is its other meaning. A funeral monument that has a round . upe ’vahito dev¯ havata utáye / tác chu´r¯ va b´haspatih . He a . Kutsa. but point out that the wheel-shaped citis of the Veda do provide us with Indian antecedants. .g. which is here called k¯ . 307-311. according to the Satapatha-Br¯ hmana (13. u´ ˚ ´ vrajé g¯ ná samyúje // avo . was in RV 1.8. a-citi or sma´ana-citi.5).

900 BCE. the dawn. symbolized by the wheel. and the deified two-man chariot team of the chariot warrior and his charioteer became the model for a dual kingship and the “twin sons of the sky”. the chariot. The chariot and its mythic lore spread to the Proto-Greeks and Proto-Balts as well as to the Proto-Finno-Ugrians of the mid-Volga and mid-Urals. the marya. The night sky was imagined to be an ocean.8. Conclusion Some of the main theses of this paper may be briefly summarized. Kau´ikas¯ tra 85. the n¯ satya. who was the prototypical wooer and bridegroom. and the generation of light at early dawn by means of a fire-drill symbolized the generation of new life. which denoted the turning post of chariot races and the world mountain around which the two A´vins. The twins were funeral deities who saved the deceased from the distress of the grave — this was especially the function of the charioteer. Caland 1896: 141f. and the horse. dated to c. Hiranyake´i-Kalpas¯ tra 25. By 2000 BCE. Nos. was hiding as a man. for it is attested in the ceremonial centres of the Sintashta-Arkaim culture of the southern Urals around 2000 BCE. which were understood to be moments of birth and death. who carried the worshipper to the world of heaven (the solar world) in his a divine chariot in the morning. this culture developed the horse-drawn chariot. s u s u . the Atharvavedins even preferring a round one. . 355 Apastamba-Sulbas¯ tra ¯ ´ u 13. the daughter of the sun or sky. Many of the Proto-Aryan loanwords surviving in Finno-Ugrian languages testify to the N¯ satya a cult.or horse-shaped embryo in its womb. The worship of the divine twins or the sun and the fire was associated with the sunrise and sunset. and the night-sun. Yet several Vedic S¯ tras give the option of making the funeral monument either u four-cornered or round.355 The wheelshaped ground plan harks back to Proto-Aryan times. and for instance in the famous Arzhan kurgan of the early Sakas in Tuva. 16 & 17 (2004–2005) and others worshipping asuras (demons). They were also deities of (re)generation and fertility who “rejuvenated” old and decrepit people by making them re-enter the womb in connection with marriage ceremonies — this was especially the function of the warrior. or fire. Particularly important is the term stambha. make their daily circles. as the day and night aspects s of the sun. while the worshippers of gods make them fourcornered.54 Journal of Indological Studies.14. Night and darkness symbolized death. the main divinities of the pantheon. Proto-Aryan was spoken in the Sintashta-Arkaim culture of the Volga steppes and the southern Urals. cf. who were ruled by a Proto-Aryan-speaking elite. and the husband of his beautiful sister. The sun and the fire represented these white and black aspects of the sun.

742f. 165-192 in: Nils G. Ethnography is a heavy rite: Studies of comparative religion in honor of Juha Pentikäinen. Pp. and especially Varuna. have the magic power of making things invisible. ———— 1998. Could the often anthropomorphic stone stelae connected with the burial mounds of the Eurasiatic steppes be interpreted as turning posts of horse-races (or even earlier races of bullock carts)? . Varanasi: Prithivi Prakashan. 47. Antiquity 69 (264): 554-565. Mair (ed. their stambhas probably going back to ancient turning posts of funeral chariot races. C. as well as chariot races. (Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph 26: I. Archaeology 48 (2): 36-41. were the original churners. (Religionsvetenskapliga skrifter. Mayrhofer 1992: I. E.358 References Agrawala.) Washington. (eds. divinities associated with the day356 and night357 respectively. going daily around the central world mountain as the day and night sun. Review of: Katz 2003. the cakkavatti r¯ j¯ . and this . Vasudeva S. characteristic would fit deities of the night. Proto-Finnic *taivas ‘sky’ from Proto-Aryan *daiva-s ‘sky. David W.). the wheel and the aa chariot remained supreme symbols of kingship in India. Chakra-dhvaja.: Institute for the Study of Man. Holm et al. in press. Perhaps the twins themselves. Aikio. I. The enigma of the sacred pillar: Explaining the Sampo. & N. while the Buddhist st¯ pa has preu served some salient features of the Proto-Aryan burial mounds. Their cult involved the worship of fire and the sun. Vinogradov 1995. Horse. Ante & Petri Kallio. 357 In the Veda. including especially the generation of fire with a fire-drill and regular morning and evening drink offerings poured into fire. David W. The favourite drink of the twins was honey-beer.The N¯ satyas. The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age peoples of eastern Central Asia. B. 358 It would be interesting to have the polo grounds of northern Pakistan examined archaeologically to see if any evidence of such turning posts could be found. Anthony. the Chariot and Proto–Aryan Religion (A. Anttonen. Its preparation involved churning. 94-113 in: Victor H. and at the turning points of the solar year. 137).). 356 Cf.) Åbo: Åbo Akademi. in the team of the king and the purohita. then replaced by devas and asuras.). 1995. C. wagon and chariot: Indo-European languages and archaeology. Proto-Finno-Ugrian *asera from Proto-Aryan *ásura. and in Buddhism as the recognition of a spiritual emperor besides the universal mundane emperor. 1964. What happened to the divine twins after the Proto-Aryan period has been already sketched above (pp. As this term indicates. The dual kingship was preserved in India. god’ > Sanskrit deva. The product was the “nectar of immortality”. Parpola) a 55 The divine twins were worshipped at the liminal passages of dawn and dusk. The wheel-flag of India. which was conceived of as seed that could revive the dead. Pp. Anthony. the asuras. D. Veikko 2000. at funerals and marriages. Joki 1973: 323. although it has not been recognized as such.27-33) and need not be repeated here. and gave rise to the myth of “the churning of the milk ocean”.has already been referred to above (n. The opening of the Eurasian steppe at 2000 B.‘god’ (cf. a mixture of sour milk and honey. Die Sprache. Birth of the chariot.

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