Substation Earthing System

Earth mat of 75 X 8mm Ms first should be laid as outer mat of the switchyard compulsory and see that the entire pole structures and all metallic parts are enclosed in the outer mat. The distance between pole structure and the outer mat should be atleast 1mtr for avoiding difference of potentials. 2. Make vertical and horizontal sections for the outer mat as shown in the fig. The internal vertical and horizontal sections may be 75 X 8mm or 50X 6mm Ms flat.

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3. The earth mat should be minimum of 600mm deep below the ground level. Under the earth mat pure Bentonite power is to be used upto 25mm and over the earth mat the same Benotite powder mixture with Black cotton soil in 1:6 ratio is to be filled with the soil. It is therefore important to ensure that the earth conductor (Ms flat) is laid minimum 0.6M deep, but preferably deeper, say 1M as this will redu e the surface potentials. 4. Each and every pole structure is to be earthed with 50 X 6mm Ms flat to the earth mat. 5. Every breaker shall be earthed with minimum two connections using 50 X 6mm Ms Flat to the earth mat i.e (a) Breaker body (b) relay panel (c) CTs of the breaker and (d) two sides of the breaker structure, as nearer as possible. 6. One end of Lighting arrester is to be connected to sepa rate Earth pit and finally connected to Earth mat. 7. Line isolators are to be connected directly to the earth mat 8. Two sides of the Power Transformer body ate to be earthed to the earth mat at nearer point. 9. Twin neutral earthing should be done to the power transformer as shown in fig. One neutral with Ms Flat of size 75X8mm is to be connected directly to the earth pit. The second neutral is to be connected to the earth mat with support of 75 X 40 X 6mm Ms channel and Flexible jumpers. 10. To provide flexible jump ers thoroughly brazed as shown in fig. Duly providing flexible jumper s to avoid any load on the transformer neutral bushing. 11. All AB switch operating rods are to be provided with coil earths and the AB switch support is to be earthed to the earth mat. 12. All the exposed earth flats, which are dropping down from the breakers, CT s structures, should be applied with one coat of Red -oxide and one coat of non corrosive Bituminous paint (industrial grade). 13. 75x8mm Ms flats is to be laid around the control room fro m main switch yard earth mat and the panels of the breakers, mid point of the battery and battery

. And one layer of the welding to be done on the both sides for joining the flats and place 50x6mm Ms Flat of the size 150mm over the joint and one layer of the welding to be done through out and welding flux of the layer to be removed to ensure 100% cotact between flat to flat surface joint then second coat of welding to be done on the same. Note: After the earth pit with 1:6 ratio Bentone mixture the flange of the earth electrode should be thoroughly grinded and after grinding petroleum jelly to be applied. Cable sheaths are to be earthed at ONE END only (i. 19. the outer of the earth mat should be atleast 1Mt away from the fencing and Metal fencing should be connected to the grid at each corner and at points along with length not exceeding to the grid at earth corner and at points along with length not exceeding 50 Meters. 14. 21. 20. Two sides of the body of the station transformer is to be connected to the earth mat with 25x 3mm GI earth strip. And one layer of the welding t o be done through out and welding flux of the surface layer to be removed and ensure 100% contact between flat to flat surface joint. WELDING JOINTS: a.S Earth Mat.e) at s ource end with 25x3mm GI stripe to the earth mat. All welding joints should be painted with one coat of rea -oxide and one coat of non-corrosiveee bituminous paint( industrial grade). For 11KV cables the cable sheath should be earthed at 33KV substation earth grid only and the other end should be kept open. Connect the earth pit to the earth grid with two nos.stand structure are to be connected to Equipotential bar of size 750mmx 75m 8mm with copper bar with nop. b. 18. 50x6mm flat with 100% contact between flange and the flat by a nut and bolt of suitable size with one flat washer and one spring washer on the top and bottom of the bolt. If switch yard is provided with a fencing. The neutral of the station transformer is to be connected to the earth mat directly with 25x3mm GI earth stripe. The distance between any two earth electrodes should be twice the length of the Electrode. For overlap joint place the two 75x8mm Ms flats side as shown in the fig. Then apply non-corrosive bituminous paint over the flange. If I is the length of the electrode. If 33KV cable is tapped from a overhead transmission line the cable sheath should be earthed in the related 33KV substation only. 17. flat as shown in the fig. Distance between two electrodes should be d=2I.of holes and this bar in turn to be connected to the room earth and finally connected S. 15. Remove the welding flux a nd apply one coat of red-oxide and one coat of bituminous paint which is non corrosive. 16. For T-joint place the vertical flat over the horizontal. The 11KV and the 33KV cable sheaths should be earthed at any one side preferably at the source end.

. c.Then second coat of red-oxide and one coat of bituminous paint which is non corrosive.