INDUSTRY PROFILE History of Flavor Industry

Human are decisively influenced by their sense of taste and odour and human history is, therefore, closely tied to the development and usage of flavors. Whereas in prehistoric times, only herbs and species could be employed for flavoring purpose, today a broad spectrum of flavoring is available, not only for use in the individual household, but especially for the production of food on an industrial scale. The application of all products from the flavor and fragrance industry is solely aimed at enhancing the human striving for increased pleasure and sensual enjoyment. Hedonistic aspects, therefore, form the basis of our industry. The roots of this industry date back to early Egyptian history, as this extraordinarily advanced civilization was already thoroughly aware of and acquainted with perfumery and the embalming characteristics of certain species and resins. Simple methods for the distillation and extraction of essential oils and resins already known in pre Christian times and subsequently elaborated by the Arabs.

Balsamic oils produced by these methods were later on primarily used for pharmaceutical purpose; it was not before the times of the country baroque period that fragrance was an aspect of growing importance. In the medieval age, mostly monks were the pioneers in the art of capturing natural essences and transforming them into substances capable of flavoring food. The onset of the industrial production of essential oils can be dated back to the first half of the 19th century. After the importance of single chemicals was recognized in the middle of the century, efforts were started to isolate such compounds from corresponding natural resources for the first time. This was soon followed by the synthesis of aroma chemicals. Generally, the dynamics of the flavor and fragrance industry mirror the trend of many industrial sectors: the most important representatives of a large number of nationally oriented companies have through mergers, acquisitions, and market expansion developed into globally operating multinational enterprises.

While the taste of food is limited to sweet.identical flavorants is done using technology such as headspace techniques. altering the characteristics of the solute. and typically unpleasant flavors. sour. Although the terms ³flavorings´ or ³flavorant´ in common language denote the combined chemical sensations of taste and smell. sour. which detect chemical irritants in the mouth and throat as well as temperature and texture. Flavorant is defined as a substance that gives anther substance flavor. etc. . Most types of flavorings are focused on scent and taste. A food¶s flavor. which. The flavorings of commercially produced food products are typically created by flavorists. which means that they are the chemical equivalent of natural flavors but chemically synthesized rather than being extracted from the source materials. Few commercial products exist to stimulate the trigeminal senses. tangy. while made of bases with a similar taste. The ³trigeminal senses´. astringent. therefore. most commercial flavors are nature-identical . the smells of a food are potentially limitless. salty. can be easily altered by changing its smell while keeping its taste similar. smell is the main determinant of a food item¶s flavor. soft drinks and candies.Flavor or Flavors (spelling differences) is the sensory impression of a food or other substance. and is determined mainly by the chemical senses of taste and smell. causing it to become sweet. bitter. Of the three chemical senses. Favorants or Flavorings Flavorings are focused on altering or enhancing the flavors of natural food product such as meats and vegetables. or creating flavor for food products that do not have the desired flavors such as candies and other snacks. have dramatically different flavors due to the use of different scents or fragrances. Nowhere is this better exemplified than in artificially flavored jellies. Identification of nature. the same terms are usually used in the fragrance and flavors industry to refer to edible chemicals and extracts that alter the flavor of food and food products through the sense of smell. Due to the high cost or unavailability of natural flavor extracts. and savory (umami) the basic tastes. since these are sharp. are also very important to the overall Gestalt of flavor perception.

There are three principal types of flavorings used in foods. distillate. oleoresin.U and Australia: Table No: TT Regulation on Natural flavoring UK Food Law defines a natural flavor as: a flavoring substance (or flavoring substances) which is (or are) obtained. under definition agreed I the E. from material of vegetable or animal origin which material is either raw or has been subjected to a process normally used in preparing food for human consumption and to no process other than one normally so used The U. essence or extractive. fruit or . which contains the flavoring constituents derived from a spice.S. enzymatic or microbiological processes. protein hydrolysate. code of Federal Regulations describes a ³natural flavorant´ as the essential oil . or any product of roasting. heating or enzymolysis. by physical.

or fermentation products thereof. flavorants. To produce natural flavors. These mixtures are formulated by flavorist to give a food product a unique flavor and to maintain flavor consistency between different product batches or after recipe changes.fruit juice. Most artificial flavors are specific and often complex mixtures of singular naturally occurring flavor compounds combined together to either imitate or enhance a natural flavor. To begin producing artificial flavors. Many flavorants consists of esters. meat. The extracts are then usually further purified and subsequently added to food products to flavor them. are engineered and composed in similar ways as with industrial fragrances and fine perfumes. Smell Smell flavorants. leaf or any other edible portions of a plant. Natural flavors in contrast may contain impurities from their sources while artificial flavors are typically more pure and are required to undergo more testing before being sold for consumption. whose primary function in food is flavoring rather than nutritional. poultry. bud. eggs. The list of know flavoring agents includes thousands of molecular compounds. the flavor ant must first be extracted from the source substance. edible yeast. which are often described as be chemist (flavorist) can often mix these together to produce many of the common flavors. It has been suggested that artificial flavors may be safer to consume than natural flavors due to the standards of purity and mixture consistency that are enforced either by the company or by law. seafood. which are often described as being ³sweet´ or ³fruity´ The compounds used to produce artificial flavors are almost identical to those that occur naturally. or using force to squeeze it out. and the flavor lavorants consists of esters. root. The methods of extraction can involve solvent extraction. . distillation. vegetable or vegetable juice. herb. dairy products. or simply. flavor manufacturers must either find out the individual naturally occurring aroma chemicals and mix them appropriately to produce a desired flavor or create a novel non-toxic artificial compound that gives a specific flavor. bark.

Glycine salts A simple amino acid that is usually used in conjunction with glutamic acid as a flavor enhancer. which occurs upon inhalation. Umami flavorants recognized and approved by them. These are typically used as sodium or calcium salts. more commonly called taste or flavor enhancers are largely based on amino acids and nucleotides. usually only compounds that enhance umami. In other words. Umami or ³Savory´ flavorants. Artificial sweeteners are also technically flavorants.Flavors from food products are usually the result of a combination of natural flavors. which set up the basic smell profile of a food product while artificial flavors modify the smell to accent it. the sensing of flavors in the mouth occurs in the exhalation phase of breathing and is perceived differently by an individual. Taste While salt and sugar can technically be considered flavorants that enhance salty and sweet taste. European Union includes: Glutamic Acid salts These amino acids sodium your mouth salt. . monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of the most commonly used flavor enhancers in food processing. Mono and deglutinate salts are also commonly used. Guanylic Acid salts Nucleotide salts that is usually used in conjunction with glutei acid as a flavor enhancer. the smell of food is different depending on when you smell it in front of you or whether it has already entered your mouth. Unlike smelling. as well as other secondary flavors are considered and reffed to as taste flavorants.

For examble. adding more red color to a drink increases its sweetness with darker .Color The color of food can affect flavor.