GREENWICH RE NW CH

2008 P Plan of Conserv C vation an Deve nd elopmen nt

DRA 7 AFT 7.11.2008 8
PREPARE BY ED

The Gr reenwich Plannin and Z h ng Zoning Commissi ion

This plan has been de eveloped to b viewed on be n-line. ne vironmentally friendly. The on-lin version is free and env

Contents

Welcome Preface
CHAPTER

iv vii 1 7 25

1. 2. 3.

Greenwich Past Greenwich Present Community Concerns

FUTURE OF GREENWICH - PROTECT WHAT WE HAVE
4. Enhance Community Character • • • • • • 5. Protect Historic and Cultural Resources Protect Scenic Resources Protect and Plant Trees, Shrubs and Vegetation Implement the Open Space Plan Create Additional Coastal Access Create Greenbelts

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Enhance Environmental Health • • • Enhance and Maintain Water Resources Protect Natural Resources Address Biologic Resources

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6.

An Environmental Leader • • Address Flooding Provide Waterway Management

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FUTURE OF GREENWICH - CREATE WHAT WE WANT
7. Nurture Focal Points – Downtown, business and village areas • • • • • Enhance Downtown (Central ) Greenwich Enhance the Large Villages Protect the Small Villages Enhance the Post Road Monitor King Street

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Greenwich Plan – i

Diversify the Housing Portfolio • • • 9. Address Educational Needs Address Municipal Facility Management Address Municipal Facility Needs Support Other Community Facilities Continue to Support Other Community Organizations 113 115 Guide Infrastructure • • • • • • Maintain Streetscape Character but Improve Road Safety and Capacity Maintain and Expand Sidewalks Create Bicycle Paths and Facilities Expand Transit Maintain Sewer Infrastructure Maintain the Provision of Adequate Water 129 12. Guide Municipal and Community Facilities • • • • • 11.FUTURE OF GREENWICH .PROVIDE WHAT WE NEED 10. Be a Green Leader • • • • • • Conserve Energy Conserve Water Encourage Green Buildings Create Green Neighborhoods/ Developments Expand Recycling Programs Create Green Municipal Facilities 141 Greenwich Plan – ii . Protect Subsidized Housing Provide for Workforce Housing Provide for Senior Needs 99 91 Be a Growth Management Leader • • • • Protect Residential Neighborhoods Manage Regrading Continue to Encourage Appropriate Design Coordinate Waterfront Development FUTURE OF GREENWICH .CREATE WHAT WE WANT 8.

14. Future Land Use Plan Implementation Summary Appendix Acknowledgements 151 157 179 185 Greenwich Plan – iii .CHAPTER 13.

as members of the Planning and Zoning Commission (P&Z or the Commission). We anticipate that you can finish your review within the summer months of July and August. Our Draft dated June 19. Municipal Department Heads. Continuing this organized effort to encourage “open forum. In December. District Leaders. 2008 of the Greenwich Plan of Conservation and Development (POCD) of the Town of Greenwich July 11. Meetings with Neighborhood Association Chairs. Representative Town Meeting Presentation. is complete and ready for your reading on the pages following. we will continue our further review and examination and take these next steps to move our Draft into a “final” POCD: Public Information Meeting. idea and suggestion. 2008 P&Z will seek final public comment to our possibly revised Draft. With this. Title 8. during the next several months. Public Hearing. the Citizens of Greenwich. we will solicit additional public and municipal comment. we will be able to revise and augment this Draft and then possibly publish a revised draft. are charged with the responsibility of preparing a Plan of Conservation and Development (POCD) consistent with the Connecticut General Statutes. Greenwich Plan – iv . and our Town Charter. In October. as much dialogue and idea interchange as possible. and continue.Welcome TOWN OF GREENWICH PLANNING AND ZONING COMMISSION DRAFT dated July 11. 2008. 2008 the Commission will present a final draft of the POCD to the RTM for its approval and endorsement. For the past several months. have helped guide our overall drafting process through a series of public meetings and workshops designed to gather and organize much of what is contained in this Draft. you. RTM Committee Chairs and Other Civic Leaders Prior to our presenting our final draft to the Representative Town Meeting. 2008 the Commission will arrange for an open forum to discuss all aspects of this Draft and take your further comment. 2008 Dear Fellow Citizens of Greenwich: We. we will organize separate reviews with designated civic leaders to allow for. In September. Specifically. Article 9.” communication and interchange.

innovation. in its final form approved by the RTM. One of the greatest testaments to our community uniqueness and outstanding leadership can be that we embrace this ongoing process to the best of our abilities by seeking and obtaining consensus to bring into fruition and implement our imagination. ongoing process. Land use regulation and enforcement is a dynamic. We respectfully take this opportunity to underscore that we intend to regularly revisit and reevaluate it to ensure that this road may continually reflect our current vision. This POCD reflects many of their ideas. It is an advisory document that will guide our conservation and development activities during the space of our next 7 to 10 years. suggestions and opinions and we are most grateful for their valued assistance. is intended to be our roadmapour common vision for our community.The POCD. We would like to take this opportunity to thank all Town Land Use Departments and the citizens and community organizations who helped us formulate this plan. Donald Heller. insight. and energy and resource management. Sincerely. Chairman Greenwich Planning and Zoning Commission Greenwich Plan – v .

Focus Promote Coordinate Achieve Greenwich Plan – vi .

as we must improve and provide as we. our business and retail community. It’s About Choice It’s About Change “The question is not whether your part of the world is going to change. requires a planning and execution system that must not lose its ability to fix ailments. others not. How can we do this? Recognize choices. others not. And the fact that our Town government runs through our volunteer 230-member Representative Town Meeting system and hundreds of other of our citizens who donate umpteen hours on task forces. our inherent natural aesthetics and graceful contours of our landscape. and some are welcomed. volunteers and local charities.” workers change and require/need difference. energy and resources to manage change. Greenwich has changed in the past and will change in the future. That is what this Plan of Conservation and Development is about. The question is how. with a very substantial 230 member Represent. our cultural and community activities and outreach. and dedicate resources. a Board of Estimate and Taxation and Selectmen system plus some independent regulatory and planning agencies. the Citizens of Greenwich. This Plan proposes strategies and tools to: [ [ [ Protect What We Have. or they can be shaped by Our unique government system. about or we can start creatconservation.chance. about development. Richard Moe National Trust for Historic Preservation Greenwich Plan – vii . and Provide the Services and Facilities That We Need. and the everyday generosity of our caring and most giving citizens. on the whole. insight. establish a vision.” Edward T. we recognize that we are not immune to change or from the challenges that we face. hopefully either before they occur or before they become of major importance. We can address change by choice or by chance. agencies. We can keep on accepting the kind of communities we get.. We recognize that change.. high-level municipal services. commission and as consultants to both our municipality and our charities. Fortunately we are in a position to use our innovation. We are unique. is most admirable.” indeed. as individuals and as a community.Preface Change Is Inevitable. ative Town Meeting. our safe and pleasant schools. our families and our newly-welcomed citizens and ing the kind of communities we want. some anticipated. second. We eye and experience the results of these changes daily. First. Create the Greenwich We Want. We hold dear and important that we a premier residential community servicing the needs of citizens who live. is “inevitable. are proud of our community and the opportunity and privilege it affords us and our families. our green and open spaces. in the generic sense. places of worship. McMahon The Conservation Fund “Communities can be shaped by choice. We. as all in our world is finite. and may even work here. our pleasant and diverse parks and recreational facilities. boards.

and for the location of public housing projects. sewerage. This is the essential function of the Planning and Zoning Commission. to try to foresee the long-term consequences of current actions.. Greenwich undertakes this effort to continue its tradition of planning and forward thinking. ranging from coastal access to downtown parking. the most desirable use of residential. and to produce desired results.. for parks. and • public improvements and land transactions by the Town must also be referred to the Planning and Zoning Commission for a finding of consistency with the Plan (CGS Section 8-24). such as the Community Development Block Grant Program. whether publically or privately owned. including among others. Their input includes the development of numerous plans and studies of specific issues. require eligible projects to conform to the local Plan of Conservation and Development. including schools. Planning helps Greenwich to identify and address community needs. recreational. transit and other purposes.Why Plan? The Connecticut General Statutes (CGS 8-23) require municipalities to adopt a plan of conservation and development every ten years. As one of the first Connecticut communities to adopt zoning. A History of Planning. to make good decisions. power. the 2002 Supply/Demand Greenwich Plan – viii . many grant programs. our Town Charter. in its judgment. commercial. not in prioritized or historical order. further defines our civic obligation to develop and adopt a Plan of Conservation and Development (POCD). light. for the general location. the 2002 Greenwich Central Business District Traffic Management Plan. relocation and improvement of public real property and public buildings. for water. and not intending this listing to be all inclusive. industrial and other purposes and the desirable density of population apportioned to various areas of the Town for a system of streets and drains. Article 9. many land-use agencies and committees participate in the Town’s overall planning efforts and work hard to access and inventory our resources and needs. be beneficial to the Town. they are the 2001 Bicycle Master Plan. From a funding standpoint. Greenwich Municipal Code Sections 91-98. In addition to the Planning and Zoning Commission. The Connecticut General Statutes (CGS) contain several provisions pertaining to plans of conservation and development that come into play on a regular basis: • changes to zoning regulations or districts by the Planning and Zoning Commission must be reviewed for consistency with the Plan. Our Charter requires the POCD to show all the Planning and Zoning Commission’s recommendations that will. Greenwich has a long history of planning. for the general location and extent of public utilities and terminals. Specifically. Further. Greenwich quickly realized the importance of land use planning.

Preparation of the Plan Preparation of the Plan began in September 2007 and was coordinated by the Planning and Zoning Commission. the 2002 Management and Operations Parking Study. promote and maintain the public health.   With the assistance of Planimetrics. department heads and other groups such as the Board of Education. Coordinate efforts and produce consistent results for our Community. created this document. In addition meetings were held with community leaders. Connecticut. it will be sent to the Representative Town Meeting for endorsement. Essentially the State’s and Town’s regulatory scheme requires that we plan to conserve.Parking Study. we identify and address community need and desires. social. The Planning and Zoning Commission. economic and governmental conditions and trends. and meet challenges and maximize opportunities for conservation. Promote overall values and achieve important Community purposes. safety and general welfare of all Citizens. and Achieve efficiency and economy in implementation and regulatory and zoning enforcement within our Community. In particular planning provides the opportunity to: Focus on the “bigger picture” and identify significant Community goals. a planning consultant from Avon. the Board of Parks and Recreation and Greenwich Housing Authority. and after adoption. so we can prepare ourselves for. Based on studies of physical. Greenwich residents helped guide the overall process through a series of public meetings and workshops on various topics as well as submission of written reports and recommendations. and control. Greenwich Plan – ix . an inventory and an assessment of technical and policy issues was conducted. the 2006 Inventory of Pedestrian Safety. change. and the 2007 Byram Comprehensive Plan. land use commissions. Their comments were carefully considered.

the Plan is used to: • coordinate conservation and development activities. is intended to be our roadmap. We have started this process with 15 public meetings and have reviewed and considered all comments. Seeking and obtaining consensus to bring into fruition and implement our imagination. • guide land use decisions and regulations. ordinances. We respectfully take this opportunity to underscore that we intend to regularly revisit and evaluate it to ensure that this road map continually reflects our current vision. It is incumbent upon the Selectmen. agencies and organizations. The Planning and Zoning Commission is charged by Town Charter and State Statutes to develop the plan every 10 years. An advisory document that will guide our conservation and development activities during the space of our next 7 to 10 years.Use and Maintenance of the Plan The Plan of Conservation and Development becomes an official document after a noticed public hearing and adoption by the Planning and Zoning Commission and endorsement by the Representative Town Meeting. as well as town departments to institute regulations. Land use regulation and enforcement is a dynamic ongoing process as well. other independent agencies and boards. innovation. procedures and directives so that in the end this Plan becomes an action document. our common vision for our Community. It is important to note that the Plan of Conservation and Development (POCD) is primarily an advisory document. • develop public projects. The Planning and Zoning Commission holds public hearings on the POCD and adopts the plan. Next. Our planning will continue as a dynamic ongoing process. suggestions and opinions. Once adopted. insight. We would like to take this opportunity to thank Town Land Use Departments and the citizens and community organizations who helped us formulate this plan. This POCD reflects many of their ideas. The process of the POCD becoming an official document of the town needs to be explained. Greenwich Plan – x . It is intended to guide local residents and municipal boards to provide a framework for consistent decision-making with regard to conservation and development activities in Greenwich over the next 7 to 10 years. energy and resource management. The POCD. the Representative Town Meeting (RTM) reviews and comments as they deem necessary back to the Commission for any revisions since they must approve the POCD according to the Town Charter. We are most grateful for their valued assistance. in its final form approved by the RTM. Leadership is required and responsibilities must be outlined for implementation by the appropriate departments. One of the greatest testaments to our community uniqueness and outstanding leadership can be that we embrace this ongoing process to the best of our abilities. and • meet identified public needs.

The Selectman's office should also review the priority list with appropriate recommendations to the BET.The Capital Improvement Process The town has the opportunity to ensure that the recommendations are carried out and one avenue is through the Capital Improvement Program (CIP) process. Executions of recommendations. As will be noted in the Implementation Summary. It will take leadership and team work A Plan’s success is measured by implementation Greenwich Crew Junior Program Greenwich Plan – xi . many recommendations require integration into the Town’s Capital Improvement Program and will require alterations in annual budgets as well. Recommended Actions: Procedures A series of action steps are proposed with responsibilities suggested. Note that the complete list of action steps can be found in Chapter 14. As a first step it is recommended that the Board of Estimate and Taxation (BET) review priority projects and those of the highest priority will require financial data from the appropriate department for formal subsequent submission to the RTM. require financial analyses as part of capital and annual budgets. or secure grants. such as the possible position of a Transportation Planner. cannot evaluate the financial elements of the upgrades to the design for the transfer station. Discussions on the CIP projects and relative priorities encompass land use agencies and other town boards. Implementation Summary. if approved. Other recommendations fit the annual operations budget. Planning and Zoning. make public improvements. For example the implementation of a master plan for the transfer station is a capital item. The Planning and Zoning Commission is aware and sensitive to the RTM Resolutions of 2006 and 2007.   Apart from making good sense a Plan of Conservation and Development can have significant bearing on the Town’s ability to carry out everyday planning and zoning activities. for example.

assignment of responsibilities as listed will be used to assess performance. primary responsible agents have been cited.Action on the Plan For each of the strategic recommendations in this plan. Details on the lead agencies are indicated in the Implementation Summary Chapter 14. to assist with the implementation.     Greenwich Plan – xii . After the final plan is adopted. as necessary. plus additional authorities or departments.

residents. New York to the North. Greenwich is known and recognized for: [ [ [ [ its business center. Stamford to the east. New York to the west. Long Island Sound to the south and North Castle.Greenwich Past Greenwich is located in Fairfield County in southwest Connecticut. CHAPTER 1 Greenwich Plan . ambience. The Town is bounded by Port Chester and Rye Brook. and accomplishments.1 .

English settlers established a colony at Plymouth. Tensions boiled over in the Pequot War of 1637 where European settlers. While Native Americans may have settled in this area about 10. Over the next several decades early trading posts and settlements were established by both the Dutch and the English. The Hartford Treaty of 1650 established a north-south boundary line which should "begin at the west side of Greenwich Bay.History of Greenwich The landscape of Greenwich as we now know it evolved over millions of years. and New York to agree on territorial jurisdictions and other matters. Although this area was closer to the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam. Settlers in Greenwich. Connecticut. and Stamford." The Treaty recognized Dutch jurisdiction over areas west of the line. rather than New York. English settlement of Connecticut began about 1635 at Windsor. being about four miles from Stamford. However. Wethersfield. As there was less concern about security." However. Over the next few years conflicts grew between Europeans and Native Americans over trade. Massachusetts in 1620. This attack is widely seen as setting the stage for European settlement of New England since there was no meaningful organized resistance to European settlement after this date. local history indicates that four Englishmen purchased the land that is now Old Greenwich in 1640 from the Sinoway Indians. Within the next 15 years the British defeated the Dutch to obtain jurisdiction over both areas.000 years ago. Based on a 1614 journey into Long Island Sound Dutchman Adriaen Block became the first documented European observer of what was to become New England. Rye. attacked the Pequot tribe in eastern Connecticut and essentially wiped them out. and property.the birthplace of one of the men. Stamford and other areas were reportedly aligned politically with the colony of Connecticut. conflicting land grants had been given by the British Crown to the Connecticut territory and the Duke of York (for what is now New York). recorded settlement of Connecticut by Europeans is only available for the past 370 years or so. England . and so run a northerly line twenty miles up into the country until it shall be notified by the two governments of the Dutch and of England. as it turned out. The area was named for Greenwich. in conjunction with some other Native American tribes. provided said line shall not come within ten miles of the Hudson River.2 . In May Greenwich Plan . settlers began to look for new areas. this line was never accepted so boundary disputes continued. In 1650 there was a conference in Hartford between English and Dutch leaders from what are now Massachusetts. At the regional level tensions between Dutch and English settlers continued. Dutch settlements began at New Amsterdam (now New York City) after 1624 and at Dutch Point (now Hartford) after 1633. The dispute was not trivial. This did not sit well with New York and the Governor of New York issued arrest warrants for some residents of Greenwich. and Old Saybrook. A 1664 agreement placed Long Island under New York jurisdiction and established the boundary between Connecticut and New York as a line to run from the Mamaroneck River "north-northwest to the line of the Massachusetts. settlements. for the price of 25 English coats.

660 acre rectangle east of the Byram River. acknowledging most of Connecticut's settlements in Fairfield County. The boundary dispute was not finally resolved until 1880 (with ratification by Congress).1682 New Yorkers began a settlement above Tarrytown in what Connecticut considered its territory. The Panhandle and The Oblong (1683) en. Mills were established along major streams and rivers. However. Putnam. The basic form of Connecticut (and affiliation of Greenwich) was established at that time.wikipedia. The harbors provided opportunities for trade with other areas. This territory came to be known as the Oblong. Greenwich Plan . New York. New York.81 miles) wide equivalent to the area of the panhandle that extended north from Ridgefield along Dutchess. Under a 1683 agreement the boundary between Connecticut and New York was generally recognized as a line parallel to and twenty miles from the Hudson River north to the Massachusetts line. to the Massachusetts line. Merchants and traders and inn-keepers set up establishments along major roads. Efforts to agree on a resolution were initiated again.3 . and Westchester Counties. In return Connecticut gave up its claims to Rye and ceded to New York a strip of land 580 rods (1.org/wiki/Connecticut_Panhandle While these border disputes were going on. the early settlers engaged in subsistence farming and fishing and similar pursuits. gave up a claim to a 61. which became the area sometimes referred to as Connecticut's panhandle.

900 people in 1840 to about 5. The number of residents grew from about 3. With the proliferation of the automobile. While the first forays were probably by summer residents.000 people in 1900.4 . Merritt Parkway Greenwich Plan .500 people in the 1850s.000 people in 1920 and 35. enhanced accessibility.000 people in 1900 to 22. and the growing reputation of Greenwich as a special place.000 people in 1940. government policies that promoted new housing construction.Arrival of the Railroad and Automobiles In 1848 railroad service came to Greenwich. and the prospering economy of the region. growth continued in Greenwich.000 people as the result of an expanding post-war economy.edu Post-War Suburbanization While the completion of the Merritt Parkway in 1938 increased the accessibility of Greenwich. there were new factors changing how growth was occurring in the community. By 1970. Greenwich was directly in the path of suburbanization emanating from New York City. Influence of the Railroad The railroad was a major factor in changing Greenwich from an agricultural community to a residential community The population of Greenwich. the true effects were not felt until after World War II. added about 1. eventually the increased accessibility brought permanent residents also. The number of residents increased from 12. the fact that Connecticut did not have an income tax at that time. The rail line increased the accessibility of Greenwich and this attracted people from New York City and elsewhere. Greenwich train station circa 1928 Greenwich train station circa 1954 uconn. which had only grown by about 900 people from 1800 to 1840.000 people in 1850 and 12.000 people in the 1840s and another 1. Clearly. Greenwich’s population had grown to about 60. With the advent of the automobile in the early 1900s.

Employment growth has followed population growth. From about 17.000 residents represents the first population increase after small retractions in the 1970s and 1980s. major financial institutions and various leaders from all walks of life. This is a reflection of business growth to serve local needs and the desirability of Greenwich as a retail and office location (for major corporations in the 1960s to financial service firms in the current day).Since 1970 the population of Greenwich has continued to hover around 60. It is a community that strives for inclusion. the 2000 Census population of 61. In fact. Indian Harbor Belle Haven Greenwich Avenue Great Captain’s Island Greenwich Plan .000 jobs today. with an image that reflects accomplishment and sophistication. It is a community that is widely recognized in the United States and has attracted international corporations.000 jobs in the early 1960s employment in Greenwich has grown to about 38. This growth can be attributed to the aging and replacement of households that moved to Greenwich in the first wave of suburbanization four decades earlier. Greenwich is a widely known special place Greenwich is a widely known community.5 .000 residents. as witness the number of members on the Representative Town Meeting (the fifth largest deliberative body in the entire United States). and the number of community volunteers who serve on many municipal boards and not-for-profit organizations.

Historical Factors in Greenwich's Evolution Originally an agricultural community. • favorable tax policies (no state income tax until the 1990s). • the quality of education. • the reputation of the community. Reenactment of Israel Putnam’s Ride . and • Greenwich's character and overall quality of life. In the last 50 years people have been attracted to Greenwich due to: • Greenwich's proximity to employment centers in New York and the southwestern coast of Connecticut.6 .Putnam Cottage Greenwich Plan . Greenwich has experienced growth associated with economic growth and with the improvement of transportation systems. • desirable recreational and educational amenities.

in order to identify issues on which Greenwich should be focused.7 . Demographics Economic CHAPTER 2 Land Use Build-out Potential Greenwich Plan .Greenwich Present This section of the plan outlines the conditions and trends affecting Greenwich at the time the plan was prepared.

000 20.112 3 35. Sec cond.644 7. it represents a rev versal from the po opulation dec clines that Gr reenwich experienced during the 1970s and 1980s.509 3 40.172 1 16.755 5 59. High projections from the C Connecticut State Dat ta Center at UConn n. This growth trend is sig h gnificant for t two reasons. Projections in italics s.000 30.801 3. Grow is ral of ge.441 5 61.921 5.790 3.667 66.131 1 12. s on th Low projections based on continuatio of 1980-2000 growt 0 180 00 1830 1860 18 890 1920 1950 1980 2010 Greenwich Plan .101 6 High 63. ut Population projections p prepared by t the Connecticut State Da Center su ata uggest continued p population gro owth in Green nwich through to the year 2 h 2030.123 2 33.000 1800 – 2000 Census.463 1 22.892 10.578 5 58.036 6.000 10.8 . the rate of growth is faster than t e s that experienc by the St ced tate of Connecticu during similar periods.789 70. wth expected to continue to the year 2030 o 0.522 7.000 Po opulation Year 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Low 2010 2020 2030 3.533 3.047 3.943 61.700 0 63.835 4 53.793 5 59. Population C Change (1800 – 2030) 70.Changing Demogra C aphics After sever decades o little chang Greenwich is growing again.000 High Projec ction Low Project tion 50.500 0 Population 60.900 0 62. First.000 40.

For planning purposes the age com mposition of a community c be considered to can include th hree major ag groups wit differing ne ge th eeds or conce erns--children (ages n 0-19).402 26.620 62.846 19.584 59. In e There has been an inc 1980 one and two pe e erson househ holds account ted for 53 pe ercent of all households.578 5 29.Connecticut State Data Ce enter .794 12.74 per was rsons.926 27. Th increased to 57 percen in 1990 an was similar in 2000 at 5 perhis nt nd 58 cent.610 25.432 2 70.gov 2000 Census Greenwich Plan .969 20. ch on hanges in ag compositio may ge on actually h have more fa reaching implications b ar both in terms of future h s housing choices and community service dem mands.44 41 UCo onn Projections s 2020 2030 18.67 Con nnecticut 2.06 61 16.319 16. vel erage Household Size Ave Gre eenwich 2. 2.865 Actual d data .327 28.307 2 22.9 .484 16.141 7 Life Cycle Needs e s Needs • Age A Range • 0 to 4 • • 5 to 19 • • • • • • 35 3 to 54 • • 55 5 to 65 • Child Care Recreation programs School facilities Recreation fa acilities Recreation programs Rental housin ng Starter homes Social destina ations Family programs Trade-up programs Smaller homes Second homes Tax relief Housing options Elderly programs Medical care In-home services 20 2 to 34 Ages 0-19 20-54 55+ Total 1970 20. In 1980 average household size w 2. n s Gre eenwich Age C Composition ( (1970 to 2030) ) Actual 90 1980 199 15.60 in 1990 and remained lev in 2000.Greenwic is Aging ch While ove erall populatio growth is important.UConn 60% \ Percentage of Total Population 50% 43% 40% 40% 34% 30% 23% 20% 28% 32% • • • • • 65 6 and over 10% 0-19 0% 1970 1980 199 90 2000 2010 20-54 2 55+ 5 2020 2 2030 Househo Size is De old ecreasing s crease in one and two person housing units over time.53 U.987 28. adu (ages 20ults -54). Per rsons per occupied housing unit also we down from 1980 to 200 g ent m 00.101 2010 18.755 2000 16. which dropped to 2.172 65.290 61.S S.60 Fair rfield County 2.39 97 58.562 2 16.) s d s r ults +) Over the next 20 years the number of older adu (ages 55+ is expected to increase fas than the other age groups and will be about 32 percent of th total ster l 2 he population by 2030.59 cen nsus.561 13. as listed in the table and displayed in the chart below.Census Projections . and mat ture residents (ages 55 and up.98 83 27.222 59.

According to the U. about 36 percent of the housing stock is described in the Census as being something “other than single-family detached housing” such as attached housing. Nevertheless over 1. there is significant residential construction from remodeling. Even though the overall housing growth rate in Greenwich is modest. This is an increase from 1990 when multi-family housing comprised about 32 percent of the housing stock. Single-Family House Multi-Family Housing Greenwich Plan . multi-family.511 housing units in the year 2000. an overall growth rate of about 3 percent. etc.Housing Conditions According to the Connecticut Department of Economic and Community Development (DECD).077 housing permits were issued for new house construction.S. additions. While the bulk of the housing stock in Greenwich is single-family residential units. Greenwich had 24. there is additional new residential construction activity occurring in Greenwich that is not reflected in the overall tabulation of housing units. an increase of 996 units (about 4 percent) from 1990.10 .833 housing units in 2005. twofamily. In other words. and teardown/rebuilds. Greenwich would add about 645 units in this decade. Census Bureau. an increase of 322 units (about 1 percent) over the 2000 Census. If the 2000 to 2005 growth continued at the same pace. Greenwich had 24.

53% Norwalk 11.000.gov/ecd CT Department of Economic and Community Development .767. • operating costs (witness United Illuminating and Connecticut Light and Power costs statewide.475.250 units of rental housing at all cost levels to service a town of 60. the value of housing and land will continue to make it difficult for Greenwich to reach the number of units needed (10 percent) to be exempt under Connecticut’s affordability law. It is also important to note that Greenwich has unique housing needs beyond providing housing for households at the lowest income levels. • construction cost. Of that total. Connecticut General Statutes (CGS 830g) establishes a threshold that all municipalities should have 10 percent of their inventory of housing to be affordable to people earning 80 percent of the state median income ($44.2007 .000 Darien $1. a real estate trade group.100 per month. Approximately 750 units are part of senior housing developments. While Greenwich has more affordable housing than most non-urban towns in the area.49% New Canaan 2. Because of Connecticut's reputation as a high cost state.2007 Median Sale Price (2006) Greenwich $1.15% Westport 1.292 Westport $1. The inhibitors to being able to build decent affordable housing in a high-cost environment like Greenwich can be reduced to five distinct issues: • land cost. 2.500 New Canaan $1.000 Stamford $693. • land availability.08% Greenwich 2.000 in 2007. which can only have rents that do not exceed $1. non-compliance with CGS 8-30g would allow for relaxation of certain zoning regulations in order to further this type of development. there has been no reasonable attempt to try to develop a formula for development of these badly needed units that does not include the application of risky layers of subsidy. and excessive upfront fees followed by years of steady loss.926.11 Percentage of Housing Units that are Affordable Housing Stamford 13. reliance on artificial formulas that have no true market significance. Median price for condo homes in Greenwich in 2007 was $750.000 $275.com CT Economic Resource Center . delay. It is instructive to give an overview of the process of traditional subsidized housing funding and development. and the price of fuel all of which are the same price in a market or subsidy apartment).000 cerc.000. ranking the town highest in sales price for both the region and the state. In 2007 about 5 percent of all Greenwich housing units currently meet the state definition of affordable housing in 2007.199.000 residents. It should be noted that only 9 of 169 towns in Connecticut have met this 10 percent threshold.Housing is Valuable in Greenwich According to the Warren Group.000 units are either owned by the Housing Authority of the Town of Greenwich (HATG) or leased through its section 8 subsidized housing voucher program. the median sale price for a single family home in Greenwich was $1. leaving approximately 2.) In other words in order to be exempt from CGS 8-30g threshold Greenwich would have to double the number of these units. Affordable Housing Providing affordable housing in Greenwich will be a challenge. Greenwich currently has approximately 5.01% 5. Under certain circumstances.000 Fairfield County Connecticut $535. including Nathaniel Witherell. and • rental levels and subsidy mix.000 units of rental housing in its inventory.80% Darien ct. The problem is that some subsidies are competiGreenwich Plan .250 Norwalk $545.095.

hospital workers. • threatens the economic vitality of the community. emergency service workers. The Study also found that the lack of affordable and diverse workforce housing options: • jeopardizes the quality of life and key services Greenwich residents value. This Study estimates that Greenwich businesses pay an additional $18.000 tons of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) per year. and barely serve a public purpose. In the current environment. some are disbursed on set annual days.000 in labor costs because of the additional travel time (estimated average of 104 minutes of travel time roundtrip) and wear on vehicles (estimated average of 40 miles round trip) of non-resident employees. Greenwich Plan . which impacts the air quality and energy goals of the community. many of these programs – which have been steadily reduced by governments in the past 7 years – have been the only source of financing for projects with below market rents. are unsightly and not integrated with neighborhoods.12 . The traditional model for building developing and funding low income housing is inefficient. delayed or ineffective projects that generate significant losses. over reliant on an overlapping and often contradictory set of debt and subsidy offerings by federal. the United Way completed a Workforce Housing Study report about housing costs and the impact that housing prices have on the community. such as Low Income Housing Tax Credits. and the like. • increases traffic throughout the region. The Study also identified that a lack of subsidized housing and housing choices for Greenwich’s workforce is contributing about 15. Some manage to accomplish the development of affordable housing effectively and efficiently in this environment.900. and • does not provide housing for teachers. some are reliant on the political process and some. • could ultimately transform a community that values its cultural and economic diversity into a homogenous town accessible only to the wealthy.tive. • is detrimental to the environment. have values that change up and down depending on the Federal Reserve and the market. But many more do not and the result is a string of failed.   United Way Study In June 2008. state and local sources.

918 Percent 8.323 6% 23.511 2000 Census 65% Single Family House Multi-Family Housing Unit Total 15.049 Percent 7.597 37% 23.Housing Rentals and Ownership According to the US Census Greenwich’s housing stock has remained consistent from 1990 to 2000.651 Percent 8.515 1990 Census 64% Single Family House Multi-Family Housing Unit Total 14. with the ratio of owners to renters remaining the same 64 percent to 30 percent and the ratio of single-family houses to multifamily housing units at the same 64 percent to 36 percent Greenwich has traditionally had a mix of ownership to rental housing compared to most communities in Lower Fairfield County.515 1990 Census 63% Housing Units in Greenwich (2000) Owneroccupied Renteroccupied Vacant Total 15.240 30% 1. Housing Units in Greenwich (1990) Owneroccupied Renteroccupied Vacant Total 15. Only Norwalk (about 37 percent) and Stamford (about 42 percent) reported higher ratios.143 30% 1. In 2000.511 2000 Census 64% Greenwich Plan .990 Percent 7. about 30 percent of all occupied homes in town were rental.281 5% 24.13 .860 36% 24.

408 [8] Greenwich East Hartford Manchester 36.405 44.603 [9] swrpa. Over time.449 [6] 3.756 $79. the office market expanded to include the financial sector and the latest iteration – the hedge fund operation.131 $72.940 $122.219 [1] 2.530 CT Labor Dept 1 Hartford Stamford New Haven Bridgeport Norwalk Danbury Waterbury 123. hedge funds.org South Western Regional Planning Agency (SWRPA) Median Household Income Darien New Canaan Westport Greenwich Stamford Norwalk Fairfield County Connecticut $181.326 $65. Town Top 10 Communities in CT for # of Jobs (2000) Top Communities in CT for # of Businesses (2000) [RANK] CT Labor Dept.The Economy Employment 1963 1970 1980 1990 2000 2005 17.951 77. In the State of Connecticut Greenwich is the eighth largest employment center and has the second highest number of businesses. For many years the Greenwich office market was dominated by corporate headquarters and smaller local office operations. CT Dept.651 $150.551 48.010 33.071 4.702 240 3. making it the third largest office market (11 percent of total office supply) in Fairfield County.998 3.038 [2] 1. This change in office dynamics has resulted in a decline in the number of institutional and corporate users (corporate consolidations or relocations) and a number of move-outs by cost conscious entities seeking areas with cheaper rents.203 [10] 1. Reportedly. which allow them to pursue aggressive investing goals.000 to over $1 million    Greenwich Plan .157 [4] 2.617 46.995 [5] 2. Greenwich has a strong office market Greenwich contains over four million square feet of office space. They are restricted by law to no more than 100 investors per fund. CT Economic Resource Center .859 Employment in Greenwich has doubled over the past 40 years or so from about 17.702 9. While the 2005 employment level (about 35.454 [7] 2.000 jobs).416 83.216 23. Hedge funds are exempt from many of the rules and regulations governing other mutual funds.875 Many people are surprised to learn what an economic powerhouse Greenwich is.000 jobs in 2005.453 [3] 5. ranging anywhere from $250.000 jobs) is below that reported for the year 2000 (about 37. Greenwich still has a robust economic climate.452 41.485 30.821 $178.000 jobs in 1963 to about 35. Only Stamford and Norwalk contribute more office space with about 37 percent and 15 percent of office supply. as corporations consolidated and changed strategies some of this space became available.250 37.140 34.890 2 -4. of Economic and Community Development Employment Growth 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 1 estimate 2 projection 8.308 33.849 $73. private investment companies and related firms account for 65 percent of the downtown office market.766 30. The strong demand for office space in Greenwich by the financial sector has pushed office vacancies down and office rents up (in certain parts of Greenwich) to levels rivaling Manhattan rates. and as a result most hedge funds set extremely high minimum investment amounts.2007 Hedge Funds A hedge fund is a private investment fund that charges a performance fee and management fee.14 . respectively.

Census The long-term outlook for retail in Greenwich is very posit k tive due to in nherent wealth loc cally and regionally..Greenwic has a stro retail ma ch ong arket The overa Greenwich retail marke is well esta all h et ablished and offers a mix of both neighborh hood scaled village center (local conv v rs venience and services) and more regionally supported re y etail (destinati and chain driven). cal r. pr nd roviding greater re etail diversity to these areas. Inc.15 . Costar Reis. . t ch ore ouseholds in The County and n Greenwic Households Earn Mo Than Ho The State e Although the 2000 Inc come data fr rom the US Census is o old. Greenwich households earn more than househ s holds of Fairfi ield County a and the State of C Connecticut. he Retail Establishment in Selected Greenwich A E ts Areas Retail district umber of retail b businesses (200 07) Nu Downtown Gree D enwich Cos Cob b Riv verside-Old Gr reenwich TOTAL 44 47 52 5 94 9 59 93 Loc Brokers and Real Estate Agents. owards high end c chains on Gre eenwich Aven is expecte to continue. not surpr risingly.000 $100.000 $150. nue ed This trend has helpe reinforce Greenwich a a regiona retail destination. Old Greenwichate C d -Riverside an Byram. ion n Analysis of the location of Green nwich busine esses identif fied that Dow wntown the de mber of Greenwich accounted for most of t retail trad in town in terms of num businesse with 447 re es etailers. 1999 Househ hold Income Distribution 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% $50. The trend to mic .000 Or greate er Greenwich Fairfield County Connecticut Greenwich Plan . althou in the sho ugh ort-term a con nservative ap pproach is to be ex xpected beca ause of the cu urrent econom condition. ed as al Stores catering to the local population and not re l equiring a reg gional draw ar likely re to gravita towards Cos Cob. or 75 percent of th total.

38 1.963 412.01 1.03 0.182 8.680 43.220 8.57 1.844.15 0.059 6. CT Connecticut State Westchester County.210 34.643.902 457.Greenwich's Regional Role While primarily perceived as a residential community.120 7.40 0. NY New York 30.14 Greenwich New Canaan Darien Norwalk Westport SWRPA Fairfield County.833 10.77 0.224 7.423 75. NY DOL 24.219 12.200 486.816 Greenwich Westport Darien New Canaan Fairfield County Connecticut Westchester County.621 CERC.07 1.875 15.16 1.019 7.427 412.26 1.877 1.424.428 48.85 0.142 347. NY DOL Greenwich Plan . two measures of whether a community is a residential area or an employment center.90 1. This contributes to the traffic problem.000 CT DOL.600 9.91 1.652 9.72 0.800 7.89 0. Greenwich is also a strong employment center.16 1. Town Labor Force Jobs (2005) Housing Units (2005) Stamford Norwalk 66. NY New York State CT DOL – Connecticut Department of Labor CERC – Connecticut Economic Resource Center NY DOL – New York Department of Labor 1.19 1.070 355. Data indicates that Greenwich has more jobs than houses. NY DOL 34.454 1.89 Connecticut DOL.25 1. CERC. In fact.56 1.499.566 1.421.16 .020 CERC Area Jobs / Housing Ratio Jobs / Resident Worker Ratio Stamford 1. Greenwich has very high ratios of jobs / housing units and local jobs / local workers.853.90 0.870 48.

472 6.416 11.179 8.293 14.659 -21% 9% 7% -6% 41% 25% 34% 100% South Western Regional Planning Agency Origins for Greenwich Workers Of people who worked in Greenwich in the year 2000.944 29.249 -21% 32% 5% 6% 31% 51% 18% 100% South Western Regional Planning Agency Greenwich Plan .546 27.149 6. about 40 percent of all Greenwich residents who are employed actually work in town. Place of Residence for Persons Working in the Town of Greenwich (2000) Residence 1990 2000 % Change % 2000 Trips Greenwich Points north and east of Greenwich Points south and west of Greenwich TOTAL 14.17 . 30 percent lived in Greenwich.359 6. About 20 percent work in Manhattan and about 15 percent work in Stamford. Another 10 percent work in Westchester County and 6 percent work elsewhere in southwest Connecticut.359 19.Job Destinations for Greenwich Residents Interestingly. about 8 percent live in Manhattan and elsewhere in New York State. The remaining 10 percent work over a wide area.293 6.424 35. Understanding that there was an increase in the number of jobs in Greenwich and a decrease in workers who lived in Greenwich between 1990 and 2000 helps explain the perception that there has been an increase in traffic volumes during this timeframe. About 16 percent lived in Westchester County and 15 percent lived in Stamford.754 9. About 8 percent lived in Greater Bridgeport area. Place of Work for Persons Residing in the Town of Greenwich (2000) Destination 1990 2000 % Change % 2000 Trips Greenwich Points north and east of Greenwich Points south and west of Greenwich TOTAL 14. Note that the number of people working in Greenwich who are Greenwich residents decreased significantly between 1990 and 2000.741 37.189 11. most Greenwich residents work in town or commute to job destinations to the south and west (74 percent). and about 6 percent lived in Norwalk. As shown below.

729 712 2. 96 percent (1. and other organizations which is used for other purposes but provides open space benefits.land owned by fish and game clubs.5 square miles). the State.462 514 811 648 87 33 22 21 4. cemeteries.land or development rights owned by the Federal government. Underdeveloped Land . recreational clubs. golf courses.425 3.Land Use In Greenwich Greenwich contains approximately 31. or committed to a specific use such as open space or municipal use.091 2. A land use survey found that 27. a single family home on a 12 acre parcel in a 2-acre zone. structures.807 acres) is zoned for residential use. Greenwich Plan .214 2.635 63% 55% 3% 3% 15% 13% 9% 8% 11% 9% 100% 88% 12% 100% Of the vacant land. 100 percent of underdeveloped land (1. There is little vacant and underdeveloped land in Greenwich (12 percent). Managed Open Space .18 . Definitions Developed / Committed Land land that has buildings. or industrial purposes. institutional or open space. For example.748 25 119 27. Dedicated Open Space .882 1.190 14. second to residential land is open space (13 percent.441 1. business.753 acres) is zoned for residential use.299 acres (or 88 percent of the land) is either developed for residential.) Vacant Land . or improvements used for a particular economic or social purpose (such as residential.892 2.060 acres (48. or conservation organizations intended to remain for open space purposes. Residential land accounts for more than half (55 percent) of the developed land.425 1.060 31. which indicates that development pressure may come in the form of redevelopment of existing properties. 2007 Greenwich Land Use Percent Of Developed Land Percent Of Total Land Use Acres Residential Single Family Two-Family / Multi-Unit Multi-Family Business Commercial Mixed Use Commercial Recreation Marina / Boatyard Industrial Open Space Dedicated Open Space Managed Open Space Community Facilities Municipal Facilities Institutional Utilities / Transportation Road ROW Utilities Water Features Developed / Committed Vacant / Underdeveloped Vacant1 2 Underdeveloped Total Land Area 1 2 17.446 2.land that is not developed or committed.land that may be capable of supporting additional development potential in the future. land trusts.). the Town.753 31.645 1.060 27.

Map: 30 June 2008. and expressly disclaims any liability that may result from the use of this map." 120 V U 684 ) " ) " ) " 22 V U 128 V U ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " Existing Land Use Map ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " 104 V U ) " ) " § ¦ ¨ ) " ) " ) " ) " 15 V U ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) ) " " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " 137 V U 137 V U ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " V U 120 ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " V U 120 ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) ) " " ) " ) " ) )) " "" ) " )) "" ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " )) "" ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) ) " " ) " £ ¤ 1 ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " Legend )) "" ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) ) " " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " Single Family 2FD . Multiple Dwellings Multi-Family Development Mixed Use Commercial 684 119 ¦ Industrial V¨ U 1§ 19 V U Dedicated Open Space 907 Commercial Recreation ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) ) " " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " )) "" ) " ) " ) " ) " ) ) " " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " £ ¤ ) " 1 ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) ) " " ) " ) " ) " )) "" ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) ) " " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) ))) ) " """ " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) ) " " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " Marina/Boat Yard V U ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " £ ¤ ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) )) " "" 1 ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) ) " " ) " ) " ) " ) ) ) " " " ) " ) " 287 Managed Open Space Commercial Agriculture Municipal 127 V U § ¦ ¨ V U 120 ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " § ¦ ¨ ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " 95 ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " Institutional Utility Vacant Water 119 V U ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " ) " 120 V U ) " ) " ) " GIS data supplied by the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. This map was produced from the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. and is not intended for sitespecific analysis. The Town does not certify this data as survey accurate. £ ¤ 1 § ¦ ¨ 287 ) " ) " ) " 1 Miles .4FD. The data depicted hereon is for planning purposes only. Aerial: 4/15/03.

482 10 1 3.818 7.Zoning In Greenwich Like most communities Greenwich manages land use activities in the community by designating zoning districts for specific uses and intensities. and moderate-income housing. Other Hospital Parking No Zone / ROW 1 823 599 224 3.884 acres are zoned for residential purposes (86 percent of the land area).574 58 138 86% Greenwich Assessor’s Records and Geographic Information System Greenwich has 14 zoning districts for business development and other nonresidential uses. 26. Greenwich contains a variety of zoning districts for residential development. tunities to re-zone land to provide residential alternatives focused on disparate housing needs within the community such as smaller units at a reasonable cost.884 10. multi-family town house units with the amenities associated with single family units. non-residential. and is not listed as a zone.190 acres of Greenwich is used for residential purposes (55 percent of the total land area). the Zoning Map and Building Planned residences are oppor. It is important to recognize that land use and zoning can be different. Zoning is a plan. The following table identifies how land is zoned in Greenwich: Category Acres Percentage of Total Land Area Residential 4-acre Residence 2-acre Residence 1-acre Residence < 1/2 acre Residence Multi-family Residences Planned Residences 26. Planned Residences a plan for land use and density and in Connecticut.20 . Greenwich Plan . Category Acres Percentage of Total Land Area Non-Residential Business Exec.Zone Regulations are recognized as the Comprehensive Plan. Only 3 percent of the land area is zoned for business purposes (823 acres.087 4.). While 17.  Zoning in Greenwich has been broken down into residential.471 3% 11% Greenwich Assessor’s Records and Geographic Information System 1 About 11 percent of Greenwich is transportation right of way or water. Office Bus.210 4. Most of the land area in Greenwich (70 percent) is devoted to residential lots of one to four acre minimum lot sizes. and other categories.

£ ¤ 1 § ¦ ¨ 287 1 Miles . The data depicted hereon is for planning purposes only. Aerial: 4/15/03. and is not intended for sitespecific analysis. This map was produced from the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. Map: 30 June 2008." 120 V U 684 22 V U 128 V U Generalized Zoning Map 104 V U § ¦ ¨ 15 V U 137 V U 137 V U 120 V U 120 V U £ ¤ 1 Legend 4-acre Residence 2-acre Residence 1-acre Residence < 1/2 Acre Residence 119 ¦ V¨ U 1§ 19 Hospital V U £ ¤ 1 Multifamily Residence 907 Planned Residential 684 Business Executive Office Business 287 Parking ROW / No Zone 119 V U V U £ ¤ 1 120 V U § ¦ ¨ § ¦ ¨ 95 127 V U 120 V U GIS data supplied by the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. The Town does not certify this data as survey accurate. and expressly disclaims any liability that may result from the use of this map.

Residential Development Potential In Greenwich
There still is development potential in the community: • additional residential units, • additional residential floor area, and • additional business floor area. Additional Residential Units A build-out analysis of properties in Greenwich was performed. After considering zoning, it is estimated that this land area may support about an additional 3,372 dwelling units. However this estimate does not include potential re-zonings to multi-family use or possible conversion of public, semi-public or institutional lands to development. At current household sizes (2.60 persons per household) Greenwich could eventually add an additional 8,770 people as a result of new development. Thus, with an existing population of 62,755 people, it is estimated that Greenwich could eventually become a community of about 71,530 residents.
EXISTING CONDITIONS Developed 1 Residential Lots Vacant Lots

Build-out Analysis The build-out number listed in the tables to the right and on the facing page are estimates based on existing Greenwich Assessment and Geographic Information System data.

Zone
Minimum Lot Size

Lots

Potential New Lots

2

RA-4
4 acres

1,496 2,373 2,453 1,128 4,361 3,267 2,886 17,964

967 1,917 1,984 959 3,929 3,006 2,347 15,109

109 84 98 33 108 51 65 548

221 310 338 130 344 878 129 2,350

RA-2
2 acres

RA-1
1 acre

R-20
20,000 square feet

R-12
12,000 square feet

R-7
7,500 square feet

R-6
7,500 square feet1

TOTAL
1 2

Lots used for single-family, two-family, three-family or four-family Lots with conforming lot sizes that can be created from vacant or developed properties

Additional Residential Floor Area As indicated earlier much residential development is occurring in Greenwich which does not result in the addition of a housing unit. For example, housing additions and teardowns (the demolition of an existing house and the construction of a larger new home) will result in additional floor area but not a new unit. A review of existing and allowable floor area indicates that about 57 million square feet of residential development is already built in Greenwich, and the community has the potential for an additional 56 million square feet, based on current zoning allowances. There are certain regulations like setbacks and

Greenwich Plan - 22

height in addition to land constraints such as topography and wetlands that will reduce this potential. While current population has the potential to increase by about 18 percent based on development potential, the size of residential buildings has the ability to increase by almost 100 percent.
Zone Existing Dwelling Units Potential New 1 Dwelling Units Existing Floor Area 2 (square feet) Potential Floor Area 3 (square feet)

RA-4 RA-2 RA-1 R-20 R-12 R-7 R-6 TOTAL
1 2 3 4

972 1,920 2,000 962 3,984 3,163 4,118 17,119

221 310 338 130 344 878 1,151 4 3,372

7,600,561 12,265,434 10,010,255 3,828,127 11,259,679 6,224,478 5,995,931 57,184,465

19,847,866 22,920,949 19,480,804 6,956,115 20,983,205 11,541,071 11,947,610 113,677,620

Includes one-family, two-family, three-family and four-family dwelling units Floor area in zones RA-4, RA-2, RA-1. R-20, R-12, R-7 and R-6 zones Includes total floor area potential on developed and vacant lot Comprised of the conversion of existing on-family, two-family dwelling units along with potential two-family units on the number of potential new lots in the zone.

Phases of Residential Build-out
Indicators Regulatory Concerns

Phase 1 Build-out Phase 2 Build-out

Lots are created, homes are built

Adopting road standards, minimum lot size, number of housing units per acre, floor area ratio Adjusting bulk requirements, regulating grading and impervious area Adjusting floor area ratios and providing incentives to protect historic homes. Controlling the impact on community character.

Homes are added onto, homes approach maximum size allowed under zoning Homes are demolished, lots are merged to find ways to create new lots, homes approach maximum size allowed under zoning

Greenwich Plan - 23

Business Development Potential In Greenwich
Greenwich has allocated about 3 percent of the land area in the community for business purposes. Planning and Zoning has evaluated the potential for additional business floor area based on the current land use regulations in Greenwich.
Business Zones BEX-50 - 50 acre executive office (located in the northwest corner of Greenwich) GB-IND-RE - General Business Industrial Re-Use Overlay (to encourage flexible approaches to the re-use of land and buildings formerly designated for a factory, manufacturing, or industrial use) CGB - Central Greenwich Business (the general area of Downtown buffering the CGBR zone) WB - Waterfront Business (areas along the waterfront that require water dependent uses) CGBR - Central Greenwich Business Retail (mostly Greenwich Avenue and some surrounding streets) LBR-2 - Local Business (village oriented business in Chickahominy, Pemberwick, Byram, Davis/Bruce Park Ave, Glenville, Cos Cob, West and East Putnam Avenue, Riverside Avenue, Old Greenwich, Valley/River Rd. Ext., Church/William Street and Central Greenwich) LB - Local Business (located mostly along the Post Road on the eastern side of Town) LBR-1 - Local Business (village oriented business in Banksville, Round Hill, and Palmer Hill/North Mianus areas) GBO - General Business - Office - (located mostly in the Weaver Street/Holly Hill area of western Greenwich) GB - General Business - (along West Putnam Avenue (mostly car dealerships) and East Putnam Avenue (hotels) and along Railroad Avenue)

Based on existing land use activities Greenwich’s business zones are about 65 percent built out in terms of the amount of floor area that is allowed. The current estimated total business floor area is listed at 16,220,960 square feet and there is a potential for an additional 6 million square feet of business use under the Building Zone Regulations. This additional potential floor area, as with the residential floor area, will be reduced because of other regulations e.g. restrictions on height and setbacks.
Existing Floor Area (square feet)
1

Zone

Acres in the Zone

Potential Additional Floor Area (square feet)

BEX-50 GB-IND-RE CGB WB CGBR LBR-2 LB LBR-1 GBO GB TOTAL
1 Commercial uses only

222.6 9.8 86.0 48.2 39.3 64.2 59.7 63.9 99.4 118.7 811.81

725,882 0 1,766,193 1,127,854 2,136,424 857,945 551,698 8,574 1,734,019 2,093,249 11,001,838

0 0 413,385 580,601 681,577 692,118 818,091 69,231 964,492 999,554 5,219,121

Greenwich Assessor’s Records and Planning and Zoning Department

Greenwich Plan - 24

25 .Community Concerns The Planning and Zoning Commission undertook an intensive public meeting process at the outset of the development of this Plan to learn about issues and aspirations. CHAPTER 3 Public Meetings Greenwich Plan .

Community Involvement The Planning and Zoning Commission conducted public planning meetings in various parts of the community to involve residents in the process and to find out the types of things Greenwich should encourage and discourage by asking them what they are proud of and sorry about. Residents indicated that preserving open space. historic resources. Top Tier Issues Open space Traffic and transportation Flooding and drainage Housing needs Historic resources Natural Resources Community character Downtown Residential over development Willowmere Salt Marshes Greenwich Land Trust Greenwich Plan . over development and housing needs.26 . Downtown. natural resources and community character were important and were hopeful that something could be done to address traffic circulation.

providing housing choice and maintaining infrastructure were important issues for the community to address. protecting village centers.Public Workshop Meetings The Planning and Zoning Commission also conducted public workshop meetings held to involve residents in identifying strategies to address issues. held at Central Middle School. enhancing community character. were organized around the following topics: • • • • • • • • • • • • Natural Resources Open Space Historic Resources Community Character Overall Community Structure Residential Development Housing Needs Business Development Community Facilities Vehicular Transportation Pedestrian / Bicycle / Transit Utility Infrastructure The Environment Downtown and Growth Community Services and Facilities Residents indicated that creating a healthy environment. These meetings. The overall interest expressed during these meetings suggested that doing these things in a responsible and sustainable manner is something the community desires. Bush-Holley House Historic Site Historic Society of the Town of Greenwich Greenwich Plan .27 .

residents seemed to indicate that the overall guiding philosophy of this Plan should be to: Protect and enhance Greenwich’s natural resources. The Planning and Zoning Commission plans to develop new regulations for sustainable development design standards for public and private properties and structures. community character and quality of life.28 . This is a good example of initiation of new town Energy Policies with the joint efforts of Town officials and the public. To accomplish this goal the plan has been organized under the following themes: Themes Components Protect What We Have • • • Enhance Community Character Enhance Environmental Health An Environmental Leader • Create What We Want Nurture Focal Points – Downtown.Overall Plan Direction Based on the public meetings and exercises. in an environmentally responsible manner. Business and Village Areas Diversify The Housing Portfolio Be a Growth Management Leader • • • Provide What We Need Guide Municipal and Community Facilities Guide Infrastructure Be a Green Leader • • The new Selectman's Energy Task Force has been created by the Selectmen and is composed of citizens looking at public energy issues. Greenwich Plan .

The following pages identify specific strategies to achieve these goals. and provide recreational opportunities. To manage inland waters effectively thereby assuring an abundant supply of drinking water.29 . and protect natural habitat. Greenwich should: [ [ [ Enhance Community Character. and To protect coastal waters to minimize flood danger. and An Environmental Leader. enhance aesthetics. To accomplish these goals. An Environmental Action Task Force was concurrently instituted to deal with issues. minimize flood danger. and protect the shores and ecosystem of Long Island Sound. Enhance Environmental Health. Greenwich residents expressed that the community should take a more active role in environmental issues such as water quality. Greenwich Plan . flooding. energy conservation and natural resource protection and have suggested the following goals and objectives for the natural environment: To preserve the natural landscape to protect resources. improve water quality.Protect What We Have PROTECT WHAT WE HAVE … At public meetings held during the planning process Greenwich residents indicated that environmental issues are very important to the community.

30 .Protect What We Have Greenwich Plan .

Shrubs and Vegetation.31 . and Create Greenbelts. The Nature Conservancy Preserve Open Space [ [ [ Scenic Views Historic Resources Putnam Cottage. Implement the 2003 Open Space Plan. Coastal Access 4 "A society is defined not only by what it creates.org Greenwich Plan .CHAPTER Enhance Community Character Open space. but by what it refuses to destroy. historic resources and the coast line all add to our quality of life. To enhance community character. and Protect and Plant Trees. Create Additional Coastal Access." John Sawhill. Protect Scenic Resources. Greenwich should: Protect character resources [ [ [ Protect Historic and Cultural Resources.

These local historic districts have aided in the preservation of the historic character of these parts of the community. Greenwich should take a leadership role in assuring that these resources. Greenwich currently does not have any village districts. are valued and protected. While this has been a successful program. building modifications. demolition. Village Districts State Statutes (CGS 8-2j) allow a Planning and Zoning Commission to establish a Village District with aesthetic and other controls in identified village areas in order to protect the unique character of the area. Better information needs to be available to residents regarding the benefits and costs of historic conservation. which may not be readily offered. Greenwich needs to develop programs to prevent these occurrences. This tool requires property owner approval. the village district may be a more effective tool going forward. The most effective preservation programs are intended to accommodate changes that do not threaten Greenwich’s historic resources or character. and may need to increase staffing to organize and manage these efforts.32 . There are a large number of historic buildings and resources within Greenwich. owner consent is required for a local historic district to be effective. Threats to historic resources can occur from land use changes. or deterioration from lack of maintenance. but this tool may be an appropriate solution in some of the village centers. This idea is explored further Chapter 7. Greenwich Plan . Some of these resources have not been well documented When documented it has been difficult to assess the impact on these resources at the time a development proposal is submitted. whether public or privately owned. A village district differs from a historic district in that a village district can be established by the Commission without the consent of the property owners.KEY STRATEGY Protect Historic and Cultural Resources Historic issues are important because they connect the community to the past and establish a sense of character. Local Historic Districts Greenwich has a Historic District Commission that oversees exterior changes in local historic districts. The lack of assessment capacity has permitted demolition of structures and the alteration of significant resources.

£ ¤ 1 § ¦ ¨ 287 _ ^ 1 Miles . Map: 30 June 2008. Aerial: 4/15/03. The data depicted hereon is for planning purposes only. and is not intended for sitespecific analysis. This map was produced from the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. and expressly disclaims any liability that may result from the use of this map. The Town does not certify this data as survey accurate." 120 V U 684 Historic Resources Plan 22 V U 128 V U _ ^ 104 V U § ¦ ¨ 15 V U _ ^ _ ^ 137 V U 137 V U 120 V U 120 V U _ ^ _ ^ _ ^ _ ^ __ ^^ _ _ ^ ^ £ ¤ 1 _ ^ _ ^ _ ^ £ ^ ¤ _ _ ^ _ ^ _ ^ _ __ ^ ^^ 1 £ ¤ 1 Legend _ ^ _ ^ _ V ^ U _¨ ^§ V U¦ 907 119 127 V U _ ^ Local Register of Historic Places National Register of Historic Places State Register of Historic Places 684 120 V U _ ^ 1Merritt 19 V U Parkway (National Register) 287 National Register Historic District Local Historic District 119 V U § ¦ ¨ _ ^ _ ^ § _ _ ¦ ¨ ^ ^ 95 120 V U GIS data supplied by the Town of Greenwich G eographic Information System.

1 4. Develop town standards for historic buildings using the National Register standards for buildings built before 1940.4 PZC 4.7 HDC Greenwich Plan .6 CC HDC 4.5 4. Investigate ways to provide adequate professional support to the Historic District Commission (not just administrative support).Historic Overlay Districts The Planning and Zoning Commission has also established two historic overlay districts: Historic Residential-Office (HRO) and Historic Overlay (HO) to promote preservation of historic character and features. This has been an effective tool to prevent the destruction of historic resources but some fine tuning may be required. etc) to prevent adverse impacts on abutting properties. Work with the Assessor's office to have their assessment records indicate the age and historic status of properties and structures. Study the locations of archeological resources in Greenwich. ACTIONS TO PROTECT HISTORIC AND CULTURAL RESOURCES AGENCY LEGEND BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation CC – Conservation Commission HDC – Historic District Commission HSTG – Historical Society of the Town of Greenwich PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission 4.34 .3 BET 4. Ensure Historic Overlay (HO) and Historic ResidentialOffice overlay (HRO) projects consider management issues (noise. The historic overlay tool should not be used as a substitute for penetration of incompatible uses into residential zones unless there is a compelling reason to do so to further the preservation of historic structures.2 Continue updating the historic resources survey as resources allow. light pollution. Obtain certified local government status in order to receive funds from the Connecticut Commission on Culture and Tourism HDC HSTG HDC HSTG RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 4.

Gateways and Neighborhood Identity There are numerous gateways (significant entry points) into Greenwich that range from urban gateways from Interstate 95) to rural gateways from the Merritt Parkway. distinct). so strategies can be developed to protect the resource. Greenwich Plan . and to encourage sensitive stewardship by property owners who live along these roads. but there are a number of streets that would qualify for this designation. Scenic Roads and Great Streets Greenwich has a number of recognized scenic roads. There are no designated great streets in Greenwich. Greenwich should provide signage to recognize these important areas. It should develop an understanding of where these resources are located. As others see the community. Greenwich also has a number of roads that could be recognized as scenic roads or great streets. Views from the public right of way greatly add to our perception of openness and community character and are threatened by tall fences and buildings located without sensitivity to these resources. which are place-based (where pedestrians feel comfortable and desire to be there. How people interface with the town as a whole and with the individual neighborhoods is important for the identity of Greenwich. Great Streets Streets with character. Greenwich should evaluate opportunities to raise awareness of these character elements to enhance the overall quality of the community. Greenwich should enhance the quality of these gateways through signage and landscaping to improve the overall appearance.35 . Greenwich does not currently have an inventory of scenic resources. so we see ourselves.KEY STRATEGY Protect Scenic Resources Scenic resources are important in Greenwich. rich with beautiful buildings and trees.

DPW. libraries. Reinforce the neighborhood village concepts by: a. ARC ARC. retaining neighborhood schools. HDC PZC CC TW CC. barns. CC Greenwich Plan .10 Create an inventory of scenic resources.ACTIONS TO PROTECT SCENIC RESOURCES AGENCY LEGEND ARC – Architectural Review Committee CC – Conservation Commission DPW – Department of Public Works HDC – Historic District Commission PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission TW – Tree Warden 4.13 4.36 . HDC CC HDC CC PZC CC. keeping and encouraging neighborhood cultural and historic structures and properties.15 HDC CC 4.17 HDC CC. Consider adding a scenic road signage program to identify the resources within the community. Amend land use regulations to include better protection of scenic resources.16 4. especially in coastal areas. retaining fire stations. HDC.9 4. DPW PZC CC HDC CC RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 4. c. Limit height of fences and walls to maintain the scenic streetscape character of Greenwich. Identify scenic roads and great streets with appropriate signage. Protect tree canopies from unreasonable destruction from utility pruning. Preserve scenic resources such as stone walls. retaining local neighborhood retail and office establishments d.14 4. waterfront parks. playgrounds. fields. and other scenic resources that are visible from public streets. b. Enhancing gateways to the area will help define the villages and strengthen the sense of place. Create design guidelines that encourage the unique attributes of each village.8 4.12 4. fences.11 4. civic centers and religious institutions-all of which provide a sense of history and cultural place.

The Town does not certify this data as survey accurate. Map: 30 June 2008. Aerial: 4/15/03. This map was produced from the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. and expressly disclaims any liability that may result from the use of this map. The data depicted hereon is for planning purposes only. 1 ¤ £ ¦ ¨ § 287 1 Miles ." V U 120 V U 137 22 V U V U 128 Community Character Plan V U 104 15 V U ¦ ¨ § 684 V U 120 V U 137 V U 120 1 ¤ £ 1 ¤ £ Legend Potential Great Streets Scenic V U View 907 V U 119 V U 119 Scenic Road ¦ ¨ § 1 ¤ £ 684 Coastal Scenic Area 287 Scenic Water Feature ¦ ¨ § V U 120 95 ¦ ¨ § V U 127 V U 119 V U 120 GIS data supplied by the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. and is not intended for sitespecific analysis.

While the Town has taken steps to protect trees.” The first step is to create an inventory of tree coverage using aerial photography and the Greenwich Geographic Information System (GIS) map program. and trees on public. Other opportunities to plant trees include the development of a “Memorial Tree” program around the community and a “Tree for Every Child” program at the elementary schools. trees on private property are sometimes clear cut when development occurs. trees create a sense of space.KEY STRATEGY Protect and Plant Trees. One of the challenges to regulating tree removal is that it is very easy to remove trees without anyone knowing that they have been removed. New York City can increase its urban forest—our most valuable environmental asset made up of street trees. • Public Trees (trees located on public property. Greenwich needs to take steps to prevent inappropriate tree removal. and • Right of way trees (Trees that are located along town and state highways). Greenwich could provide incentives for tree preservation to limit the amount of clearing that needs to be performed on private property with the goal of eliminating clear cutting. Greenwich does not need to be as ambitious as Million TreesNYC. Enforcement of tree coverage requirements requires good base information. community character and an environment for relaxation or play. Trees exist in three different realms in Greenwich: • Private Trees (trees that are located on private property). etc. but a financial commitment by the community to take a leadership role in providing public trees is a strong statement. and to determine if the change was authorized. Clear Cutting Clear cutting is the removal of substantially all trees from a parcel of land. This impacts community character. excluding rights of way).38 . Shrubs and Vegetation Trees provide a broad range of invaluable benefits to individuals and the environment. height. This inventory differs from the natural resource inventory strategy because it would not include information about tree species. Greenwich would need to update this information to determine where changes in coverage have occurred. CASE STUDY MillionTreesNYC MillionTreesNYC is a citywide. just the amount of coverage. Over time. Their four most important functions are erosion control. public-private program with an ambitious goal: to plant and care for one million new trees across the City's five boroughs over the next decade. private and commercial land—by an astounding 20 percent while achieving the many quality-oflife benefits that come with planting trees. reduction of carbon monoxide levels and energy conservation in the summer. “By planting one million trees. Greenwich could then effectively enforce the provisions of the coverage requirement. drainage enhancement. such as by establishing a tree coverage requirement. Plant Trees The Tree Warden should explore creating a program to fund the planting of many new public trees on public property and rights of way over the next 10 years. park trees.. In addition. Greenwich Plan .

of Public Works GIS – Geographic Information System Dept. Requiring contributions to a tree planting fund from development projects that eliminate more than a certain number of trees per fraction of an acre. c.39 . Consider a policy that encourages the use of conservation easements for areas with mature or specimen trees. Explore options for enhancing tree cover.of Parks & Recreation DPW – Dept. DPW TW RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE TW CC. Conduct an inventory of tree coverage. DPR.18 4. to allow for analysis of cleared areas (enforcement tool). such as: a.ACTIONS TO PROTECT AND PLANT TREES. SHRUBS AND VEGETATION AGENCY LEGEND BOS – Board of Selectmen BET – Board of Estimate & Taxation CC – Conservation Commission DPR – Dept . Implementing a Parks “Tree for Every Child” program with the elementary Schools. DPR.22 4.20 4.21 4. Plant a large number of public trees in the next ten years. Exploring regulatory changes that guarantee inclusion of deeply rooted trees in property development plans.23 4. GIS TW BET.19 4. Creating a town-wide “Memorial Tree” program. CC DPR CC BOS. Examine implementing a tree ordinance Consider new regulations to protect trees on private property. and regulations to limit clear cutting. d. b. PZC – Planning & Zoning Commission RTM – Representative Town Meeting TW – Tree Warden 4. PZC Greenwich Plan . RTM PZC CC TW CC.24 Update the historic and significant tree study.

In addition. Land set aside for some other purpose (such as watershed protection) but that provides some open space value. Unless there is some restriction on the land future development could occur.090 acres) is open space of one type or another. The main open space implementation strategies include: • Acquisition. and • Partnering with others. and conservation easements) but public use is general. Open Space Standards It is important to keep in mind that there is no true standard of how much open space land a community needs and there are too many variables to define such a standard.Accurate tally ly not allowed. protect trees. protect wildlife habitat. Audubon. Greenwich Plan . Each town is different. the State of Connecticut Area Dedicated Open Space Protected Open Space 2. • Protecting managed open space. Includes conservation easements held by vari. golf courses.40 . Town-owned land is not included in the table because. both in terms of physical features and residents’ perceptions of what would be appropriate. The common element in the above table is that the land is used or preserved in some way or owned by an entity where there is some level of assurance about how the land will be used or preserved in the future. • Conservation Easement. • Fee set-aside in the Subdivision Regulations.445 acres In Greenwich about 13 percent of the land area (4. For purposes of this Plan.not available ous agencies. and enhance the quality of life for Greenwich residents. the Nature Conservancy. and homeowner association land. Public use may not be allowed. One resident might define open space as any undeveloped land. cemeteries. • Fine tuning land use regulations. open space is defined as: Type Examples Land preserved in perpetuity as open space. with public use.STRATEGY Continue to Implement the 2003 Open Space Plan Preserving meaningful open space will help conserve important natural resources. manage water quantity. while another might consider only land that is permanently protected. Includes land owned by Greenwich Land Trust. protect water quality. while it is public land. defining open space is complex and difficult.645 acres Land preserved from development (such as subdivision setasides. Includes land owned by the water company. Managed Open Space 1. not all town-owned land is dedicated or planned to remain as open space.

728 acres 4. Greenwich could also provide this type of regulatory flexibility for developed lots as a tool to create additional open space. rather than building single homes on individual lots. The challenge is to find funding. These types of projects should be encouraged. • Treetops • Calf Island • Great Captains Island. . An easement is a legal agreement that creates a permanent restriction recorded on the land records. The State of Connecticut has an open space program where it provides 50 percent funding for qualified open space purchases. partnerships.669 3. • Montgomery Pinetum. Because Greenwich has already recognized the importance of open space. Greenwich should continue participating in these and similar programs. Continue to Use Conservation Easements A conservation easement enables landowners to conserve natural or man-made resources such as forest land or historic structures.761 Greenwich Assessor’s Records 1 Previously referred to as Private Open Space Successful protection of open space is a function of the toolbox that a municipality has to work with. many of the tools needed are in place. binding the original owner and all subsequent owners by its terms. or partners with funding. This project is a model because it involves regulatory flexibility by attaching housing units on one parcel. when deemed appropriate. Certain projects. Fine Tune Land Use Regulations Greenwich’s land use regulations have played an important role in the preservation of open space. Over the years Greenwich has had the foresight to acquire land to preserve the following areas as open space: • Greenwich Point. and • Laddins Rock. privately-owned land) is not included in the above table since there is no assurance about how the land will be used or preserved in the future. since it is often called “perceived open space. Greenwich Plan .Land that looks or feels open but is not preserved in perpetuity as open space (includes vacant. to acquire important parcels. Greenwich should continue to use this tool. Greenwich should continue to acquire properties when opportunities occur. and inventory all easements that are currently in place. Tools such as requiring set-aside as part of subdivisions and the creativity of the Residential Conservation Cluster allow for protection of land as part of new development. This land contributes to the sense of openness in Greenwich. • Mianus Pond. and may only require fine-tuning of these tools by adjusting the land use regulations to require open space for all new development. such as the Lyon Farm on Weaver Street. This resulted in a greater percentage of the property remaining undeveloped.291 4. While there is significant interest the State has managed to assist in the protection of a significant amount of open space in the last few years.41 Past Efforts Preservation of open space has been a significant issue in Greenwich. volunteers and governmental policies.” Perceived open space 1977 1 1998 2003 2007 Vacant and Underdeveloped land 6. have augmented the supply of open space while minimally impacting the natural environment. which includes funding resources. Continue to Acquire Parcels As noted in the 2003 Open Space Plan ownership is the surest way to control how land is used.

£ ¤ 1 § ¦ ¨ 287 1 Miles ." 120 V U 684 22 V U 128 V U Open Space Plan 104 V U § ¦ ¨ 15 V U 137 V U 137 V U 120 V U 120 V U £ ¤ 1 £ ¤ 1 119 ¦ V¨ U 1§Managed Open Space 19 V U Town Owned Land 907 Legend V U 684Dedicated Open Space £ ¤ 1 120 V U Water § ¦ ¨ 287 § ¦ ¨ 95 127 V U 119 V U 120 V U GIS data supplied by the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. The Town does not certify this data as survey accurate. The data depicted hereon is for planning purposes only. This map was produced from the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. Map: 30 June 2008. Aerial: 4/15/03. and is not intended for sitespecific analysis. and expressly disclaims any liability that may result from the use of this map.

or open space.200 or so acres are assessed as open space. An owner who wants to keep his land undeveloped without being taxed on its potential development has two choices. farmland. The Nature Conservancy and the Trust For Public Land. For property to be assessed as open space under Public Act 490. The Conservation Commission is the agency responsible for passive parks and open space. only private golf courses and the Cos Cob Archery Club are using PA 490. and privately. forests. Then the property owner must apply to the Assessor for Public Act 490 classification and assessment. The Town of Greenwich should continue to seek opportunities to partner with these other organizations to accomplish overall open space objectives. Greenwich Plan . Open space properties under PA 490 are assessed by the local tax assessor according to their actual use. such as The Audubon Society. and its value is set by the State. and can allow the underlying use of the property to continue.Protect Managed Open Space Greenwich should consider a strategy that would convert managed open space into protected open space. He may grant a conservation easement on the land or seek local designation under Public Act 490 as farm. work with land owners to understand their overall circumstances and whether land sales or donations or other techniques are most advantageous for them. Greenwich has about 1. 12-107e). a forest must be at least 25 acres. A State law Public Act 490 (CGS Sec. and open space and discourage their sale for development. are an important part of open space preservation efforts.43 . Currently. Continue To Partner With Others The Greenwich Land Trust and other organizations. PDR involves the sale of development rights that exist on a given parcel of land in exchange for a perpetual conservation easement. Preserve Excess Land Connecticut law requires that all property be assessed at its highest and best use market value unless an owner has agreed to restrictions on the use of the land or there is a deed restriction. There are a number of tools that might be effective. the local assessor must verify that it is a working farm. Management Planning The recommended natural resource inventory should be used as a basis for development of the management plans for town-owned land. and Greenwich may want to extend this tool to private residential properties as well. while the Department of Parks and Recreation is responsible for active parks and fields. or open space and the owner agrees not to sell or change its use for at least 10 years. which is adopted by the Planning and Zoning Commission and approved by the Representative Town Meeting. While the State of Connecticut may limit how State funds are used in a PDR program.100 acres that are protected under PA 490 as forest or farmland. it must first be defined or shown on the Town’s Open Space map. such as a Purchase Development Rights (PDR) tool. By law. Another 1. Farmland has no minimum size. not at highest and best use. In particular such organizations can actively. forest. allows a reduction in assessment to land use value if a property qualifies as forest. there are no limitations (other than funding) that would prevent Greenwich from pursuing this strategy. The purpose of the law is to protect farms. whose values are set by the State.

27 RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE PZC 4. Greenwich should seek an open space program.28 STPC CC. Open spaces interconnected by greenbelts are an effective way for Greenwich to establish a meaningful open space system. or locations on parcels.32 Greenwich Plan . In addition. Advocates for open space need commitments of protection which can only result when the community has established that specific parcels. town-owned land has not been included as protected open space.26 PZC 4. Greenwich should explore connecting dedicated open space areas through the use of greenbelts.25 Review the building zone regulations to require an open space set aside as part of multi-family and commercial developments. The greenbelt open space concept involves providing linkages between open space areas to create a system of connected undeveloped and open land. will be committed as dedicated open space. PZC 4.31 4. DPR. Encourage attached housing units as part of residential cluster developments to increase overall open space within a development. The exclusion is a result of a lack of a long-term management plan for town-owned land. Greenbelts promote quality of life and enhance wildlife habitat. Develop management plans for town-owned land and establish a permanent protection (such as a conservation easement to a non-town agency or the establishment of a conservation/park overlay zoning district) to prevent a change of use Update the inventory and database of open space easements held by the town and link it to the recommended Natural Resource Inventory. to accept donations of excess land deeded in perpetuity to the town in exchange for tax incentives Consider expanding the Public Act 490 open space program to residential properties.29 CC GIS CC PZC CC PZC RTM CC 4.Create Management Plans As mentioned earlier in this strategy. greenbelts present an opportunity to create a trail system at an appropriate time. Review the subdivision regulations and the building zone regulations to consider the off-site dedication of open space as part of a development. Greenwich should develop management plans for all town-owned property.30 4. ACTIONS TO IMPLEMENT THE 2003 OPEN SPACE PLAN AGENCY LEGEND BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation CC – Conservation Commission DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works GIS – Geographic Information System Department PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission RTM – Representative Town Meeting STPC – Selectmen’s Town Property Committee (proposed) 4. and reestablish the Selectmen’s Town Property Committee to oversee this task. DPW 4. Establish Greenbelts Greenbelt A connection between two or more open space properties.44 . if the land offered is more significant to the overall open space framework. Evaluate opportunities to create greenbelt connections between open space properties.

These sites are distributed widely throughout the town. Signage Program To increase awareness of the presence of smaller public access points the town should consider a uniform coastal access signage program such as those seen in some coastal communities. Access is made difficult by traffic and circulation issues. The DEP’s Coast Access Guide. Grass Island. and limited parking. Some areas are very small and/or have limited parking. and access to this resource is important to the overall quality of life for Greenwich residents. Because the town-owned boating facilities are public. The Town has provided a map and database showing 36 sites providing general public access. boat launches. and the Mianus River Boat and Yacht Club.45 . fishing access might be suitable from an existing dock. the ferry service to offshore islands. At larger sites signs could direct users to designated parking.KEY STRATEGY Create Additional Coastal Public Access Public access to the coast is an important issue. Smaller sites could be listed as walk-in or pedestrian access. Cos Cob Power Plant In June 2008 a New Plan with one athletic field and an open space meadow was selected by the Board of Selectmen from three alternatives. Some are well known and used. While some of the Town-inventoried sites are likely too small to attract general public use. Town Marina on Strickland Road. while others are more difficult to find. the Town lists 19 other marinas and yacht clubs. suggesting potential to encourage use (with appropriate limitations ) at some locations. Tod’s Point. the Town lists parking available for 24 of the 36 sites. Boating Access Greenwich has five town-owned public boating facilities: Byram Park Boat Club. For example. as well as passive and active recreation areas. encouraging neighborhood use. Greenwich provides a significant number of other excellent and in some cases unique public access opportunities such as Greenwich Point Park (listed at 153 acres). Detailed plans and applications to the requisite state and town agencies have not yet been finalized. the potential for public access at the town facilities is worth exploring. Greenwich Plan . Beach Access Greenwich has several sandy beach areas for swimming and sunbathing and is also fortunate to have a number of larger sites providing a variety of recreational opportunities and spectacular beauty. as most of Connecticut’s shoreline is in private ownership. lists only four sites. town docks. Obviously there are safety and security concerns but increasing public access to non-boaters might expand Greenwich’s public access at little or no cost. In addition. neighborhood traffic concerns. however.

Cos Cob Power Plant Site The recommendations of the 2003 Plan for the Cos Cob Power Plant site should be implemented. investigate the identified site under the I-95 Bridge at River Road for potential development as a public boat ramp/access area. The park should be designed so that at such time that the pier and bulkheads are repaired and the channel dredged so that the site can accommodate some type of passive waterfront access. A basic land acquisition strategy and policy should be established to ensure that Greenwich can act swiftly. Greenwich Plan . The Town should. Acquisition / prioritization The Waterfront Access Planning and Design Study (2004) and the Byram Comprehensive Plan (2008) contain an up-to-date inventory of Town-owned waterfront properties and note that several of these offer significant opportunities for increasing open space and waterfront access. For example. decisively and consistently when key waterfront or other privately-held coastal properties become available for purchase or other acquisition. These include a Public Works storage yard and a combination Public Works storage yard/municipal parking lot. a canoe/kayak launch area with adjacent storage racks. and perhaps a fishing pier might be made available. • Newman Street – Department of Public Works (DPW) facility • Former Cos Cob Power Plant site • South Water Street – DPW Site • Parking Lot – Church Street • Mianus River Dam and Filtration Site • State-owned parcel – Under I-95 bridge – River Road Greenwich should identify remaining undeveloped and significantly underdeveloped privately-owned property in the coastal area. The Waterfront Access Planning and Design Study identifies several town-owned waterfront parcels within the Byram River WB zoning district with high potential for reuse as pocket parks as keystones of a linear riverfront walkway and park system. While some of the storage and parking spaces will need to be replaced in other locations. as amended by the Board of Selectmen. When completed this site should be added to the DEP Access Guide along with any other sites of potentially statewide interest.46 . in consultation with the State of Connecticut. these two sites have great potential for public access.

" Byram River Byram River Br Bro oh he ers B rs Brroo ok k Mia Mianu nus R s Rive iver r Gr G re enwi e enwich C ch Cre k ree ek tt Coastal Access Plan £ ¤ 1 Gr Gre ee n e nw wiich ch Cre C re k e £ ¤ 1 __ ^^ Ho Ho r veer Ri i v m R r aam Byyr B nn re r sse ec ec k ok roo o Br kkB £ ¤ 1 § ¦ ¨ 95 _ ^ _ ^ £ ¤ 1 _ ^ _ ^ Legend Coastal Area Boundary Dedicated Open Space Managed Open Space _ ^ Town Owned Land Public Access Points Waterfront Business Zone GIS data supplied by the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System.5 Miles . Aerial: 4/15/03. Map: 30 June 2008. and is not intended for sitespecific analysis. 0. The data depicted hereon is for planning purposes only. The Town does not certify this data as survey accurate. and expressly disclaims any liability that may result from the use of this map. This map was produced from the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System.

Department of Public Works and the Department of Parks and Recreation should adopt the public access design standard recommendations in the Waterfront Access Planning and Design Study.34 RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 4.ACTIONS TO CREATE ADDITIONAL COASTAL PUBLIC ACCESS LEGEND CC – Conservation Commission DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission 4. DPR DPR DPW CC DPR DPR DPW PZC DPR DPW DPR PZC 4.35 4. The Planning and Zoning Commission.36 4. and ultimately a significant public amenity. inviting.38 Greenwich Plan . Evaluate the relocation of town maintenance facilities from waterfront sites to alternative locations. Identify key coastal properties for preservation and/or acquisition.37 4. Implement the Cos Cob Power Plant plan.33 Continue to design coastal public access to ensure that it is universally accessible. Create a marina at the Cos Cob Power Plant and along the Mianus and Byram Rivers.48 .

cycle and the life cycle hanced. and Address Biological Resources. CHAPTER 5 "We forget that the water To manage change environmental health must be en.Enhance Environmental Health The health of the environment is important to Greenwich residents." [ [ [ Enhance and Maintain Water Resources. Greenwich should: are one. Water Quality Jacques Cousteau Explorer Natural Resources Biological Resources Greenwich Plan . At public meetings people indicated that protecting and enhancing the environment should continue to be a community priority. Protect Natural Resources.49 .

Greenwich Plan . pesticides.50 . Greenwich should consider adopting an ordinance requiring the removal of unprotected underground fuel storage tanks that are more than 20 years old. educational programs about pesticide use would further community awareness to protect water quality. herbicides and fertilizers can enter surface waters or groundwater. support water dependent uses and add to the overall quality of life for residents. It has been well-documented that unprotected underground storage tanks (USTs) are a threat to groundwater resources. We need clean water to support our way of life. Greenwich is generally doing a good job of managing land use activities in drinking water supply areas and working to identify threats to water resources. and other pollutants. Greenwich has been actively monitoring the stormwater management system to identify pollution potential. fertilizers. Continue to protect open space. along with open space areas. Encourage the proper use of pesticides.KEY STRATEGY Enhance and Maintain Water Resources Protect Drinking Water Protecting water quality is the top strategy for protecting environmental health in Greenwich. Greenwich’s surface and groundwater resources provide potable water. herbicides and fertilizers. Greenwich should continue to use this approach to protect water quality. It is critically important to educate property owners and Greenwich residents about their responsibility to protect the community’s drinking water supply. Most threats to water quality in Greenwich come from stormwater runoff that has picked up sediment. requiring buffers bordering wetlands. streams and water bodies will also allow for water quality enhancement. automobile emissions and debris. While Greenwich may not be able to effectively regulate when pesticides are applied. Improperly used pesticides. Low density residential zoning. These pollutants can adversely affect the quality of water. have been the main tools to protect water resources. contribute to biological diversity. Open space set-asides in new development and open space acquisition (possibly with the assistance of open space and other grant programs) is another tool that will protect water resources. In addition. Require the removal of unprotected underground fuel storage tanks.

and expressly disclaims any liability that may result from the use of this map. Map: 30 June 2008. £ ¤ 1 § ¦ ¨ 287 1 Miles . The data depicted hereon is for planning purposes only. and is not intended for sitespecific analysis. Aerial: 4/15/03." 120 V U 684 22 V U 128 V U Water Resources Protection Plan 104 V U § ¦ ¨ 15 V U 137 V U 137 V U 120 V U 120 V U £ ¤ 1 £ ¤ 1 Legend High Groundwater Availability Surface Water Quality 684 / Goal 287 Impaired / Improve Impaired / Maintain 127 V U 119 ¨ ¦ V§ U 1Good 19 V U Status 907 Public Water Supply Watersheds 120 V U V U £ ¤ 1 § ¦ ¨ 119 V U 120 V U § ¦ ¨ 95 GIS data supplied by the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. The Town does not certify this data as survey accurate. This map was produced from the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System.

rain gardens. Water quality can be affected by pollution resulting from development that can harm ecosystems and fisheries for both inland and coastal waters.52 . educating homeowners about best man- Greenwich Plan . Rain Garden Vegetated Swale Low Impact Development Low impact development (LID) involves the use of environmentally friendly site design elements (e. In addition Greenwich needs to continue to protect water quality on private property. Greenwich should increase the size of vegetated buffers. Greenwich is required to address water quality in the public stormwater management system. control soil erosion and sedimentation during construction (update the Building Zone Regulations. 2004-2007 Beach Bummer Hartford Courant 6/29/2008 Greenwich should also encourage the redevelopment of properties to incorporate some of the newer water quality protection techniques that have been developed by providing zoning incentives such as slight modifications to building height or site density. Beach closures will continue to be the best way to prevent human sickness.g. Because of new federal National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Phase II regulations. Recent news articles have identified that Byram Beach was closed for 59 days from 2004-2007. Improve Coastal Water Quality Coastal water quality has been of a particular concern for recreational use and shell fishing. and perform additional site inspections).Provide Stormwater Management. These closures normally followed rain events of as little as ½ inch of rain. Engineering Drainage Manual. 59 Beach between Memorial Day and Labor Day. swales and pervious pavement). This regulation requires smaller communities and public entities that own and operate stormwater management systems to apply and obtain an NPDES permit for stormwater discharges. It is anticipated that Greenwich will need to upgrade municipal stormwater management systems to include water quality restoration techniques to protect water resources from polluted stormwater. The cumulative effect of drainage and flooding on individual properties has a ripple effect town-wide which necessitates new regulation and ordinances to addays dress and limit impervious surfaces and runoff from each individual owner’s No-Swimming days at Byram property. Drainage and Maintenance NPDES Phase II Phase II of the NPDES Stormwater program was signed into law in December 1999. It is expected that the regulatory environment will become more complex in the future and Greenwich should be planning for this change. to manage water quantity and quality. reduce the amount of impervious area allowed and require that the postdevelopment hydrology of a property replicates the pre-development site hydrology through the use of low impact development design techniques and Best Management Practices (BMPs) as established by State and Federal environmental agencies. Greenwich should continue efforts to solve the problem at its source by limiting impervious areas.

Evaluate potential sources of water contamination (roads and large parking lots) to determine if water quality can be restored before it enters streams. boatyards. There are about 30 marinas and yacht clubs in Greenwich. CC RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 5. Perhaps the most important area where small changes can make a difference involves marinas. Protect watercourses.7 5.1 5. Connecticut DEP’s Clean Marina Program is a voluntary program that encourages coastal marina operators to minimize pollution. ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND CC – Conservation Commission DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works IWWC – Inland Wetland and Watercourse Commission PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission STPC – Selectmen’s Town Property Committee (proposed) TO ENHANCE AND MAINTAIN WATER RESOURCES Protect Drinking Water 5. PZC DPW PZC DPW CC DPW PZC. wildlife habitat. water supply. and ecological balance. IWWC 5. ponds. wetlands. and upgrading town-owned stormwater systems (especially in the vicinity of Byram Beach and other public swimming areas. Greenwich should establish a clean marina program for all 5 town-owned marinas and encourage private marinas and yacht clubs to make this commitment.4 Establish regulations to address impervious lot coverage to reduce the amount of runoff 5. waterbodies. Drainage and Maintenance 5.6 Encourage sensitive redevelopment of properties that have a large amount of impervious area. floodplains. STPC IWWC PZC. vernal pools. Update the Engineering Drainage Manual and develop new policies and programs for stormwater and road designs in compliance with the NPDES Phase II EPA standards.2 Continue to acquire open space to protect water resource areas.10 Encourage all marinas to seek and obtain DEP Clean Marina Certifications.5 5.9 Continue to improve water quality in areas where public swimming occurs.) Development along the coast directly contributes to coastal water quality. and other important water resources in order to maintain water quality. Require the removal of unprotected underground fuel storage tanks.agement practices. The program also recognizes Connecticut's marinas. aquifers.53 . One or more commercial marinas are currently pursuing CM certification. DPW DPR CC Greenwich Plan . 5. and yacht clubs that go above and beyond regulatory compliance as Certified Clean Marinas (CM). all of which have the potential to affect coastal water quality unless operated carefully to mitigate impacts.8 DPW Improve Coastal Water Quality 5. or Long Island Sound. Evaluate opportunities to use low impact development techniques.3 DPW Provide Stormwater Management.

Greenwich has worked to address natural resource issues. A good model for this inventory is the Guilford Natural Resource Inventory. 21. Greenwich should be a leader in these efforts. Greenwich Plan . Guilford. the quality and quantity of the resource and long-term trends related to the resource. During the development of this plan it became apparent that Greenwich is lacking critical information on environmental items. Guilford’s inventory provides: • a geographic location of resources.54 . There has never been such a comprehensive inventory of natural resources done in Greenwich and such an inventory will provide the data that is needed to determine whether or not Greenwich’s environment and natural resources are thriving or not. maintains biodiversity and prevents environmental damage. This inventory will enable the town to set environmental priorities and adjust them over time as necessary. Connecticut (pop. The natural resource inventory will serve as the base assessment for the community and can be utilized in the future to understand how the environment is changing. and • threats and concerns about the resources. There is a need to create a complete natural resources inventory in order to develop management plans. The inventory is envisioned to become a tool that land use decision makers will be able to use in the future to address conservation and development issues. • descriptions and value of the resources. An important part of protecting natural resources involves having a full appreciation for where these resources are located. and a base inventory will provide Greenwich with the ability to understand if the community’s efforts have value and whether fine tuning of local regulations is necessary to meet the overall environmental objectives.KEY STRATEGY Protect Natural Resources Protecting natural resources is important because it preserves environmental functions.398) developed a natural resource inventory with the purpose of establishing a baseline of environmental conditions within the community. In 2003.

The Town does not certify this data as survey accurate. £ ¤ 1 § ¦ ¨ 287 1 Miles . and expressly disclaims any liability that may result from the use of this map. and is not intended for sitespecific analysis. Aerial: 4/15/03. Map: 30 June 2008. This map was produced from the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. The data depicted hereon is for planning purposes only." 120 V U 684 22 V U 128 V U Natural Resources Plan 104 V U § ¦ ¨ 15 V U 137 V U 137 V U V U 120 120 V U £ ¤ 1 £ ¤ 1 Legend 907 V U > 25% Slopes Natural Diversity Areas 684 119 ¦ V¨ U 1§Wetlands 19 V U 100 .year floodzone Water 127 V U 119 V U § ¦ ¨ 287 § ¦ ¨ 95 120 V U GIS data supplied by the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System.year floodzone £ ¤ 1 120 V U 500 .

stable or declining? Is the number of open space acres increasing or decreasing? Is the health of Long Island Sound improving.11 Conduct an inventory and assessment of natural resources. Noise/light pollution. stable or declining? Are populations of exotic and invasive species increasing. Wildlife management. PZC CC. stable or declining? What is the trend in beach closings? Are the number increasing. Continue to update.  • • • • • • • • ACTIONS TO PROTECT NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY LEGEND CC – Conservation Commission IWWC – Inland Wetland and Watercourse Commission PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission 5.. and Cultural resources and archaeology. tidal etc. Develop baseline information and a way to evaluate future change. specifically:    • Is water quality in the town’s rivers and streams improving. Quality of set asides .56 . stable or declining? Are habitats in Greenwich supporting fewer or more plant and animal species? Are populations of endangered species increasing. Recycling.12 RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 5. Benthic resources – shellfish. Visual/aesthetics. Flood.13 Greenwich Plan .Greenwich’s inventory should address issues and questions raised by the Conservation Commission and Inland Wetland and Watercourse Agency in October 2007. Enforcement. stable or declining? Is air quality improving. and Will current reservoir capacity meet future needs? • • Major impacts on: • • • • • • • • • • • Forest resources. IWWC CC CC 5. stable or declining? Are fish and shellfish safe to catch and consume? Is per capita carbon generation increasing or decreasing? Is the pace of development in Greenwich increasing or decreasing? With two additional questions: • • Is groundwater recharge adequate. work to be performed by a consultant and supervised by the land use agencies. Invasive species. monitor and assess natural resource issues.

Along with providing habitat comes the need to manage certain species. In some instances residents have replaced native plants with invasive plants. leading to erosion. Greenwich Plan .STRATEGY Address Biologic Resources Biologic resources include: • Wildlife habitat and management. endangered. to limit or prevent some of the challenges resulting from wildlife. and • Natural landscaping. Flora Resources Plants are an important element of Greenwich’s biologic resources.    Greenwich needs to work with developers and conservationists to find this balance. Invasive species have been identified by federal environmental agencies as one of the most serious environmental threats of the 21st century because of the environmental. Invasive plant and animal species with no predators can aggressively multiply. Wildlife Habitat and Management As Greenwich continues to develop pressure on wildlife will increase as habitat areas are lost to development.57 . Greenwich should take a stronger role in educating the public. costly property damage and even threatening human health and safety when species are toxic (such as the giant hogweed shown to the right.) Greenwich should prohibit the deliberate introduction of non-native or invasive species during the site development or subdivision process. landscape professionals and local landscape retailers about the impacts these plants have on the natural environment. Greenwich also has special habitat areas where additional caution must be exercised when development is proposed. ecological and economic impacts that can result. such as an increased number of deer ticks. replacing or depleting native wildlife food sources. Control Invasive Species Invasive species is a newer land use issue as control of non-native and invasive plants and animals is not an area that communities have traditionally been involved in. often to enhance the aesthetics of the landscape. In this Plan these areas are referred to as special habitat areas. Giant Hogweed Special Habitat Areas The Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection maintains the Natural Diversity Database which identifies locations of rare. Greenwich still has an abundance of wild native plants that provide food and shelter for wildlife and replace oxygen in the environment. Greenwich is best served when a balance can be found that protects native animal species. and threatened species and areas of unique features.

17 RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 5.18 5.19 5.15 Identify sensitive habitat areas early in the plan review process. Protect habitat areas and wildlife corridors. Adopt an ordinance to require native plant species as part of all municipal projects and encourage native plant species on private property. Distribute information about invasive species.20 Greenwich Plan .58 . Prohibit invasive species as landscaping elements for site plans and subdivisions.16 5. Create a resources section on the town web site with relevant links and information on how residents can act to protect these resources. Provide education about the impacts of invasive plants. CC PZC BOS CC CC PZC CC CC CC CC 5.ACTIONS TO PROTECT BIOLOGIC RESOURCES AGENCY LEGEND BOS – Board of Selectmen CC – Conservation Commission DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works IWWC – Inland Wetland and Watercourse Commission PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission STPC – Selectmen’s Town Property Committee (proposed) 5.14 5.

CHAPTER 6 “Leadership is action.” Donald H. not position. These issues require leadership.An Environmental Leader Protecting what Greenwich has requires it to address issues that are difficult and for which no single solution exists. Greenwich should: [ [ Address Flooding.59 . McGannon President Urban National League Flooding Manage Stormwater Waterways Greenwich Plan . and Provide Waterway Management.

20% Impervious 35% . driveways. the Engineering Division of the Department of Public Works (DPW) has been requiring mitigation of runoff in new subdivisions. and • Mianus River. For exam- Greenwich Plan . The severity of flooding depends upon the amount of impervious area within the watershed and the degree to which the runoff is mitigated. however. As illustrated to the right. Impervious surfaces are areas where water cannot penetrate into the ground. commercial and institutional developments and residences that come under its purview. small changes in impervious area can increase the amount of runoff. Natural Groundcover 10% . The Planning and Zoning Commission and. the amount of impervious area continues to grow because many new residences are not required to come before either the Planning and Zoning Commission or Inland Wetland and Watercourses Agency for review.60 . perhaps more than half. • Kensico Dam.50% Impervious 75% . tennis courts.KEY STRATEGY Address Flooding Many Greenwich residents would agree that flooding is a major issue.100% Impervious Greenwich has five major watershed areas drained by major watercourses: • Byram River. sometimes. roads. Much of the development in Greenwich. Impervious Areas A large percentage of Greenwich’s public stormwater management system was built when there was less overall impervious area in Town. • Brothers Brook. Flooding occurs in certain flood-prone areas during very severe storms. • Horseneck Brook. the Inland Wetland and Watercourses Agency refer applications that come before them to Engineering. occurred without provisions for runoff mitigation. For decades. Recent flood activities have caused damage and have impacted residents. However. such as roofs.

ple a single family residence, in most instances, often only has to comply with the base requirements in the Building Zone Regulations. Current regulations for most single-family residences only require conformity with the Building Zone Regulations which have no limits on the percent of impervious cover. Furthermore there is currently no review procedure, prior to the issue of a building permit, to ensure that the drainage plan complies with the Town Drainage Manual. This is an obvious need for new regulations. Manage the Amount of Runoff Mitigation measures consist of (a) underground storage in precast units (retention) and percolation into the groundwater or (b) delay (detention) designed to reduce the rate of runoff to be equal to or less than the rate that existed prior to development. Generally retention or detention of a 25-year storm is required in the upper twothirds of the town while in the lower one-third of the town retention of the first one inch of runoff (first flush) is required with all more severe runoffs bypassed downstream before flooding from upstream reaches the site. This procedure is important because it traps the vast majority of polluted and overheated runoff before either has a chance to enter the town’s streams or Long Island Sound. It would be beneficial to find a way to have all new construction subject to runoff regulations. This might be possible if all applications coming before the Building Department that involve an increase in impervious area exceeding 200 square feet were required to include runoff mitigation in their plans. The principal obstacle to achieving this improvement is the lack of personnel to review and check this large number of drainage submissions. Alternatively it may be feasible to accept sealed certification by a professional engineer that the drainage design complies with the drainage regulations. Then the Engineering Division would check a portion of those submitted. There is a need to look at flooding on a watershed basis. Greenwich has four main watersheds, some of which extend into other towns and other states. Watershed based flood management will require the cooperation of other municipalities and the state and federal governments. Greenwich should work together with the Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE) and others to address flood prone areas in these watersheds and strategies to reduce impervious surfaces. One primary example is the undersized twin arches of the US Route 1 overpass of the Byram River. Due to their size these arches, and the bridge, act as a dam during large storm events and can cause severe flooding on upstream properties particularly when storms coincide with high tide events. The ACOE proposed analysis of local flood risks should provide up-to-date data to assist in the effort to size the arches appropriately.
Watershed Planning Recent flooding in Byram has raised awareness about the need to work with the ACOE to address watershed flood issues. Greenwich will need to work with the ACOE on other issues and in other watersheds as well and should use these opportunities to address all of the watershed and waterway issues, including dredging and navigable channels.

Greenwich Plan - 61

Manage the Amount of Impervious Surface Greenwich currently limits the amount of impervious area that is allowed on a site when a property is zoned for business use. Greenwich should also consider establishing additional impervious surface regulations to encourage a reduction in the amount of runoff that can be generated from a site. For Greenwich creating a maximum residential coverage requirement will help the community mitigate stormwater drainage issues and help to control some of the large-scale residential homes that are being proposed. The present coverage permitted should not restrict the FAR permitted but should be designed to restrict extravagant site disturbance. Address Coastal Flooding Coastal flooding is also an increasingly important issue, as concerns about global warming and sea level rise draw additional attention to this topic. It is anticipated that with climate change and increased storm intensity, there will be more property damage in the Old Greenwich area during high tides, due to wind and wave velocities. To protect property Greenwich should increase the applicable regulatory flood elevations in coastal areas. Participate in the Community Rating System Program The federal government has created reward programs for communities that actively work to mitigate flood hazards. Called the Community Rating System (CRS), communities can achieve reduced flood insurance premiums when certain flood standards have been met or exceeded. Greenwich will evaluate the program requirements and decide whether to become a CRS community. Manage Stormwater Greenwich operates a number of pipes and catch basins that have been designed to catch and convey the water from a problem area to a wetland or watercourse. While this has been the traditional approach, this strategy only solves the issues of water quantity and does not address water quality. Finding Creative Ways to Pay for Needed Stormwater Improvements This increased importance of stormwater-related issues has placed a strain on financial and staff resources. One of the biggest challenges with stormwater management is finding the financial resources to implement all of the improvements that are required. While a public system, Greenwich’s stormwater network of pipes and catch basins have been developed over time in response to drainage needs. As with most communities, this approach leads to a utility network that is not as well-documented as we would like. It is in need of modernization. Greenwich has taken steps to overcome these problems by mapping the system and outfall locations, and should continue this process. The next challenge will be to find a way to make the needed improvements to address water quality and to manage water quantity.

Greenwich Plan - 62

ACTIONS
TO ADDRESS FLOODING
AGENCY LEGEND BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation CC – Conservation Commission DPW – Department of Public Works FECB – Flood and Erosion Control Board IWWC – Inland Wetland and Watercourse Commission PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission

6.1 6.2 6.3

Continue to enforce existing drainage, soil erosion control and flood regulations. Greenwich should continue to work with neighboring communities to address the causes of flooding. Establish regulations to address impervious lot coverage limits for all residential properties to reduce the amount of runoff. Encourage the use of groundwater recharge. Evaluate existing land use regulations (e.g. floor area ratio definition) to identify the drainage impacts resulting from these requirements. Update flood regulations to include increasing the base flood elevations along the coast, drainage policies and stormwater data. Study watersheds to develop comprehensive stormwater management solutions. Participate in the Community Rating System (CRS) of the National Flood Insurance Program. Provide public education and outreach concerning flood hazard mitigation. Work with the Army Corps of Engineers to address flood prone areas. Evaluate stormwater funding options and develop a program to pay for needed stormwater improvements. Examine, with the Army Corps of Engineers, the factors influencing flooding, particularly at the US Route 1 bridge over the Byram River.

DPW PZC, IWWC FECB CC, DPW, BOS PZC DPW PZC IWWC, DPW PZC DPW PZC DPW FECB DPW

RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE

6.4 6.5

6.6

6.7

6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12

FECB DPW FECB DPW DPW FECB BET FECB, DPW DPW, FECB, PZC

Greenwich Plan - 63

Coordinate Channel Management The navigable portion of the Byram River is a very active marine environment. DPW HMC FECB. Work with New England ACOE. • limiting redevelopment of waterfront properties into non-water-dependent uses.S. transient vessel access and other water based transportation.STRATEGY Provide Waterway Management Greenwich’s Board of Parks and Recreation has identified a number of important issues related to the management of waterways and adjacent waterfronts as part of a recently completed study (March 2008). • controlling commercial ferry services. Work with the ACOE and Representatives in Hartford and Washington to secure funding for dredging navigable waterways and channels. These include: • the need for extensive dredging of waterways to maintain navigation. The river channel is managed by a variety of federal. Establish a harbor management commission pursuant to the Connecticut General Statutes. DPR. Most of these issues concern activities that take place seaward of Greenwich’s land use authority.13 6. DPR BOS DPR HMC FECB. and • a potential need for waterway safety regulations. • converting town-owned facilities on waterfront lots to water-dependent and park type uses. state and local agencies. New York ACOE and the States of New York and Connecticut to develop a coordinated approach to allocating riparian rights along both the Port Chester and Greenwich riverfronts. When maintenance dredging funds are authorized.15 Conduct a harbor management analysis and develop a harbor management plan. ACTIONS PROVIDE WATERWAY MANAGEMENT AGENCY LEGEND BOS – Board of Selectmen DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works FECB – Flood and Erosion Control Board HMC – Harbor Management Commission (proposed) PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 6. Greenwich needs to develop a coordinated approach to address issues related with the use of the river.64 . Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE) for maintenance dredging projects. The best opportunity for Greenwich to manage water areas and uses is through the development and adoption of a harbor management plan pursuant to the state harbor management act. the ACOE will require certain assurances from Greenwich and harbor management commissions often serve as the local liaison for this purpose. with landward activities in Greenwich and Port Chester competing for dock rights.14 6. • increasing town-owned recreational boating facilities. In addition the establishment of a Harbor Management Commission can serve effectively as an advocate and contact between Greenwich and the U.16 Greenwich Plan . DPR 6. This has created challenges when problems are identified.

cultural and architectural resources. Diversify the housing portfolio. and To provide for a variety of housing to meet the needs. and resources of the town's diverse population. desires. The following pages identify specific strategies to achieve these goals. To accomplish these goals. business areas and villages). Greenwich should direct this change in a manner that supports the following community goals and objectives: To preserve the Town’s predominantly residential character. and Be a growth management leader. Greenwich Plan . To provide for commercial areas that accommodate businesses that allow for a variety and quality of goods and services that residents want.Create What We Want CREATE THE GREENWICH THAT WE WANT… While it is recognized that change is likely to occur. To guide development in a manner that preserves community character by protecting notable historic.65 . village centers and neighborhoods. Greenwich should: [ [ [ Nurture focal points (Downtown.

66 .Create What We Want Greenwich Plan .

Greenwich Avenue CHAPTER 7 “You can fall in love at first sight with a place as with a person. And Monitor King Street.Nurture Focal Points (Downtown.67 .” Alec Waugh British Novelist Byram Riverside Douglas Healey – The New York Times Greenwich Plan . Enhance the Large Villages. Greenwich has a potential to create and enhance the sense of place in its villages and focal points. Enhance the Post Road. Greenwich should: [ [ [ [ [ Enhance Downtown Greenwich. business areas and villages) Studies have shown that character creates a sense of place in a community. Protect the Small Villages.

Greenwich Plan . This committee. streetscape and other objects in public view all contribute to the overall attractiveness of the downtown area and its economic vitality. because it is a place to live. considering that Downtown is a regional employment center and is a regional shopping center. is to provide localized goods and services and prevent this area from becoming a regional center. shop. Greenwich’s past vision for Downtown. Greenwich should encourage property owners to designate this area as a local historic district to protect these resources and to create a higher standard architectural and site design for new construction proposed in Downtown. The map on page 69 identifies the recommended boundary for Downtown Greenwich. landscape and historic structures within the downtown area. and in particular Greenwich Avenue. and • any new development occurs in a way that protects and enhances the character of the downtown area. or conduct business. Market analysis indicates that this trend will continue.KEY STRATEGY Enhance Downtown Greenwich In many ways Downtown Greenwich. signs. A local historic district requires property owner approval. a small group of residents and business owners formed an ad hoc committee to try to hone in on issues and concerns about Downtown. As the heart of the community. it is a This report identified a number popular destination that has created increased value for businesses to locate of essential objectives that were here. Define the Geography of Downtown Downtown means different things to different people. • the conversion. and offers the highest level of protection from any threats that may compromise historic integrity. relationship and compatibility of structures. The design. The DCG During 2007. While not measurable. Over the past 30 plus years this vision has not been sustainable and Downtown has developed in a manner that is inconsistent with this vision. roadways. conservation and preservation of existing buildings and sites be encouraged in a manner that maintains the historic or distinctive character of the district. building upon the high-end retail niche that has developed along Greenwich Avenue. but not for a lack of effort on the part of the community. but this program is an honorary status with no regulatory control. the Downtown Consensus Group (DCG) filed a report in November of 2007. Downtown is changing and Greenwich should choose how this development occurs. people feel connected to Greenwich through places such as Downtown Greenwich. plantings. Local historic district designation is one of the best tools available to protect the distinctive character.68 . Downtown Greenwich is an important asset to the community. landscape and historic value of the downtown area be protected and preserved. It is important that the boundaries of the core of downtown be established to concentrate new opportunities within a specific area and to promote healthy residential neighborhoods surrounding this core. recreate. is the heart and soul of the community. dine. Local Historic District A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district. as articulated in earlier Plans of Development. carefully considered for this plan. It is important that: • the distinctive character. Greenwich is now at a crossroad. Part of the strategy to define the geography also includes creating management tools that relate to activities within and outside the boundaries.

b Æ ¦ ¨ § 95 DOWNTOWN BOUNDARY GIS data supplied by the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. Multiple Dwellings Mixed Use Commercial Industrial Managed Open Space Municipal Institutional Vacant tP Av e. 990 Feet . Havemeyer Pl. Ar ch St . S t. Elm St. 1 /2 Gre en wic Arch St. Multi-Family Development u tn W es am c Gre en w i h Ave. 1 £ ¤ R ailroad St.4FD. and expressly disclaims any liability that may result from the use of this map. Map: 30 June 2008. and is not intended for sitespecific analysis. f ro m St at ion ad ius hT ra in Fie ld er Po m il Town Hall int Rd . This map was produced from the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. Aerial: 4/15/03. The Town does not certify this data as survey accurate." Legend on Ma s Downtown Single Family 2FD . The data depicted hereon is for planning purposes only.

the aesthetic value of Downtown and the status of a GreenThis has changed the speciali. To encourage a variety and mix of businesses Greenwich should investigate limiting the linear frontage that any one business can occupy to limit the number of large stores within Downtown and find ways to encourage cultural uses. Greenwich Plan .wich address. Greenwich Avenue. and banks. and in some cases main North/South local roads (Lake Avenue and North Street). • Downtown should be strictly defined and the granting of variances in adjacent residential areas should be strictly discouraged unless clear need is defined. the amount of buying power in the region. is in a state of change where smaller mom-and-pop stores are being replaced by high-end national retailers that are providing merchandise and services for regional consumers. lack of adequate parking. zoning incentives. locally-owned stores oriented to providing goods and services to a localized population. particularly that the demand for retail space exceeds the space available. In view of the desirability of locating a business in Downtown it will be important to prevent expansion of commercial uses into surrounding residential areas. • Residential uses aid in protecting the relevance of Downtown. limiting the zation of stores to services and types of businesses that can afford to be in Downtown Greenwich. or establishment of sub-zones in the Downtown area. The area has strong transportation connections. businesses expanded on what is now Greenwich Avenue and helped to create the extents of the Downtown. Downtown Greenwich originally formed because the community recognized that additional growth needed to be accommodated in an organized manner. The area should be seen as an appropriate location for housing opportunities. Current trends could conceivably leave Downtown without a movie theater. which is the largest village in Greenwich. The arts could be promoted by zoning incentives. • Downtown should be designated as a Historic Overlay District that will allow for the orderly preservation of its historic fabric while concurrently controlling appropriate growth.70 . with access to rail service and Interstate 95 readily available.Define the Purpose of Downtown Mom-and-Pop Stores Unique. placed by national chain stores offering high end merchandise. forced many of those establishments to move to other locations. This might be accomplished through purchasing. and Downtown. All of which have increased the retail rental rates. There are several considerations relating to the preservation of the integrity of the Downtown area: • Acknowledge the cultural aspects of Downtown and encourage their maintenance. Housing uses should be a priority in the disposition of any Town-owned property in the Downtown area. goods for the regional population. although mixed uses (commercial and residential) are to be encouraged in the commercial zones. Over the years. Understanding the purpose of Downtown Greenwich is important. Downtown Greenwich is now a These stores have been reregional shopping and entertainment center. • The town should promote businesses that provide essential services to its residents. along with direct access to US Route 1 and the Rising rents. This has occurred because of a number of market-related forces. Greenwich should also look for creative approaches to encourage and support local businesses that may want to locate in Downtown.

The Center is within the scope of total activities within Downtown. • the Senior Center.71 . Social. At the time this Plan was being developed.The Heart and Soul of Greenwich Ultimately. Greenwich must first maintain the types of activities that have made downtown successful and then continue to protect the historic buildings. demolished historic buildings and removed housing from their downtowns. civic. Working with organizations that provide these amenities. Certainly the Center for the Arts fits the concept of cultural and entertainment center for Downtown. social. to be successful. and cultural activities enhance the sense of place and may need community support to remain viable. these other elements continue to provide a sense of place for this area.  There is general agreement that the Board of Education needs a new site and a study is presently underway on the re-use of the Havemeyer Building. along with the combination of social activities available here. downtown areas need a vibrant mix of retail. Greenwich must also work to maintain the social activities. While the change in retail is noticeable. along with good management and public safety. Greenwich is fortunate that this did not occur here because. there were three elements of Downtown still being reviewed by various Town agencies: • the Havemeyer Building. and • the old Town Hall building. housing and other commercial activities. There is also public consideration for a new Center for the Arts to be located in the Havemeyer Building. In many town and cities communities classified areas as a Central Business District (CBD) and then proceeded to isolate land use activities. Additional studies are being performed to evaluate where a senior center would best be situated within the community. Greenwich Plan . the community may be able to fine tune existing land use regulations. a big part of why Downtown is a special place comes from the mixture and amount of housing. taxation policies or other issues. In addition. Because of these findings communities are now trying to reinvent their downtowns by turning to mixed-use zoning and other tools. which are already successfully in place here. to be more responsive to their needs. especially with educational programs for children. as history has proven. a portion of Downtown’s appeal is a result of patience exhibited by the Town when urban renewal was occurring in other parts of the state and country.

Greenwich will need to conduct a study to better assess existing and future parking capacities and occupancies. This strategy has caused business employees and customers to find parking elsewhere (often farther into residential neighborhoods) which raises questions about whether this strategy of limiting the construction of new parking is working. violation tickets. in response to these concerns. However the skewed approach of Maple Avenue at this inter- Greenwich Plan . Some residents have expressed concerns about the amount of business activity that is occurring in Downtown Greenwich because of their personal accounts of problems with these issues. which terminates on Maple Avenue at a stop sign controlled intersection north of Route 1. a parking deficit already existed and was expected to grow with planned future developments. has been identified by various community officials to be to limit new parking structures and facilities in Downtown. while not articulated in any specific document. Parking solutions for residents need to be addressed and Greenwich should start to evaluate options to resolve conflicts with the current system. A third critical access to Downtown from northern Greenwich is via North Street. To address parking management. The intersection of Maple Avenue and Route 1 is signalized and serves a high volume of traffic. Vehicles turning. The most obvious of these issues involve parking and traffic. Two primary access routes to Downtown from northern and western sections of Greenwich are via Glenville Road and Lake Avenue. This Study identified that the majority of the Town’s parking capacity shortages exist in the retail and commercial areas of Downtown. At the time of the report. or slowing to find on-street parking also contribute to the delays . including promoting the use of transit as a way for employees to get to downtown and the need for and location of any parking decks. the Town has created a Department of Parking Services that is responsible for managing the municipal parking infrastructure. and in response to the Study’s recommendation. In 2002. as residents and visitors experience these issues first hand. Congestion in this area is not solely due to high traffic volumes. Greenwich’s current parking strategy.Develop Solutions for Parking Unfortunately a vibrant downtown comes with management issues. It is evident that the existing number of parking spaces and current parking management strategies in Downtown are not sufficient moving forward. Access to Downtown Greenwich Aside from Interstate 95. including parking permits.72 . but local traffic accessing the numerous businesses and offices that line the roadway. Greenwich conducted a Parking Supply and Demand Study. which converge near the Greenwich Hospital at a roundabout intersection that is able to accommodate the conflicting traffic volumes. the parking meter system. Route 1 is the only east/west arterial through Downtown and handles not only a large volume of through traffic. and the Town’s Parking Fund.

Transportation Planning Report As part of this planning process. Continue to Make Pedestrians the Priority Downtown is a pedestrian-oriented place. In addition. a number of private shuttles and jitneys operate in Downtown Greenwich and serve to transport workers from the train station to the office buildings on the upper end of Greenwich Avenue. especially for larger vehicles. While it is difficult to cure traffic congestion in Downtown. Greenwich should hire a Transportation Planner to develop a series of specific recommendations and creative implementation strategies for traffic and parking in Downtown. There is little right of way available to expand the existing road capacity and additional development in Downtown will only increase congestion. Considering the number of employees who work in these buildings.73 . Per the RTM resolution of May 2008 The introduction of traffic light structures would greatly alter the visual character of Greenwich Avenue.section makes left turns onto Route 1 and right turns onto Maple Avenue very difficult. Pedestrians need a safe environment and Greenwich should continue to update safety measures and traffic calming throughout this area. Connecticut to evaluate transportation planning issues. Greenwich Plan . this plan recommends that no traffic lights should be installed on Greenwich Avenue. with sidewalks and a street scale that make it a friendly place to walk. Support Alternative Transportation Greenwich train station is an underutilized resource for solving traffic problems in Downtown Greenwich. A public shuttle would provide access to a larger number of potential riders and could be a good way to reduce overall parking demand in Downtown. A second way to encourage employee use of transit is to enhance the bus service offered in Downtown. and the number of businesses that are independently offering this service. This will only work if there is strict enforcement of resident-only parking areas. the Planning and Zoning Commission hired Fuss and O’Neill. Currently. Greenwich should work with businesses and the Chamber of Commerce to develop a pilot public shuttle program. crosswalks and bike paths. The assessment of transportation issues and resulting recommendations are result of this report. Greenwich can improve traffic flow by improving the most significant and difficult traffic intersections. Raising the cost to park in Downtown and charging an even higher price for premium on-street parking spaces could help cause employees to rethink how they get to work. Improve Difficult Intersections The Fuss and O’Neill Transportation Planning report (2008) concluded that the majority of the town’s traffic congestion occurs within Downtown. Significant commuter and retail traffic volumes exist especially on Route 1 and Greenwich Avenue. Greenwich should also review such conditions and the need for new and improved sidewalks. A lack of left turn lanes at key intersections along Route 1 and conflicts from vehicles turning out of parking spaces create significant delay and safety concerns for both vehicular and pedestrian traffic. a transportation engineering firm from Manchester.

TOD has been envisioned as a response to traffic congestion.577 1. Strong downtowns rely on stable residential neighborhoods.205.000 square feet 3.Central Greenwich Business (the general area of Downtown buffering the CGBR zone) CGBR . along with finding solutions to management issues may reduce some of the tensions associated with these issues. might be a good solution. These transit services provide an opportunity to create development that can utilize these services. strip development and a desire for a pedestrian-friendly environment. while properties within ¼ mile of the bus routes is a reasonable walking distance for bus service.161.002. Establishing the boundaries of Downtown. livable communities adjacent to public transit infrastructure. such as train stations and along the Post Road. at a density and scale that are higher than other areas of the community. Creating a Special Services District. such as residential and commercial. Greenwich should evaluate all publically owned parking areas and vacant land surrounding the train station and along the bus routes as potential locations for municipal facilities. ZONE 1998 FLOOR AREA 2008 FLOOR AREA POTENTIAL ADDITIONAL FLOOR AREA Table Legend CGB . Properties within ½ mile of the train station are considered to be within a reasonable walking distance.000 square feet of additional floor area was added to the Downtown Greenwich area.766.000 square feet 2.044.000 square feet 413. A strength of Downtown Greenwich is the train station and bus routes that create alternative solutions to the automobile. where business property owners pay an additional tax for street cleaning. While additional build-out potential exists in Downtown.000 square feet 2.386 681. While it is not realistic to believe that TOD will create a car free environment. a 36 percent increase.000 square feet 1.000 square feet 1.Central Greenwich Business Retail (mostly Greenwich Avenue and some surrounding streets) CGB CGBR TOTALS 1. TOD projects typically include mixed uses. snow plowing. The idea is to create opportunities for Greenwich residents to walk to the transit service and utilize the transit service rather than an automobile. TOD is a good opportunity to encourage alternatives to the car.   Understand Future Development Potential Since 1998 about 800.74 . and special events. Greenwich Plan .136.Seriously Examine Transit-Oriented Development Transit Oriented Development Transit-oriented development (TOD) involves creating vibrant. These areas are depicted as Housing Opportunity Areas on the map on page 95. residential and retail/commercial activities.094. Greenwich should continue to refine the build-out analysis tool to determine where future build-out is likely to occur and how to guide this growth in the best way.963 Properly Manage Downtown Other concerns about Downtown involve the encroachment of business uses into residential areas. sidewalk cleaning.

With a large amount of town-owned property at the core of Downtown the community should be able to find ways to expand arts programs. to develop a series of specific recommendations and implementation strategies for traffic and parking in Downtown. COC. SPSC PZC GIS. Evaluate options to provide parking solutions for area residents and then address overall parking issues. CC.3 7. Encourage transit-oriented municipal. historic and cultural resources.7 7. Create new workforce housing opportunities along transit routes. residential. DPR COC HDC ARC. BOS 7. and to develop an area specific plan. civic and cultural activities in Downtown. with professional engineers. Conduct a study of whether a Special Services District is appropriate to manage Downtown.2 7. SPSC HATG BET.9 Greenwich Plan .75 . Consider using a consulting firm. AO 7. retail / commercial development around the train station.5 7.ACTIONS TO ENHANCE DOWNTOWN AGENCY LEGEND AO – Assessor’s Office ARC – Architectural Review Committee BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation BOS – Board of Selectmen CC – Conservation Commission COC – Chamber of Commerce DPS – Department of Parking Services DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works GIS – Geographic Information System Department HATG – Housing Authority of the Town of Greenwich IWWC – Inland Wetland and Watercourse Commission PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission SPSC – Selectmen’s Pedestrian Safety Committee 7.6 RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE BOS 7. DPW. PZC DPS PZC DPS. DPR.8 DPW SPSC BOS BET. DPS. Consider establishing a local historic district to protect art.1 Continue to promote social.4 7. Examine the build-out analysis to determine where additional development may occur and how to direct this growth. Improve pedestrian safety and provide traffic calming in Downtown.

Byram and Glenville offer unique opportunities and challenges.KEY STRATEGY Enhance The Large Villages Greenwich has four large villages that provide a secondary level of services and sense of place within the community. These villages. Cos Cob. The transformation of Downtown Greenwich into a high-end regional shopping destination has created opportunities for these other villages to provide goods and services for the community.76 . Cos Cob Old Greenwich Byram Glenville Greenwich Plan . Old Greenwich.

and expressly disclaims any liability that may result from the use of this map.15 V U " Downtown Glenville Cos Cob 1 Village Areas V U Plan 104 North Mianus £ ¤ 1 120 V U 907 V U £ ¤ b Æ b Æ Riverside b Æ Old Greenwich £ ¤ 1 120 V U b Æ § ¦ ¨ 95 Chickahominy b Æ £ ¤ 1 Byram §¨ ¦¦ ¨§ 287 287 Legend b Æ Train Station Rail Villages Business Zones Other Zones Supportive Housing Oportunity Area GIS data supplied by the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. Aerial: 4/15/03. The Town does not certify this data as survey accurate. This map was produced from the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. and is not intended for sitespecific analysis. Map: 30 June 2008. The data depicted hereon is for planning purposes only. 1 Miles .

The train station could also serve as an area for transit-oriented housing. One of Greenwich’s overall strengths involves the rail connections that exist within the community. because the train station is far removed from the commercial center and the commercial center does not have a strong focal point along Route 1. To solve this problem Greenwich should consider creating a strong pedestrian or bicycle link along the Post Road from Cos Cob School to Stickland Road and to the train station. are appropriate. this village appears to have some additional small-business capacity if it were developed into a more pedestrian-friendly mixed-use development. Greenwich should also explore whether Cos Cob can serve as a community business center. there are areas of strip development. because of Route 1 and Interstate 95. While a number of buildings fit into this category nicely. Cos Cob School. Greenwich should conduct a land use study and develop a village plan for Cos Cob to explore what opportunities exist to enhance this village.Cos Cob Cos Cob is an interesting village. in addition to being a neighborhood business center. rail access in Cos Cob is challenging because the train station is distant from where the apparent core of the village is located.78 . where parking spaces dominate the landscape. including whether land use tools. Cos Cob Center Opportunity to create stronger pedestrian linkage Train Station Connection Cos Cob Center Cos Cob Train Station Create Link Opportunity for a more pedestrian-friendly mixed use development Greenwich Plan . While there is a train station in Cos Cob. and while it has a strong vehicular connection to Downtown Greenwich. it is lacking a strong sense of place. such as the Village District. Because of the location of Cos Cob and the current development pattern. which might help to satisfy workforce housing concerns. the Cos Cob Power Plant Park and the village core. Part of this missing element is a result of Route 1 dividing the mixed-use center and the other part is a result of a stretched out identity.

Create a pedestrian and/or bicycle link from the train station to the village core.g. Review potential for mixed-use development in areas presently zoned commercial. Evaluate whether the properties around the train station and along bus routes could serve as transit-oriented housing opportunity areas. PZC HCDO.14 Conduct a Build-out analysis of this area and its uses along US Route 1 in Cos Cob. Explore using the Village District tool. with particular attention to the sale of alcoholic beverages at restaurants and for on-premise consumption.13 7. to manage land use and building design. authorized in the Connecticut General Statutes. Develop stronger pedestrian connections and traffic calming along main transportation routes.17 7. DPS.11 7. Because the purpose of the LBR district is encourage local businesses Greenwich may want to reconsider the separation distance requirement for activities that involve the on-premises consumption of liquor. HCDO DPW SPSC DPR CC DPW FECB 7. Review the existing floodways (e.Evaluate Permitted Uses Greenwich should also evaluate the list of uses permitted in the Local Business Retail (LBR) district.79 .12 7. ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND DPS – Department of Parking Services DPW – Department of Public Works FECB – Flood and Erosion Control board HATG – Housing Authority of the Town of Greenwich HCDO – Housing and Community Development Office (proposed) PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission SPSC – Selectmen’s Pedestrian Safety Committee TO ENHANCE COS COB 7.10 Create a village plan for Cos Cob to align land use policies to overall neighborhood. Evaluate existing traffic flows and road designs and explore re-designs for US Route 1 with CT Department of Transportation. Enhance open green space areas encourage more passive and active recreational uses.16 PZC HATG. 7. PZC DPW SPSC RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 7.19 Greenwich Plan .15 PZC 7. Strickland Brook) and flooding conditions along Bible Street.18 7. SPSC PZC PZC DPW SPSC.

including whether land use tools. including surface parking lots adjacent to the rail station. Because of the local road access. Greenwich should conduct a study and develop a village plan for Old Greenwich to explore what opportunities exist to enhance this village. Old Greenwich Village Center Opportunity for transit-oriented housing Old Greenwich Train Station Opportunity for transit-oriented housing Greenwich Plan . The village is challenged by a limited vehicular connection to Route 1. where housing could be built. The village also has good access to community facilities and strong pedestrian connections. Interstate 95 and the remainder of Greenwich. to ensure that existing residents and neighborhoods are not adversely impacted. New development or redevelopment of Old Greenwich should pay particular attention to parking and other management issues. higher density residential neighborhoods. with a strong rail connection. New commercial development outside of Greenwich. in neighboring Stamford.80 . as transportation access to that new facility is relatively strong. These could be used for transitoriented housing opportunity area. Old Greenwich has a number of interesting business opportunities. the Old Greenwich area is somewhat isolated when compared to the other business areas in the community. This may affect consumer shopping patterns. has the potential to erode some of the local businesses.Old Greenwich Old Greenwich is a pedestrian-friendly mixed-use village center. There is local concern about the vitality of this village center. high aesthetic value and a variety of business activities. in addition to retaining valuable commuter parking spaces. such as the Village District. The village also appears to have additional capacity for mixed-use development where additional residences could be located above the existing retail spaces on Sound Beach Avenue. are appropriate.

26 Greenwich Plan . school.22 RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE DPW PZC. PATC PZC DPS.25 PZC HATG. Develop stronger pedestrian connections and traffic calming along main transportation routes to enhance and encourage additional walking and biking to local businesses. DPW 7. Create tools to protect and preserve local neighborhood oriented small businesses that serve neighborhood needs. HCDO DPS.81 . SPSC. Evaluate whether properties around the train station and along bus routes could serve as transit-oriented housing opportunity areas. to manage land use and building design. PZC DPS. recreational and library locations.ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND DPS – Department of Parking Services DPW – Department of Public Works HATG – Housing Authority of the Town of Greenwich HCDO – Housing and Community Development Office (proposed) PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission SPSC – Selectmen’ Pedestrian Safety Committee TO ENHANCE OLD GREENWICH 7.23 PZC 7. Explore using the Village District tool. train. to align land use policies to overall neighborhood objectives.24 PZC 7.21 Review the Local Business Retail (LBR) zoning regulations to determine the potential traffic. PZC 7. 7. authorized in the Connecticut General Statutes. parking and drainage impacts of potential commercial build-out under the existing Floor Area Ratio. SPSC 7.20 Create a village plan for Old Greenwich. Evaluate parking management needs on private and public lots in Old Greenwich.

a riverfront boardwalk with a connecting path to South Water Street. Now. a bank and Interstate Lumber at the northern end. New York). While Byram may play a role in the parts of two larger entities (Port Chester and Greenwich) there are a number of elements that make this place special and create a strong sense of place.82 . and Interstate Lumber and several private homes. some with docks. prior to the current parking regulations at the William Street parking lot. Existing water-dependent uses include three large boat maintenance/storage facilities and several smaller docks and boatyard facilities near the southern end of the zone. However. Uses desired by the community include small scale retail. at the southern end. This created problems for businesses. New York. Overall Byram has relatively good access to Interstate 95. Greenwich needs to implement the recommendations from these planning efforts Existing Waterfront Land Use Patterns Byram benefits from having a presence on the Byram River and will likely see some additional development interest because of redevelopment activities occurring in Port Chester. restaurants and residential development. the Byram community is interested in re-examining the existing WB zoning to ensure that it accommodates and encourages the type of development desired by the community. The Byram business area serves the local neighborhood needs. limited access to Route 1 and limited access to rail (the closest rail station is in Port Chester. A pocket park has been designed for the Sewer Pump Station site and a public accessway and boardwalk has been designed for the town-owned Church Street parcel at South Water Street. Implement the Byram Plan Byram is fortunate to have been an area that Greenwich has focused particular attention on during the last ten years with the development of a Byram Neighborhood Enhancement Plan in 2003 and the 2007 Byram Comprehensive Plan.Byram Byram is a unique village center because it shares a downtown area with Port Chester. Greenwich Plan . The riverfront also provides an excellent opportunity to create public access when properties are redeveloped. A condominium development currently under construction includes a marina and public waterfront access . commuters would use this parking lot and walk to the railroad station in Port Chester. employees and shoppers. Other existing uses along South Water Street include a restaurant. Because of recent development activity and interest in some of the riverfront parcels.

83 .2007 Byram Comprehensive Plan Graphics from the Plan Crosby. Schlessinger & Smallridge LLC Greenwich Plan .

or ice cream shop with outdoor seating and/or a deck. coffee bar/bakery. Residential development in this area is mostly on small 5. Uses need to be low-impact. traffic circulation and other management issues. for example.000 square foot lots throughout the district. closer to Mill Street that would attract visitors to the riverfront. with low traffic and parking demand. As indicated in the Byram Comprehensive Plan the proposed WB-Byram Regulations would allow small-scale commercial development at the northern end of the district. to ensure that existing residents and neighborhoods are not adversely impacted. Greenwich Plan .New Business Development While there is limited business zoned area available for development in Byram. a restaurant.) New development or redevelopment of Byram should pay particular attention to parking. the local plans identify tasks that can be accomplished to make the space more pedestrian-friendly and enhance the sense of place for Byram (see appendix. This type of commercial development at the northern end would connect to the existing commercial district on Mill Street and be in close proximity to existing parking.84 .

Require all new buildings to be sited to allow visual access to the riverfront walkway from South Water Street.85 .30 Consider a separate WB-Byram zoning district that relates to the specific conditions in Byram. Construct a pocket park at the sewer plant site in the summer of 2009. Study requiring all non water-dependent uses to provide enhanced waterfront access. decorative lighting and crosswalks. The riverfront walkway and the access path from South Water Street to the riverfront walkway should be designed and built consistent with the final design for the riverfront walkway BET DPW PZC DPS PZC PZC PZC 7. f. d.27 Implement the Byram Comprehensive Plan: a. plant street trees. Replace sidewalks. Provide funding for implementation.31 PZC Greenwich Plan . including both an easement for the riverfront walkway and an easement for access from South Water Street to the walkway. c. 7. Provide intersection improvement at Byram Road and Frontage Avenue. e. 7. b. Construct the Church Street public access and boardwalk in the summer of 2008.28 Evaluate parking management needs in Byram. a. This visual connection will both attract users to the riverfront and improve safety and security for people on the riverfront walkway. Obtain public access easements along the waterfront. install bump outs. b.ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation DPS – Department of Parking Services DPW – Department of Public Works PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE TO ENHANCE BYRAM 7.29 7. Several public parking spaces for people using the riverfront walkway should also be provided.

The intersection of Pemberwick Road and Glenville Road should be studied. and an addition is proposed for the firehouse.Glenville Glenville is a picturesque village center that provides local shopping for the surrounding neighborhoods. Traffic Issues In the morning rush hour. etc. while calming traffic to create a more vibrant area. Glenville Street. Glenville Road and Riversville Road are used as major arteries to downtown Greenwich business and office areas. especially the shopping center. There are large landholdings off Glenville Road (Rockefeller property) and Riversville Road that offer some major residential potential. Glenville is a growth area and has recently become revitalized and more active than in the past. The central area of Glenville is now on the National Register of Historic Places including the Glenville mill buildings and firehouse. but this lack of any identified concerns should not be seen as complacency. these roads handle a higher traffic volume that reduces the overall sense of place in this area. The proposed remodeling of the Glenville elementary school is planned. Greenwich should conduct an analysis of the issues in Glenville in anticipation of these potential problems. and it has become a focal point of the Glenville community. During the public meetings there was little dissent about Glenville’s commercial areas. management issues will result when conflicts between commercial and residential land uses become more apparent. there is potential for redevelopment of the commercial areas of Glenville as well. As with all village areas. While local roads are the main vehicular linkages in Glenville. Future Development While the revitalization has involved existing buildings.86 . A new traffic signal is proposed to be installed to address traffic issues at Weaver Street. including adjusting regulations to limit strip development in the future. Greenwich Plan . Greenwich should consider ways to enhance pedestrian safety and presence along these roads. There are areas included in the sewer benefit map that are not presently on sewer and this may represent a long-term capital project for the town if new federal funding is made available. They are congested and queues form past intersections at Weaver Street and Angelus Drive. day care programs. This area relies on a transportation network of local roads and has limited capacity for additional business growth. The business pattern that has recently developed is more strip and there are opportunities to reinforce the historic development pattern. The recent remodeling of the Western Greenwich Civic Center has resulted in more public uses of the building for community groups. sport activities.

33 7.34 Develop stronger pedestrian connections and traffic calming along main transportation routes. 7.32 Create a village plan for Glenville. to manage land use and building design to promote the preservation of historic structures within the National Register District. Explore using the Village District tool. PZC DPS. to align land use policies with overall neighborhood objectives.87 .ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND DPS – Department of Parking Services DPW – Department of Public Works PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission SPSC – Selectmen’s Pedestrian Safety Committee RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE TO ENHANCE GLENVILLE 7. PZC PZC Glenville Village Center Opportunity to create stronger pedestrian connections Opportunity for mixeduse development Greenwich Plan . SPSC DPW SPSC. authorized in the Connecticut General Statutes.

are more appropriate. Threats to community character from the demolition of historic resources or insensitive new construction are the main concern in these areas. Riverside and Round Hill. Greenwich should evaluate whether existing regulations are effective. North Mianus. parks. such as the Village District or local historic district. Pemberwick. Banksville Chickahominy North Mianus Pemberwick Greenwich Plan . or whether new tools.88 . Chickahominy. and then make the necessary improvements. as these facilities serve as a strong sense of place. Greenwich should also evaluate whether sidewalks. fire protection and in some instances commercial businesses. along with changes to community facilities. bike paths or traffic calming are needed in these areas. These small village areas have a variety of localized services: schools.STRATEGY Protect the Small Villages Small villages include the areas of Banksville.

Board of Education COC – Chamber of Commerce DPW – Department of Public Works PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission SPSC – Selectmen’ Pedestrian Safety Committee TO PROTECT THE SMALL VILLAGES 7.39 Consider creating Village Districts or local historic district for the small village areas. ARC. HDC PZC PZC COC DPW SPSC RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE Round Hill Riverside Greenwich Plan . HDC ARC. CC HDC. 7. Create design guidelines that encourage the unique attributes of each village.36 7.35 Enhancing gateways to the area to help define the small villages and strengthen the sense of place. DPW PZC. bike paths or traffic calming is needed and then make the necessary improvements. Encourage small neighborhood oriented businesses.38 7.ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND ARC – Architectural Review Committee BOE . Evaluate whether sidewalks.37 7.89 .

interspersed with scenic views of Greenwich’s harbors. along with transit connections. such as whether redevelopment of certain areas is appropriate.STRATEGY Enhance the Post Road The Post Road is the main east/west vehicular transportation route within Greenwich and provides a mix of residential and commercial areas. Greenwich also has an opportunity to establish a vision for the corridor by creating specific nodes along the route that are pedestrian-oriented and have a village development pattern. Greenwich should conduct a corridor study of land use and traffic issues to make sure these issues are appropriately considered during this process.90 . or how Greenwich can create more pedestrian-friendly mixed use development in key areas. Greenwich Plan . the community may encourage sensitive and appropriate redevelopment of key properties along the corridor. The redevelopment tools may require additional density in the village areas. Because of the variety of businesses along Route 1 and the different types of place that are created by these areas. Commercial development along this corridor has been designed to accommodate the automobile. Cos Cob. By establishing this vision. West Putnam Avenue (near Pemberwick) and the top of Greenwich Avenue appear to be naturally situated to pursue this type of opportunity. Because of the strong vehicular connection that Route 1 provides. concerns about traffic congestion will need to be considered as part of developing new land use solutions along this corridor. Ultimately. the community can explore new opportunities. The individualized approach to parking has created a road with numerous driveways. which often leads to congestion as motorists are unsure where they need to turn and reduce their travel speed to find a driveway. with many of the business sites having their own off-street parking areas. This road has developed in a strip pattern of commercial and residential uses. Greenwich may be able to encourage the consolidation and reduction of curb cuts as a way to create a more meaningful space and potentially reduce some of the traffic congestion that results from this type of development pattern. in particular affordable housing. this area may be appropriate for additional housing opportunities.

PZC PZC HCDO.40 Encourage redevelopment to more pedestrian-friendly mixed use development patterns.ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND DPW – Dept. Evaluate opportunities to reduce curb cuts. Study the potential for increased building height in commercial areas where appropriate to achieve workforce and senior housing.91 . 7.43 7.41 7. of Public Works HATG – Housing Authority of the Town of Greenwich HCDO – Housing and Community Development Office PZC – Planning & Zoning Commission TO ENHANCE THE POST ROAD 7.44 Consider whether this area could serve as a housing opportunity area. HATG PZC DPW PZC DPW PZC RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE Greenwich Plan .42 7. Conduct a corridor study of land use and traffic issues.

46 Develop a strategy to encourage additional transit and van pooling to institutions and businesses in the area and to the Westchester Airport. Greenwich is also developing plans for a new firehouse and Greenwich Emergency Medical Services (GEMS) location adjoining the Griff golf course property. Development along the New York side of King Street includes large corporate centers and a regional airport (Westchester County Airport).92 . For example. reinforcing the residential zoning of this area in Greenwich. In Greenwich. In addition. Greenwich may also be able to work with local transit providers and businesses in the area to expand transit options and encourage van-pooling to all of the users in both states and especially to the Westchester Airport. BOS PZC BOS PZC RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE   Greenwich Plan . two nursing homes. The mixture of uses on both sides of the street provides for an interesting dynamic. At present there is a conceptual plan among the Greenwich institutional users to extend the private water line up King Street. particularly because the road serves two communities in different states. whereas in Connecticut King Street is a town road.45 Continue to participate in a regional dialog about its function and role. development of the Gimbel Estate involved large residences and preservation of 50 percent of the lot areas as open space and preserved the original estate buildings. They are working with Aquarian water company and town officials. development along the corridor is zoned for residential uses only and includes several private schools.STRATEGY Monitor Changes Along King Street King Street presents a number of challenges. with different ideas about how development should occur. when King Street is in New York State. the road is a state highway. 7. the Griff Harris townowned golf course and the Fairview country club. ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND BOS – Board of Selectmen PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission TO MONITOR CHANGES ALONG KING STREET 7.

which is one of the things that make the community special. Greenwich should: [ [ [ Protect Subsidized Housing. CHAPTER 8 McKinney Terrace Workforce Housing Senior Housing Needs Greenwich Plan .Diversify The Housing Portfolio Greenwich is a diverse community. Provide for Senior Housing Needs.93 . and Provide for Workforce Housing. Protecting what we have requires us to address issues that are difficult and for which no single solution exists.

Greenwich can also provide for solutions to the funding problem by adjusting existing building zone regulations and allowing for additional density on existing subsidized housing sites.94 . That is why the construction and development of subsidized housing is primarily a social and policy choice for Greenwich. The Planning and Zoning Commission and the Town of Greenwich have consistently sought to add more of these types of units in an incentive situation and these incentives should be continued as Greenwich constructs more mixed-use buildings. Greenwich should also evaluate existing regulations as they apply to accessory structures. Greenwich has added an additional 131 units through the Housing Authority of the Town of Greenwich (HATG). The bulk of Greenwich’s subsidized housing portfolio was constructed in the 1950’s and is currently facing repair and upgrade needs. Each type of housing can be used to pursue public policy objectives. Since 2002. but all function differently from construction to renting and must be addressed separately in order to be properly understood. Regardless of the opinions about this.KEY STRATEGY Protect Subsidized Housing There are many different types of housing that function outside pure market fundamentals. It is important that the community be aware of these costs as part of the challenge of providing this form of housing. as well as an additional 39 units by private developers who have elected to build subsidized housing in exchange for zoning and density bonuses that have made their investments more desirable from an economic standpoint. others feel the market should function freely.) Allowing additional density along the Post road and near Greenwich and Old Greenwich Train Stations may offer an opportunity to provide additional subsidized housing. against these odds. Subsidized and affordable housing is a difficult subject. and whether allowing accessory apartments is an appropriate strategy to expand the amount of subsidized housing in the community. While many believe communities have an obligation to provide the opportunity for a wide range of income groups to live in town. These regulations can be used to add additional density on sites where the community is already attuned to the presence of such development. ¼ mile of the Post Road and within ½ mile of train stations. Greenwich Plan . most people are aware that Greenwich has some of the highest property values in the nation and that building subsidized housing is not the highest and best use of land from a value perspective. Housing Opportunities Greenwich should take advantage of transit connections and continue to locate subsidized housing in areas where transit is available (within ¼ mile of bus routes.

The Town does not certify this data as survey accurate. and expressly disclaims any liability that may result from the use of this map.5 Miles . The data depicted hereon is for planning purposes only." 15 V U Subsidized Housing U V Opportunity Areas 104 _ ^ _ ^ 120 V U 907 V U _ ^ _ ^ _ ^ 120 V U _ ^ __ ^^ £ ¤ 1 _ ^ _ ^ _ ^ b Æ _ ^ b Æ _ ^ £ ¤ 1 _ ^ _ ^ _ ^ _ _ ^ ^ £ ¤ 1 _ ^ _ ^ _ _ ^ ^ _ ^ _ ^ _ ^ b Æ § ¦ ¨ 95 __ ^^ _ ^ _ ^ _ ^ b Æ Subsidized Housing Units b Æ £ ¤ 1 §§ ¦¦ ¨¨ 287 287 _ ^ _ ^ _ ^ _ ^ _ ^ 1 to 10 Units 11 to 20 Units 21 to 50 Units 51 to 100 Units 101 to 150 Units Housing Opportunity Area Downtown GIS data supplied by the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. 0. Map: 30 June 2008. This map was produced from the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. and is not intended for sitespecific analysis. Aerial: 4/15/03.

PZC. but appointments to HATG are made by the Board of Selectmen and confirmed by the Representative Town Meeting.3 8. UW PZC HATG. This creates confusion about responsibilities and where resources should be allocated. For example. to be renamed as the Housing and Community Development Office. HCDO. Encourage subsidized housing in areas that are served by transit (buses and trains). UW PZC HATG. the Housing Authority of the Town of Greenwich (HATG) is an independent agency with its own budget and is not part of the Town’s budget.2 8.96 .5 Allow for small increases in density on existing subsidized housing sites. Partner with agencies that provide subsidized housing.Coordinate Subsidized Housing Efforts Numerous Town and private agencies have an interest in housing and management of housing-related information. UW HCDO HATG. Explore the recommendations of the United Way Study to determine what opportunities exist to implement these recommendations. 8. PZC HATG. UW RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE Greenwich Plan . HCDO. That office would be responsible for monitoring existing subsidized housing (under CGS Section 8-30g and Building Zoning Regulations Section 6-110g) and would review income and rental sale price information as required by state law. preferably within the current Community Development office. such as monitoring subsidized housing compliance.1 Reexamine existing Building Zone Regulations to allow for additional subsidized housing options and development flexibility in the townhouse and neighborhood zones.4 8. Greenwich should create a housing office. ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND HATG – Housing Authority of the Town of Greenwich HCDO – Housing and Community Development Office (proposed) PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission UW – United Way TO PROTECT SUBSIDIZED HOUSING 8. The new office could also partner with various private and non-profit organizations in an effort to expand subsidized housing options in Greenwich. UW HCDO HATG.

up from 23 percent in 1970. especially if it is vacated for long periods. which may not be satisfied in a mature housing stock.97 . The older age group (age 55+) will continue to grow. as noted in the Commission on Aging study. There is a potential that an increased number of elderly residents will constrain the number of housing units that are in the market. This reduction in housing supply and an increase in demand for worker housing will further stress housing affordability. and • older persons have different lifestyle needs. Because of the growth in this segment of the population. • aging residents require additional healthcare services which requires workers to perform those services. Age in Place Enabling older residents to stay in their homes comfortably. and this desire could be used to meet community housing needs. safely and independently as they age. which should be within transit-oriented areas as noted in the recent Commission on Aging Study.. Greenwich needs to prepare for these changes. regardless of physical challenges. Greenwich should reevaluate the Continuing Care Retirement Community (CCRC) and the Residential Planned Housing Design – Elderly (RPHD-E) to determine if they are meeting the needs of the community. Greenwich Plan . and • 20 percent of seniors will want other housing choices. The ‘baby boom’ (people born between 1946 and 1964) has entered or will enter this age group during the next 20 years. as: • 80 percent of seniors want to age in place. there may also be a need for additional subsidized housing for senior residents. reducing the availability of homes. There is a demonstrated desire on the part of many of these landowners to create rental units on these parcels to create a physical presence on the property. Create Additional Opportunities for Rental Units In the RA-2 and RA-4 residential zones there are many oversized lots that exceed twice the required acreage for those zones. such as assisted living. By the year 2020 adults aged 55 and over will comprise up to 32 percent of the total population of Greenwich. Greenwich should also consider creating other zoning tools for these activities. An aging population changes the housing dynamics of the community: • people remain in their homes for a longer period of time than has occurred in the past.KEY STRATEGY Provide for Senior Housing Needs People are living longer and healthier lives. • aging homeowners may need more assistance to maintain their homes. Greenwich could take advantage of this by allowing small residential outbuildings to be constructed to provide rental housing for elderly residents provided that certification and management of these units as elderly rental apartments can be assured.

UW COA HATG. UW PZC RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 8. HATG.10 8.7 Partner with others to update the range of housing choices available for this segment of the population. Promote the use of elderly accessory apartments in residential zones. COA HATG. Support upgrades to the various elderly housing developments.6 Partner with others to expand the ability for elderly residents to age at home.11 Greenwich Plan .ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND COA – Commission on Aging HATG – Housing Authority of the Town of Greenwich HCDO – Housing and Community Development Office (proposed) PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission UW – United Way TO PROVIDE FOR SENIOR NEEDS 8. Evaluate whether existing congregate care and assisted living tools are adequate for the community.98 . UW COA HATG. HCDO. UW COA HATG. HCDO. including rehabilitation of existing units and the development of new subsidized units. Partner with others to enhance services for the retirement communities that are developing in the town and evaluate the services offered to the senior population. PZC. HCDO. UW PZC COA. HCDO.8 8. 8. HCDO.9 8.

high land value in Greenwich as in other similar towns in the region limits opportunities to create and provide workforce housing. the lack of oversight of their development creates serious safety questions.000 per year in income to support a standard mortgage at the current rates.395) adopted a zoning regulation that requires all applications for a zoning permit for any new building construction or addition (excluding interior renovation) in any zone shall be accompanied by an inclusionary zoning fee of $10. . reduced rental rates. require the setting aside of a reasonable number of housing units for long-term retention as affordable housing through deed restrictions or other means. local schools.000 of construction value. through either sale or rent. Greenwich Plan . or people whose compensation does not allow them to afford a median priced home ($1. The actual number of units is unknown but if they exist. rehabilitating or repairing housing affordable to persons and families of low and moderate income. CGS Section 8-2i provides that a community may. for Greenwich to attract young adults. CT (population 19.KEY STRATEGY Provide For Workforce Housing Housing prices can make it difficult. young families. It is the decision of the community whether it is desirable to create these opportunities through the setting aside of a reasonable number of housing units for long term retention through deed restrictions or other means. Support the Housing Authority of Greenwich The Housing Authority of the Town of Greenwich (HATG) operates about 1. This can make it difficult to attract people to work at local businesses. Require workforce housing in new development Greenwich should consider ways of integrating workforce and market rate housing in future projects by creating an inclusionary zoning requirement for housing opportunity areas. Workforce Housing Workforce housing involves housing units for households earning the median income in Greenwich These units may have rent subsidies. rather than a decision of economics.) These efforts should be encouraged since they will help Greenwich meet its overall housing goals. Investigate Illegal Housing Units It has long been considered that there are a significant number of illegal apartments in the community. workforce and market rate units. such as emergency responders. The development of workforce housing is also a social and policy position.00 per $1. service jobs or essential positions.99 CASE STUDY – Inclusionary Housing Fee New Canaan. The Authority would like to find ways to expand their housing offerings on properties that they currently own to satisfy the demand for workforce and subsidized housing (they have an extensive waiting list. if not impossible. and overpopulation of schools. Workforce housing is built through a decision by a private or public developer to restrict the cost of a home. this would require over $330. to be paid into a housing trust fund to be used for constructing.000 units of housing in Greenwich. or are deed restricted to households that meet the income threshold. The goal of providing workforce housing is to allow a foothold in Greenwich for those whose choice of profession or life circumstances make it unlikely for them to be able to afford residency in Greenwich. Moreover these units appear to be demonstrating a need for non-subsidized housing at affordable rates. Even though Greenwich has been pro-active over the years in terms of addressing housing options and housing diversity.8 million). By realtors’ estimates. through its zoning regulations. including subsidized. at a dollar amount that is lower than one that could be earned in the real estate market.

100 . Housing Opportunities Greenwich should take advantage of transit connections and continue to locate workforce housing in areas where transit is available (within ¼ mile of bus routes. Encourage workforce housing in areas that are served by transit (buses and trains. UW PZC UW. These efforts should be encouraged since they will help Greenwich meet its overall housing goals.16 8. PZC PZC HATG. such as the United Way. Determine the number of illegal apartments and develop a strategy for enforcement. WHTF DPW PZC PZC 8. PZC HATG. the RA-2 and RA-4 residential zones may provide an opportunity to create housing units that meet community needs particularly elderly housing and workforce housing. including identification of housing needs and opportunities.14 8. can provide important services. UW.12 Explore inclusionary zoning regulations to require all new residential development to provide a percentage of the units as workforce housing.15 8.17 RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE Greenwich Plan . Create Additional Opportunities for Rental Units As mentioned in the “Provide for Senior Housing Needs” strategy. ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND BOS – Board of Selectmen DPW – Department of Public Works HATG – Housing Authority of the Town of Greenwich HCDO – Housing and Community Development Office (proposed) PZC – Planning & Zoning Commission UW – United Way WHTF – Workforce Housing Task Force (proposed) ACTIONS TO PROVIDE WORKFORCE HOUSING 8. 8. Promote affordable accessory apartments in residential zones for workforce housing. work with other agencies and as an implementation agency for these strategies.Support and encourage non-profit organizations Non-profit organizations.13 Create a Workforce Housing Task Force to perform additional planning. WHTF BOS HATG.) Study the possibility of allowing the conversion of accessory structures to workforce housing units. Greenwich could take advantage of this by allowing small residential outbuildings to be constructed to provide rental workforce housing provided that certification and management of these units as workforce rental apartments can be assured. ¼ mile of the Post Road and within ½ mile of train stations).

they create more leaders.” Tom Peters Management Consultant Greenwich Plan . Continue to Encourage Appropriate Design.Be a Growth Management Leader Protecting what we have requires us to address issues that are difficult and for which no single solution exists. and Coordinate Waterfront Development.101 . Greenwich should: [ [ [ [ Protect Residential Neighborhoods. Manage Regrading of Properties. CHAPTER 9 “Leaders don't create followers.

KEY STRATEGY Protect Residential Neighborhoods   Greenwich is predominantly a residential community and overall plan goals support efforts to retain this orientation. Greenwich should conduct a study of lot sizes to identify the areas that are most susceptible to these types of applications. Address Increased Density Consolidation of parcels of land is changing the character of established neighborhoods by combining existing lots to accumulate adequate land area to create more lots.000 square foot lots exist. identified over-development of housing as a concern. Chickahominy and parts of Cos Cob where 5. or demolished to make way for new residences. Over-development appears in a number of different forms and the following trends have been cited most often: • increased density. Greenwich residents recognized a change in the types of issues affecting neighborhoods and. property values have encouraged lot mergers and redevelopment of areas to maximize the use of the land. • larger homes on small lots. While Greenwich is largely built out from a new lot perspective. This change in focus has created concerns about conservation of the character of existing neighborhoods. where existing homes are being enlarged. Strategies to limit the impact of this trend require further information and analysis regarding where this will occur in the future. Allowing two-family houses in these areas should be reexamined because of parking. Greenwich should consider amending the Building Zone Regulations to require a special permit for this activity. • lack of scale (the loom factor). do not require any additional lot area for this use. and Planning and Zoning Commission review is not required. Two-family housing has become an attractive technique because it is easier to obtain permits when no Planning and Zoning Department review is required and there is a density bonus provided in the regulations. The first stage of build-out involved new housing development on previously undeveloped land and most of the undeveloped land has already been developed to some degree. But remaining a residential community is not without challenges. There is concern that the increased density trend is somewhat encouraged in the R-6 zoning district because the Building Zone Regulations allow two-family houses by right. impervious surfaces and intensity of development issues. There are areas in Byram. Greenwich Plan – 102 . during the planning process. This can also encourage the demolition of existing houses to accommodate the new lot lines. and • teardowns of historic homes. Greenwich is in a second stage of residential build-out. Greenwich should also consider retaining some flexibility for projects that include permanent affordable units.

The data depicted hereon is for planning purposes only. This map was produced from the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. Map: 30 June 2008. and is not intended for sitespecific analysis. Aerial: 4/15/03. £ ¤ 1 § ¦ ¨ 287 1 Miles . and expressly disclaims any liability that may result from the use of this map." 120 V U 684 22 V U 128 V U Residential Development Plan 104 V U § ¦ ¨ 15 V U 137 V U 137 V U 120 V U 120 V U £ ¤ 1 £ ¤ 1 907 V U 684 Legend 119 ¦ V¨ U 1§ Residence 4-acre 19 V U Residence 2-acre £ ¤ 1 120 V U 127 V U 1-acre Residence < 1/2 Acre Residence Multifamily Residence 19 1 Planned Residential Other Zones § ¦ ¨ 287 § ¦ ¨ 95 V U 120 V U GIS data supplied by the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. The Town does not certify this data as survey accurate.

beyond what was originally anticipated. Some of the options that Greenwich may consider include: • Setback averaging. which may impact stormwater runoff and contribute to flooding. Greenwich Plan – 104 . and building height) they are often at the maximum allowed in the zoning district. a larger footprint will increase the amount of impervious area on a site. When zoning was adopted a flexible building envelope was established to provide property owners with the ability to locate a building within the envelope. These concerns have the community thinking about other build-out related issues associated with the conversion of already developed areas into more intensely developed areas. The trend towards larger houses has also resulted in the demolition of existing houses (teardowns. larger homes on small lots limit the ability to provide off-street parking and many town roads are not wide enough to support on-street parking. This is what is considered a loom factor. Stepped setbacks would force a building to move back or step back as it gets taller. it does not the size or volume of a building. Address Larger Homes on Small Lots There is concern about the construction of large houses that appear to be out of character with established neighborhoods. While the floor area ratio (FAR) limits building square footage.) Besides character issues. Greenwich should adopt additional impervious coverage limits to address these concerns. Setback averaging provides an opportunity to use the setbacks of adjacent properties to determine the appropriate setback of a new house. or • Cubic footage. In addition. • Slanted or stepped setback planes. This might be an appropriate way to limit the loom factor created when larger homes are built close to property lines. Cubic footage is a tool that could be used to limit overall building size by limiting the volume of a building.Address Scale (Loom Factor) In some cases new larger homes are being situated in ways that overwhelm the streetscape and drastically change the character of the street. While these houses comply with zoning requirements (yard setbacks. Loom Factor There is a need now to examine revisions to the bulk requirements in the Building Zone Regulations to address this problem. This tool is a useful way to control how buildings affect the streetscape. lot coverage.

Older homes may not provide the range of functions that residents are looking for and a property owner may see demolition as the only recourse to bring their property up to a modern standard of living. 9. the Historic Residential – Office (HRO) and Historic Overlay (HO).3 9. PZC. to align zoning allowances to preferred development patterns.2 Examine requiring a special permit for two-family housing to allow for control over site design.6 9. DPW PZC DPW. AO PZC 9. Expansion of the primary use conversion tools.8 PZC PZC AO. Greenwich has a demolition delay ordinance to provide groups with an opportunity to comment on the potential demolition of historic resources. additional lot coverage.1 Continue to model residential build-out. PZC RTM BET RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE Greenwich Plan . Consider establishing a lot coverage requirement in the residential zones.Address Teardowns of Older Houses The trend toward larger houses and increased density has also resulted in the demolition of existing houses (called teardowns).105 .7 9. Incentives might include allowing additional floor area. Also consider possible subsets to the R-6 residential zone based on neighborhood characteristics. Increase demolition delay from 90 days to 180 days. While historic resource surveys have been prepared. GIS HDC GIS. ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND AO – Assessor’s Office ARC – Architectural Review Committee BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation DPW – Department of Public Works GIS – Geographic Information System Department HDC – Historic District Commission PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission RTM – Representative Town Meeting TO PROTECT RESIDENTIAL NEIGHBORHOODS 9. or additional residential density. Update the historic resource survey information and link it to the Geographic Information System. Periodically revisit floor area regulations to limit house size and bulk.4 9. may be effective ways to encourage sensitive use of historic properties.5 9. Consider establishing a fund for purchasing historic buildings that come up for private sale. linking this information to the town’s Geographic Information System would enable more people to know more about these resources. Study new zoning regulations to provide further tools for controlling bulk. but does not have a full understanding of where all of these resources are located.

when used correctly.KEY STRATEGY Manage Regrading of Properties Grade alteration is an issue in both the natural and built environment. including significant grade alteration (grading) to maximize Floor Area Ratio (FAR). Impervious surface coverage in these areas has increased and runoff to adjoining neighbors has inflicted damage and flooding on adjoining properties and streets. This affects the aesthetics of an area and can be altered to accommodate septic systems (which may affect water runoff) or allow construction in unstable areas (erosion). Greenwich Plan – 106 . Improve Grading Oversight Currently the Building Department does not require an engineered grading plan. Greenwich is experiencing a number of trends related to this topic. Greenwich should also evaluate the impacts of the Floor Area Ratio (FAR) definition. grading and drainage plans for the development of single family homes and when lot clearing exceeds ¼ acre. will prevent these problems. and topsoil replacement for large septic systems (which can alter natural runoff patterns). Limit Grade Alteration Natural topography (grade) and ledge contribute to community character and are important natural resource features. Greenwich may also want to consider creating a maximum retaining wall height to limit regrading. specifically how tree clearing is impacted by the use of this definition and whether a maximum retaining wall height should be established. Greenwich should protect steep slopes and consider providing incentives to retain slopes above 25 percent in a natural state. Control Erosion In small amounts the impacts from erosion and sediment are invisible to most residents. Greenwich should require that all development that involves earth excavation to follow these erosion control quality standards. Both of these issues impact adjacent property owners and the community as a whole. An additional area for consideration involves creating additional buffers of natural resources. Reexamine the excavation and fill ordinance that was adopted in 1958 and whether the town should reduce the amount of material from 500 cubic yards to 200 cubic yards. drainage report or site construction details for new single and two-family residences. These developments do not presently have any requirements for submission of such engineering reports. The 2002 Water Quality Standards produced by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection has offered a number of Best Management Practices (BMPs) that. Specifically. such as wetlands that are adjacent to these areas. Grade can be changed for additional building height. Concerns about fill in Greenwich Harbor and the loss of wetlands have heightened residents’ awareness of this problem. Erosion also occurs when development is located on steep slopes (normally steeper than 25 percent). the Building Zone Regulations should be updated to require soil and erosion.

Examine requiring single-family and two-family construction projects (including additions) to submit a drainage report with grading.10 Consider regulations to prevent significant grade alterations. 9.11 9. Consider a maximum height of retaining walls Reexamine and update the 1958 excavation and fill ordinance PZC DPW PZC DPW PZC DPW PZC DPW PZC DPW DPW PZC PZC DPW RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 9.15 9.ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND DPW – Department of Public Works PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission TO MANAGE REGRADING OF PROPERTIES 9.14 9. soil erosion control and drainage plans.13 9. Consider development standards for construction on steep slopes. Consider requiring all excavation activities to provide a grading plan and drainage plan.12 9.16 Greenwich Plan . and provide increased inspections to certify compliance. Consider requiring all excavation activities to provide a Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Control Plan.9 Require a special permit for all applications involving grading of over 50 percent of a parcel.107 .

STRATEGY

Coordinate Waterfront Development
Greenwich’s commercial waterfront areas are largely within the WB zoning district. The requirements in this zone are consistent with coastal management objectives. Water-dependent developments are given primary consideration. Careful planning already has resulted in significant waterfront dependent developments including several public access areas. Waterfront business areas in Greenwich and the waterfronts they occupy are each somewhat unique and Greenwich may benefit from having more than one waterfront business zone.
Steamboat Road waterfront

For example the Byram River area may be improved with a modified WB zone, or a separate waterfront village zone, that reflects the unique town within a town character of Byram. One particularly significant land use factor along the Byram River is that a high percentage of existing uses and structures do not conform to the WB zone. This suggests that this tool is not as effective as it could be. The Waterfront Business areas are important to the overall character of Greenwich and efforts should be made to ensure that the water-dependent land uses that occur there remain viable. Greenwich has developed an overall plan for the Byram waterfront and should consider using this strategy for other waterfront business areas as well.
Byram River waterfront

Considerations for WB Areas Consider modifying the WB zones to reflect the uniqueness of each of the three areas, For River Road, emphasis should be placed on boating opportunities and public access along the Mianus River. For Byram, refer to the Byram Comprehensive Plan for recommendations for waterfront development where special attention is given to mixed water dependent uses, visual access, building dimensions and design, public access along the river, traffic circulation and parking. For Steamboat Road, any redevelopment must promote the public access and continual waterfront boardwalk. Commercial Fishing Commercial fishing is a food industry that is trying to adjust to an ever-changing regulatory environment and a reduction in productivity (in terms of days to fish and amount of fish). While commercial fishing may only be a very small segment of Greenwich’s economic spectrum, these small, local businesses contribute to the overall quality of life by providing a fresh food supply that is the envy of noncoastal communities. Facilities supporting commercial fishing such as docks and gear storage cannot compete economically with other uses that generate higher returns on investments. Although commercial fishing facilities are protected under the state Coastal Management Act as water-dependent uses, maintaining even a small commercial fishing industry takes careful planning.

Greenwich Plan – 108

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GIS data supplied by the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. This map was produced from the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. The data depicted hereon is for planning purposes only, and is not intended for sitespecific analysis. The Town does not certify this data as survey accurate, and expressly disclaims any liability that may result from the use of this map. Aerial: 4/15/03. Map: 30 June 2008.

0.5 Miles

ACTIONS
AGENCY LEGEND DPR- Department of Parks and Recreation PZC – Planning & Zoning Commission

TO COORIDNATE WATERFRONT DEVELOPMENT 9.17 Continue to protect water-dependent land use activities. 9.18 Consider modifying the WB zoning designation along the Byram River to adapt to the types of uses recommended in the Byram Comprehensive Plan, where special attention is given to mixed (water-dependent) uses, visual access, building dimensions and design, public access along the river, traffic and circulation, and parking. Consider reducing minimum parking requirements, currently 1½ spaces per slip to one space per slip or less. Consider creating a town dock for commercial fishermen with minimal dockage fees. Consider modifying WB zones into three areas: River Road, Steamboat Road and Byram Support an appropriately plan for commercial fishing needs.

PZC

RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE

PZC

9.19 9.20 9.21 9.22

PZC DPR PZC DPR

Greenwich Plan – 110

All of these elements contribute to the character of the community and. landscaping and building architecture. Greenwich is fortunate to have an Architectural Review Committee involved in the development application process. when ignored.24 Encourage diversity in sense of place in order to promote the unique and appropriate character of each village area. 9.111 . The Historic District Commission (HDC) reviews exterior alterations of historic buildings in local historic districts and the national register districts. Rather it requires review guidelines based on individual neighborhood business zone characteristics to reinforce the design elements that make each place unique. ARC PZC ARC.23 Establish and maintain design review guidelines for commercial. including streetscape features.KEY STRATEGY Continue to Encourage Appropriate Design Design involves a number of aspects within the built environment. Design is not static. multi-family residential and other development and activities to promote design consistency and overall appropriateness. ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND ARC – Architectural Review Committee PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE TO CONTINUE TO ENCOURAGE APPROPRIATE DESIGN 9. The ARC has recognized that developers need guidance during the application process. as ideas about what is appropriate change from year to year and by those responsible for reviewing projects. The Architectural Review Committee’s Design Guidelines are in the appendix. HDC PZC Greenwich Plan . can result in a loss of what makes Greenwich a special place. Because Greenwich has so many unique neighborhoods design in Greenwich cannot be controlled by a single guiding element.

fixture specifications and color samples. suggestions by the Architectural Review Committee may be made based on these guidelines (see appendix.Design Guidelines for Business and Multi-family Guidelines are provided as a resource for applicants to prepare them for the Architectural Review Process. These guidelines encourage designs that are compatible and complementary to the existing framework of the downtown and commercial areas in the Town of Greenwich. Every project is unique and the applicant will find that some guidelines are more relevant to their project than others. These guidelines may be used as a list of important considerations to incorporate into their design.) All applications to the Architectural Review Committee should provide complete documentation including scale drawings. Greenwich Plan – 112 . site photographs. context photographs. During the presentation and review process. The Committee cannot make recommendations on incomplete applications. Applicants should read and understand the guidelines as they apply to their own project.

113 . Greenwich has adopted the following goals and strategies for community facilities and services: Provide for a safe and convenient means of travel and access to homes. To accomplish these goals. The following pages identify specific strategies to achieve these goals. and Be a Green Leader. Greenwich Plan .Provide What We Need PROVIDE WHAT WE NEED … Greenwich’s desired patterns of conservation and development must be supported. Provide public facilities to serve the needs of local residents and businesses. shops. recreation and cultural resources. jobs. Greenwich should: [ [ [ Guide Municipal and Community Facilities. Guide Infrastructure. schools. and Provide utilities to support the community’s desired growth pattern.

Provide What We Need Greenwich Plan – 114 .

Byram Beach CHAPTER 10 Recreation Fields Teen Center Greenwich Plan .115 . parks and places help to keep us connected and improve the quality of life. Support Other Community Facilities.Guide Municipal and Community Facilities Community facilities support our overall quality of life and are important to Greenwich residents. To continue to provide appropriate municipal facilities Greenwich should: [ [ [ [ [ Address Educational Needs. Address Municipal Facility Management. These buildings. and Continue to Support Other Community Organizations. Address Municipal Facility Needs.

712 Students Western Middle School 530 Students Cos Cob * 393 students North Mianus * 434 students Parkway * 337 students Hamilton Ave * 282 students MAGNET SCHOOL ARCH School Central Middle School 713 Students Glenville * 369 students North Street * 460 students Riverside 490 students The International School at Dundee * 363 students MAGNET SCHOOL Eastern Middle School 726 Students New Lebanon * 225 students Old Greenwich 398 students Elementary Schools (K-5) Julian Curtiss 356 students MAGNET SCHOOL Pre-K Public School Pre School 150 Students Greenwich Board of Education Enrollment Figures * These schools are fully accessible to individuals with mobility impairments. which is currently under construction.KEY STRATEGY Address Educational Needs The Greenwich public school system is recognized as one of Greenwich’s important community assets. although the Board of Education’s current projections do not extend that far out. Do Not Overreact To A Period of Declining School Enrollment Analysis of existing and projected student enrollment identifies a valley trend. and one high school (9-12).000 students. Greenwich Public Schools High School (9-12) Middle Schools (6-8) Greenwich High School 2. The Greenwich Board of Education is currently involved in a plan to upgrade and modernize all of the school facilities. It is expected that there will be an additional peak around 2025. This fifteen year plan started with the renovation of the Hamilton Avenue School. The schools range in enrollment from the 225-pupil New Lebanon Elementary School to Greenwich High School with 2. three middle schools (6-8). one pre-school. Greenwich’s current school facility modernization plan involves remodeling oneschool per year over 14 years. The Greenwich Board of Education operates 11 elementary schools (K-5). where overall enrollment is reducing from the 2003 peak. Greenwich Plan – 116 . as many of the buildings were last improved in the 1970’s. one alternative high school.712 students. Greenwich should maintain school enrollment capacity for the long-term. Total enrolment is about 9. Greenwich should continue to implement this plan and find ways to incorporate green building and energy conservation elements into the remainder of the projects.

2 10. retaining school sites (and buildings) through enrollment declines so that they can be redeployed for school use when needed. DPW BOE BOE RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE BOE Greenwich Plan . Greenwich should continue to work with the private schools to find ways to enhance the overall educational opportunities in Greenwich. BOE BET.3 Continue to work with private schools on their long-term plans. with private schools providing opportunities for almost 5.117 . acquiring land adjacent to existing schools for future expansion.795 ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation BOE – Board of Education BOS – Board of Selectmen DPW – Department of Public Works TO ADDRESS EDUCATIONAL NEEDS 10. Private School Approximate Enrollment Brunswick School Convent of the Sacred Heart Eagle Hill School Greenwich Academy Greenwich Country Day School Greenwich Catholic School Greenwich Japanese School Stanwich School Westchester/Fairfield Hebrew School Whitby School TOTAL 895 750 195 730 840 470 75 350 160 330 4. Incorporate green building and energy conservation elements 10. b. Maintain school enrollment capacity for the long-term by: a.000 additional children.1 Continue the long-term school modernization and upgrade project.Private Schools Greenwich is fortunate to have a variety of education options.

Table Legend S = Scheduling responsibility 1 = Libraries perform their own scheduling 2 = Use of school buildings are scheduled by two agencies 3 = Adjacent property owners are responsible for sidewalk maintenance BOE – Board of Education DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works Examples of Management Responsibilities DPR Fire stations Libraries 2 School buildings School parking lots School recreation facilities Sidewalks Snow Removal Municipal parking lots Recreation areas School parking lots Sidewalks Town parks Town Hall M = Maintenance responsibility DPW BOE Other S 1 M M S M M. School buildings are currently the only municipal facilities that are managed independently of the Department of Parks and Recreation. Greenwich should develop management plans for all town-owned property. The land use and facility responsibilities of the Board of Education could be more efficiently and effectively handled by the Department of Public Works and the Department of Parks and Recreation. Improve Town Facility Oversight Greenwich has a number of properties that do not have long-term management plans. Greenwich needs to provide adequate funding for the facilities that are already in place. S 3 Greenwich Plan – 118 . The Department of Parks and Recreation already maintains the fields for the Board of Education and the Department of Public Works has experience and is equipped to handle the short and long-term maintenance of structures and develop new protocols for upgrades and new construction and develop long-term plans through the Capital Improvement Plan process. S M. or a vision as to how these properties will be used in the future. The Department of Parks and Recreation does manage the school grounds and field usage. S M M M M M. and ensure that new facilities do not displace the funding priority for existing facility maintenance. but upkeep of the school facilities falls under the jurisdiction of the Board of Education. Because of co-jurisdiction issues between the services that different town departments provide. Maintain Existing Facilities While there are a number of new initiatives.KEY STRATEGY Address Town Facility Management Greenwich has a number of municipal facility management needs and it is important for the community to develop and refine priorities. a coordinated management plan is required to ensure that long-term maintenance is being properly performed. As mentioned earlier in this plan. S M M. This would allow the Board of Education to focus on curriculum and programs. and reestablish the Selectmen’s Town Property Committee to oversee this task.

This organized approach has provided the community with fiscally sound structure for forecasting future budget impacts related to capital expenses. DPW DPR BOE.300 acres of parkland according to the Board of Parks and Recreation (BPR). Scrutinize activities that might eliminate or impinge upon existing fields. The community should continue to conduct user surveys to determine how much additional need exists and where opportunities to create new fields would be most beneficial.8 10. ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation BOE – Board of Education BOS – Board of Selectmen DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works ADDRESS TOWN FACILITY MANAGEMENT 10.000 hours of field time are needed to meet the community’s recreation needs. 10. the field inventory has actually been reduced by eight fields because of school and municipal facility expansion. Greenwich should scrutinize any activity that would impinge upon recreational fields. BOS.119 .000 hours of field usage annually.7 10.Update the Field Inventory Greenwich is fortunate to have over 1. developed by the Board of Parks and Recreation indicate that an additional 5. to reduce field stress. Also. BET. inadequate irrigation systems and develop a plan to allow fields to rest in between use. Continue to update and utilize the Capital Improvement Plan program for long term financial programming for town projects to keep the town fiscally sound.4 Evaluate how facilities are managed and develop plans for long-term maintenance. as the loss of these spaces will only worsen the situation.9 Create a facilities master plan for all municipal facilities. Continue Sound Fiscal Planning Greenwich has actively developed and managed projects through a 15 year Capital Improvement Planning (CIP) process. current field demand estimates. which results in over 26. DPW DPR DPR RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE BOS Greenwich Plan . Greenwich should continue to update and utilize the CIP process for long-term financial programming of town projects. Since the 1998 plan. While the reduction has taken place.6 10. DPR BOE. Greenwich should update its field inventory and develop a plan to address poor field drainage.5 10. Consider assigning the maintenance of school facilities to the Department of Public Works. This space is extremely popular and is used for various organized programs and activities. Of this total 70 acres are currently dedicated to active playing fields. DPW BOS BOE. BOS. Update the field inventory and park master plan.

These buildings currently house various town departments and are a focal point of civic activity. The current plans adopted by the Board of Selectmen include passive and active recreation areas. Cos Cob Power Plant Site The Cos Cob Power Plant Site is a wonderful addition to Greenwich’s list of properties. emergency dispatch center and police station in Downtown Greenwich. This facility has been designed to meet the current and future needs of the community. Greenwich should conduct a space needs analysis for all departments. Both buildings were former schools and have been converted into office space.KEY STRATEGY Address Municipal Facility Needs Finish the Public Safety Complex Greenwich has recently affirmed its commitment towards public safety through the construction of a $25 million centralized fire headquarters. with numerous groups using the buildings for meetings and other events. Greenwich Plan – 120 . which will be pursued once environmental remediation has been completed and the property passes necessary inspections and clearances. Cos Cob Power Plant Plan .approved by the Board of Selectmen 6/12/2008 Create Additional Office and Meeting Space for Government Operations Greenwich’s government operations are currently centralized in Downtown Greenwich. and a change in the types of activities that Greenwich is involved in. Based upon current use. Greenwich Town Hall occupies the former Greenwich High School building on Field Point Road and the Board of Education occupies the Havemeyer Building on Greenwich Avenue.

Greenwich currently provides senior center program space. Inc. the Havemeyer building will be looked at for the location for a center of the arts. Perhaps the most noteworthy observations made about the state of the Senior Center involve accessibility-related issues. If the Board of Education offices are relocated.121 . While most of the deficiencies identified in the report do not require action on the part of the Town. performing arts and artistic opportunities for children and adults. and is the site of a full range of services and programming that enhances the physical. Greenwich will have to determine how senior programming can be accomplished. in the spring 2008. A second analysis of the Senior Center is the Market Analysis and Planning Study. Both of these initiatives are good and should continue. attractive. Greenwich is also working on creating a digital archiving program so the documents stored remotely will become more readily available within Town Hall without having to travel to retrieve them. and the types of programs that younger seniors will be looking for. prepared by Gerontological Services. on Greenwich Avenue. Examine Appropriate Use of the Havemeyer Building A new study to evaluate the potential of the re-use of the Havemeyer Building for a new senior center is presently underway. Analysis of the Greenwich Senior Center facility. This percentage is expected to rise to 32 percent of the population in the coming years. Create Additional Senior Program Space Greenwich has a large senior population with 23 percent of the community currently aged 65 and older. conducted by Perkins Eastman in the spring 2008. renovations or expansion will require code compliance.” Focus on Seniors: Vision 2005 Conference Greenwich Plan . such as the longterm storage of files and other materials. indicates that there are a number of building and fire deficiencies with the existing Senior Center building on Greenwich Avenue. Because of this anticipated growth it is expected that support for a senior center and senior programs will be high. and is now performing those activities at a remote facility. which was built as a town hall in 1905. including the welcome mat to the facility. The growth in this age range requires Greenwich to be responsive. The main entrance to the building is not accessible to people with mobility difficulties. and the community has engaged in a process to determine the types of program and the amount of space needed for a senior center. emotional and social lives of seniors and their families. There is a need for reinforcing the downtown as a cultural center which the center for the arts location in the Havemeyer Building would do by providing education.Greenwich has taken steps to reduce non-essential activities. Senior Centers “A Multipurpose Center is recognized as the focal point for senior services in the Town in a building that is inviting. An additional study will be underway by the Board of Education after the senior center potential use of the present Board of Education office needs is complete. It identified an increasing senior population. adaptable and accessible.

need to be designed to accommodate all town users and recycling needs. facilities that promote the green effort. along with additional paved equipment storage areas. As part of the fleet management program. but a master plan is needed for the Holly Hill Resource Recovery Facility. Radio communications are also in the process of being enhanced through a digital upgrade project in cooperation with Nextel Communications.Improve Emergency Communications The police department is currently in the process of creating a combined dispatch center which will be located in the Public Safety Complex. There appears to be additional need for this type of facility in the northern part of town. Greenwich Plan – 122 . In some instances providing undeveloped land or public access is the best use while for other sites the current use may not be the best use. This upgrade should improve the reliability of the communication system while expanding its range. such as the recycling center. such as the riverfront Department of Public Works facility in Byram. Holly Hill Resource Recovery Facility Plan for Highway and Fleet Maintenance Needs The Highway Division of the Public Works Department needs additional operations space resulting from plans to eliminate facilities in Byram and Cos Cob. Because Greenwich has decided to take a leadership role in becoming a green community. Because of the value of land Greenwich needs to consider the “highest and best” use of town-owned properties. There will be a need for an additional communications tower in Chickahominy and a taller tower at 1111 East Putnam Avenue to cover gaps in Old Greenwich. Evaluate Underutilized Town Assets High property values makes providing meaningful public facilities a difficult challenge for Greenwich. Greenwich currently has two fueling areas. Solid Waste and Recycling Greenwich has an extensive recycling program. and there is a need for salt storage in the northern part of Greenwich.

housing and other municipal needs. BOS PD FD.15 Create additional senior program space. ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation BOS – Board of Selectmen COA – Commission On Ageing DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works FD – Fire Department FMD – Fleet Management Department IT – Information Technology Department PD – Police Department PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission ADDRESS MUNICIPAL FACILITY NEEDS 10. DPW. 10. DPR COA BET.13 Perform a space needs analysis for all town departments.123 .17 Create a master plan for the Holly Hill Resource Recovery Center. 10.There are several town properties where evaluation of the various options and opportunities need to be considered as these properties may help to solve town needs such as workforce and elderly housing. 10.19 Plan for highway maintenance needs. 10. 10. DPR IT DPW BOS DPW FMD RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE Greenwich Plan . BET DPW DPW BET.12 Implement the Cos Cob Power Plant plan. DPW DPW BOE. serving parking.14 Create additional office and meeting space for government operations. 10. 10. these properties and others could serve as transit-oriented hubs.10 Complete the Public Safety Complex. 10.16 Use digital imaging to increase document retrieval efficiency and reduce physical storage needs. 10. DPR DPW BOE.20 Plan for fleet maintenance needs. Specific sites include the townowned parking lots adjacent to the Cos Cob and Greenwich train stations. 10.18 Evaluate underutilized town assets.11 Improve emergency communications. BOS.

and is the only community that operates this type of facility. Greenwich should continue to support the libraries and work to forecast future needs. Recent additions to the main library building have significantly enhanced the library’s services. This may be a challenge without a readily available solution. Greenwich Plan – 124 . which requires a significant investment in personnel time. but Greenwich should continue. which has one main facility and two branches. From this perspective Greenwich is ahead of the curve in trying to find solutions to the needs of the aging population.KEY STRATEGY Support Other Community Facilities Continue to Support the Nathaniel Witherell Home Greenwich is one of two communities in the state to own an advanced care facility (Nathaniel Witherell nursing home). including overall concerns about increased staff. A proposed long-term modernization project appears to be well on its way towards implementation. There is also the independent Perrot Memorial Library in Old Greenwich. Plan for Library Needs Greenwich is fortunate to have such a valuable resource as the Greenwich public library system. new firefighters must undergo extensive training. The Fire Department is also challenged with finding new volunteers to assist in fire fighting activities. which requires balancing a number of community needs and objectives. and potentially expand. Because of the increasingly restrictive regulatory environment. Regardless of the modernization project some of these elements need to be addressed to ensure a satisfactory condition of care and should be made even if these improvements are not compatible with the overall renovation program. For the long-term. This project was in the planning stages for several years and during that time certain maintenance requirements were delayed in an effort to prevent a duplication of activity. Anticipated improvements include minor enhancements to existing facilities. as plans were in progress to make sweeping changes. Greenwich should study how fire services are provided and whether the allocation of resources and equipment are appropriate for the community’s needs. In addition firefighting is dangerous work and some people are not capable of committing to the level of volunteering that is required of firefighters. Having adequate staff to meet this goal is the challenge. the efforts to increase the volunteer base. and has developed a series of incentives for firefighters. Greenwich has hired a volunteer coordinator in an effort to recruit and retain volunteers. Because of the age of the facility the Nathaniel Witherell Home will undergo a $40 million dollar renovation program. Continue to Recruit Volunteer Firefighters The Greenwich Fire Department has established a goal to provide a town-wide four-minute response time and full assignment within eight minutes.

DPW FD BOS BET. 10.Continue to Support the Bruce Museum The Bruce Museum is a Town supported museum that is operated by a non-profit association.org ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation BOS – Board of Selectmen DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works FD – Fire Department TO SUPPORT OTHER COMMUNITY FACILITIES 10.000 visitors annually.24 Continue to support the Bruce Museum DPR DPW BOS. This facility enhances the quality of life in Greenwich and Greenwich should continue to support the Bruce Museum.23 Continue to recruit volunteer firefighters. Historical and Art Museum for the use and benefit of the public. 10. The Bruce Museum is recognized as a world-class museum and is one of 19 nationally accredited museums in Connecticut.21 Support upgrades to the Nathaniel Witherell nursing home. This museum was established in 1908 when Robert Bruce bequeathed his home to the Town of Greenwich and stipulated that it be used as a Natural History. DPR RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE Greenwich Plan . Bruce Museum brucemuseum. The museum hosts over 100. BET DPR.125 .22 Continue to support the libraries and plan for their needs. 10.

Harris Golf Course Woolen Mill Pond Preserve William Street Playground Western Greenwich Civic Center Tomac Lane Dock Steamboat Road Landing Edward Schongalla Nature Preserve Bruce Park Pond at Carloline Place Teen Center and Park Cos Cob Community Center Montgomery Pinetum Park Mianus River and Natural Park Loughlin Playground Laddins Rock Jaycee Park Havemeyer Fields Greenwich Senior Center Greenwich Point Great Captains Island Grass Island Park Eastern Greenwich Civic Center General Seweage Treatment Plant Town Hall Greenwich Library Byram Shubert Library Cos Cob Library Transfer Station DPW Garage Bruce Museum Cos Cob Power Plant Town Hall Annex Public Safety Cos Cob Fire Station Byram Fire Station Glenville Fire Station Sound Beach Fire Station Round Hill Fire Station Back Country Fire Station i Greenw Po in tR d Fi el 59 ( ! ( ! 40 16 ( ! 41 ( ! 23 ( ! ch Ave 67 ( ! d .Municipal Facilities Education Greenwich High School Central Middle School Eastern Middle School Western Middle School Cos Cob School Glenville School Hamilton Avenue School The International School at Dundee Julian Curtiss School New Lebanon School North Mianus School North Street School Old Greenwich School Parkway School Riverside School Board of Education Public Safety Complex Dundee Gym and Ballfields Dorothy Hamill Rink DeLuca Property Cos Cob Mill Pond Area Cristiano Park Pemberwick Park Byram Park Binney Park Babcock Preserve Steep Hollow Gorge Natural Park Sachem Nature Preserve Parks and Rec Griffith E.

and is not intended for sitespecific analysis. The data depicted hereon is for planning purposes only. The Town does not certify this data as survey accurate. Map: 30 June 2008. and expressly disclaims any liability that may result from the use of this map. £ ¤ 1 § ¦ ¨ 287 43 ( ! 1 Miles ." 120 V U 684 22 V U 128 V U Municipal Facilities Plan 104 V U 14 ( ! 54 ( ! § ¦ ¨ 24 ( ! 21 ( ! 15 V U 22 ( ! 36 ( ! 137 V U 120 V U 120 V U 684 119 ¦ Legend V¨ U 1§ 19 V U Municipal Facility 907 V U Dedicated Open Space Water 127 V U 119 V U § ¦ ¨ 287 V U 25 ( ! 55 ( ! 12 ( ! 48 11 (( !! 35 8 ( ! ( !30 46 ! ( !( 2 ( ! £ ¤ 34 ( ! 38 ( ! 62 5 6 (( ¤ !!17 £ 19 ! ( 1 ( !27 ( ! 49 ! 56 ( 45 ( ! 57 (( !3!( ! 15 !! ! 26 3 ( ( ! ! 7 9 ( !66 ( ! (20 ( ( 53! ( 6039 (( !! ( ! 13 ( ( ! ! 28 51 £ ¤ ( ! 31 32 65 ( ! 50 7 ( ( ! ! ( ( (( ! ! !! 44 33 V U 63 58 ( ! (( !! 47 4 29 (( !! See map 61 52 ( ( at left 18 ! ! ( ! 10 42 ( ! ( ! 64 ( ! 137 1 1 1 120 120 V U GIS data supplied by the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. This map was produced from the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. Aerial: 4/15/03.

AGENCY LEGEND BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation BOS – Board of Selectmen BOS BET RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE Greenwich Plan – 128 . the Audubon Center. The types of community facilities and groups include country clubs. Greenwich Adult Day Care. the Boys and Girls Club.STRATEGY Continue to Support Other Community Organizations Greenwich is also fortunate to have a large number and variety of private organizations that provide services and community facilities for the Town. These organizations contribute to the overall quality of life in Greenwich and their efforts should be supported. ACTIONS TO CONTINUE TO SUPPORT OTHER COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS 10.25 Continue to support other organizations that provide community facilities and services. the YMCA and the YWCA.

Maintain Sewer Infrastructure. Create Bicycle Paths and Facilities. To preserve the things the community values and invite the types of change it desires. Sewer Treatment CHAPTER 11 Bicyclist Cistern Greenwich Plan . and Maintain the Provision of Adequate Water. Greenwich should: [ [ [ [ [ [ Maintain Streetscape Character.129 . Expand Transit. but Improve Road Safety and Capacity. Maintain and Expand Sidewalks.Guide Infrastructure Greenwich’s desired patterns of conservation and development must be appropriately supported.

The Town lacks true north/south arterial roadways between Route 15. Greenwich’s transportation system continues to operate on infrastructure that has remained largely unchanged for many decades. visitors. With more people now living outside of Greenwich and commuting into Town to work the trend in traffic growth will continue. A list should be developed. With a population that has grown to over 62. Traffic on these roadways often exceeds the available capacity for several hours each day during the morning and afternoon peak periods. and Interstate 95.KEY STRATEGY Maintain Streetscape Character. these two-lane local roads are primarily residential in nature and not designed for the higher volume and higher speeds associated with commuter and visitor traffic between Route 15 and Downtown. Organize the Road Network Greenwich has three principal east-west arterials that traverse the Town: Route 15 (Merritt Parkway). however. Greenwich has been successful in maintaining the rural New England character of the transportation system without implementing major road construction or improvement projects. While North Street.000 and a constant influx of visitors and workers. workers. and Interstate 95. Route 1 (Putnam Avenue). The tradeoff. has been an increase in vehicle delay and congestion on several heavily traveled corridors within the Town and increasing safety concerns for pedestrian and bicycle traffic due to the higher vehicular volumes and a general lack of facilities provided throughout the Town. Greenwich currently does not have a local road hierarchy to identify which roads serve as transportation corridors and which roads should be preserved for scenic character. Greenwich Plan – 130 . Route 1. But Improve Road Safety and Capacity Transportation issues are of critical importance to residents. There is little opportunity to expand the existing infrastructure capacity without impacting community character. and Round Hill Road currently handle much of the north/south traffic in Town. Some of the areas where the worst of the Town’s traffic congestion occurs is within Downtown Greenwich and at interchanges with Interstate 95. and commuters who travel through the Town of Greenwich on a daily basis. Lake Avenue. This congestion significantly impacts east/west mobility through the Town and often makes access to and from these arterials difficult.

Aerial: 4/15/03. and is not intended for sitespecific analysis. Map: 09 July 2008." 120 V U 684 22 V U 128 V U Conceptual Road Classification Plan 104 V U § ¦ ¨ 15 V U 137 V U 137 V U 120 V U 120 V U £ ¤ 1 £ ¤ 1 907 V U 119 ¦ V¨ U 1§ 19 V U Legend 684 Potential Adjustment Areas Expressway 287 Major Arterial Minor Arterial Local £ ¤ 1 § ¦ ¨ 120 V U § ¦ ¨ 95 127 V U 119 V U 120 V U GIS data supplied by the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. and expressly disclaims any liability that may result from the use of this map. The data depicted hereon is for planning purposes only. £ ¤ 1 § ¦ ¨ 287 1 Miles . The Town does not certify this data as survey accurate. This map was produced from the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System.

PD. Greenwich has developed a Neighborhood Traffic Calming Program to address concerns about speeding and traffic volumes.Access Management Access management focuses on ways to improve traffic flow by reducing reasons why people may get held up in traffic. Consider small adjustments to allow additional traffic capacity where appropriate.5 11. either at the time new development is proposed or as part of a town initiative. AGENCY LEGEND BOS – Board of Selectmen DPW – Department of Public Works PD – Police Department PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission SPSC – Selectmen’s Pedestrian Safety Committee PATC – Parking and Transportation Committee (proposed) PATC DPW. PD. speed awareness signage or other measures. such as speed bumps. Strategies include using shared driveways and interconnected parking lots.3 11. in anticipation of future development.2 11. Roads that meet eligibility criteria have been modified to calm traffic and this strategy should continue. Traffic Calming Traffic calming involves changing the way roads are used to reduce speed and provide safety on the roads.4 11. SPSC PATC DPW PATC DPW PATC DPW. PZC. Create a road hierarchy classification system to determine road standards. enforcement or engineering-based solutions: • education programs involve training motorists to cautiously approach certain areas within the transportation system.1 Continue to provide traffic calming on roads that meet the town standards. 11. SPSC BOS PATC DPW. such as the number of driveways and left turns. PZC RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE Greenwich Plan – 132 . • enforcement programs can be accomplished through an increased police presence. Greenwich should evaluate land use activities along major routes to find opportunities to employ access management. ACTIONS TO MAINTAIN STREETSCAPE CHARACTER BUT IMPROVE ROAD SAFETY AND CAPACITY 11. and • engineering solutions typically involve managing the transportation system by reducing pavement widths on roads and installing devices that cause motorists to slow down. Traffic calming techniques can be classified as either education. Develop an access management strategy for areas along main traffic routes.6 Appoint a parking and transportation committee to develop specific strategies for traffic. Study important intersections to determine if improvements can be made.

Safe Routes Greenwich has also participated in the Safe Routes program to improve pedestrian safety in areas around schools and in high pedestrian traffic areas. ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND DPW – Department of Public Works SPSC – Selectmen’s Pedestrian Safety Committee PATC – Parking and Transportation Committee (proposed) PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE TO MAINTAIN AND EXPAND SIDEWALKS 11. 11. around schools. and creating a safe. pedestrian friendly environment through physical improvements and amenities. sometimes. Recent controversy. or the use of stone dust type surfaces. the Pedestrian Safety Committee prepared a detailed inventory of pedestrian safety needs. Safe Routes Safe Routes to School is both a planning and educational program designed to make the neighborhoods around schools safer for walking and cycling. PATC DPW 11. accessible. encouraging walking to destinations. Sidewalk installation is challenged by narrow roadways. Priority areas for sidewalk improvements should be village centers. where the location of proposed sidewalks has prompted Greenwich to reevaluate the specific recommendations developed in the Pedestrian Safety report. and • by making improvements to roadways and sidewalks through the use of: traffic calming elements. PATC DPW SPSC. such as about Riverside Avenue. Greenwich Plan . public opposition. Current projects include the Old Greenwich School and International School at Dundee projects. In 2004.7 Maintain and enhance the sidewalk system in Greenwich. Greenwich needs to maintain and enhance the existing sidewalks and eliminate gaps that exist in the sidewalk system. obstructions along the side of roadways and.9 Eliminate gaps in the sidewalk system.8 11.KEY STRATEGY Maintain and Expand Sidewalks While Greenwich has a series of village centers and higher density neighborhoods. DPW SPSC. especially along busy roads. Adjusting sidewalk design standards. limited right of way. sidewalks are not provided throughout a large percentage of the Town’s roadway network. with an overall goal of improving safety by providing pedestrian and vehicular separation. may reduce public concern about the aesthetic impact that a sidewalk can have when it is in a rural environment. such as the elimination of granite curb. This goal is accomplished: • by promoting awareness of hazards on local roads. Greenwich should continue this program and expand it to other schools and areas with a large number of pedestrians. Consider adjusting sidewalk design standards to fit into neighborhood character.133 . PATC DPW SPSC. along Route 1 and in areas with a large number of pedestrians. and • installing or improvement of sidewalks and crosswalks. around schools and near the railroad stations. Where sidewalks have been provided there are frequent disruptions and missing segments.10 Continue and expand the Safe Routes Program. signage and roadway marking improvements.

5 Miles . 0. This map was produced from the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System." 15 V U Traditional Pedestrian U V Activity Areas 104 £ ¤ 1 120 V U 907 V U £ ¤ 1 b Æ b Æ b Æ £ ¤ 1 120 V U b Æ § ¦ ¨ 95 b Æ £ ¤ 1 §§ ¦¦ ¨¨ 287 287 Downtown b Æ Train Stations Traditional Pedestrian Activity Areas GIS data supplied by the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. The data depicted hereon is for planning purposes only. The Town does not certify this data as survey accurate. Map: 09 July 2008. Aerial: 4/15/03. and expressly disclaims any liability that may result from the use of this map. and is not intended for sitespecific analysis.

14 Provide bicycle racks at municipal facilities. shop or recreate. DPW PATC PZC DPW PATC DPW DPR BOE PATC RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE Greenwich Plan . 11. A good first step would be to establish a pilot bike route to assess how well this activity can be integrated into the current road network. Greenwich should implement the recommendations in the Bicycle Master Plan. to develop a phased improvement program to upgrade bicycle routes and to provide bicycle friendly amenities.12 Require commercial establishments to provide bike racks and other accommodations for bicyclists.11 Implement the recommendations in the Bicycle Master Plan. Greenwich prepared a Bicycle Master Plan. Narrow. In 2001. Greenwich should require bicycle racks as part of the site plan requirements for commercial and large-scale residential projects.KEY STRATEGY Create Bicycle Facilities Greenwich has few dedicated bicycle facilities within the Town. Bicycles should be considered when new road improvements are proposed A challenge for bicyclists is finding a safe and secure place to park the bicycle when using the bicycle to get to work. 11.135 .13 Explore establishing and maintaining safe bicycle routes. crowded roadways restrict the community’s ability to establish bicycle lanes and tend to discourage use of the bicycle as a means of transportation in Greenwich. Greenwich should also take a leadership role in providing bicycle parking and install bicycle racks at all municipal facilities. to address this concern. Bike Rack Bike Lane ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND BOE – Board of Education DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works PATC – Parking and Transportation Committee (proposed) PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission CREATE BICYCLE FACILITIES 11. to identify safe and convenient bicycle routes linking Town-wide destinations. 11. to develop strategies and recommendations for educating citizens about the advantages of bicycle transportation.

hybrid engines or fuel cell technology. hybrid engines. EATF EATF RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE Greenwich Plan – 136 . PZC PATC EATF PATC DPW PATC. Mason Street and additional loops through Old Greenwich and Byram. Currently.20 Encourage employees of public and private companies and agencies to utilize transit and shuttle buses. CT Transit Greenwich is fortunate to have four railroad stations. Greenwich Avenue. or other advances in transportation. fuel cell technology. PATC EATF PATC EATF. a primary route along Route 1. 11. The Norwalk Transit District also operates two commuter shuttles in Downtown Greenwich to provide a transportation link between the Greenwich Train Station and area businesses. There are a number of smaller private livery services and jitneys that provide transportation from the Greenwich Train Station to businesses and offices along Putnam Avenue. Greenwich should work with CT Transit.15 Continue to support transit service in the community. 11. jitney providers and the Chamber of Commerce to explore whether the existing public transportation service can be enhanced and redundant services can be eliminated.17 Work with current transit operators to convert transit vehicles to cleaner fuels. 11.18 Support the construction of bus shelters at service locations.16 Work with current transit providers to extend hours of operation and routes. 11. Connections to villages without train stations and improved transit around the Downtown are areas that require attention. While the auto is a very important part of the life of typical Greenwich residents it is important to create an environment where people can choose to live in Greenwich without the requirement of having a car. Norwalk Transit District. Even better is to find transit solutions that utilize cleaner fuels.STRATEGY Promote Transit Traffic is a problem in Greenwich and all of these automobiles are contributing to the air quality issues in Fairfield County. ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND Department of Public Works EATF – Environmental Action Task Force PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission PATC – Parking and Transportation Committee (proposed) TO PROMOTE TRANSIT 11. Public bus transit is limited considering the number of business areas in Greenwich.19 Consider ways to create additional incentives to use transit. CT Transit operates two bus routes through Greenwich. but the rail service only covers a small portion of the community and other choices are needed. 11.

State agencies have been relying on boundaries like this to control the distribution of funding and Greenwich will need to monitor changes occurring with state regulatory agencies. which evaluates the needs and physical constraints of expanding the sewer areas. 11. Since 1998 Greenwich has taken numerous steps to improve the sewer treatment process. This area is intended to provide a demarcation of where sewer will and will not be provided. DPW PZC Greenwich Plan .23 Consider adopting a sewer allocation scheme to limit the amount of discharge allowed. Historically. The capacity of the sewage treatment plant is projected to be adequate for community needs during this ten-year planning period. Examine the need and future potential residential and commercial development to ensure that the sewer infrastructure is adequate for the potential additional load. Greenwich might consider adopting a sewage allocation scheme.5 million gallons per day. DPW DPW HD.24 Because build-out and census information projects future growth. Land use activities which require more sewage capacity than allocated by this scheme would be required to go through a more rigorous approval process.137 . Greenwich should continue to evaluate the location of the sewer service boundary and the policies that are in place to ensure appropriate use of this tool. HD 11.5 million gallons per day and currently receives about 8. PZC RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE DPW PZC. Improvements have been made to reduce infiltration and inflows from non-authorized sources. ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND DPW – Department of Public Works HD – Health Department PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission TO MAINTAIN SEWER INFRASTRUCTURE 11. and is currently in the process of reducing impacts on Greenwich Harbor. Sewer Services Boundary Greenwich has also established a sewer services boundary.21 Continue to maintain and upgrade the sewer treatment system.22 Continue to evaluate the sewer service boundary and state regulatory requirements. The Department of Public Works is finalizing the sewer assessment study. but the State of Connecticut is becoming more rigid in their use of this boundary. whereby properties within the sewer services boundary are allocated a maximum sewage discharge. This facility has been designed with a capacity of 12. especially when connections are needed to solve health problems.STRATEGY Maintain Sewer Infrastructure Greenwich has an extensive sewer network which transports effluent to the Grass Island Sewer Treatment Plant. this line has been flexible. assess sewer capacity. 11.

Aerial: 4/15/03. Map: 30 June 2008. 1998) Water and Sewer Service § ¦ ¨ 287 § ¦ ¨ 95 V U 120 V U GIS data supplied by the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. and expressly disclaims any liability that may result from the use of this map. This map was produced from the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. The data depicted hereon is for planning purposes only." 120 V U 684 22 V U 128 V U Utilities Map 104 V U § ¦ ¨ 15 V U 137 V U 137 V U 120 V U 120 V U £ ¤ 1 £ ¤ 1 907 V U 120 V U 684 119 ¦ V¨ U 1§ 19 V U £ ¤ 1 Legend 127 V U Sewer Service Areas (CT DEP. The Town does not certify this data as survey accurate. £ ¤ 1 § ¦ ¨ 287 1 Miles . 1998) 119 Water Service Areas (CT DPH. and is not intended for sitespecific analysis.

25 Hire a transportation planner to coordinate transportation efforts. BOS PATC PATC RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE Greenwich Plan . North Maple Avenue and Millbank Avenue. Work With State Transportation Officials Transportation issues in Greenwich require the assistance of other organizations. including regional and state planners and transportation agencies. • Route 1 and Greenwich Avenue. ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND BOS – Board of Selectmen PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission PATC – Parking and Transportation Committee (proposed) TO COORIDINATE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING 11. The functions are located in various departments. Greenwich should continue to work with these agencies to address transit opportunities and to evaluate transportation systems. 3. prepared by Fuss and O’Neill in 2008. and • Delavan Avenue. It is recommended that consideration be given to the selection of a Transportation Planner as a new position. According to an assessment of current conditions. Arch Street and Exit 3 off Interstate 95. • Railroad Avenue. including Exits 2. 4 and 5 off of Interstate 95. there is no responsible agent or agency working to coordinate these efforts.STRATEGY Coordinate Transportation Planning While numerous agencies are involved in traffic and transportation issues. The meetings held by Planning and Zoning with town residents in the spring and fall of 2007 revealed transportation as one of the most important problems in the town. Ritch Avenue. Under the direction of the proposed Transportation Planner a study should be implemented to develop a series of specific recommendations and implementation strategies for traffic. there are five intersections where small adjustments to road character might improve road capacity: • Route 1.139 . • Route 1 and Exit 5 off Interstate 95. There is a need for a longterm plan on a town-wide basis. 11. Byram Road Byram Shore.26 Continue to work with state and regional transportation agencies. and Exit 2 off Interstate 95 There are also other areas where a study of issues and adjustment of road capacity could make a difference.

31 Evaluate the impacts of impervious surfaces on drinking water supply watersheds. The lack of a public water infrastructure in these areas places a strain on the Fire Department’s ability to respond to fires.29 Encourage water conservation. Greenwich’s charge is to become a leader in promoting Company’s infiltration of clean water into the ground. Aquarion Water Water Supply Plan forecasts that both the local and regional supplies (over 38 million gallons per day) are sufficient for future demand. for consumption purposes and for firefighting purposes. PZC HD FD CC HD. water plays two different roles. 40 percent of the land area relies on private wells.28 Continue to develop fire protection strategies for northern Greenwich. 11. 11. The biggest challenge for Aquarion involves improving the overall distribution of water. PZC HD FD RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 11. ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND C – Conservation Commission DPW – Department of Public Works FD – Fire Department HD – Health Department IWWC – Inland Wetland and Watercourse Commission PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission TO ENCOURAGE THE PROVISION OF ADEQUATE WATER 11. The availability of an adequate water supply is critical to supporting the types of growth that have occurred in Greenwich. as water demand has increased because of irrigation and other changes in residential use. this service relies on water that is recaptured after storm events and is stored in reservoirs and aquifers. Water that is diverted for other uses or is channeled away from water supply reservoirs and aquifers.STRATEGY Maintain the Provision of Adequate Water Greenwich is fortunate to have an extensive public water supply network in place that serves both local and regional needs. While public water is available in Greenwich. the Bargh/ Brush Reservoir System. As a result. and the Laurel and North Stamford Reservoir System in Stamford.27 Continue to protect water supply watersheds. any water line extension should be designed to solve both drinking water and fire protection water supply needs. Greenwich should continue this effort. 11. PZC PZC CC. 11. Water for Consumption Drinking water is a precious commodity and while 60 percent of Greenwich is served by a public water supply (Aquarion Water Company). mostly for single family homes. which serves about 40. the Fire Department has initiated a plan to install cisterns and dry hydrants in the northern part of Greenwich. Regarding protecting aquifers. the Mianus River System.30 Encourage groundwater infiltration.600 people. In addition. DPW. there are concerns that irrigation practices and overall water consumption might eventually impact the ability to recharge the reservoirs and aquifers. Greenwich Plan – 140 . reduces the overall amount of water available. From a utility perspective. is drawn from the Putnam/ Rockwood Reservoir System. Water for Fire Protection According to fire officials. Aquarion Water Company The Greenwich System supply. IWWC HD DPW.32 Encourage water line extensions to meet both drinking and fire protection water supply needs. water for fire protection is only an issue in areas where public water is not located.

the Town of Greenwich established an Environmental Action Task Force (EATF) to encourage and assist Greenwich residents. reducing consumption of valuable resources. Solar Power Water Conservation Greenwich Plan . Expand Recycling Programs. businesses and the town itself to reduce energy consumption through conservation and increased use of green energy options. Conserve Water. and reducing carbon dioxide and other polluting emissions. Therefore Greenwich should: [ [ [ [ [ [ Conserve Energy. reduce water consumption. Encourage Green Buildings. Greenwich wants to be a leader in creating a healthier community. including inefficient consumption of resources and excessive greenhouse gas emissions has become a priority in the United States and other countries. and Create Green Municipal Facilities. reduce consumption of all products and increase the use of recycled and recyclable ones.141 . Transit CHAPTER 12 Reducing pollution that causes global warming. In 2008. identifying alternative sources of energy and replacing energy sources with renewable ones. Town boards and commissions should review their policies and regulations. and evaluate ways to protect land. Create Green Neighborhoods/ Developments. The Town should establish renewable energy sources for buildings and transportation. focusing on creating opportunities. requirements and incentives for optimizing energy efficiency.Be a Green Leader Greenwich residents take pride in local efforts to enhance the environment.

and • Embed or institutionalize a continuous process of evaluation and upgrading of methods. • Incorporate environmental costs into the fiscal analysis. Clean Energy Community In March of 2008. The Clean Energy Community program was created to encourage voluntary use of green energy.S. 2008 this Committee has submitted a report and developed a principal recommendation that the Town develop an energy policy which considers expected energy usage as part of the acquisition analysis. in the long term. an eighth-grader at Eastern Middle School. This effort is commendable and deserves high priority. the Greenwich Board of Selectmen established an Environmental Action Task Force/Energy Conservation Committee to study and develop strategies related to this issue. ctinnovations. optimizing available resources is a sensible strategy. Greenwich should implement these recommendations across all town departments.KEY STRATEGY Conserve Energy At present energy supply is significantly hydrocarbon dependent while prices for these commodities have more than doubled in the past year. On June 28. • Have each department make energy conservation an explicit component of its operating plan. • Consider the entire life-cycle cost of an item when making acquisition decisions. This new policy is one of the initial successes of the Environmental Action Task Force and the efforts of Matthew van Rhyn. Nevertheless the realities remain: supply is not infinite and hydrocarbon emissions pollute the environment. During this planning process. As such it is important that Greenwich be mindful of the manner in which it consumes energy and. Historically petroleum prices have undergone spikes and it remains possible that current price levels will subside during the Plan’s 10-year period. Greenwich committed to become a Clean Energy Community. • Actively seek ways to decrease the Town’s dependence upon fossil fuels. Use Green Energy Recently Greenwich committed to becoming a Clean Energy Community and will begin to purchase green energy. with the following actions for the town to pursue: • Eliminate unnecessary activities. U. Energy Supply (not to scale) Green Energy Conventional Energy Lower Renewable Energy Relative Environmental Benefit Higher Greenwich Plan – 142 . explicitly recognizing future unit energy costs over the asset’s life.com Support Local Efforts Conservation of energy resources is an area where the community can make a difference and become a green leader. practices and procedures into Town government to provide continuous improvement in the Town’s energy management.

biogas. ht and Federal a State Support Greenwich must make investments today to ensure long-ter reductions in our e s rm s energy co osts the requi ired investme ents can be a amortized by state paymen and nts grant. can energy use.gov Ene ergy Star The Energy Star program is a e r dynamic rnment/industry y gover part tnership that o offers business ses and consum mers energy yeffic cient solutions. Most towns gy e t fficient light fi ixtures with d drop-down lens fixtures th spill hat currently use old. Greenwich c save money. ore e Through a community-wide streetlight initiative to remove un nneeded lights. ene ergystar. inef and waste light to the sides and upward to the sky. such as buildings. In addition Gre n eenwich should consider re educing the energy budget to fo orce changes in energy us s se. streetlights. reduce e . parking lot lights. low-impact hydro and geothermal) that pr g rovide the highest e environmental bene efit. Source: US EP PA Reduce E Energy Use The Town should be aggressive in the use of cu n a urrent and developing tech hnology to conserv and reduc pollution and employ ne sources o renewable energy ve ce ew of as they be ecome available. novation of th town he in nfrastructure. mmunity should also partner with organizatio that provide education tools and g ons nal guidance abo best out Greenwich Plan . and upgrade o older fixtures. An e energy audit w pinwill point thos areas and suggest the most effective measures for cutting energy se d e s costs. Greenwich should conduct an ener audit of to rgy own buildings and take cor rrective measures to reduce en s nergy use. to lower g o water and pow consumption and reduc w wer ction of maint tenance costs s • co onversion to sources of ren s newable reso ources where available • pu urchase of ve ehicles with decreased ene ergy consump ption and renewable fu sources uel • im mplementing educational o e outreach programs • de eveloping a lo term plan to continue to reduce gre ong n eenhouse gas emiss si ions. a cut and down on n night time ligh pollution.143 . erat Provide E Education Greenwich should work with other communitie and organizations to p r es promote energy co onservation and environm a mental issues The com s. biomass. Street lighting is on of a e ne town's mo expensive utility bills. making it easy y to s save money w while protecting g the environment for future gen ntions. but not limited to: • de eveloping a to own energy p plan • gu uidelines and regulations for municipal construction projects con d l n nsistent with w these goa including new construction and ren als. Funding w be require for a wide variety of ini will ed itiatives to op ptimize and in ncrease energy eff ficiency includ ding. wind. One area where energ use can be reduced involves street lighting. An S Become A Energy Star The first s step in a com mmunity-wide energy effic e ciency project is to identity which t y municipal activities and facilities us the most e d se energy.Green Power is a subset of re r enewable energy a and represents tho ose renewable resources (solar.

12.g. Establish regulation and policy changes to both require some and allow for other energy savings and renewable energy sources. reduce onsite parking requirements) in exchange for programs to reduce their employees’ reliance on single-occupancy vehicles for commuting (e. solar and geothermal) for municipal facilities. use renewable energy. EATF EATF BOE EATF EATF.practices. 12. Evaluate the use of Green Energy (e. and reduce use of other valuable resources. for private citizen conversion to renewable energy sources and hybrid vehicles.10 Evaluate the zoning regulations for ways to reduce land coverage and building size to conserve energy and develop green building standards.14 Join the ICLEI Cities for Climate Protection campaign. such as property tax reductions.. BOS BOE. BOS Greenwich Plan – 144 .g. Require that all new municipal construction projects use techniques to reduce energy requirements. Establish incentives. 12.9 12.6 12. 12.7 12. EATF BOS BOE.4 RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 12.3 12.2 Implement recommendations of the June 20. 12.1 Continue to participate in the Clean Energy Fund. ride-share programs). EATF BOS EATF DPW EATF FMD EATF BOS BOE. Conduct an energy audit of all municipal buildings and streetlights and then take steps to reduce energy use.g. Partner with organizations that provide consumers with energy saving programs.5 12. EATF PZC EATF EATF BET EATF PZC EATF 12..11 Develop a Town Energy Plan that evaluates Town buildings and facilities for present energy use and how to reduce energy use.8 12. has developed a Cities for Climate Protection campaign as a resource and Greenwich should join this program. 2008 report of the Selectmen’s Environmental Action Task Force and adopt a town Energy Policy for all departments. ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND BOE – Board of Education BOS – Board of Selectmen DPW – Department of Public Works EATF – Environmental Action Task Force FMD – Fleet Management Department PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission TO CONSERVE ENERGY 12. Convert vehicles to hybrids and alternative fuel vehicles when feasible. the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI).13 Explore incentives to local employers (e.12 Publicize in the community and the schools on a regular basis available methods to reduce energy consumption. One organization.

Reducing irrigation use and providing infiltration of runoff are two ways that the water balance can be restored. It may be impractical from an enforcement perspective to establish irrigation rules.usgs. which may lead to more intense flooding. has faced a drought advisory at various times during the past ten years which has forced residents to conserve water. Ground-Water Recharge and Availability. According to the USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report completed in 2004. Changes in how properties are used. considering the number and size of properties in Greenwich. An additional water solution for Greenwich to consider is encouraging water harvesting on public and private properties. withdrawing more water than you deposit can tilt this balance in the wrong direction. small changes in precipitation. Educate Property Owners About Irrigation Practices Irrigation practices affect the water balance because water is withdrawn and not redeposited at the same rate because of runoff and evaporation. It is one of the oldest known gardening methods. Water harvesting is a conservation practice that can reduce operational costs and a dependency on a public water supply. along with many communities in New England. Fairfield County. Fortunately Greenwich residents appear to have a natural inclination to be environmentally friendly therefore a better solution may be to provide educational programs to landscapers and property owners about irrigation practices and the use of native vegetation.gov/wri/wri034300 Greenwich Plan . and Quality of Water in Greenwich Area. Mullaney pubs. Water harvesting involves capturing and storing rainfall to irrigate plants or for people and animals. along with additional impervious coverage can reduce the ability to recharge aquifers. While Greenwich normally receives between 48-50 inches of rainfall annually. Assuming the water system is balanced. USGS Water Resource Report Water Use. It can also provide much needed recharge of the groundwater aquifers. 2000-2002 By John R. New York. This water typically runs-off the land and can be lost as a future drinking water resource. Connecticut and Westchester County. Irrigation can also create additional run-off.KEY STRATEGY Conserve Water Greenwich. This is an important issue because approximately 40 percent of Greenwich’s land area is served by private wells. There are also concerns about the future availability of water and this will continue to be an issue that Greenwich will have to monitor.145 . Drought Management Greenwich has been in and out of a drought condition several times during this decade and there are concerns that this trend will continue as water usage increases and runoff redirected water to open water bodies and Long Island Sound rather than into groundwater aquifers. Most of this increase occurs in the backcountry and it is theorized that the increased water usage may be a result of pools and lawn irrigation. reduces the amount of water that is deposited into the aquifers. even little things such as creating a lawn rather than retaining a natural wooded environment. dating back to the beginnings of agriculture. some Greenwich residents are using five times more water than the average Connecticut resident.

Greenwich Plan – 146 .15 Educate property owners about water resource issues. HD BOS BOE PZC EATF DPW EATF EATF CC RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 12. 12.16 Encourage the use of groundwater recharge in areas with impervious coverage or reduced permeability.18 Require Greenwich government and schools to reduce water consumption by 10 percent by 2010.ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND BOE – Board of Education BOS – Board of Selectmen CC – Conservation Commission DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works EATF – Environmental Action Task Force HD – Health Department IWWC – Inland Wetland and Watercourse Commission PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission TO CONSERVE WATER 12. PZC CC EATF. 12. 12.19 Establish regulation and policy changes to reduce water consumption.20 Develop drought management plans.17 Provide educational programs about sustainable irrigation practices. 12. HD CC IWWC. CC EATF.21 Encourage water harvesting on public and private properties. 12.

EATF Greenwich Plan . Greenwich should incorporate some level of LEED certification for new development or include it as a consideration in discretionary zoning approvals. and green building into national standards for neighborhood design. ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND BOE – Board of Education DPW – Department of Public Works EATF – Environmental Action Task Force FMD – Fleet Management Department PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission TO CREATE GREEN NEIGHBORHOODS 12. sustainable developments. urbanism. These standards are also part of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program (usgbc. PZC RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE PZC DPW. 12. Some of the criteria being considered include: Theme Sample Elements (partial) Smart Location & Linkage • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Proximity to wastewater infrastructure Natural resource conservation Floodplain avoidance Brownfield redevelopment Reduced automobile dependence Compact development Diversity of uses / housing types Walkable streets / transit facilities Access to public spaces Community outreach and involvement Pollution prevention Resource efficiency in buildings Building reuse and adaptive reuse Minimize site disturbance Best management practices Innovation Exemplary performance Neighborhood Pattern & Design Green Construction & Technology Innovation & Design Process At some time in the future.org).23 Incorporate green development / neighborhood standards and low impact development standards into the land use regulations DPW EATF.STRATEGY Create Green Developments / Neighborhoods Just as standards have been developed for green buildings. the LEED for Neighborhood Development Rating System integrates the principles of smart growth.147 . While not yet finalized.22 Continue to monitor evolution of standards for green developments and neighborhoods. standards are also being developed for environmentally responsible.

12.org. This program was put together by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC). Greenwich should adopt some level of LEED certification for new buildings and major renovations of both public and private buildings. and operation of buildings that are environmentally responsible is the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System. a non-profit organization working to promote buildings that are environmentally responsible.27 Incorporate green building standards and low impact development standards into the land use regulations.25 Consider adopting some level of LEED certification for new public buildings or major renovation projects. 12. DPW EATF. sustainable buildings.26 Consider requiring LEED certification for new private buildings and major renovation projects.g. ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND DPW – Department of Public Works EATF – Environmental Action Task Force PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission TO ENCOURAGE GREEN BUILDINGS 12. construction. Low Impact Development Low impact development (LID) involves the use of environmentally friendly site design elements (e. profitable and healthy places to live and work. EATF RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE Greenwich Plan – 148 .STRATEGY Encourage Green Buildings There is growing interest in creating buildings that are more environmentally responsible. LEED emphasizes state-of-the-art strategies for sustainable site development. These techniques may also be an appropriate to retrofit existing public and private stormwater systems. PZC DPW PZC PZC DPW. swales and pervious pavement). Greenwich should become a leader in this area. Greenwich should also evaluate local regulations to find ways to incorporate low impact development techniques into new site development. At the present time LEED is a voluntary national rating system for developing high-performance. As mentioned in Chapter 5. The most recognized program in the United States promoting the design. 12. While efforts to date have largely been voluntary on the part of owners and builders. to manage water quantity and quality. materials selection and indoor environmental quality. energy efficiency. Based on published standards. water savings. More information is available at usgbc.24 Continue to monitor evolution of standards for green buildings. rain gardens.

33 Emphasize waste prevention in community facilities. Waste prevention and recycling programs are integral to a community that is environmentally. Greenwich’s town operations involve purchasing decisions and Greenwich should expand efforts to purchase products made from recycled material. Greenwich should identify stakeholders and develop a plan to become a leader in waste reduction and recycling efforts.28 Continue to provide an extensive recycling program.31 Revise purchasing priorities to increase the amount of recycle products purchased.149 . and socially sustainable over the long-term. Greenwich also provides an extensive recycling program at the Holly Hill Resource Recovery Facility. Greenwich should evaluate the layout of the facility to ensure that space is optimized. 12. Few communities have developed a plan to achieve or surpass this goal. 12.30 Establish regulation and policy changes to use recycled and recyclable materials.STRATEGY Expand Recycling Programs An often overlooked element of community infrastructure involves the waste generated by businesses. reusable items. In 1993 the State of Connecticut increased the recycling/source reduction goal from 25 percent to 40 percent.29 Develop a plan to increase waste reduction and recycling efforts in Greenwich. avoiding disposables. ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND BOE – Board of Education BOS – Board of Selectmen DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works EATF – Environmental Action Task Force TO EXPAND RECYCLING PROGRAMS 12. This goal intends to encourage consumers to reduce the waste they generate by making simple shopping decisions such as not buying over-packaged products. Greenwich Plan .32 Providing public education and technical assistance. 12. This facility has been designed to provide residents with an opportunity to be personally involved in recycling efforts. 12. Greenwich could also do more to emphasize the reduction of waste in municipal and community facilities and to expand educational programs about the value of recycling. In Greenwich collection of solid waste and recyclables is provided by private contractors. residents and community facilities. and selecting durable. economically. DPW EATF EATF DPW DPW EATF BOS BOE EATF EATF DPW BOE DPR EATF RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 12.

36 Develop an action plan to bring municipal facilities up to local standards. VOCs include a variety of chemicals.STRATEGY Create Green Municipal Facilities Greenwich residents have indicated that they want an environmentally sound community. PZC DPW BOE. epa. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids. The ability of organic chemicals to cause health effects varies greatly from those that are highly toxic.and long-term adverse health effects. DPR. DPW BOE.37 Encourage Greenwich government and schools to reduce water and energy consumption. Greenwich needs to use these techniques when building or improving townowned facilities. EATF. some of which may have short. lessening chemical lawn care techniques and improving indoor air quality through non-Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) products are things that we expect others to do. DPR. PZC RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 12. to those with no known health effect. PZC DPW BOE.35 Develop facility plans for all municipal facilities and determine which facilities do not meet the local standards 12. EATF. using natural and renewable products in building construction. DPR. Reducing energy requirements. Recent actions by community leaders have indicated that this is the responsible thing to do. Greenwich Plan – 150 . reducing light pollution. 12. EATF.34 Develop standards for green municipal buildings and sites in Greenwich.gov ACTIONS AGENCY LEGEND BOE – Board of Education DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works EATF – Environmental Action Task Force FMD – Fleet Management Department PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission TO CREATE GREEN MUNICIPAL FACILITIES 12. EATF DPW BOE. DPR.

Future Land Use Plan CHAPTER 13 Overview The recommendations of each of the preceding chapters can be combined to present an overall Future Land Use Plan for Greenwich.151 . While the Future Land Use Plan looks very similar in appearance to a zoning map. as well as an integration of the preceding elements of the Plan of Conservation and Development. it should not be construed as such. Greenwich Plan . In essence the Future Land Use Plan is a statement of what Greenwich of tomorrow should look like. which do not necessarily correspond to zoning classifications. The Future Land Use plan is a reflection of the state goals. objectives and recommendations of the Plan. The Future Land Use Plan will serve to guide the Planning and Zoning Commission as it makes changes to the official Zoning Map. The colored areas represent desired future land uses.

Descriptions of Future Land Use Categories The Future Land Use Plan contains the following categories: Developed areas used or intended for residential uses. Map Legend • 100-Year Coastal Flood zone • Natural Resource Constraints Greenwich Plan – 152 . Map Legend • Very Low Density Residential • Low Density Residential • Moderate Density Residential • Multi-family Residential • Housing Opportunity Area Residential Areas Business Areas Developed areas used or intended for mixed use residential. Map Legend • General Business • Executive Office Business Open Space Areas with existing or desirable open space and greenway trails. Map Legend • Open Space Community / Institutional Existing or desired uses that will help meet community needs. business or industrial uses. Map Legend • Town-owned Land / Institutional Natural Resource Constraints Areas where natural resource protection is a priority of the Plan.

and is not intended for sitespecific analysis." 120 V U 684 22 V U 128 V U Future Land Use Plan 104 V U § ¦ ¨ 15 V U 137 V U 137 V U 120 V U 120 V U £ ¤ 1 £ ¤ 1 Legend b Æ Train Stations Housing Opportunity Area b Æ b Æ b Æ 119 ¦ V¨ U 1§ Density 19 VModerate ULow Density 684 907 Residential Densities V U Very Low Density £ ¤ 1 120 V U b Æ Multifamily Residential Open Space & Institutional Use Open Space 127 V U Commercial Areas § ¦ ¨ 287 § ¦ ¨ 95 Town Owned Land / Institutional General Business Executive Office Business 120 V U 119 V U b Æ GIS data supplied by the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. The Town does not certify this data as survey accurate. Aerial: 4/15/03. The data depicted hereon is for planning purposes only. and expressly disclaims any liability that may result from the use of this map. This map was produced from the Town of Greenwich Geographic Information System. Map: 30 June 2008. £ ¤ 1 § ¦ ¨ 287 1 Miles .

Consistency with State and Regional Plans
In accordance with CGS 8-23, the Future Land Use Plan was compared to state and regional plans and was found to be generally consistent with both the State Plan of Conservation and Development and the Regional Plan of Conservation and Development (note that the Regional Plan is the same map and classifications as the State Plan). All three plans: • identify natural resource, open space, aquifer and historic areas for conservation, and • identify desirable development densities based on the existing zoning designations of these areas. Any inconsistencies can be generally attributed to: • Difference in definitions of desirable uses or development densities, local (as opposed to state or regional) desires about how Greenwich should grow and change in the coming years, or • The fact that the State and Regional Plans make policy recommendations for relative intensity and environmental sensitivity while this plan suggests specific land use types. State of Connecticut – Conservation and Development Policies Plan South Western Regional Planning Agency – Plan of Conservation and Development

Greenwich Plan – 154

Consistency With Growth Principles of the State Plan of Conservation and Development
In accordance with Connecticut General Statutes Section 8-23, the Plan of Conservation and Development has been evaluated for consistency with statewide growth management principles. Principle 1 Redevelop and revitalize regional centers and areas of mixed land uses with existing or planned physical infrastructure.

Although Greenwich does not contain any areas designated as a regional center, the Plan does promote areas of mixed land uses in Downtown Greenwich, in various village centers and along Route 1. Each of these areas contains existing physical infrastructure that has adequate capacity for the types of development encouraged by the Plan. Overall, the concept of encouraging mixed use centers that have adequate infrastructure is a key element of the Plan. Principle 2 Expand housing opportunities and design choices to accommodate a variety of household types and needs.

The Plan recommends a number of strategies to expand housing opportunities and types to accommodate a variety of household types and needs. In particular, the Plan recommends that Greenwich: • diversify the range of housing types available in the community to address the housing needs of an aging population and a trend towards smaller households, and • implement a variety of strategies to promote workforce housing. Principle 3 Concentrate development around transportation nodes and along major transportation corridors to support the viability of transportation options and land reuse.

The Plan promotes the integration of land uses in Greenwich with the transportation nodes and transit corridors in the community. Greenwich is very fortunate to have train stations on the Metro-North rail corridor, in addition to a local bus service. The Plan promotes development in the Downtown Greenwich area, around the train stations and along Route 1 in accordance with the availability of transit in these areas.

Greenwich Plan - 155

Principle 4

Conserve and restore the natural environment, cultural and historical resources, and traditional rural lands.

The Plan of Conservation and Development contains a chapter which identifies strategies to: • enhance the health of the environment, and • enhance community character. These strategies will help conserve and restore the natural environment, cultural and historical resources. Principle 5 Protect environmental assets critical to public health and safety.

The Plan of Conservation and Development also contains recommendations to protect environmental assets critical to public health and safety. This includes goals, policies and objectives to protect water quality, preserve floodplain areas, renovate storm water discharges, minimize runoff, and other similar strategies. Principle 6 Integrate planning across all levels of government to address issues on a local, regional, and statewide basis.

The Plan of Conservation and Development is part of the process of integrating planning with other levels of government and with other agencies. The Plan will be used to coordinate efforts with: • adjacent communities, • regional organizations, and • state agencies.

Greenwich Plan – 156

their implementation may take place over several years or occur in stages. Since some recommendations may involve additional study or a commitment of fiscal resources. CHAPTER 14 Greenwich Plan . While some recommendations can be carried out in a relatively short period of time. creating an implementation table.157 . For Greenwich. others may only be realized by the end of the planning period or beyond. assigning responsibilities and developing priorities is the first step towards successful plan implementation.Implementation Summary Implementation of the Plan is an ongoing process.

Tasks. and suggest new implementation techniques. coordinate. It is becoming increasingly more difficult to anticipate change during a ten year time frame. the Committee could assess the status of specific recommendations. All land use proposals should be measured and evaluated in terms of the Plan and its various elements. The Plan is not a static document that can only be amended every ten years. or creates unanticipated issues. on the other hand. establish new priorities. In doing so the Commission and other agencies can continue to make decisions that are consistent with an up-to-date Plan of Conservation and Development. Greenwich Plan – 158 . regardless of what the future brings. completed. The Town’s various boards and commissions should be represented on the PIC to help prioritize. The PIC could use implementation schedules (proposed below) to guide the ongoing implementation and assessment of specific elements of the Plan. If dramatic change alters a premise on which recommended strategies are based.Policies and Tasks The implementation tables should identify both policies and tasks: Policies are long-term guidelines that do not readily lend themselves to a specific schedule or measurement. In addition. The PIC would meet three to four times a year to establish priorities and guide implementation of the Plan’s recommendations. the PZC can make interim amendments to this Plan to address these changes. Plan Implementation Committee Many communities establish a Plan Implementation Committee (PIC) to oversee implementation of the Plan’s recommendations. which is an effective way to implement the Plan. and refine implementation of the Plan. and evaluated. are specific actions that can typically be scheduled. Use of the Plan Using the Plan as a basis for land use decisions by the Commission (PZC) will help accomplish the Plan’s stated goals and objectives.

should consider reviewing the Plan with the following schedule: Environmental Themes Growth Themes Service Themes 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 By following this schedule. Greenwich Plan . When a plan is considered strictly as a reference document rather than a working document. until a comprehensive update is needed. and • revise Plan sections as appropriate. trends. • conduct workshop sessions for local boards. with the assistance of the Plan Implementation Committee. which could lead to conflicts in land use decisions or missed opportunities.Annual Update Program A plan that is only updated once every ten years can be silent on emerging issues. Updating Tools Tools that the PZC and the PIC can use to ensure that the broader community is involved in the updating process include: • conduct an annual public informational meeting to summarize the Plan implementation. Greenwich.159 . each review and update extends the Plan’s ten-year life. its effectiveness in guiding the community can diminish over time. commissions and other interested persons to discuss Plan strategies and suggest alternative language. and current policy objectives. recommendations and receive feedback from the community.

Mill Street and Field Point) Asbestos and Lead Abatement Projects Truck Washing Facility Greenwich Plan – 160 . Sherwood. and Byram Marina) Cos Cob Power Plant Remediation Bridge Repair and Replacement Projects (Riversville.Current Projects The following is a list of projects that are in the 2008-2009 Capital Improvement Program and have been identified as activities that will support community goals identified in the Plan of Conservation and Development: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Auditorium and music rooms at Greenwich High School Temporary classrooms for school modernization Stormwater Master Plan Byram Master Plan Glenville School Modernization Board of Education Office Space Town Hall Office Space Greenwich Town Center Master Plan Safe Routes to School Eastern Greenwich Civic Center Holly Hill Master Plan Byram Fire Station Upgrade Hamill Rink Improvements Dredging (Cos Cob Harbor. Mianus River. Greenwich Point Harbor. Balliwick. John Street.

retaining local neighborhood retail and office establishments d. barns. light pollution.16 4. playgrounds.11 4. Investigate ways to provide adequate professional support to the Historic District Commission (not just administrative support). Enhancing gateways to the area will help define the villages and strengthen the sense of place. fields.8 4. retaining fire stations. c. HDC. and other scenic resources that are visible from public streets.IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARY | Enhance Community Character – Chapter 4 TO PROTECT HISTORIC AND CULTURAL RESOURCES AGENCY LEGEND ARC – Architecture Review Committee BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation BOS – Board of Selectmen CC – Conservation Commission DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works GIS – Geographic Information System Department HDC – Historic District Commission HSTG – Historical Society of the Town of Greenwich TW – Tree Warden PAGE 34 HDC HSTG HDC HSTG BET 4. etc) to prevent adverse impacts on abutting properties. HDC PZC CC TW CC. keeping and encouraging neighborhood cultural and historic structures and properties. civic centers and religious institutions-all of which provide a sense of history and cultural place.15 Create an inventory of scenic resources. Obtain certified local government status in order to receive funds from the Connecticut Commission on Culture and Tourism 4. Consider adding a scenic road signage program to identify the resources within the community.12 4.161 .10 4.9 4.6 4. ARC ARC. fences. waterfront parks. Study the locations of archeological resources in Greenwich.3 4.2 Continue updating the historic resources survey as resources allow. libraries. PAGE 36 HDC CC HDC CC PZC CC.14 4.17 HDC CC. Develop town standards for historic buildings using the National Register standards for buildings built before 1940. Ensure Historic Overlay (HO) and Historic Residential-Office overlay (HRO) projects consider management issues (noise.7 TO PROTECT SCENIC RESOURCES 4.1 4. Reinforce the neighborhood village concepts by: a. Amend land use regulations to include better protection of scenic resources. DPW PZC CC HDC CC HDC CC 4. b.5 4. DPW. Limit height of fences and walls to maintain the scenic streetscape character of Greenwich. retaining neighborhood schools.13 4.4 PZC CC HDC HDC RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 4. Identify scenic roads and great streets with appropriate signage. Create design guidelines that encourage the unique attributes of each village. CC Greenwich Plan . Protect tree canopies from unreasonable destruction from utility pruning. especially in coastal areas. Preserve scenic resources such as stone walls. Work with the Assessor's office to have their assessment records indicate the age and historic status of properties and structures.

DPR.24 TW CC. DPW 4.31 4. b. DPW TW RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 4.26 PZC 4. Encourage attached housing units as part of residential cluster developments to increase overall open space within a development.29 CC GIS CC PZC CC PZC RTM CC 4. DPR.19 4. Creating a town-wide “Memorial Tree” program. and regulations to limit clear cutting. Evaluate opportunities to create greenbelt connections between open space properties. RTM PZC CC TW CC. PAGE 44 PZC 4. DPR. Conduct an inventory of tree coverage. Explore options for enhancing tree cover. GIS TW BET.18 4. Consider a policy that encourages the use of conservation easements for areas with mature or specimen trees.27 PZC 4. Greenwich should seek an open space program. if the land offered is more significant to the overall open space framework. c.20 4. Requiring contributions to a tree planting fund from development projects that eliminate more than a certain number of trees per fraction of an acre. to allow for analysis of cleared areas (enforcement tool).30 4. to accept donations of excess land deeded in perpetuity to the town in exchange for tax incentives Consider expanding the Public Act 490 open space program to residential properties.25 Review the building zone regulations to require an open space set aside as part of multi-family and commercial developments. Exploring regulatory changes that guarantee inclusion of deeply rooted trees in property development plans. PZC TO IMPLEMENT THE 2003 OPEN SPACE PLAN 4. PAGE 39 CC DPR CC BOS.32 Greenwich Plan – 162 .28 STPC CC. Examine implementing a tree ordinance Consider new regulations to protect trees on private property. Review the subdivision regulations and the building zone regulations to consider the off-site dedication of open space as part of a development. Implementing a Parks “Tree for Every Child” program with the elementary Schools. d. Develop management plans for town-owned land and establish a permanent protection (such as a conservation easement to a non-town agency or the establishment of a conservation/park overlay zoning district) to prevent a change of use Update the inventory and database of open space easements held by the town and link it to the recommended Natural Resource Inventory.23 Update the historic and significant tree study.TO PROTECT TREES LEGEND BOS – Board of Selectmen CC – Conservation Commission DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works GIS – Geographic Information System IWWC – Inland Wetland and Watercourses Commission PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission RTM – Representative Town Meeting STPC – Selectmen’s Town Property Committee (proposed) TW – Tree Warden 4.21 4. Plant a large number of public trees in the next ten years.22 4. such as: a.

Identify key coastal properties for preservation and/or acquisition. Evaluate the relocation of town maintenance facilities from waterfront sites to alternative locations.163 . Implement the Cos Cob Power Plant plan.36 4.38 Greenwich Plan . Create a marina at the Cos Cob Power Plant and along the Mianus and Byram Rivers. inviting.37 4. PAGE 48 DPR DPR DPW CC DPR DPR DPW PZC DPR DPW DPR PZC 4.35 4.33 Continue to design coastal public access to ensure that it is universally accessible. and ultimately a significant public amenity. The Planning and Zoning Commission.34 4. Department of Public Works and the Department of Parks and Recreation should adopt the public access design standard recommendations in the Waterfront Access Planning and Design Study.TO CREATE ADDITIONAL COASTAL PUBLIC ACCESS 4.

Drainage and Maintenance 5. Update the Engineering Drainage Manual and develop new policies and programs for stormwater and road designs in compliance with the NPDES Phase II EPA standards. water supply.5 5.12 5. Require the removal of unprotected underground fuel storage tanks. Protect Watercourses.2 Continue to acquire open space to protect water resource areas.10 Continue to improve water quality in areas where public swimming occurs. IWWC DPW 5. monitor and assess natural resource issues. Evaluate potential sources of water contamination (roads and large parking lots) to determine if water quality can be restored before it enters streams. and ecological balance.8 Improve Coastal Water Quality 5.3 DPW RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE Provide Stormwater Management.9 5.4 5. PAGE 56 PZC CC. and other important water resources in order to maintain water quality. Encourage sensitive redevelopment of properties that have a large amount of impervious area. IWWC CC CC 5. CC 5.7 5. vernal pools. Develop baseline information and a way to evaluate future change. ponds. waterbodies. Encourage all marinas to seek and obtain DEP Clean Marina Certifications.13 Greenwich Plan – 164 .1 5.6 Continue to improve water quality in areas where public swimming occurs. Evaluate opportunities to use low impact development techniques. DPW DPR CC TO PROTECT NATURAL RESOURCES 5. STPC IWWC PZC. or Long Island Sound. aquifers. PZC DPW PZC DPW CC DPW PZC. Continue to update.IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARY | Enhance Environmental Health – Chapter 5 ENHANCE AND MAINTAIN WATER RESOURCES AGENCY LEGEND BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation BOS – Board of Selectmen CC – Conservation Commission DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works FECB – Flood and Erosion Control Board IWWC – Inland Wetland and Watercourses Commission PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission STPC – Selectmen’s Town Property Committee (proposed) PAGE 53 Protect Drinking Water 5. wildlife habitat. work to be performed by a consultant and supervised by the land use agencies. floodplains.11 Conduct an inventory and assessment of natural resources. wetlands.

Study watersheds to develop comprehensive stormwater management solutions.18 5.15 Identify sensitive habitat areas early in the plan review process. Distribute information about invasive species. Examine. Participate in the Community Rating System (CRS) of the National Flood Insurance Program.10 6. BOS PZC DPW PZC IWWC. the factors influencing flooding. Provide education about the impacts of invasive plants.5 Continue to enforce existing drainage. with the Army Corps of Engineers.Chapter 6 PAGE 63 DPW PZC. Provide public education and outreach concerning flood hazard mitigation. DPW.g. Protect habitat areas and wildlife corridors. DPW PZC DPW PZC DPW FECB DPW FECB DPW FECB DPW DPW FECB BET FECB. Update flood regulations to include increasing the base flood elevations along the coast. Prohibit invasive species as landscaping elements for site plans and subdivisions.16 5.17 5. DPW DPW.19 5. Adopt an ordinance to require native plant species as part of all municipal projects and encourage native plant species on private property. floor area ratio definition) to identify the drainage impacts resulting from these requirements. CC IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARY | An Environmental Leader .12 Greenwich Plan .TO PROTECT BIOLOGIC RESOURCES AGENCY LEGEND AO – Assessor’s Office ARC – Architectural Review Committee BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation BOS – Board of Selectmen CC – Conservation Commission COC – Chamber of Commerce DPS – Department of Parking Services DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works 5. Evaluate stormwater funding options and develop a program to pay for needed stormwater improvements. IWWC FECB CC. particularly at the US Route 1 bridge over the Byram River.2 6. PAGE 58 CC PZC BOS CC CC PZC CC CC CC 5.9 6. PZC TO ADDRESS FLOODING FECB – Flood and Erosion Control Board GIS – Geographic Information System Department HATG – Housing Authority of the Town of Greenwich HMC – Harbor Management IWWC – Inland Wetland and Watercourses Commission PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission SPSC – Selectmen’s Pedestrian Safety Committee 6.11 6. drainage policies and stormwater data.20 Create a resources section on the town web site with relevant links and information on how residents can act to protect these resources.6 6. RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 6. Encourage the use of groundwater recharge. Greenwich should continue to work with neighboring communities to address the causes of flooding.165 . soil erosion control and flood regulations.7 6.8 6.3 6.14 5. Establish regulations to address impervious lot coverage limits for all residential properties to reduce the amount of runoff.4 6.1 6. FECB. Work with the Army Corps of Engineers to address flood prone areas. Evaluate existing land use regulations (e.

Conduct a study of whether a Special Services District is appropriate to manage Downtown. Improve pedestrian safety and provide traffic calming in Downtown. AO 7. and to develop an area specific plan. Create new workforce housing opportunities along transit routes.15 Conduct a harbor management analysis and develop a harbor management plan.3 7. to develop a series of specific recommendations and implementation strategies for traffic and parking in Downtown. SPSC HATG BET.16 HMC FECB. historic and cultural resources. BOS 7. civic and cultural activities in Downtown. retail / commercial development around the train station. 7.7 7. Consider establishing a local historic district to protect art.13 6. Encourage transit-oriented municipal. Examine the build-out analysis to determine where additional development may occur and how to direct this growth. Establish a harbor management commission pursuant to the Connecticut General Statutes. CC. DPW.6 BOS 7.9 Greenwich Plan – 166 . With a large amount of town-owned property at the core of Downtown the community should be able to find ways to expand arts programs.5 7. Work with the ACOE and Representatives in Hartford and Washington to secure funding for dredging navigable waterways and channels. HATG – Housing Authority of the Town of Greenwich HCDO – Housing and Community Development Office (proposed) PAGE 64 DPR BOS DPR HMC FECB. Work with New England ACOE. with professional engineers.2 7. Evaluate options to provide parking solutions for area residents and then address overall parking issues. DPS. Consider using a consulting firm.PROVIDE WATERWAY MANAGEMENT AGENCY LEGEND AO – Assessor’s Office ARC – Architectural Review Committee BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation BOS – Board of Selectmen COC – Chamber of Commerce DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPS – Department of Parking Services DPW – Department of Public Works FECB – Flood and Erosion Control Board GIS – Geographic Information System Dept. New York ACOE and the States of New York and Connecticut to develop a coordinated approach to allocating riparian rights along both the Port Chester and Greenwich riverfronts. COC.1 Continue to promote social. residential. DPR. DPR IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARY | Nurture Focal Points – Chapter 7 TO ENHANCE DOWNTOWN HMC – Harbor Management Commission (proposed) PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission SPSC – Selectmen’s Pedestrian Safety Committee RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE PAGE 75 DPR COC HDC ARC.8 DPW SPSC BOS BET. DPW 6. 6.14 6. PZC DPS PZC DPS. DPR. SPSC PZC GIS.4 7.

17 7.16 PZC HATG.24 7. HCDO DPW SPSC DPR CC DPW FECB 7. to manage land use and building design.26 Greenwich Plan .10 7.23 PZC 7.19 TO ENHANCE OLD GREENWICH 7. Evaluate whether the properties around the train station and along bus routes could serve as transit-oriented housing opportunity areas. to align land use policies to overall neighborhood objectives.14 7. Create a pedestrian and/or bicycle link from the train station to the village core. Evaluate parking management needs on private and public lots in Old Greenwich. Brook) and flooding conditions along Bible Street. Strickland PAGE 79 PZC HCDO.11 7. Create tools to protect and preserve local neighborhood oriented small businesses that serve neighborhood needs. train. Review potential for mixed-use development in areas presently zoned commercial.g.22 DPW PZC.15 Create a village plan for Cos Cob to align land use policies to overall neighborhood. PAGE 81 PZC DPS.12 7. PZC DPW SPSC PZC 7. authorized in the Connecticut General Statutes.13 7. Review the existing floodways (e. Explore using the Village District tool. Explore using the Village District tool. Evaluate whether properties around the train station and along bus routes could serve as transit-oriented housing opportunity areas. Enhance open green space areas encourage more passive and active recreational uses. Conduct a Build-out analysis of this area and its uses along US Route 1 in Cos Cob. parking and drainage impacts of potential commercial build-out under the existing Floor Area Ratio. HCDO DPS PZC 7.25 PZC PZC HATG.167 .TO ENHANCE COS COB 7.18 7. Develop stronger pedestrian connections and traffic calming along main transportation routes to enhance and encourage additional walking and biking to local businesses. SPSC PZC PZC DPW SPSC. Develop stronger pedestrian connections and traffic calming along main transportation routes. SPSC 7. recreational and library locations. to manage land use and building design. DPS. DPW 7. authorized in the Connecticut General Statutes.20 7. Review the Local Business Retail (LBR) zoning regulations to determine the potential traffic. school. SPSC PZC DPS.21 Create a village plan for Old Greenwich. Evaluate existing traffic flows and road designs and explore redesigns for US Route 1 with CT Department of Transportation.

f. Provide funding for implementation. b.29 7.33 7.Board of Education BOS – Board of Selectmen CC – Conservation Commission COA – Commission on Aging COC – Chamber of Commerce DPS – Department of Parking Services DPW – Department of Public Works HATG – Housing Authority of the Town of Greenwich HCDO – Housing and Community Development Office HDC – Historic District Commission PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission SPSC – Selectmen’ Pedestrian Safety Committee RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE PAGE 85 7. Evaluate parking management needs in Byram. to manage land use and building design to promote the preservation of historic structures within the National Register District. PAGE 87 PZC DPS. decorative lighting and crosswalks. Develop stronger pedestrian connections and traffic calming along main transportation routes. Construct the Church Street public access and boardwalk in the summer of 2008. authorized in the Connecticut General Statutes. plant street trees. to align land use policies with overall neighborhood objectives. Consider a separate WB-Byram zoning district that relates to the specific conditions in Byram.27 Implement the Byram Comprehensive Plan: a. This visual connection will both attract users to the riverfront and improve safety and security for people on the riverfront walkway. e. Study requiring all non water-dependent uses to provide enhanced waterfront access. a.TO ENHANCE BYRAM AGENCY LEGEND ARC – Architectural Review Committee BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation BOE . d. b. Require all new buildings to be sited to allow visual access to the riverfront walkway from South Water Street. including both an easement for the riverfront walkway and an easement for access from South Water Street to the walkway. Replace sidewalks. SPSC DPW SPSC. Obtain public access easements along the waterfront. Construct a pocket park at the sewer plant site in the summer of 2009.30 DPS PZC PZC PZC 7. c. Provide intersection improvement at Byram Road and Frontage Avenue.28 7.34 Create a village plan for Glenville. PZC PZC Greenwich Plan – 168 . Explore using the Village District tool.32 7.31 PZC TO ENHANCE GLENVILLE 7. install bump outs. The riverfront walkway and the access path from South Water Street to the riverfront walkway should be designed and built consistent with the final design for the riverfront walkway BET DPW PZC 7. Several public parking spaces for people using the riverfront walkway should also be provided.

45 PZC TO MONITOR CHANGES ALONG KING STREET 7. Encourage small neighborhood oriented businesses.35 7. Consider whether this area could serve as a housing opportunity area. HDC PZC PZC COC DPW SPSC TO ENHANCE THE POST ROAD 7.41 7.36 7. Conduct a corridor study of land use and traffic issues.TO PROTECT THE SMALL VILLAGES 7. Consider creating Village Districts or local historic district for the small village areas.42 7.39 Enhancing gateways to the area to help define the small villages and strengthen the sense of place.47 Continue to participate in a regional dialog about its function and role. Create design guidelines that encourage the unique attributes of each village. Develop a strategy to encourage additional transit and van pooling to institutions and businesses in the area and to the Westchester Airport. HDC ARC. Study the potential for increased building height in commercial areas where appropriate to achieve workforce and senior housing. bike paths or traffic calming is needed and then make the necessary improvements.40 7. HATG PZC DPW PZC DPW PZC 7.37 7. PAGE 92 BOS PZC BOS PZC Greenwich Plan . Evaluate whether sidewalks. PAGE 91 PZC PZC HCDO.43 7. ARC. PAGE 89 CC HDC. Evaluate opportunities to reduce curb cuts.38 7. DPW PZC.46 7. Encourage redevelopment to more pedestrian-friendly mixed use development patterns.44 Encourage redevelopment to more pedestrian-friendly mixed use development patterns.169 .

8. UW PZC 8. PAGE 98 COA HATG.7 Partner with others to expand the ability for elderly residents to age at home. UW PZC COA. UW HCDO HATG. PZC. HCDO. PZC. Evaluate whether existing congregate care and assisted living tools are adequate for the community. HCDO. Encourage subsidized housing in areas that are served by transit (buses and trains). HCDO.8 8.6 8. Partner with others to enhance services for the retirement communities that are developing in the town and evaluate the services offered to the senior population. Partner with others to update the range of housing choices available for this segment of the population.3 8. UW COA HATG. HCDO. HATG – Housing Authority of the Town of Greenwich HCDO – Housing and Community Development Office (proposed) HDC – Historic District Commission PZC – Planning & Zoning Commission RTM – Representative Town Meeting UW – United Way WHTF – Workforce Housing Task Force (proposed) PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 8. Explore the recommendations of the United Way Study to determine what opportunities exist to implement these recommendations. HCDO.IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARY | Diversify the Housing Portfolio – Chapter 8 PAGE 96 PZC HATG. UW COA HATG.11 Greenwich Plan – 170 .9 8. Promote the use of elderly accessory apartments in residential zones. UW TO PROVIDE FOR SENIOR NEEDS RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE 8. HATG. UW PZC HATG. UW COA HATG. Partner with agencies that provide subsidized housing.2 8.10 8. HCDO. HCDO.5 HCDO HATG. Allow for small increases in density on existing subsidized housing sites. Support upgrades to the various elderly housing developments. UW PZC HATG.4 8. including rehabilitation of existing units and the development of new subsidized units. UW TO PROTECT SUBSIDIZED HOUSING AGENCY LEGEND AO – Assessor’s Office ARC – Architectural Review Committee BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation BOS – Board of Selectmen COA – Commission on Aging DPW – Department of Public Works GIS – Geographic Information System Dept.1 Reexamine existing Building Zone Regulations to allow for additional subsidized housing options and development flexibility in the townhouse and neighborhood zones.

Study new zoning regulations to provide further tools for controlling bulk. WHTF DPW PZC PZC 8. PZC PZC HATG.2 Continue to model residential build-out.16 8. work with other agencies and as an implementation agency for these strategies.) Study the possibility of allowing the conversion of accessory structures to workforce housing units. Create a Workforce Housing Task Force to perform additional planning. to align zoning allowances to preferred development patterns.8 PZC PZC AO. GIS HDC GIS.7 9.6 9.15 8. Periodically revisit floor area regulations to limit house size and bulk. Encourage workforce housing in areas that are served by transit (buses and trains.14 8.ACTIONS TO PROVIDE WORKFORCE HOUSING 8. Consider establishing a lot coverage requirement in the residential zones. PAGE 100 PZC HATG.4 9. UW.17 IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARY | Be a Growth Management Leader – Chapter 9 TO PROTECT RESIDENTIAL NEIGHBORHOODS 9. Examine requiring a special permit for two-family housing to allow for control over site design. Increase demolition delay from 90 days to 180 days. Promote affordable accessory apartments in residential zones for workforce housing. Also consider possible subsets to the R-6 residential zone based on neighborhood characteristics.12 Explore inclusionary zoning regulations to require all new residential development to provide a percentage of the units as workforce housing. PAGE 105 PZC AO PZC 9.5 9. WHTF BOS HATG.171 . Update the historic resource survey information and link it to the Geographic Information System. Determine the number of illegal apartments and develop a strategy for enforcement. PZC RTM BET Greenwich Plan . UW PZC UW.13 8.1 9. DPW PZC DPW. Consider establishing a fund for purchasing historic buildings that come up for private sale.3 9.

multi-family residential and other development and activities to promote design consistency and overall appropriateness.TO MANAGE REGRADING OF PROPERTIES AGENCY LEGEND ARC – Architectural Review Committee BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation BOE – Board of Education BOS – Board of Selectmen CC – Conservation Commission COA – Commission On Ageing DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works FD – Fire Department HD – Health Department HDC – Historic District Commission IT – Information Technology Dept. visual access. Consider reducing minimum parking requirements.12 Require a special permit for all applications involving grading of over 50 percent of a parcel.10 9. Consider requiring all excavation activities to provide a Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Control Plan. and provide increased inspections to certify compliance. where special attention is given to mixed (water-dependent) uses.11 9. building dimensions and design.16 TO COORIDNATE WATERFRONT DEVELOPMENT RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE PAGE 110 PZC 9. HDC PZC 9. Consider modifying WB zones into three areas: River Road. Encourage diversity in sense of place in order to promote the unique and appropriate character of each village area. Consider a maximum height of retaining walls Reexamine and update the 1958 excavation and fill ordinance 9. Steamboat Road and Byram Support an appropriately plan for commercial fishing needs.15 9. traffic and circulation. PAGE 111 ARC PZC ARC. Examine requiring single-family and two-family construction projects (including additions) to submit a drainage report with grading.24 Greenwich Plan – 172 .9 9.14 9.23 Establish and maintain design review guidelines for commercial.22 PZC DPR PZC DPR TO CONTINUE TO ENCOURAGE APPROPRIATE DESIGN 9. Consider creating a town dock for commercial fishermen with minimal dockage fees. soil erosion control and drainage plans. PZC 9.17 9. Consider requiring all excavation activities to provide a grading plan and drainage plan.20 9. public access along the river. and parking. currently 1½ spaces per slip to one space per slip or less. Consider regulations to prevent significant grade alterations.18 Continue to protect water-dependent land use activities.13 9. IWWC – Inland Wetland and Watercourses PD – Police Department PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission SPSC – Selectmen’s Pedestrian Safety Committee PAGE 107 PZC DPW PZC DPW PZC DPW PZC DPW PZC DPW DPW PZC PZC DPW 9.21 9.19 9. Consider development standards for construction on steep slopes. Consider modifying the WB zoning designation along the Byram River to adapt to the types of uses recommended in the Byram Comprehensive Plan.

5 10.1 Continue the long-term school modernization and upgrade project. retaining school sites (and buildings) through enrollment declines so that they can be redeployed for school use when needed. DPW BOE BOE 10. b.14 10. Update the field inventory and park master plan. Plan for fleet maintenance needs. BOS. Scrutinize activities that might eliminate or impinge upon existing fields.10 10. PAGE 123 BET DPW DPW BET.11 10. DPW DPR BOE. DPW DPW BOE. Incorporate green building and energy conservation elements Continue to work with private schools on their long-term plans. Create additional senior program space.19 10. DPW.13 10.IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARY | Guide Municipal and Community Facilities – Chapter 10 TO ADDRESS EDUCATIONAL NEEDS 10. PAGE 119 DPR BOE.173 .12 10.9 Evaluate how facilities are managed and develop plans for long-term maintenance. DPW BOS BOE. Create a master plan for the Holly Hill Resource Recovery Center. BOS. BET.8 10.3 BOE ADDRESS TOWN FACILITY MANAGEMENT 10.7 10.16 10. acquiring land adjacent to existing schools for future expansion. DPR COA BET.20 Complete the Public Safety Complex.2 10. DPW DPR DPR BOS ADDRESS MUNICIPAL FACILITY NEEDS 10. Perform a space needs analysis for all town departments. Create a facilities master plan for all municipal facilities.17 10. Evaluate underutilized town assets. Plan for highway maintenance needs. DPR IT DPW BOS DPW FMD Greenwich Plan . Continue to update and utilize the Capital Improvement Plan program for long term financial programming for town projects to keep the town fiscally sound. Implement the Cos Cob Power Plant plan. BOS. BOS PD FD. DPR DPW BOE. PAGE 117 BOE BET. Improve emergency communications. Maintain school enrollment capacity for the long-term by: a.15 10.18 10. Use digital imaging to increase document retrieval efficiency and reduce physical storage needs.4 10. Assign the maintenance of school facilities to the Department of Public Works.6 10. Create additional office and meeting space for government operations.

25 Continue to support other organizations that provide community facilities and services.6 Maintain and enhance the sidewalk system in Greenwich.24 Support upgrades to the Nathaniel Witherell nursing home.9 Greenwich Plan – 174 .TO SUPPORT OTHER COMMUNITY FACILITIES AGENCY LEGEND BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation BOE – Board of Education BOS – Board of Selectmen CC – Conservation Commission COA – Commission On Ageing DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works EATF – Environmental Action Task Force FD – Fire Department HD – Health Department 10.5 Continue to provide traffic calming on roads that meet the town standards. Consider adjusting sidewalk design standards to fit into neighborhood character.1 11. Eliminate gaps in the sidewalk system.4 11. Study important intersections to determine if improvements can be made.8 11.7 11.2 11. BET DPR. Continue to support the Bruce Museum PAGE 125 DPR DPW BOS.21 10. DPR TO CONTINUE TO SUPPORT OTHER COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS IWWC – Inland Wetland and Watercourses PD – Police Department PAGE 128 BOS BET 10. especially along busy roads. SPSC BOS 11.22 10. PAGE 133 DPW SPSC DPW SPSC DPW SPSC DPW SPSC 11. Continue to recruit volunteer firefighters. Develop an access management strategy for areas along main traffic routes in anticipation of future development. DPW DPW DPW TO MAINTAIN AND EXPAND SIDEWALKS 11. Continue and expand the Safe Routes Program. Continue to support the libraries and plan for their needs. around schools and near the railroad stations. DPW FD BOS BET. Appoint a parking and transportation committee to develop specific strategies for traffic improvement. Consider small adjustments to allow additional traffic capacity where appropriate. IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARY | Guide Infrastructure – Chapter 11 TO MAINTAIN STREETSCAPE CHARACTER AND IMPROVE ROAD CAPACITY PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission SPSC – Selectmen’s Pedestrian Safety Committee TP – transportation Planner RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE PAGE 132 DPW PD.3 11.23 10.

16 11.23 11. Support the construction of bus shelters at service locations. Continue to work with state and regional transportation agencies.21 Hire a transportation planner to coordinate transportation efforts. Consider ways to create additional incentives to use transit.12 11. HD DPW PZC Greenwich Plan . Consider adopting a sewer allocation scheme to limit the amount of discharge allowed. PAGE 137 BOS TP TO MAINTAIN SEWER 11. Provide bicycle racks at municipal facilities.20 11. PAGE 138 DPW DPW HD. hybrid engines or fuel cell technology. PZC DPW PZC.19 Continue to support transit service in the community.17 11.CREATE BICYCLE FACILITIES 11.11 11. Implement the recommendations in the Bicycle Master Plan.13 Implement the recommendations in the Bicycle Master Plan. Work with current transit providers to extend hours of operation and routes.25 Continue to maintain and upgrade the sewer treatment system.18 11. PZC TP EATF TP DPW TP.15 11. Continue to evaluate the sewer service boundary and state regulatory requirements. Because build-out and census information projects future growth.14 11. Work with current transit operators to convert transit vehicles to cleaner fuels. PAGE 135 DPW DPW DPW DPR BOE DPW TO PROMOTE TRANSIT 11. Explore establishing and maintaining safe bicycle routes. PAGE 136 TP EATF TP EATF. EATF TP TO COORIDINATE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING 11.175 .22 11. assess sewer capacity.10 11. Encourage employees of public and private companies and agencies to utilize transit and shuttle buses.24 11.

12. Evaluate the use of Green Energy (e.g. Continue to develop fire protection strategies for northern Greenwich. for private citizen conversion to renewable energy sources and hybrid vehicles. PAGE 140 PZC HD FD CC HD.12 12.10 12.9 12. BOS 12.7 12.27 11.14 Greenwich Plan – 176 .5 12. such as property tax reductions.13 Implement recommendations of the June 20.g.4 12. Consider incentives. Develop a Town Energy Plan that evaluates town buildings and facilities for present energy use and how to reduce it. solar and geothermal.6 12. RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARY AGENT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE EATF EATF. Require that all new municipal construction projects use techniques to reduce energy requirements. Partner with organizations that provide consumers with energy saving programs.1 Continue to participate in the Clean Energy Fund. IWWC HD DPW. Join the ICLEI Cities for Climate Protection campaign. LEED certification) for private and public facilities.31 Continue to protect water supply watersheds and reservoirs. ride-share programs). 2008 report of the Selectmen’s Environmental Action Task Force and adopt a town Energy Policy for all departments.. Encourage water conservation.28 11.11 12. DPW. EATF BOS EATF DPW EATF FMD EATF BOS BOE. Evaluate the impacts of impervious surfaces on drinking water supply watersheds. PZC PZC CC. Establish regulation and policy changes to both require some and allow for other energy savings and renewable energy sources. reduce on-site parking requirements) in exchange for programs to reduce their employees’ reliance on single-occupancy vehicles for commuting (e.3 12. Publicize in the community and the schools on a regular basis available methods to reduce energy consumption.29 11.8 12. Explore incentives to local employers (e.g. Encourage groundwater infiltration. PZC HD FD IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARY | Be a Green Leader – Chapter 12 PAGE 144 BOS BOE. EATF PZC EATF EATF BET EATF PZC EATF EATF EATF BOE IWWC – Inland Wetland and Watercourses Commission PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission TO CONSERVE ENERGY 12. use renewable energy. Encourage water line extensions to meet both drinking and fire protection water supply needs where appropriate. EATF BOS BOE. Evaluate the zoning regulations for ways to reduce land coverage and building size to conserve energy and develop green building standards. Convert vehicles to hybrids and alternative fuel vehicles when feasible. Conduct an energy audit of all municipal buildings and streetlights and then take steps to reduce energy use.2 12.TO ENCOURAGE THE PROVISION OF ADEQUATE WATER AGENCY LEGEND BET – Board of Estimate and Taxation BOE – Board of Education BOS – Board of Selectmen CC – Conservation Commission DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works EATF – Environmental Action Task Force FD – Fire Department FMD – Fleet Management Department HD – Health Department 11. and reduce use of other valuable resources.30 11.26 11..

PZC DPW PZC PZC DPW.15 12. PZC PZC DPW. Incorporate green building standards and low impact development standards into the land use regulations. Provide educational programs about sustainable irrigation practices. EATF CC TO CREATE GREEN NEIGHBORHOODS 12.21 Encourage water harvesting on public and private properties.TO CONSERVE WATER 12.17 12.24 12.16 12.19 12. EATF TO ENCOURAGE GREEN BUILDINGS 12.23 Continue to monitor evolution of standards for green developments and neighborhoods.25 12. Encourage the use of groundwater recharge in areas with impervious coverage or reduced permeability. EATF Greenwich Plan . Require Greenwich government and schools to reduce water consumption by 10 percent by 2010 and encourage the same in the private-sector.177 .27 Continue to monitor evolution of standards for green buildings. HD CC IWWC. PAGE 149 DPW EATF. PAGE 147 CC EATF. HD BOS BOE PZC EATF DPW EATF 12.18 Educate property owners about water resource issues. Incorporate green development / neighborhood standards and low impact development standards into the land use regulations PAGE 148 DPW EATF.26 12. PZC CC EATF.22 12. Consider requiring LEED certification for new private buildings and major renovation projects.20 12. Consider adopting some level of LEED certification for new public buildings or major renovation projects. Establish regulation and policy changes that reduce water consumption such as for irrigation and landscaping purposes. Develop drought management plans.

PAGE 150 DPW EATF EATF DPW DPW EATF BOS BOE EATF EATF DPW BOE DPR EATF PZC – Planning and Zoning Commission TO CREATE GREEN MUNICIPAL FACILITIES 12.28 12. PZC DPW BOE. DPR. PZC   Greenwich Plan – 178 .TO EXPAND RECYCLING PROGRAMS AGENCY LEGEND BOE – Board of Education BOS – Board of Selectmen DPR – Department of Parks and Recreation DPW – Department of Public Works EATF – Environmental Action Task Force 12.34 12.32 12. Develop facility plans for all municipal facilities and determine which facilities do not meet the local standards Develop an action plan to bring municipal facilities up to local standards. Establish regulation and policy changes to use recycled and recyclable materials.37 Develop standards for green municipal buildings and sites in Greenwich.31 12. DPR. PAGE 151 DPW BOE.30 12.29 12. EATF. PZC DPW BOE.33 Continue to provide an extensive recycling program. EATF. EATF.36 12. DPR. EATF DPW BOE. Emphasize waste prevention in community facilities.35 12. Develop a plan to increase waste reduction and recycling efforts in Greenwich. Revise purchasing priorities to increase the amount of recycle products purchased. DPR. Encourage Greenwich government and schools to reduce water and energy consumption. Providing public education and technical assistance.

179 .Appendix Architectural Review Committee’s Design Guidelines Transportation Planning Report Word Index       Greenwich Plan .

All applicants to the Architectural Review Committee should provide complete documentation including scale drawings. New or alterations to existing awnings and signs. suggestions by the Architectural Review Committee may be made based on these guidelines. These applicants may be used as a list of important considerations to incorporate into their design. These guidelines will be used in conjunction with the update to the Town of Greenwich Plan of Conservation and Development (POCD) and the Building Zone Regulations (BZR). Ensure high quality building and site design. Applicants should read and understand the guidelines as they apply to their own project. Greenwich Plan – 180 . fixture specifications and color samples. These guidelines encourage designs that are compatible and complementary to the existing framework of the downtown and commercial areas in the Town of Greenwich. depending on location and other circumstance. APPLICABILTY The following types of applications shall be subject to the Architectural Review Process: A. I. Every project is unique and the applicant will find that some guidelines are more relevant to their project than others. II.compatibility not limited to conformity. but possibly including effective contrast. Exterior modifications associated with a principal use or activity requiring Site Plan or Special Permit review shall be reviewed in relation to these design guidelines. site photographs. Exterior modifications associated with a proposed commercial or multifamily use of more than two (2) dwelling units shall be reviewed in relation to these design guidelines. awnings.Design Guidelines These guidelines are provided as a resource for the applicant to prepare them for the Architectural Review Process. signs. B. and exterior lighting. Referral by the Planning and Zoning Commission. context photographs. C. The Committee cannot make recommendations on incomplete applications. Ensure that all new development and renovation (including such revisions such as changes in paint color or signage) is compatible with its surrounding area . landscaping. D. including architecture. During the presentation and review process. PURPOSE These guidelines are intended to: A. B.

conserving. GENERAL STANDARDS A. Greenwich Plan . • Separate incompatible uses with large open space or natural buffers. or significant structures or architectural elements deemed to be contributory Historic Resources in the Town’s Historic Resource inventory. natural features and landscaping. traditional. The applicant shall appear at a scheduled hearing and have their application reviewed by the Architectural Review Committee (ARC).III. An application shall be submitted which includes a signed application. or preserving existing buildings and sites. • Encourage replacing historic forms of existing buildings that may have been demolished or advanced into poor condition. • Maintain visual privacy between public and private spaces. • Enhance existing building forms and details. photographs showing neighboring properties and samples of materials that will be used. as amended. C. B. RELATIONSHIP TO THE SITE Guidelines: • Identify existing natural features and preserve as many natural resources as possible. • Ensure that the exterior of historic structures be consistent with: ■ The “Connecticut Historical Commission – The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings”. • Avoid extensive topographic re-contouring or clearings. IV. • Incorporate the historic and or related to the distinctive character of the existing neighborhood when converting. or ■ The distinctive historic characteristics as identified in the Town of Greenwich Plan of Conservation and Development and Historic Resource Inventory. • Provide for desirable streetscapes and transitions to adjoining properties. and ambient light.181 . After review of a complete application the Architectural Review Committee (ARC) will make recommendations to the Planning and Zoning Commission. • Encourage the maintenance of views. B. • Minimize adverse impacts on adjacent properties including excessive noise. HISTORIC RESOURCES Guidelines: • Minimize the removal or disruption of historic. full documentation of any new or revised exterior features. PROCEDURES A.

use. • Maintain a ratio between 1:2 and 1:3 between building height and road width to provide for a pleasant sense of enclosure and scale in downtown and commercial areas. BUILDING FORM and DETAIL Guidelines: • Avoid long. E. • Screen rooftop mechanical equipment from view from the street and to the extent feasible. scale and architecture. exterior treatments and signs recognizing harmony in textures. ROOFLINES. • Provide awnings or canopies for pedestrians on commercial sidewalks. • Select building textures. UTILITY & SERVICE AREAS Guidelines: • Screen utility and service equipment areas from public view with materials harmonious with proposed and existing structures. • Maintain a height and scale for each building that is compatible with its site and adjoining structures. from neighboring buildings. large unarticulated structures which are uninviting and do not contribute to the streetscape. FACADES AND ENTRANCES Guidelines: • Articulate and vary facades and rooflines to reduce bulkiness and to provide architectural interest. • Maintain the relationship of the building to the surrounding terrain. MASSING and PROPORTION Guidelines: • Evaluate architectural features based on the scale of the building. D. • Provide pedestrian and shopper-friendly elements such as benches and planters where space allows. the quality of the design. SCALE. • Reference the scale and massing of existing. • Avoid applying small areas of sloping roofing that is out of scale with the volume of buildings F. colors and components that are harmonious with the building and surrounding buildings. lines and masses. surrounding buildings. • Install new utility service and revisions to services underground whenever possible. • Establish a unified design theme for building massing.C. • Establish building rhythms with adjacent built forms. materials. • Select building materials that have good architectural character and durable quality. Greenwich Plan – 182 . Two story buildings are encouraged in downtown and commercial areas of similar scale. and the relationship to its surroundings.

and compatibility with the character of the area and for interest in its shape. Greenwich Plan . • Encourage incorporating simple retail “blade signs” into storefronts along pedestrian ways. or to the inside of the door’s glass. • Avoid the use of any plant designated by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection as an invasive species. and relate to the natural environmental and topography with landscape features. or conceal other distinctive architectural details such as arched window heads. • Select plant material for year round interest and structure. I. LANDSCAPING Guidelines: • Enhance architectural features. texture. the size of the building and the distance from which they will be viewed. paths and trails. • Discourage signs and awnings that extend across major architectural supports. if name is not descriptive of business. • Consider planting materials for landscaping and screening that are native to Connecticut. • Consider providing a place for retail signs at the cornice line when designing buildings. • Avoid use of exterior building mounted signs for upper-floor tenants. • Provide safe and convenient connections within the site and between adjacent sites with pedestrian sidewalks. fences or structures that block sight lines. H. • Discourage use of waterfall awnings used as signs. • Limit information on signs to name and main business.183 . • Integrate signs as an architectural element that is coordinated with the building’s architecture. where space permits. SIGNS and AWNINGS Guidelines: • Avoid the use of redundant signs by limiting commercial occupants to one façade sign for each street frontage plus one façade sign for any entrance from a rear parking area. • Limit signs for upper-floor tenants to small-scale signs adjoining the entry to that tenant’s space. • Select plant material for its ultimate growth. CIRCULATION – Vehicular and Pedestrian Guidelines: • Avoid landscaping. such as masonry piers or columns. • Incorporate and preserve existing trees of four (4) inch caliper or greater into the site plan whenever practicable. hardiness. • Encourage the use of letter heights on signs and awnings that are in proportion to building detail. shield unsightly areas. that have a decorative quality and are sensitive in scale and proportion to the building elements. and color.G. provide shade. • Scale signs at rear entrances so that they are more modest and fit the visual character of the alley or rear entrance.

• • • • • • • • • Minimize conflicts between pedestrian and vehicular movement with design elements. • Generally provide unobtrusive lighting that is restrained in design. • Ensure that all HID lamps are fully shielded providing 90 degree cut-off. LIGHTING Guidelines: • Provide lighting that promotes public safety. Provide space for snow placement or removal. • Use of low or high-pressure sodium lights are discouraged. neon or flashing signs as prohibited per the Town of Greenwich BZR §6-152(d). Screen parking areas whenever practicable with landscaping. • Provide lighting design. Maintain a spatial separation or landscape barrier between the parking area and the building. • Promote the enjoyment of the building design by providing lighting that enhances its' architectural character. Protect end row parking from turning movements of other vehicles with curbed landscaped areas. • Where possible provide lighting which is in the range of 3000 to 3800 degrees Kelvin. Provide vehicle barriers such as curbs. where applicable. night sky. • Refrain from misdirected. and the retail identity. which conserve energy and the natural resources to the greatest extent that is practical. while still preserving the ambiance of the night. and property security. • Provide photometric data as requested for specific developments Greenwich Plan – 184 . • Provide lighting that protects the natural environment from the damaging effects of lighting up the dark skies. J. • Avoid Metal Halide sources that are in excess of 250 watts. avoiding excessive brightness and glare. reverse any previous degradation of the dark. Pave and grade parking so that storm water will not cross public sidewalks. utility. and utilize light fixtures. and/or unnecessary lighting. • Decorative light fixtures are encouraged when they serve the architecture in this way. Design parking circulation so as to minimize directional signage. • Where possible. • Provide adequate lighting. Incorporate shade trees into parking areas at a ratio of 1 per 10 spaces where possible. bollards or low walls or fences located as to protect and not obstruct adjacent walks. berms or fencing. • Avoid the use of scrolling. avoiding glare and light pollution.

Heimbuch Richard Maitland Paul S. P. AMS Consulting Group Lawrence Kenney Robert Fort Yankee Planning Group Dan Rothenberg Principal Senior Vice President Senior Project Manager Project Manager Project Manager Greenwich Plan . Mark Vertucci.E. Kevin Conroy.Acknowledgements Planning and Zoning Commission Donald Heller Frank Farricker Raymond J. AICP Cindy Ann Tyminski Marek Kozikowski Technical Assistance Provided by: Director of Planning and Zoning / Town Planner Deputy Director/ Assistant Town Planner Senior Planner Planner II Planner I Planimetrics Glenn Chalder. AICP Jason Vincent. AICP Patrick LaRow.185 . Brooks Chair Secretary Alternate Alternate Alternate Planning and Zoning Staff Diane Fox.E. Alban Frederic H. Ellen Avellino Margarita T. Marchese R.E. P. P. AICP Katie Blankley. AICP Leonard Desson Principal Senior Planner GIS Manager Project Team Fuss and O’Neill Ted Desantos.