Introduction to the Gita
The BHAGAVAD-GITA is contained in Book 6 of the great Hindu epic, MAHABHARATA, probably the longest poem in all of literature. The GITA was written between the fifth century BC and the second century CE and is attributed to Vyasa. According to Aurobindo who studied Vyasa's writings, nothing disproves his authorship. The MAHABHARATA tells the story of a civil war in ancient India between the sons of Kuru (Kauruvas) and the sons of Pandu (Pandavas) over a kingdom the Pandavas believe was stolen from them by the cheating of the Kauruvas. Every attempt by the Pandava brothers to regain their kingdom without war has failed. The BHAGAVAD-GITA is primarily a dialog between Arjuna, the third Pandava brother, and his charioteer, Krishna. Remaining neutral, Krishna allowed one side to use his vassals in battle, while the other side could have him as a charioteer although he would not fight himself. The old blind King Dhritarashtra declined a great sage's offer to give him sight for the battle, because he did not want to see the bloodshed. Instead the great sage gave Sanjaya the ability to perceive at a distance everything that was going on, and he describes the events for the King. In the GITA Krishna, who is the uncle and friend of the Pandavas, gives Arjuna teachings on yoga, which means union and implies union with God. Krishna is considered by Hindus to be an incarnation of the god Vishnu, the preserver. In the first chapter of the GITA, some of the heroes of the two armies are mentioned by King Duryodhana, the oldest Kaurava brother, first the Pandavas: the son of Drupada, Bhima, Arjuna, Yuyudhana, Virata, Drupada, Dhrishtaketu, Chekitana, the King of Kashi, Purujit, Kuntibhoja, Shaibya, Yudhamanyu, Uttamauja, the son of Subhadra, and the sons of Draupadi; then the Kauravas: Bhishma, Karna, Kripa, Ashvatthaman, Vikarna, Saumadatti, and Drona. When they blow their conch-horns, Arjuna's brothers are named: Bhima, Yudhishthira, Nakula, and Sahadeva. Throughout the text various epithets or nicknames are used for Krishna and Arjuna. Krishna is called: Madhava (descendant of Madhu), Hrishikesha (bristling-haired), Keshava (handsome-haired), Govinda (chief of herdsmen), slayer of Madhu (a demon), Janardana (agitator of humans), Varshneya (clansman of the Vrishnis), Vasudeva (son of Vasudeva), Hari, and slayer of Keshin (a demon). Arjuna is called: son of Pandu, Gudakesha (thickhaired), Partha (son of Pritha, Kunti's original name), Kaunteya (son of Kunti), Bharata (ancient name of India, used for other characters as well), Bharata bull, wealth winner, foe scorcher, great-armed one, blameless one, tiger spirit, and Kuru's joy or best of Kurus (Kuru being a common ancestor of both the Pandavas and the Kauravas). Gandiva is the name of Arjuna's bow.

Brahmam is everything that is Brahmam is everything that is not

1. The Sorrow of Arjuna Dhritarashtra said, "In the field of duty in the field of Kuru, gathered together to fight, what did mine and Pandu's sons do, Sanjaya?" Sanjaya said, "Seeing the Pandava army arrayed, King Duryodhana then approaching his teacher said this speech: 'Look, master, at the Pandava's great army arrayed by the son of Drupada, your intelligent student. Here are heroes, great archers equal in battle to Bhima and Arjuna; Yuyudhana and Virata and Drupada of the great chariot; Dhrishtaketu, Chekitana and the valiant King of Kashi, Purujit and Kuntibhoja and Shaibya, a human bull; bold Yudhamanyu and valiant Uttamauja; the son of Subhadra and the sons of Draupadi; all having great chariots. "'Ours who are distinguished know them, best of the twice-born, the leaders of my army, by proper names I tell them to you: yourself and Bhishma and Karna and Kripa, victorious in battle, Ashvatthaman and Vikarna and Saumadatti also; and many other heroes risking lives for my sake, armed with various weapons, all skilled in battle. "'Inadequate is that force of ours guarded by Bhishma, but adequate is this force of theirs guarded by Bhima.

King Yudhishthira blew Anantavijaya. said.So in all designated formations make sure you all protect Bhishma. fathers-in-law and even companions in both armies also. having positioned the best chariot between the two armies. Regarding all these relatives arrayed. his great conch horn. in front of Bhishma. Dhrishtadyumna and Virata and invincible Satyaki. each blew their own conch horns.' "There Partha saw positioned fathers and grandfathers. Then standing in the great chariot yoked with white horses. this Kaunteya. so that I may see these who are formed and eager to fight. Krishna. blew his conch horn powerfully. my own people. Lord of the earth: 'Position my chariot between the two armies. and Kashya. Drona. and trembling in my body and bristling hair occur. my limbs sink. drums. filled with deep pity despondently said this: 'Seeing this. Madhava and the son of Pandu blew their divine conch horns: Hrishikesha his Panchajanya. and all the rulers of the earth. brothers. approaching to fight. Then conch horns and kettledrums. top archer. friends as well. Nakula and Sahadeva blew Sughosha and Manipushpaka. in the ensuing clash of weapons the monkey-bannered son of Pandu raising his bow then said this speech to Hrishikesha. the aged Kuru grandsire. This noise burst the hearts of the sons of Dhritarashtra. tabors. . wealth winner his Devadatta. of the great chariot. sons. Drupada and the sons of Draupadi.' "Thus Hrishikesha addressed by Gudakesha.' "Cheering him up. roaring loudly like a lion. and Shikhandi. 'Partha. and the tumult caused the sky and earth to resound. With whom must I fight in undertaking this bash? I see these who are ready to fight wishing to serve in war the evil-minded son of Dhritarashtra. and strong-armed Saubhadra. all together. "Then seeing the sons of Dhritarashtra in battle order. changeless one. O Lord of the earth. teachers. grandsons. horns suddenly sounded this tumultuous uproar. look at these Kurus assembled here. and my mouth dries up. O Bharata. wolf-bellied Bhima blew Paundra. uncles.

is born the intermixture of caste. deprived of rice-ball and water rites. . the women of the family are corrupted. in the spoiling of the women. From the overcoming of lawlessness. and also grandfathers. and I do not foresee good fortune in killing my own people in battle. Keshava. Madhava? "'Even if these whose thoughts are overpowered by greed see no wrong in causing the destruction of family. teachers. and other kin. Janardana? In family destruction the ancient family duties vanish. Govinda? What is enjoyment or life? Those for whose sake we want kingdom. the family-destruction wrong. how then for the earth? Striking down the sons of Dhritarashtra. "'I do not want victory. grandsons. even for the sovereignty of the three worlds. sons. and my mind wanders. slayer of Madhu. in losing duty lawlessness also overcomes the whole family. fathers-in-law. "'These I do not wish to kill. why is it not understood by us to turn away from this evil. our relatives. and I am not able to stand. By wrongs of the family destroyers producing caste intermixture race duties and eternal family duties are abolished. what joy could be ours. and I see contrary omens. What is kingdom to us. Krishna. even though they are killing. uncles. The intermixture of the family destroyers and the family leads to hell. How could we ever be happy killing our own people. their ancestors fall. enjoyment and pleasure are these positioned for battle.Gandiva slips from my hand. fathers. "'Oh alas! What great evil are we resolved to do. Varshneya. injury to friends and crime. brothers-in-law. abandoning life and riches. and my skin burns. Krishna. Janardana? Evil should cling to us for killing these attackers. Of family-duty-abolishing men dwelling indefinitely in hell we have often heard. by discernment. Therefore we should not kill the sons of Dhritarashtra. nor kingdom nor pleasures.

If the sons of Dhritarashtra should kill in battle." . unarmed.' "Thus speaking on the battlefield. throwing down bow and arrow. that would be greater happiness to me. Arjuna sat down on the chariot seat. his mind overcome by sorrow. unresisting.which through greed for royal pleasures we are prepared to kill our own people.

the two venerable enemies. causing disgrace. 'I shall not fight' to Govinda. which dries up the senses. whom having killed. we should not want to live. Nor do we know which of these two is more important for us. ask you which should be better for certain. stand up. correct me! I do not see what would remove this sorrow of mine. Abandon base faintheartedness. The Yoga of Knowledge Sanjaya said. 'How shall I in battle. whose eyes were filled with tears and downcast. I. whether we should conquer or if they should conquer us. foe scorcher. the slayer of Madhu said this speech: "The blessed Lord said. 'How has this timidity in difficulty come upon you. "To him thus overcome by pity.2. uncertain in thought as to duty. "Thus having spoken to Hrishikesha. royal power or even the sovereignty of the gods. tell it to me. "Hrishikesha smiling. slayer of foes? Instead of killing noble gurus it is better to live by begging in this world. the sons of Dhritarashtra. became silent. between the two armies said to the dejected this speech: "The blessed Lord said.'" Sanjaya said. Partha! this is not fitting in you. not leading to heaven. slayer of Madhu. so to speak. saying. Bharata. Gudakesha. those standing before us. I am your student fallen at your feet. "'Weak pity discouraging my being. even if obtaining unrivaled prosperity on earth. foe scorcher!' "Arjuna said. . despairing. having killed gurus desiring gain here on earth I should enjoy pleasures smeared with blood. with arrows fight against Bhishma and Drona. not proper for an Aryan. Arjuna? You should never be a coward.

yet you speak wise words. this does not kill and is not killed. Neither is it born nor does it die at any time. Partha. Therefore. The certainty of both of these has been seen by the seers of essence. it is said of the indestructible. nor having been. you must endure them. pain and pleasure being equal to the sage. As the soul experiences in this body childhood. so also it acquires another body. . will this again not be. pain. causing cold. he is ready for immortality. Unborn. Bharata! "'Whoever believes this the killer and whoever thinks this the killed. the imperishable. the indestructible. Neither for the dead nor those not dead do the wise grieve. the sage in this is not deluded. eternal. coming and going are impermanent. perpetual this ancient being is not killed with the killing of the body. the unborn. "'Material sensations. the non-existence of the real is not found. "'Whoever knows this. how does this person. the eternal. No one is able to cause the destruction of the imperishable. so abandoning worn-out bodies the soul enters new ones. "'The existence of the unreal is not found. youth. pleasure. Know that indestructible essence by which all this is pervaded. Neither will there be a time when we shall not exist. infinite soul that it is eternal. The person whom these do not trouble. Kaunteya. heat.'You grieve for those who should not be grieved for. These bodies have an end. powerful person. Never was there a time when I did not exist nor you nor these lords of men. fight. they both do not understand. we all exist from now on. cause the killing of anyone? Whom does one kill? As a person abandoning worn-out clothes takes new ones. Bharata. and old age.

even then. Unmanifest this. And if you think this is eternally born or eternally dying. but even having heard no one knows this. What is more painful than that? "'Either killed you will attain heaven. happy kshatriyas. Death is certain for the born. unmanifest ends again. gain and loss. you mighty armed. Bharata. and birth is certain for the dead. for there is no greater duty than battle for the kshatriya. "'Beings have unmanifest beginnings. then having avoided your duty and glory. "'Therefore knowing this you should not mourn. and waters cannot wet this nor can wind dry it. and having been thought much of among those you will be held lightly. Making pleasure and pain the same. Partha. Therefore you should not mourn for any being. not wetted nor dried. . And by good fortune gaining the open door of heaven. And also people will relate your perpetual dishonor. Now if you will not undertake this combat duty. immovable is this everlasting. you should not mourn this. or conquering you will enjoy the earth. resolved to the battle. Not pierced this. encounter such a battle. you will incur evil. all-pervading. and marvelously another thus tells. Therefore stand up. Bharata. Therefore you should not mourn over the inevitable. "'So looking at your duty you should not waver.Weapons do not cut this nor does fire burn this. The great warriors will think you withdraw from battle out of fear. and for the esteemed. What complaint is there? Marvelously someone sees this. stable. deriding your strength. manifest middles. This embodied soul is eternally inviolable in the body of all. it is said. eternal. dishonor is worse than dying. not burned this. Kaunteya. then engage in battle. and marvelously another hears this. victory and defeat. And enemies will say of you many words not to be spoken.

There is no lost effort here. never to its fruits at all. . whose thoughts are stolen away by this. you shall avoid the bondage of action. yoga is skilled in actions. no setback occurs. "'Therefore unify yourself with yoga. but intuitions of the irresolute many-branched. eternally staying in goodness. liberated from the bondage of birth. Letting go of the fruit of action. Pitiful are those motivated by fruit. go the way free from misery.Thus you will not incur evil. "'In action alone is your claim. As much use as in a well in water overflowing everywhere. so much are all the scriptures to an enlightened brahman. so endless. Staying in yoga do your actions. learn this in yoga. delighting in the letter of the scripture. Even a little of this discipline protects from great fear. When your intuition passes beyond the confusion of delusion. Kuru's joy. offering birth as the fruit of action. letting go of attachment. wealth-winner. the intelligent of unified intuition. "'Self-determined intuition is one here. saying there is nothing else. Unified intuition here lets go of both good and bad deeds. "'This intuition described for you in Sankhya philosophy. to those. Partha. never let there be attachment in your inactivity. Seek refuge in intuition. performing many special rituals. "'The scriptures categorize three qualities. Be without the three qualities. attached to enjoyment and power. without opposites. self-determined intuition in meditation is not granted. soul-established. unified by intuition. aimed toward enjoyment and power. This flowery speech which the ignorant proclaim. minds desiring the highest heaven. Partha. without possessiveness. Arjuna. Never should the fruit of action be your motive.

the wisdom of this one is established. neither liking nor disliking. "'From a person's contemplating objects is born attachment to them. Partha. from attachment is born desire. from anger comes delusion. the wisdom of this one is established. departing from passion. whose senses are in control. tormenting senses forcibly carry away the mind even of the striving person of learning. when in meditation your immovable intuition will stand unmoving. like a tortoise all its limbs. the senses from the objects of sense. Restraining all these. Kaunteya. and anger.' "Arjuna said. fear. 'What is the definition of one who is steady in wisdom. one should sit unified with me in the supreme. Keshava? How should one steady in thought speak? How should one sit? How should one move?' "The blessed Lord said. in pleasure is free of desire. is called a sage. "'Whoever is without attachment in all things. pleasant or unpleasant. satisfied in the soul by the soul. "'Whoever in pain is free of mental anxiety. even flavor turns away from the one seeing the supreme. Disregarding scripture. "'Objects turn away from the embodied one who is fasting. "'And when this one withdraws. then one is said to be steady in wisdom. then you will attain union. accepting this or that. 'When one gives up all desires emerging in the mind. except flavor. steady in thought. steady in meditation. the wisdom of this one is established. from desire is born anger. .you will become indifferent to what you hear and to what has been heard in scripture.

and without concentration no peace. Without peace. where is happiness? When the mind is led by the wandering of the senses. Having clear thoughts. the one whose senses are completely withdrawn from the objects of sense. In tranquillity is born cessation of all one's pains. "'Lust and aversion eliminated. This is a holy state. then it carries away wisdom like the wind a ship on the water. the self-governing by self-control attains tranquillity.' . from loss of intuition. Partha. this one attains peace. Just as waters dissolve in the ocean. memory wandering. No one attaining this is deluded. What is night to all beings in this the restrained is awake. so too all desires dissolve in the one who attains peace. and for the undisciplined no concentration. quickly the intuition becomes steady. without egotism. "'Therefore.from delusion. from memory wandering. what beings are awake in that is the night of the seeing sage. without possessiveness. giving up all desires. Steady in this even at the time of death. filled. but engaging objects with the senses. "'There is no intuition for the undisciplined. The person who. still. unmoved. mighty-armed. not in the desirer of desires. one reaches holy nirvana. the wisdom of this one is established. lives free from longing. one perishes. loss of intuition.

Even your body maintenance could not be accomplished without action. cherishing each other. . "'Having sent forth creatures along with sacrifices. the gods will give to you wished-for enjoyments. Janardana. and not by renunciation alone does one approach perfection. this deluded self is called a hypocrite. engages by the powers of action in action yoga. then why do you urge me into this terrible action. controlling the senses with the mind. the Creator anciently said. 'If your intuition idea is better than action. 'In this world a two-fold basis was previously taught by me. blameless one: the knowledge yoga of the Sankhyas and the action yoga of the yogis. may the gods cherish you. But whoever. Not by abstention from actions does a person attain freedom from action. This one thing tell me without doubt: by which I should attain what is better. Kaunteya. Keshava? With equivocal speech you confuse my intuition. free from attachment. Arjuna. Aside from action for the purpose of sacrifice this world is bound by action. you will attain the supreme good. "By this bring forth. unattached. restraining the powers of action with the mind remembering sense objects. The Yoga of Action "Arjuna said. "'Whoever sits. may this be the milk of your desires. Everyone must perform action unwillingly by the qualities born of nature.' "The blessed Lord said. Perform action for this purpose. "'You do controlled action. this one is distinguished. Cherished by sacrifice. Action is better than inaction. No one even for an instant can ever stay actionless.3." May you cherish by this the gods.

a person attains the supreme. If I should not perform action. "'Whatever the best do. these worlds would be ruined. Bharata. "'Therefore without being attached always perform the action to be done. Partha. food is produced from rain. people everywhere would follow my path. sacrifice is produced by action. so the wise should act unattached. but the wicked who cook for their own sake enjoy impurity. "'Thus whoever does not turn the revolving wheel here. "'Creatures come from food. This sets a standard that the world follows. who is malicious. Whoever has no purpose in what is done or not done. I should be a maker of confusion. has no need of purpose in anyone. nothing unattained to be attained. Know that God-produced action originates in imperishable God. Therefore all-pervading God eternally remains in the sacrifice. this one lives vainly. One should not cause the mental breakdown . intending to maintain the world. there is nothing for me to do in the three worlds. You also observing what the world needs should act. Partha. and I should destroy these creatures. By action Janaka and others attained perfection. yet I engage in action. Practicing action without being attached. sense-delighted. that others do also. rain comes from sacrifice. The person who is self-pleased and self-satisfied and self-content. "'As the unwise act attached to action."'Whoever enjoys these without offering gifts to them is just a thief. this one's task is not found. The good who partake of the rest of the sacrifice are released from all evils. Partha. If I should not engage in tireless action at all.

free from possession. Death in one's own duty is better. The wise.of the action-attached ignorant. Another's duty brings fear. not complaining. this is anger. "'But those who. "qualities work in qualities. fight. great-armed one. 'Then by what compulsion does a person commit harm. do not practice my doctrine. What will constraint accomplish? Like-dislike situated in sense and the object of sense. "'All actions being performed by the qualities of nature. confusing all knowledge. Voracious and greatly injurious. Creatures follow nature. But knowing the truth. Better one's own imperfect duty than another's duty well performed. one should not come under the power of these two adversaries. know them to be lost.' "Arjuna said." thus thinking one is not attached. complaining about this. being free from desire. meditating on the supreme soul. as if commanded by force?' "The blessed Lord said. "'Even the wise act according to their own nature. the ego-deluded self thinks that the "I" is the doer. thoughtless. Varshneya. The knower of the whole should not disturb fools who are ignorant of the whole. practicing union. . Those deluded by the qualities of nature are attached to qualified actions. know this to be the enemy here. People who constantly practice this doctrine of mine. of the two roles of quality and action. should encourage all actions. born of the emotional quality. "'Entrusting all actions to me. they also are liberated from actions. trusting. 'This is desire. even unwillingly. cured of fever.

are high. The senses. kill the adversary. Thus intuiting what is higher than the intuition. which is an insatiable fire. mind.As fire is obscured by smoke. Higher than the senses is the mind. Knowledge is covered by this eternal enemy of knowers. covering the embodied. "'The senses. so this is covered by it.' . and a mirror by dust. they say. in the form of desire. great-armed one. and intuition are said to be its seat. but higher than the mind is the intuition. Kaunteya. but higher than the intuition is this. as the embryo is enveloped by the amnion. the desire-form difficult to approach. Bharata bull. kill this harmful thing that destroys intelligent knowledge. sustaining the soul with the soul. Therefore you. With these it confuses knowledge. at first restraining the senses.

though being Lord of beings. this one comes to me. and yours too. foe scorcher. and Manu told it to Ikshvaku. Whoever approaches me. I know them all. Partha. This is the supreme mystery. having left the body does not go to rebirth. Passion. . For the protection of the good and for the destruction of the evil-doers. earlier the birth of Vivasvat. you do not know. Vivasvat communicated it to Manu. the royal sages knew this. foe scorcher. then I give forth my soul. People everywhere follow my path. and anger gone. Arjuna. "'Wanting successful actions. I love them. fear. Thus received by royal succession. Bharata. "'Whoever truly knows my divine birth and action. controlling my own nature. relying on me. and an uprising of injustice. 'This imperishable yoga I declared to Vivasvat. since you are my devoted friend. How should I understand that you declared this so in the beginning?' "The blessed Lord said. I come into being by the magic of my soul. absorbed in me. Arjuna. they worship gods here. "'Whenever a decrease of justice occurs. for the purpose of establishing justice I am born from age to age. 'Later was your birth. 'Many of my births have passed away. The Yoga of Wisdom "The blessed Lord said. many purified by disciplined knowledge have attained my existence. Though being a birthless imperishable soul.' "Arjuna said. In the long time here this yoga was lost. This same ancient yoga is declared by me to you today.4.

Therefore you do actions as they were done earlier by the ancients. performing action with the body alone. I shall explain to you this action. God is the offering. God is attained by one who contemplates the action of God. Whoever perceives inaction in action and action in inaction is enlightened among people.Quickly in the human world successful action comes. "'Having abandoned attachment to the fruit of action. Although I did this. Content with spontaneous gain. transcending duality. Hoping for nothing with soul-controlled consciousness. . Being enlightened about action and also wrong action. The one whose every undertaking is without desirous intention has consumed actions in the fire of knowledge. God is the gift poured out into the fire of God by God. "'With attachment gone. liberated. others offer sacrifice in the fire of God by sacrifice. independent even while engaging in action. "'Some yogis practice sacrifice to the divine. one does not do anything. this one the enlightened call learned. indifferent to success and failure. this one does all action united. action done by the ancients was also for the seeking of liberation. Four castes were brought forth by me according to the distribution of the action qualities. free from envy. thought established in knowledge. always satisfied. not desiring their fruit. which knowing you will be liberated from evil. abandoning every possession. even when acting one is not bound. Actions do not affect me. Thus knowing. the way of action is profound. and being enlightened about inaction. one incurs no guilt. "'What is action? What is inaction? Even the poets were confused about this. action undertaken as a sacrifice is completely dissolved. know me as the imperishable non-doer. Thus whoever understands me is not bound by actions.

gaining knowledge.Some offer hearing and other senses in the fires of restraint. The self perfected in union in time finds that in the soul. knowing this you shall be released. inquiry. "'Better than the sacrifice of material possessions is the knowledge sacrifice. the fire of knowledge burns all actions to ashes also. without exception. how then the other. controlling the senses. restraining the breathing paths intent on controlling the breath. knowers who perceive the truth will teach you knowledge. No purifier equal to knowledge is found in the world. Others regulating food offer inhalations into inhalations. is completely comprehended in knowledge. Those eating the sacred food left from the sacrifice go to God eternal. "'Not even this world is for those not sacrificing. by the boat of knowledge you shall cross over all wickedness. . Material sacrifices. which knowing you shall not fall again into delusion. Arjuna. Know this: by respect. Others offer all sense actions and all breath actions in the yoga fire of self-restraint kindled by knowledge. "'Some offer inhalation into exhalation. "'The trusting gains that knowledge which is supreme. others offer sound and other sense objects in the fires of the senses. discipline sacrifices. then in me. by this you shall see every being in the soul. yoga sacrifices are thus some. "'Even if you are the most evil of all the evil-doers. foe scorcher. one attains supreme peace without delay. best of Kurus? Thus sacrifices of many kinds are spread out in the mouth of God. service. also exhalation into inhalation. Partha. All these knowing sacrifice by sacrifice destroy wrongs. self-study of knowledge sacrifices and ascetics are of sharpened vows. Know them all to come from action. son of Pandu. As wood kindled by fire is burned to ashes. All action.

knowledge severing doubt. establish union and rise. no actions bind.' . Bharata. "'Union renouncing action. wealth winner.The ignorant and untrusting and self-doubting are lost. Neither this world nor that beyond nor happiness is for the self-doubting. Therefore severing ignorance-produced doubt in the heart with the knowledge sword of the soul. soul composed.

is easily released from bondage." thinks the united truth knower. mind. touching. . With the body. releasing. like a lotus leaf by water. abandoning the fruit of action. and even the senses alone.5. Whoever practices even one correctly finds the fruit of both. is difficult to attain without union. is not affected by evil. 'Krishna.' "The blessed Lord said. intuition. controlling senses. smelling. breathing. even while acting is not affected. maintain the foolish. the embodied sits happily. abandoning attachment. United. holding. "I am doing nothing at all. attached to the fruit. "'Renouncing all actions with the mind. "'Whoever acts putting actions in God. sees. the soul being the soul of all beings. eating. talking. "'United in yoga the purified soul self-controlled. seeing. Which one of these two is better? Tell me this definitely. action yoga surpasses renunciation of action. sleeping. you praise renunciation of actions and also yoga. Sankhya and yoga are separate. Whoever sees Sankhya and yoga as one. great-armed one. Whoever is indifferent to dualities. abandoning attachment. great-armed one. walking. But renunciation. but of the two. for self-purification. one is bound. The wise united in yoga quickly attain God. one attains complete peace. That state attained by the Sankhyas is also reached by the yogis. 'Both renunciation and action yoga lead to the best. Disunited by desirous action. yogis perform action. believing that the senses operate in the sense objects. master in the city of nine gates. hearing. opening eyes and closing eyes. not the wise. The Yoga of Renunciation "Arjuna said.

a dog. The omnipresent does not take anyone's evil or goodness. . This soul united to God by yoga enjoys imperishable happiness. established in that. "'Knowledge being concealed by ignorance. devoted to that. knowledge shaking off wrongs. thoughts restrained. oneness with God. Whoever has inner happiness. The Lord creates neither agency nor actions of the world nor the union of action with fruit. this yogi attains the nirvana of God. Seers attain the nirvana of God. self-controlled.neither acting nor causing action. "'The wise look equally on a brahman endowed with cultivated learning. The enlightened one is not content in them. Those intuiting that. and thus inner light. Firm intuition unconfused knowing God is established in God. this is a happy person. The soul unattached to external contacts finds happiness in the soul. the ascetics' nirvana of God lies near. "'One should not rejoice obtaining the pleasant nor be sad obtaining the unpleasant. souls known. go not again to rebirth. Kaunteya. But those whose ignorance is destroyed by knowledge of soul. Here birth is conquered by those whose mind is established in equanimity. therefore they are established in God. people are deluded by this. inner joy. on a cow. an elephant. like the sun. their knowledge illuminates this supreme. dualities dissolved. having a beginning and an end. "'Whoever is able to endure here before release from the body the agitation originating from desire and anger is united. Guiltless and impartial is God. Delights born of contact are wombs of pain. sins wiped out. Rid of desire and anger. but nature proceeds. thinking that. or an outcaste. rejoicing in the welfare of all beings.

moving within the nose. fear. great Lord of all the world. the sage seeking ultimate liberation. making inhalation and exhalation equal. rid of desire. friend of all beings. Knowing me. and intuition. with controlled senses."'Making external contacts excluded and the gaze in between the two eyebrows. the enjoyer of sacrifice disciplines. and anger is forever liberated. one reaches peace. mind.' .

united thus. pleasure. without possessing. no one becomes a yogi. one should not lower the soul. impartial intuition is distinguished. situated in solitude. and kusha grass. also the good and evil. "'It is said that action is the method of the sage wishing to ascend to union. there making the mind single. allies. consciousness and sense activity controlled.6. 'Not depending on the fruit of action to be done whoever performs action is the renouncer and yogi. The self is a friend of the soul whose self is mastered by the soul. foes. not the one without the fire and without action. neutral toward enemies and friends. the peaceful. Without renouncing motive. the self is the enemy of the soul. Detached from companions. neither too high nor too low. renouncing all motivation. . When he is not attached to sense objects nor to actions. to whom a clod. it is said that serenity is the method of the one who has ascended to union. as well as in honor or dishonor. The self is the friend of the soul. but the self of the non-soul might become hostile like an enemy. The Yoga of Meditation "The blessed Lord said. then he is said to have ascended to union. antelope skin. a stone. son of Pandu. In a clear place establishing the firm seat of the soul. having mastered sense. Content in the wisdom of self-knowledge. heat. one self-controlled consciousness without wanting. immutable. or pain. "'The yogi should unite constantly with the soul. and gold are the same. "'One should uplift the self by the soul. one is said to be a yogi. Thus what they call renunciation know this to be yoga. covered with cloth. is steadfast in cold. "'The highest self of the self-mastered.

united. disciplined in the actions of behavior. free from the longing of all desire. and established there does not deviate from that truth. . Whenever the unsteady moving mind wanders here and there.sitting on the seat one should practice union for self-purification. which is intuitively perceived beyond the senses. One should not think of anything at all. supreme nirvana. and which having gained. One knows this perpetual happiness. disciplined in sleep and waking. concentrating the eyes on the tip of the nose. conscious of me. Let it be known that this dissolution of union with sorrow is called yoga. and where by the soul seeing the soul in the soul one is content. "'Yoga is neither eating too much nor not eating at all. Where consciousness rests curbed by the practice of yoga. Abandoning without exception all desires born of motivation. and not looking around. and neck steady. founded with me. mastering this. one should gradually with firm intuitive perception quiet the mind. the self calmed. the analogy is remembered of the yogi of conscious control united in the yoga of the soul. one should sit devoted to me. head. fear banished. and neither the habit of sleeping too much nor that of keeping awake. one thinks no other gain better than this in which is established one who is not disturbed even by heavy sorrow. yoga becomes the ending of sorrow. one should direct the will in the soul. As a lamp in a windless state does not flicker. "'When conscious control is established in the soul. controlling the mind. staying in chastity. completely mastering the senses with the mind. Keeping even the unmoving body. "'This yoga is to be practiced with determination without discouraged thought. then one is said to be thus united. the soul making it stand still. Thus always united with the soul. the yogi of disciplined mind attains peace. Food and recreation disciplined. Arjuna.

Whoever sees by soul analogy everywhere the same. slayer of Madhu. great-armed one. no one doing good goes to misfortune. Krishna. impetuous. strong. moving in any way also this yogi lives in me. I think holding it back.' "Arjuna said. neither here nor above is found the ruin of this. Arjuna. everywhere the same revelation. the mind straying from union. the restless mind is hard to control. Kaunteya. sinless. endowed with faith. I am not lost to this one. and by detachment it is controlled. dear son. not attaining perfect union. and this one is not lost to me. "'The soul united in yoga observes the soul in all beings and all beings in the soul. union is hard to achieve. is difficult. Reaching the worlds of the good doers. Krishna? Failing both is one not lost like a disappearing cloud. Unstable is the mind. like the wind. Whoever sees me everywhere and sees everything in me. 'Without doubt. Thus always uniting the soul. but by practice. but by self-controlled effort one is able to reach it by this means. 'The uncontrolled one.' "The blessed Lord said. confused on the path of God? Krishna.Supreme happiness comes to this peaceful mind of the yogi. great-armed one. Whoever is established in oneness honors me in all beings. thus is my opinion. whether happiness or sorrow. God-realized. . unsupported.' "Arjuna said. rigid. other than you there exists no solver of this doubt. Undisciplined by the self. this one is thought a supreme yogi. emotion pacified. 'Partha. the yogi freed from evil easily reaches the endless happiness of God-contact. staying endless years in the house of the radiant glorious the one fallen from union is born again. 'This yoga which is explained by you with equanimity. walks what road.' "The blessed Lord said. you can resolve entirely this doubt of mine. I do not see standing steady because of instability.

and one strives from there again toward perfection. Kuru joy. There this same intuitive union one receives from a previous embodiment. who loves me. "'The yogi is superior to the ascetics.' . is also thought to be superior to the knowledgeable. perfected through many births. be a yogi.Or one may be born in a family of wise yogis. wishing to know also of union one transcends divine sound. But through persevering mental control the yogi cleansed of guilt. Of all these yogis. and the yogi is superior to the active. the one going to me with inner soul full of faith. then goes to the supreme goal. such a birth is difficult to obtain in this world. Arjuna. this one is thought by me to be most united. By this previous practice one is irresistibly carried on. Therefore.

Understand this to be the womb of all beings. On me all this is strung like pearls on a thread. which having understood nothing more remains here to be known. "'I am the flavor in the waters. There is nothing whatever higher than me. by which this universe is sustained. but they are in me. mind. and ego. practicing union relying on me. the life in all beings. without doubt how you shall know me completely: hear that. intuition. thus is this divided nature of mine eightfold.7. the virility in men. hardly anyone knows me truly. and the pure fragrance on the earth. "'And the good states. "'Earth. I am the intuition of the intelligent. Bharata bull. the sound in the air. fire. waters. the sacred word in all the Vedas. I am the desire in beings that is not contrary to duty. Partha. and I am the brilliance in flame. Partha. wealth winner. Of thousands of people hardly anyone strives for perfection. even of the perfected. 'The mind absorbed in me. freed from desire and passion. I am the origin of the entire universe. know them thus: I am not in them. And I am the strength of the strong. Kaunteya. "'Know me as the primeval seed of all beings. I am the radiance of the moon and sun. of those striving. the brilliance of the brilliant am I. the active and the slow which come from me. The Yoga of Wise Understanding "The blessed Lord said. great-armed one. and I am the austerity in ascetics. but know my other highest nature. Because of these states formed by the three qualities all this deluded universe does not recognize me . space. This here is the lower. the life-being. I shall tell you without omission this knowledge with discrimination. wind. also its dissolution.

they liberated from duality delusion are devoted to me with firm vows. "'Those unenlightened think of me. constrained by their own nature. but the wise is considered my soul. as fallen into manifestation. Bharata bull. on that one I bestow this unswerving faith. is the best. Of them the wise. Vasudeva is thus all to this great soul who is hard to find. do not attain me. this deluded world does not recognize me. but no one knows me. eternal and supreme. Staying in this soul union with me is the supreme goal. eternally united. all beings fall into confusion at birth. Bharata. scorcher of foes. taking refuge in me. the unmanifest. and the wise. their knowledge robbed by illusion. devoted to the One. those wanting knowledge. unborn and eternal. divine Lord . "'Four kinds of benevolent people worship me. I know the past and present and future beings. I am not visible to all. practicing various disciplines. whose actions are pure. Arjuna. Arjuna: the suffering. Deluded evil doers. "'But of those in whom evil has come to an end. and this one is fond of me. and action without exception. All these are noble. enveloped in yoga illusion. unaware of my highest being. they attain me who transcend this illusion. Those who strive for release from old age and death. the oversoul. Whoever wants to worship with faith any form one is devoted to. But this fault of the short-sighted is temporary. and receives from there the desires ordained by me. United by this faith one is eager for this propitiation. the lowest people. They who know me as Lord of being. know this God higher than these and eternal. attached to demonic existence. Those whose knowledge is taken away by various desires attain other gods. those wanting success. I am extremely fond of the wise. "'At the end of many births the wise attains me. "'Divine indeed is this quality-produced illusion that is difficult to penetrate. By the duality delusion arising from like-dislike.

know me with united consciousness. and also at the time of death.' .as well as Lord of sacrifice.

best person? And what is Lord of being declared to be? What is divine Lord said to be? How and who is the Lord of sacrifice here in this body. one goes to that. which the ascetics free of passion enter. which wanting they follow the way to chastity. . 'What is this God? What is this oversoul? What is action. Whoever meditates on the ancient poet. at the time of death with unmoving mind. Kaunteya. unimaginable form. always becoming that essence. the color of the sun beyond darkness. which the knowers of the Vedas call imperishable. releasing the body. and the divine realm is Spirit. And at the last hour whoever dies remembering me. you will surely come to me. causing the breath to enter correctly between the eyebrows. action is known as creative power. "'Controlling all doors and shutting up the mind in the heart. smaller than an atom. Therefore at all times remember me and fight. one goes to supreme divine Spirit. I am Lord of sacrifice here in the body. The intuitive mind fixed on me. "'Practicing yoga by uniting. meditating. Moreover whatever essence is remembered at the end when one abandons the body. There is no doubt about this. with devotion and united with the strength of yoga. the ruler. slayer of Madhu? And how at the time of death are you known by the self-controlled?' "The blessed Lord said. best embodied one. Partha.8. by consciousness. 'Imperishable God is supreme. The Yoga of Imperishable God "Arjuna said. The realm of being is the perishable essence. which originates the essence of being. by not going toward anything else. the oversoul is said to be its own essence. this path I shall explain to you briefly. goes to my essence. supporter of all. one approaches this supreme divine Spirit.

a night ending a thousand ages. rebirth is not found. Having undivided consciousness perpetually. the yogi returns. Partha. which attaining they do not return. but approaching me. worlds are successive rebirths. six months of spring and summer: dying then the God-knowers go to God. Kaunteya. Up to the God realm. waxing moon. the one syllable. existing. it comes into existence at daybreak. is dissolved at nightfall without will. Bharata bull. Smoke. remembering me. whoever dies. six months of autumn and winter: there attaining moonlight. "'But where in time dying yogis go to non-return and return. Fire. by the other one returns again. "'As extending a thousand ages they know a day of God. Coming to me. the impermanent home of suffering. These two light and dark paths are thought to be eternal for the universe. Arjuna. at nightfall they are dissolved there into what is known as unmanifest. day. Thus the eternal unmanifest is called the supreme goal. of this time I shall speak. those knowing day and night. goes to the supreme goal. for this one I am easy to reach.placing in the head the breath of the soul. established in yoga concentration. is to be attained by undivided devotion. This is my supreme abode. thus the waning moon. Partha. God. This supreme Spirit. abandoning the body. night. Knowing these two paths. . chanting thus AUM. the yogi is not confused at all. within which beings exist. "'But higher than this unmanifest is another ancient unmanifest essence which in the perishing of all beings does not perish. Partha. by which all this universe is pervaded. whoever remembers me always. By one one goes to non-return. This multitude of beings becoming. Partha. light. From the unmanifest all manifestations originate at daybreak. the great souls gone to supreme perfection do not incur rebirth. for the yogi who is always united.

Arjuna.' . in austerities. The meritorious fruit which is ordained in the Vedas."'Therefore at all times be united in yoga. the yogi transcends this. knowing all this he attains the supreme state and realm. and in charity. in sacrifices.

by this cause. "'But great souls resorting to me. The Yoga of Royal Knowledge and Mystery "The blessed Lord said. Kaunteya. knowing which you will be liberated from evil. the assumed human form. As the great omnipresent wind is eternally staying in space. And beings are not situated in me. at the beginning of an era I send them forth again. vain thoughtless knowledge resort to fiendish and demonic deluded nature. "'By my unmanifest form this whole universe is pervaded. imperishable. Ruling knowledge. "'The deluded despise me. directly intelligible. go to my nature at the end of an era. a ruling secret is this highest purifier. the uncomplaining: knowledge combined with wisdom. the universe revolves. they worship ever united. sitting indifferently unattached to these actions. Look at my majestic yoga.9. Persons without faith in this doctrine. scorcher of foes. "'And by the knowledge sacrifice also . And these actions do not bind me. my soul becoming beings. With me as supervisor nature produces the animate and inanimate. Kaunteya. sustaining beings and not staying in beings. Always glorifying me and striving with firm resolve and honoring me with devotion. Embracing my own nature I send forth again and again this whole powerless multitude of beings by the power of nature. not attaining me are born again into the path of death and reincarnation. All beings are situated in me. correct. "'All beings. Consider this. not knowing my higher essence. so all beings stay in me. and not I situated in them. the divine nature. 'Now I shall explain the greatest secret to you. wealth winner. Vain hopes. their undivided minds are devoted to knowing the imperishable source of being. easy to practice. vain actions. the great Lord of beings.

refuge. grandfather. I am the oblation. the Rig. purifier. Sama. To the spirits go those sacrificing to the spirits. and truth and untruth am I. immortality and death. Thus you will be released from good and evil fruits. mother. For I am the enjoyer and Lord of all sacrifices. enjoy the heavenly divine pleasures in heaven. worshipping me with sacrifices seek the way to heaven. in exhausted merit enter the mortal world. Lord. what is to be known. those sacrificing to me go also to me. outside the rules. attaining the pure world of the gods. Thus following the triple duty desiring desires they obtain the going and coming. you shall come to me. I lead their constant uniting to security. state. treasury. the goal. friend. . "'Whoever offers to me with devotion a leaf. flower. liberated. sustainer. I am clarified butter. witness. seed eternal. "'I am the father of this universe. I am fire. enjoying this vast heaven world. Arjuna. offering am I. I radiate heat. diversely. Whatever you do. but they do not recognize me in truth. Kaunteya. Those devoted to the gods go to the gods.others sacrificing worship me. whatever you give. sacred AUM. Kaunteya. They. therefore they fall. whatever austerity you practice. whatever you offer. I withhold and send forth rain. by oneness. I am the ritual. supporter. that devotion offered from a pure soul I accept. by multiplicity. water. They. to the ancestors go those devoted to the ancestors. dissolution. do it as an offering to me. I am the sacrifice. The people of undivided contemplation who worship me. the mantra am I. whatever you eat. and Yajur Vedas. soma drinkers cleansed of evil. the origin. "'Knowers of the three Vedas. fruit. omnisciently. I am the medicinal herb. "'Even those devoted to other gods who sacrifice accompanied by faith they also sacrifice to me. from the bonds of action. the soul united in the yoga of renunciation. home.

Relying on me. But whoever loves me with devotion. With the mind on me. even servants. and I am also in them. for this one is correctly resolved. this one is to be considered good. be aware."'I am the same in all beings. love me. "'Kaunteya. there is none disliked or favored by me. thus uniting the soul with me as the supreme aim you will come to me. Partha. merchants. Even if an evil doer loves me with undivided devotion. No devotee of mine is lost. devoted ruling seers! Having obtained this impermanent unhappy world. be devoted to me. they also reach the supreme goal. they are in me. sacrificing to me. Quickly the soul becomes right. honor me. How much more then holy teachers. even if they should be women of evil wombs. it enters perpetual peace.' .

truth. you tell me. purifier supreme. I think all this is right which you say to me. happiness. control. destroy the darkness born of ignorance with the illuminating lamp of knowledge. Whoever knows me. they are content and pleased. Asita Devala. the manifold essences of being come to be from me alone. the beloved. enlightening each other and always speaking of me. equanimity. Out of compassion for them. are my mental essences. thus all seers call you. the divine seer Narada. sorrow. and fear and fearlessness. 'Again.' "Arjuna said. . "'Whoever knows in truth this manifest power and my union. non-delusion. omnipresent. the four Manus also. I give this intuitive union by which they come to me. supreme domain.10. from me everything proceeds. unborn. I am the origin of everything. patience. To those worshippers constantly united affectionately. by unwavering yoga is united. which I shall tell to you. being. 'Supreme God. austerity. primal God. The seven great seers of old. Keshava. the wise honor me endowed with essence. charity. knowledge. unborn and without beginning. of this there is no doubt. whose creatures are born in the world. for I am the source of the divine ones and the great seers in every way. Lord. and yourself. great armed one. fame. eternal divine Spirit. nonviolence. hear my supreme word. disrepute. Neither the many gods nor the great seers know my origin. contentment. Thinking thus. their vitality focused on me. non-being. impartiality. "'Intuition. Vyasa. with desire for your welfare. the great Lord of the world. The Yoga of Manifestation "The blessed Lord said. I staying in the soul essence. Those conscious of me. this one undeluded among mortals is released from all evils.

I am the mind. I am Vishnu. blessed one? Explain further in detail the union and manifestation of the soul. of the lakes. I am the consciousness. of the gods. ruler of the universe. I am Vasava. best of Kurus. Gudakesha. God of gods. Narada. And of the Rudras. Lord of beings.for neither the gods nor the demons know your manifestation. the Himalaya. I am Shankara. You can tell completely the divine soul manifestations by which manifestation you stay pervading these worlds. of beings. of immovable things. the sage Kapila. Of the Adityas. for I shall explain to you the main soul manifestations. for to me there is no satiation of hearing immortality. highest Spirit. I am Marici of the Maruts. I am the Sama Veda. yogi. I am the ocean. there is no end to my expansion. I am the moon. the sacred fig tree of all trees and of the divine seers. of the mighty ones. You know the soul by your soul alone. of the lights. I am the one syllable. and of the Vasus. and of the senses. staying in the heart of all beings. Brihaspati. Chitraratha. Of the Vedas. 'Listen. essence of being. the radiant sun. . of the army commanders. Janardana. And of the household priests. Partha. Of the great seers.' "The blessed Lord said. "'I am the soul. and I am the beginning and the middle and the end of beings. Vittesha of the Yakshas and Rakshasas. of sacrifices. I am the prayer. of the Gandharvas. know me to be the chief. always meditating? And in what various essences are you conceived by me. of the perfected. "'How may I know you. I am fire. blessed one. of words. I am Meru of the mountains. I am Bhrigu. I am Skanda.

I am determination. I am Varuna of the water creatures. I am the clout of the rulers. Of the Vishnis. also the Brihat Saman of the chants. the spring. know me to be born of nectar. I am the beginning and the end and also the middle. I am imperishable time. I am the thunderbolt. I am also Vyasa. I am Vasudeva. . Airavata of the lordly elephants. wealth winner. and I am the generating desire god. and I am all-destroying death and the origin of things that come to be. of months. of seasons. intelligence. and I am Ananta of the cobras.Uchchaihshravas of the horses. and of the beasts I am king of beasts. I am the cow of plenty. Of letters. I am victory. of the sons of Pandu. "'Of creations. of the poets. I am Sagittarius. oversoul science of the sciences. I am the wind of the purifiers. and I am also the silence of secrets. Of weapons. I am the splendor of the splendid ones. the poet Ushanas. I am Makara. of the sages. patience. and I am Vainateya of the birds. and of sea monsters. I am Yama of the governors. I am the daughter of Jahnu. the Lord of people. I am Rama of the warriors. memory. I am the establisher facing all directions. and I am Prahlada of the Daityas. and of the ancestors. prosperity. of rivers. I am gambling of the cheats. of cows. and of people. Fame. of snakes. and speech of the feminine words. I am the dialectic of those who debate. courage. I am the gayatri of the meters. I am Aryaman. I am the guidance of those seeking victory. I am Vasuki. I am the goodness of the good ones. I am time of the calculators. Arjuna. I am the letter A and the dual of the compounds.

And that which is the seed of all beings. animate or inanimate. what is this extensive knowledge to you. Arjuna. that could exist without me. Arjuna? I support this whole stable universe with one fraction.' . However. I am that. there is no being. you understand that that originates from a fraction of my splendor. glorious and powerful.I am the knowledge of those that know. but this extent of the manifestation declared by me is illustrative. "'Whatever manifest goodness. foe scorcher. There is no end to my divine manifestations.

divine one. bowing with the head to the god reverently. the Maruts. the son of Pandu then was seeing in the body of the god of gods. omniscient.'" Sanjaya said. the Vasus. look at my majestic union. and whatever else you wish to see. . divine perfumed ointment.11. many faces. divided in many ways. look at many wonders previously unseen. Look at the Adityas. is the soul. But you are not able to see me with your own eye. for the origin and dissolution of beings have been heard in detail by me from you. By this my delusion has departed. 'As a favor to me. the Rudras. Lord. Gudakesha. There standing as one the whole universe. "Saying this then. such brightness as this would be like the brilliance of this great soul. diverse. 'Look. Bharata. Vision of the Universal Form "Arjuna said. as you say. Then the amazed wealth winner. the great yoga Lord. the divine. many divine ornaments.' "The blessed Lord said. at my hundreds of forms. the word has been spoken by you which is the supreme secret known as the oversoul. So this. then. revealed to Partha the supreme majestic form. spoke. highest Spirit. If you think that it is possible for me to see this. of various colors and shapes. Hari. the two Asvins. or thousands. wearing divine garlands and garments. and also imperishable greatness. supreme Lord. his hair standing on end. lotus-petal-eyed. "Arjuna said. I give you a divine eye. divine. yoga Lord. reveal to me your imperishable soul. Look at the whole universe standing as one here now everything animate and inanimate in my body. infinite. I wish to see your lordly form. made of all marvels. many raised divine weapons. also. If there should be in the sky a thousand suns risen at once. many marvelous aspects. king. 'I see divinities in your body. Partha.

infinite form. Vishnu. a blazing many-colored open mouth. many terrible teeth. . Seeing your great form of many faces. The Rudras. Yakshas. With crown. great soul. and so am I. not the end nor the middle nor yet the beginning of you do I see. eyes of moon and sun. you are the immortal protector of eternal justice. you are the ancient Spirit of my thought. and disk. "Hail!" the companies of perfected great seers praise you with resounding hymns. mace. my inner self trembling I find no courage nor calm. I see you. many arms. divine Lord. Vishvas. eyes. thighs. innumerable arms. infinite power. the worlds are trembling. along with the ruling companies. "'Have mercy. bellies. Drona. cosmic Lord. "'Seeing this marvelous mighty form of yours the three worlds trembled. And seeing your mouths of terrible teeth like the fires of destructive time. many arms. many bellies.also all kinds of beings assembled. Suta's son. the two Asvins. "'For seeing you touching the sky. Thus saying. Without beginning. the companies of Gandharvas. cosmic form. Asuras. middle. though it is hard to look completely at the blazing fire of shining sun immeasurable. great armed one. "'You are the supreme imperishable to be known. for here between heaven and earth is pervaded by you alone and all directions. some terrified they praise reverently. you are the supreme haven of all. Vasus. a face of blazing fire burning all this universe with its brilliance. feet. the Lord God on the lotus seat and all seers and divine serpents. Adityas. for yonder companies of gods enter you. or end. a massive radiance shining everywhere I see you. Bhishma. and the Sadhyas. I do not know directions. fiery enormous eyes. universal home! And yonder to you all the sons of Dhritarashtra. faces. I see you everywhere. the Maruts. Siddhas see you and are all amazed. and I do not find refuge. and Ushmapas.

some are seen clinging in between teeth with crushed heads. filling all the universe with splendor. left-handed one. "'Tell me who you are. 'I am time. enjoy prosperous kingship. Vishnu. nonbeing. supreme heaven of this universe. and companies of perfected ones will give homage. Drona and Bhishma and Jayadratha and Karna as also other warrior heroes killed by me. the infinite divine Lord. bowing low. being. . spoke to Krishna falteringly. You lick swallowing from every side all the worlds with flaming mouths. the crowned one. your fierce radiance consumes it. you. enter speedily your faces of fearful terrible teeth. I do not comprehend your work. which is beyond that. the imperishable. And why should they not give homage to you. fight! You will conquer the adversaries in battle. great soul? to the original creator.' "The blessed Lord said. powerful destroyer of worlds working here to annihilate worlds. a greater teacher even than God. Do not hesitate. Be the mere instrument. trembling reverently. universal home. You are the ancient primal divine Spirit. the primal one. obtain glory! Conquering the enemies. Frightened demons flee in all directions.'" Sanjaya said. the universe rejoices and is delighted by your fame. slay. By me these have already been struck down. Honor be to you. so those heroes of the human world enter your flaming faces. so too worlds accelerating to destruction enter your faces. Even without you. As the many rushing waters of rivers flow toward the sea. frightened. "Arjuna said. "Hearing this speech of Keshava. most divine one! Have mercy! I wish to understand you.thus there together with our chief warriors also. 'Properly. Therefore stand up. Hrishikesha. As moths accelerating to destruction enter a blazing flame. all the warriors who are deployed in the opposing armies will not exist. bowing again. you are the knower to be known and the supreme state. the terrible form.

as a father of a son. the all. Yama. impetuously thus a friend who said. moreover hail to you from behind! May it be to you on all sides. infinite form. Kuru hero. Varuna. a lover to a lover. boundless one. "'Thinking. while in bed. incomparable power? "'Therefore bowing. I ask your mercy. universal home! I wish to see you with crown. There is nothing like you. you fulfill all. You are Vayu. may it be a thousand times! Further and also again hail." out of ignorance of your greatness this was said by me from negligence or even with affection. You should not tremble nor be confused. "Oh Krishna. . you are able to be patient.The universe is pervaded by you. alone. become the four-armed form. divine Lord. boundless strength. hail to you. dining. seated. prostrating the body. of the animate and inanimate. made of universal. "'Hail. and as if for a jest you are not respected at play. honored Lord. 'By my grace to you. original brilliance of mine which no one other than you has seen before. and disk. this supreme form is revealed from soul union. Arjuna. as a friend of a friend. I am excited seeing what was unseen before. mace. "'You are father of the world. or even before others. oh Yadava. the Lord of creatures. I ask your pardon for this. Lord. unshaken one. hail to you! Hail from in front. Not by Vedic sacrifice study nor by gifts and not by ritual acts nor by severe austerities can I be seen in such a form in the human world except by you. and you are its revered and venerable teacher. Infinite valor. oh friend. have mercy. Lord. "'Reveal to me that form.' "The blessed Lord said. how then any even greater in the three worlds. and my mind trembled with fear. Agni. and the great grandfather. the moon. infinite. thousand-armed one of all forms. therefore you are all.

and not by ritual can I be seen in such a way as you have seen me.seeing this so awful form of mine. becoming again the gentle. your mind is cheerful again. comes to me. attachment let go. not by discipline.' "The blessed Lord said. gentle Janardana. Not by the Vedas. "Saying this to Arjuna. seen. handsome great soul. free from hostility to any being. loving me. but by unswerving love I can in such a way. and truly reached. Whoever does my work. now I am composed with thoughts returned to normal. fear gone away. "Arjuna said. foe scorcher. Vasudeva thus revealed his own form once more and consoled this frightened one.' . even gods are always wishing for the revelation of this form. 'Seeing this human form of yours. son of Pandu.'" Sanjaya said. Arjuna. 'Hard to see is this form which you have seen. look at this form of mine. intent on me. be known. not by charity.

"'But those renouncing in me all actions. If you are not able to keep consciousness steadily on me. then no doubt you will live in me hereafter. for the goal of the unmanifest is reached with difficulty by the embodied. whose consciousness has entered into me. from renunciation peace follows. they are thought to be most united with me. then resorting to my union. free of "mine. let the intuition enter into me. controlling the senses. the same intuition everywhere. constant. those who worship me eternally united. "'Keep the mind on me. . ineffable. "'A non-hater of all beings. immovable. you will attain perfection. intent on me with undistracted union. renouncing all the fruits of action. unchanging. become intent on my work." free of ego. which has the best knowledge of union?' "The blessed Lord said. then by yoga practice seek to attain me. 'The mind focused on me. Partha. The Yoga of Devotion "Arjuna said. renunciation of the fruit of action is better than meditation. 'Of the constantly united who worship you with love and those with the imperishable unmanifest. If you are unable even in practice. friendly and compassionate.12. "'But those who worship the imperishable. who meditating worship me. The exertion is great for those whose consciousness is set on the unmanifest. meditation is superior to knowledge. unmanifest. If you are even unable to do this. they attain me. I soon become their deliverer from the ocean of the death cycle. wealth winner. endowed with supreme faith. omnipresent and inconceivable. act self-restrained. For knowledge is better than practice. doing actions for my sake also. rejoicing in the welfare of all beings.

renouncing good and bad. the person full of love is my beloved. freed from attachment. this one is my beloved. who is devoted to me. steady-minded. who is full of love. self-restrained. satisfied with anything whatever. intent on me. patient. pure. this one is my beloved. and fear. Those who worship this immortal justice previously spoken endowed with faith. the same in cold.indifferent to pain and pleasure. "'The same toward enemy and friend and thus in honor and disgrace. heat. pain. untroubled. this one also is my beloved. capable. this one is my beloved. homeless. the yogi who is always satisfied. who renouncing all undertakings is devoted to me. they transcendentally are my beloved. anger. "'Whoever does not rejoice nor hate nor grieve nor crave. quiet. firmly resolved with mind and intuition focused on me.' . alike in blame or praise. who is liberated from the anxieties of joy. "'Whomever the world does not trouble and who does not trouble the world. pleasure. devoted. detached. "'Whoever is impartial.

desire. consciousness. death. is called the field. non-deceit. 'Nature and Spirit. this beginningless supreme God is said to be neither being nor non-being. which is thought by me to be true knowledge. "'Non-pride. knowledge of the field and the field knower. and unswerving love to me by exclusive union. old age. 'This body. Distinguishing the Field and the Knower "Arjuna said. non-attachment. non-clinging to son.13. ego. observing the purpose of true knowledge: this knowledge is explained thus. and non-ego. . Everywhere having hands and feet. this I wish to know: knowledge and what is known. "'What is to be known that I shall explain. disease. nonviolence. Bharata. pleasure. "'What that field is and of what kind and of what modifications and from where and who this one is and what its power is. the senses ten and one. Keshava. knowing which. ignorance is what is contrary to this. one attains immortality. Kaunteya. integrity. patience. with undeniable reasons. wife. aversion. honesty. self-control. home. the field and the knower of the field. insight into the pain and evil of birth. pain. resorting to a secluded place. combination. intuition. service of the teacher. firmness. the great elements. And also know me as the field knower in all fields. this in brief is the field described with modifications. and constant equanimity in wanted and unwanted events. the knowers of that declare the knower of the field. in the objects of sense detached. hear that briefly from me. dissatisfied in a crowd. constant oversoul knowledge. et cetera. and the unmanifest. this one who knows it. and the five objects of the senses. stability.' "The blessed Lord said. Chanted many times by the seers in various sacred hymns and distinctly in God's scriptures.

the doing. know that. nature is said to be the cause. Thus the field and the knowledge to be known are described. unattached and yet all supporting. freed from all senses. . this one is not born again. also far away and nearby is this. and the instrument. stable or moving. "'My devotee. faces. also supporting beings this is to be known. others by Sankhya yoga. "'Some perceive the soul through meditation by the soul in the soul. the great Lord and the supreme soul. both also beginningless. this stands all pervading. Concerning the doer. "'The supreme Spirit in this body is also said to be the observer. supporter. understanding this. not knowing this. and know the modifications and qualities coming from nature. "'Outside and inside of beings inanimate and animate. Since any being. Attachment to the qualities is the instrument of its birth in good and evil wombs. free of the qualities and enjoyer of the qualities. and they also transcend death following the scripture. even in any stage of existence. Know nature and Spirit. is born from the union of the field and the field knower. Bharata bull. approaches my essence. This is even the light of lights. allower. heads. for Spirit situated in nature experiences the qualities born of nature. the goal of knowledge situated in the heart of all. because of its subtlety this is unknown. everywhere in the world ears. Whoever thus knows Spirit and nature together with the qualities. Spirit is said to be the cause in the experiencing of pleasure and pain. the appearance of all sense qualities. experiencer. Also undivided and as if staying divided in beings. the devourer and the creator. yet others. and others by action yoga. worship hearing it from others.everywhere eyes. said to be beyond darkness--the knowledge to be known.

then one attains God. not perishing in their perishings.' . "'And whoever perceives actions completely performed by nature. Kaunteya. for perceiving the same Lord established everywhere. it does not act nor is it stained. Those who know by the eye of knowledge this distinction between the field and the field knower and the liberation of being from nature go to the supreme. "'Because this imperishable supreme soul dwelling in the body is beginningless and free of qualities also. As omnipresent space from its subtlety is not stained. this one perceives. Bharata. the soul thus the non-doer. Then one goes to the supreme goal. one does not hurt the soul with the soul. so the Lord of the field illumines the entire field."'Whoever perceives the same supreme Lord situated in all beings. "'As the one sun illumines this entire world. When one discerns various states of being situated in one and spreading out from that. so the soul situated in the body is not ever stained. this one perceives.

14. in it I put the seed. "'When the light of knowledge is born in all the doors in this body. "'Goodness causes attachment to happiness. but obscuring knowledge. Having recourse to this knowledge. emotion over goodness and darkness. knowing which all the sages have gone from here to supreme perfection. goodness. by attachment to action. The origin of all beings comes from there. "'Of these. confusing all embodied ones. darkness--thus the qualities born of nature bind. goodness comes to be. . This binds down by negligence. best of the sciences. binds by attachment to happiness and by attachment to knowledge. "'But know that darkness is born of ignorance. Bharata. sinless one. 'I shall explain the supreme knowledge. emotion. This binds down the embodied one. darkness even in negligence causes attachment. healthy. even at creation they are not born and at dissolution they do not tremble. Distinguishing the Three Qualities "The blessed Lord said. in the body the imperishable embodied one. Kaunteya. illuminating. likewise darkness over goodness and emotion. laziness. I am the seed-sowing father. In all wombs. Bharata. Bharata. sleep. "'Know that emotion whose soul is passion is born of thirsty attachment. forms come to be of which God is the great womb. Prevailing over emotion and darkness. "'My womb is great God. free from impurity. "'Goodness. Kaunteya. great-armed one. emotion to action. Bharata. arrived at my state of identity.

when the embodied one goes at dissolution. "'When the observer perceives no doer other than the qualities and knows the highest. one neither hates their occurrence nor longs for their absence. released from birth. "'But with goodness in power. one is born in wombs of the deluded. "'Of action well done they say the fruit is good without impurity. go downward. but the fruit of emotion is pain. Going to dissolution in emotion. Transcending these three qualities coming to be in the body. "'From goodness springs knowledge and from emotion greed. Lord? What is the conduct? And how does one transcend these three qualities?' "The blessed Lord said. pain. the fruit of darkness ignorance. negligence and confusion. attains immortality. the dark. exertion. 'Illumination and progress and delusion. death. Whoever is seated impartially . negligent confusion comes from darkness.then it may be known that goodness has thus grown powerful indeed. Bharata bull. as does ignorance. one is born among those attached to action. son of Pandu. this one attains my essence. these are produced when emotion is in power. 'By what characteristics does the one transcending these three qualities come to be. the embodied.' "Arjuna said. undertaking of actions. likewise dissolving in darkness. the lowest quality state. Greed. the emotional remain in the middle. Lack of light and lack of exertion. Kuru joy. "'Those staying good go upward. then one arrives at the stainless worlds of the knowers of the highest. old age. these are produced when darkness is in power. lust. unrest.

For I am the foundation of God. equal toward friend and enemy. the qualities operate thus. this one is said to be quality-transcending. the same to a clod. transcending these qualities this one is fit for God not disturbed by the qualities. in honor and dishonor equal. equal to blame and praise. equal to the loved and the unloved.' . of the immortal and of the imperishable and of everlasting justice and of absolute happiness. a stone. whoever stands firm does not waver. constant. And whoever serves me with unswerving devotional union. renouncing all undertakings. self-reliant. the same in pain and pleasure. gold.

15. The Yoga of the Highest Spirit "The blessed Lord said, 'High the root, low the branch, they say the ashvattha tree is eternal; its leaves are sacred hymns. Whoever knows this is a Veda knower. Below and above its branches spread, nourished by qualities sprouting sense objects, and below the roots stretch forth engendering action in the human world. Its form is not perceived here in this way nor the end nor the beginning nor the maintenance. This ashvattha tree with fully grown root being cut down by the strong ax of detachment, then that place is to be sought, having gone to which they do not return again; and I take refuge in that primal Spirit from where ancient progress flowed. "'Without arrogant delusions, with evil attachments conquered, the eternal oversouls, with desires turned away, released from dualities known as pleasure-pain, go unconfused to that imperishable place. The sun does not illumine nor the moon nor fire that place going to which they do not return; that is my supreme home. My primeval part becoming alive in the world of the living draws existing in nature the senses, of which the mind is the sixth. "'When the Lord acquires a body, and also when the Lord departs, taking these the wind blows scents as if from the source. Presiding over hearing, sight, touch, taste and smell, and mind, this one enjoys the objects of the senses. "'Whether it is departing, staying, or enjoying, those confused by the accompanying qualities do not perceive; those with the eye of knowledge do perceive. And striving yogis perceive this one existing in the soul, while striving undisciplined thoughtless souls do not perceive this one. "'That brilliant sunshine which lights the entire universe,

the brilliance which is in the moon and in fire, know that to be mine. And entering the earth I maintain creatures with energy, and I nourish all plants becoming the flavor-souled nectar. Becoming digestive fire entering the body of the breathing uniting with the breath I digest the fourfold food. And I am seated in the hearts of all; from me are memory, knowledge, and reasoning; and I am recognized by all the Vedas; I am the Vedanta maker and the Veda knower. "'There are these two spirits in the world, perishable and imperishable, and all creatures are perishable; the imperishable is called unchanging. "'But the highest spirit is another, called the supreme soul, who, entering the three worlds as the undying Lord, supports them. Since I transcend the perishable and am higher than the imperishable, therefore I am celebrated in the world and in the Veda as the highest spirit. Whoever thus unconfused knows me as the highest spirit, this omniscient one worships me with the whole being, Bharata. So this most secret doctrine explained by me, blameless one, intuiting this, one should be enlightened and accomplished, Bharata.'

16. Distinguishing the Divine and the Demonic "The blessed Lord said, 'Fearlessness, purity of heart, perseverance in knowledge of union, charity and restraint and sacrifice, spiritual study, austerity, straightforwardness, nonviolence, truth, no anger, renunciation, peace, no slander, compassion for creatures, no greed, kindness, modesty, no fickleness, vigor, patience, courage, purity, no hatred, and no excessive pride are the endowment of the one born to the divine, Bharata. "'Hypocrisy, arrogance and conceit, anger and harshness, and ignorance are the endowment of the one born to the demonic, Partha. "'The divine endowment is for liberation, for bondage the demonic, it is thought. Do not grieve. To the divine endowment you are born, son of Pandu. Two created beings are in this world, the divine and the demonic. "'The divine has been described in detail; hear from me about the demonic, Partha. Progress and cessation demonic people do not understand; neither purity nor good conduct nor truth is found in them. Untruthful, they are unstable. The universe, they say, is godless, not by a succession created. What else but desire caused it? Holding this view lost souls of little intelligence and evil actions come forth as enemies for the destruction of the world. "'Attached to insatiable desire, accompanied by hypocrisy, arrogance, and lust, out of confusion accepting false notions, they proceed with impure purposes, and clinging to immeasurable anxiety ending in death, with gratification of desire their highest aim, convinced that this is all, bound by a hundred expectations, devoted to desire and anger,

they wish for the gratification of desires by the unjust means of hoards of wealth. stubborn. insolence. this wish I shall obtain. wrapped in a net of delusion. they fall into an unclean hell. and anger. Released from the these three dark gates. Kaunteya.' . Therefore one should renounce this threesome. follows willful desire does not attain perfection nor happiness nor the supreme goal. "'Whoever. force. then goes to the supreme goal. cruel. I am perfect. "'This threefold gate of hell is destructive of the soul: desire. full of the pride and intoxication of wealth. and I shall kill others also. Knowing what is said in scripture you should do work here. and greed. they sacrifice in the name of sacrifices with hypocrisy. I am wealthy. aristocratic. "'Conceited souls. the envious hate me in the soul of others' bodies. happy. Therefore scripture is your authority for determining what is to be done or not to be done." Thus are those deluded by ignorance. the deluded in birth after birth not attaining me. powerful. Those hating. Led astray by more than one thought. this is it. not in the sacred manner. give. I am the enjoyer. Who else is there like me? I shall sacrifice. be merry. Entering a demonic womb. discarding scriptural knowledge. and this shall be my property also. anger. the best person practices for the soul. go then to the worst path. Clinging to the ego. desire. vicious wretches I throw continually into the cycles of reincarnation in demonic wombs. That enemy was slain by me. attached to the gratification of desires. Kaunteya. I am the Lord. "'"This today was acquired by me.

putrid. Hear this distinction of these. 'Those who. "'People who undergo terrible austerities not ordained by scripture. and what is rejected as well as the unclean is the food liked by the ignorant. Distinguishing Three Kinds of Faith "Arjuna said. as sacrifice. causing pain. 'Triple is the faith of the embodied. discarding scriptural knowledge. This Spirit is made of faith. and darkness. and sickness. the emotional to spirits and demons. spicy. it is essentially goodness. The good sacrifice to the gods. torturing the organs within the body. what is their position. and unconscious of me inside within their body. or darkness?' "The blessed Lord said. substantial. "'Thus hear of this. "'Scripture-ordained sacrifice which is offered by those not desiring the fruit. the men of darkness. "'But food also preferred by each becomes triple. The faith of each becomes according to the form of goodness. sour. and force. health. Spoiled. sacrifice filled with faith. emotion. Krishna? Is it goodness. know them to be demonic in their resolves. Pungent. happiness. emotion.17. . juicy. stale. salty. and hearty foods are liked by the good. austerity. Promoting life. sacrifice to the dead and ghosts. goodness. offering thus with the mind focused. strength. this is good. dry. burnt foods are wanted by the emotional. misery. joined with egotistical hypocrisy along with desire. and charity. flavorful. tasteless. rage. and others. Whoever has the faith which this is is this. hot. and satisfaction.

insecure. at the proper place and time and to a worthy person. Saying tat without interest in the fruit. . pleasant. to one who does no favor. the twice-born. purity of being. purity. In meaning truth and in meaning goodness this sat is used. this is called mental austerity. But that which is given for the sake of reward or again with a view to the fruit or unwillingly. and austerity always begin by uttering AUM as proclaimed in the precepts of the expounders of God. By this the priests and the Vedas and the sacrifices were anciently ordained. That gift which is given in the wrong place and time to the unworthy disrespectfully and with contempt is said to be dark. respect. impermanent. the wise. and nonviolence is called the austerity of the body. beneficial. they regard as ignorant sacrifice. kindness. Bharata. sacred words discarded. and reverence here on earth. continence. Therefore acts of sacrifice. this gift is considered good. "'"AUM tat sat" is considered the triple symbol of God. and various charities are done by those desirous of liberation. true. Mental clarity. Non-disturbing speech. no price paid. silence. "'Revering the divine. charity. "'The gift which is given as being given. devoid of faith.But having in view the fruit and also hypocritical purpose. acts of sacrifice. they regard as good. and which practices reciting sacred texts is called speech-making austerity. that gift is considered emotional. the teacher. food unoffered. Scripture discarded. austerity. Austerity which is done with torture of self with a deluded notion or for the purpose of destroying another. this is said to be emotional. "'This triple austerity practiced with the highest faith by people united by not desiring fruit. this is said to be dark. virtue. self-control. And austerity which is done with hypocrisy for the sake of honor. know this sacrifice which is offered is emotional.

Partha.In praise. In sacrifice. also in action the sound sat is used. austerity and charity steadiness is also called sat. "'An offering given or an austerity practiced and done which is without faith is said to be false. Partha. and that is nothing to us here or hereafter. and action related to this is likewise designated sat.' .

for renunciation of required action is not proper. Hrishikesha. but for the renouncers there is none whatever. the confused relinquishing of this is declared dark. for embodied beings can not relinquish actions entirely. doing emotional relinquishment would not obtain the fruit of that relinquishment. this one is called thus a relinquisher. "The blessed Lord said. . slayer of Keshin. and mixed. is described as threefold. and austerity are the purifiers of the thinkers. relinquishing attachment and the fruit. intelligent. charity. and austerity is not to be relinquished. that sacrifice. is definitely my final opinion. Action by sacrifice. the relinquisher. The Yoga of Liberation by Renunciation "Arjuna said. and others that action by sacrifice. this relinquishment is thought of as good. individually. best Bharata. tiger spirit. Some thinkers say that action is to be relinquished as wrong. for relinquishment. 'Great-armed one. charity. charity. "'Hear my conclusion in this matter of relinquishment. But these actions are to be done relinquishing attachment and the fruits. does not hate disagreeable action nor is attached to the agreeable. relinquishment of the fruit of all action the clear-sighted say is relinquishment. This. Arjuna. doubt eliminated. and austerity is not to be thus relinquished. wanted. But whoever is a relinquisher of the fruit of action. 'The renouncing of desired actions the sages know as renunciation. Whoever relinquishes action which is troublesome out of fear of physical suffering. Triple is the fruit of action for the dying relinquishers: unwanted. "'Filled with goodness.18. Partha. Action which is to be done is done in a disciplined way. I wish to know the truth of renunciation and of relinquishment.

and the instrument of various kinds. Action which is undertaken out of confusion disregarding the consequence. The one whose condition is not egoistic. done without liking or disliking. But the knowledge which regards as separate the different beings of various kinds in all creatures learn that knowledge is emotional. Whatever action a person undertakes with body. determined by the qualities in the qualities-doctrine. Knowledge. even though killing these people. learn from me these five factors proclaimed in Sankhya doctrine for success in all actions: the basis. But action which is done wishing to obtain desire with self-interest or again with much effort. that is called good. the known. not egotistical. whose intuition is not affected. "'But in this reality. and the actor are said to be threefold. whoever sees the soul as the only actor out of incomplete understanding. "'Action which is controlled. "'Hear about these also. is said to be dark. that is called dark. speech. also the actor. the action. and many separate movements. the instrument. action. whether right or wrong. But that which is attached to one thing to be done as if it were all. and insignificant. and the actor are the threefold constituents of action. this one does not kill and is not bound. and the knower are the threefold action incentives. "'Knowledge. free of attachment. and mind. harm. wishing to obtain no fruit."'Great-armed one. without reason. "'Liberated from attachment. loss. this fool does not see. without true purpose. and the divine as the fifth. Learn that good knowledge by which one sees in all creatures one imperishable essence undivided in the divided. . these are its five factors. that is said to be emotional. and capability.

But the will by which one holds to duty. this. Partha. stubborn. Intuition which distinguishes incorrectly right and wrong. and perverted in every aim. Undisciplined. Intuition which thinks wrong is right. accompanied by joy and sorrow. and wealth with firmness. this. that happiness is declared good. and procrastinating. this. deceitful. Partha. desire. wealth winner. . the actor is called dark. fear. is emotional. Partha. is emotional. covered by darkness. and pride. Arjuna. bondage and liberation. lazy. is good. with attachment to desired fruits. dishonest. this. is dark. impure. this happiness is considered emotional. what is to be done and what is not to be done. what is to be done and what is not to be done. "'The will by which one holds steady the mind. what is to be feared and what is not to be feared. and sense functions with unbroken union. the threefold happiness one enjoys through practice and in which one comes to the end of suffering. "'But now hear from me. Partha. Passionate. depression. the actor is called good. That which in the beginning is like poison but in maturity resembles nectar. violent-natured. vulgar. is good. sorrow. "'Intuition which knows action and withdrawal. breath. greedy. this. unperturbed in success or failure. "'Hear the distinction of the intuition and the will according to the threefold qualities explained completely and distinctly. Bharata bull. is dark. depressed. this.accompanied by courage and resolution. The will by which the stupid does not abandon sleep. wishing to obtain the fruit of action. Partha. the actor is proclaimed to be emotional. Partha. born from the clarity of soul intuition. That which in the beginning from contact between sense objects and sense resembles nectar but in maturity is like poison.

Valor. foe scorcher.And happiness which in the beginning and in consequence is confusing for the soul. actionless perfection. control. soul conquered. even though deficient. laziness. austerity. arising from sleep. Kaunteya. "'Satisfied in one's own repeated action a person attains success. either on earth or even in heaven among the gods. a human finds perfection. that is said to be dark. How one content in one's own action finds perfection. vigor. By worshipping with one's own action that from whom is the origin of all creatures. and trade are the action born of the merchant essence. Service-type action is born of the servant essence. and leadership are the action born of the ruler essence. cow-herding. purity. and servants. Unattached intuition everywhere. knowledge. courage. skill in battle and also not fleeing. performing action ordained by one's own essence one does not incur guilt. patience and sincerity. charity. "'Learn from me briefly. Kaunteya. Calmness. Cultivation. how having attained perfection . for all undertakings are veiled with deficiency like fire with smoke. "'Better one's own duty of less quality than another's duty well done. and piety are priestly action born of their essence. discernment. "'The actions of the priests. one goes by renunciation to the supreme. longing disappeared. by whom all this is pervaded. no being. "'There is nothing. rulers. are distributed by the qualities arising from their nature. which can be freed by these three qualities born of nature. and negligence. merchants. hear that. One should not relinquish inborn action.

one attains supreme devotion to me. "'The Lord stands in the heart region of all creatures. Become mentally me. and rejecting passion and hatred. therefore I shall speak for your benefit. relying on detachment. "'Hear from me again the most secret supreme word. peaceful. you will transcend all difficulties through my grace. which is the highest state of knowledge. Go to that shelter with your whole essence. Arjuna." vain is this resolve. Bound by your own essential karma. sacrificing to me. the same among all creatures. You are surely loved by me. constantly be conscious of me relying on intuitive union. one is fit for oneness with God. "'Conscious of me. Bharata. sense objects. but if through egotism you will not listen. soul serene. intent on me. starting with sound. "'Becoming God. controlling speech. Performing all actions always trusting in me. unselfish. From that grace you will attain supreme peace and the eternal state. releasing ego. body. eating lightly. and relinquishing. pride. By devotion to me one realizes who and what I am in truth. If. one attains by my grace the imperishable eternal home. possessiveness. Surrendering consciously all actions in me. living isolated. you think. and also attains God. Kaunteya. what you do not wish to do out of confusion you will perform that even against your will. force. desire. do whatever you wish. controlling the self with will. then knowing me in truth one enters immediately. Reflecting on this completely. "I will not fight. devoted to me. constantly intent on union meditation. Thus knowledge more secret than the secret has been explained to you by me. anger. relying on egotism. one does not grieve nor desire. United with cleansed intuition. . causing to move all creatures mounted mechanically by magic. your nature will compel you. you will perish.

And no one among humanity is pleasing me more than this one. causing my hair to stand on end. I stand with doubt dispelled. 'Delusion is lost. Partha. recognition gained. I shall liberate you from all evils. and you will come to me truly. I promise you. Krishna. remembering again and again this marvelous and holy dialog of Keshava and Arjuna.'" Sanjaya said. "'Whoever shall explain this supreme secret to my devotees. through your grace by me. And remembering again and again . take shelter in me alone. performing the highest devotion to me. wealth winner?' "Arjuna said. you are my beloved. and no other is more beloved by me on earth. "'This is not to be told by you to one who neglects austerity nor to one who neglects devotion nor to one who does not want to listen nor to one who speaks ill of me. do not grieve. speaking himself before my eyes. with one-pointed thought? Has it destroyed your ignorant delusion. this person. And whoever shall study this sacred dialogue of us two. will come to me without doubt. also liberated. the great soul. Giving up all duties. such is my thought. "Thus from Vasudeva and Partha. Through the grace of Vyasa I heard this secret supreme yoga from the Lord of yoga. I rejoice over and over. unchanging one. I heard this marvelous dialog.revere me. "O King. Has this been heard by you. by this one with this knowledge sacrifice I may be loved. "'Also whoever may hear with faith and not scoffing. I shall do your word. should attain the happy worlds of pure actions.

the archer. Krishna. and I rejoice again and again. My thought is that wherever is the Lord of yoga. and wherever is Partha. there is splendor. my amazement is great. victory. and eternal wisdom. King." The End . well-being.that most marvelous form of Hari.

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