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First of all I am thankful to Almighty Allah who gave me knowledge and power to make me able to complete my internship successfully. I am also thankful to Department of Administrative Sciences Quaid-I-Azam University Islamabad who provide me this opportunity to have an experience in a reputed organization and groom myself for the future professional responsibilities. I shall also like to wish to acknowledge and show my deep gratitude to our respective teacher, Ms. Mehnaz Khan, for her consistence, advice and support given during the writing up of this report. I offer my heartiest tribute and cordial gratitude to present my thanks to Mr. Shoukat Hayat Babar Operation Manger of ACBL Multan Branch and Mr. Ateeq ur Rehman Credit Incharge of ACBL Multan for their kind support and cooperation in this project. To Mr. Farooq Bosan, I owe more than what I can mention….her inspiring guidance, remarkable suggestions, constant encouragement, keen interest, constructive criticism, and friendly discussion enabled me to complete this report efficiently. Without her support and proper guidance, it would be

almost impossible to accomplish this task successfully.       Table Of Contents Page No. Acknowledgements 1 List of Tables 3 List of Acronyms 4 Executive Summary 5 Section 1 INTRODUCTION TO ACBL 7 Awards & Achievements 9 The Mission 10 Core Values 11 Corporate Philosophy 11 Code of Business Principles 11 Section 2 REVIEW 12 Credit Department 13 Deposit Department 27 Remittance Department 30 Foreign Exchange Department 39 Section 3 ANALYSIS 46 Financial Analysis 47 SWOT Analysis 49

Strength 49 Weaknesses 49 Opportunity 49 Threat 50 Section 4 FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATION 51 Findings 52 Recommendation 56 List of Person Interviewed 57 Reference 58 List of Tables   1. Organizational Hierarchy 2. Charges of Online Transaction 3. Charges of Letter of Credit 4. Financial Performance 5. Name of Major Withdrawal of Deposits 6. Name of Major Withdrawal of Advances 7. Name of Person Interviewed   LIST OF CHARTS 1. ORGANOGRAM          

                        List of Acronyms       AWT Army Welfare Trust PACRA Pakistan Credit Rating Agency CLP Credit Line Proposal EF Export Finance FAPC Finance Against Packing Credit FCEF Foreign Currency Export Finance FIM Finance Against Imported Merchandize FCIF Foreign Currency Import Finance LC Letter of Credit FS Financial Statements RF Running Finance

CF Cash Finance CD Call Deposits TF Term Finance DO Delivery Order CSA Credit Sanction Advice DP Drawing Power SS Specimen Signature AOF Account Opening Form ASDA Askari Special Deposit Account FISDA Financial Institution Special Deposits Account DD Demand Draft TT Telegraphic Transfer PO Pay Order OBC Outward Bills for Collections IBCA Inter Branch Credit Advice IBC Inward Bills for Collections SBP State Bank of Pakistan EPB Export Promotion Bureau FBP Foreign Bills Purchased FDBC Foreign Documents Bills for Collection ATM Auto Teller Machine         EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  

  The Department of Administrative Sciences was established in 1975 and offers Masters degree in Business and Public Administration. They are giving the best education and are offering for specialization, financial management, marketing management and computer application to business. An important programmed is six to eight weeks internship with any recognized institution. I decided to take up Askari Commercial Bank Limited for my internship because its competing bank nowadays and gives a good training to the internees. So in order to learn more this was my choice. This report is about my internship that I have undergone at Askari Commercial Bank Limited Multan Branch from 26th June 2003 to 10th August, 03. During my internship I am able to learn practical aspect of
business, and get good working experience. On the very first day of my internship I reported to Human Resource Manager / Operation Manager Mr. Shoukat Hussain Babar. He gave me small introduction of the bank and introduced me to the staff of the bank. Every internee is rotated among the bank’s departments and so was I. This rotation is done in order to have general concept regarding bank’s functions, operations and policies. In this rotation the stay in department is usually a week. I have learned more about the Bills and Foreign Trade department and have given below the caption of activities I was involved in during the period of six weeks. During my internship I found that Askari Commercial Bank is a best bank in Multan because most of the Exports and Imports in Multan are done through this bank. Multan is one of the cotton growing cities of Pakistan. Most of the businesses in Multan are directly or indirectly linked to cotton that is also the case with Askari Commercial Bank’s clients. Because Multan is a Agricultural City, and its major export is Cotton and Mango. So its export is done on seasonal basis. In the season of cotton and Mango export Askari Commercial Bank get its target easily but difficult for it to get its target in the off season. Same with the case of imports, in Multan major imports is Oil Seeds which is also done on seasonal Basis. Low profit rates are one of the major reasons for not meeting the deposit targets. The profit rates on Askari deposit schemes are quite low when compared with other banks especially with the National Saving Centers. In today every customers is the rational customer he knows the value of money and wants a best return on his money. Earlier Askari Commercial were able to attract customer due to their ancillary services like ATM Cards, Credit Cards, Online Banking etc. but now all the banks are offering these services through their own network or through third party contracting, so our plus points are no more our advantages. So the only thing through which ACBL can increase their deposits are profit rates, because the customers only want maximum profit on their investment.                      

                                                    SECTION 1     INTRODUCTION TO ASKARI COMMERCIAL BANK          

        INTRODUCTION TO BANK 1:   Askari Commercial Bank Limited (ACBL) works as a Unit of Army Welfare Trust was established for the Welfare of Army Officials. The office of Army Welfare Trust is situated at AWT Plaza, Rawalpindi. AWT offers the “AWT Saving Scheme” to the army officials only. AWT has its units as under: 1. Askari Associates. 2. Askari Leasing. 3. Askari General. 4. Private Business. 5. Textile Mills.

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6. Cement Industry. 7. Askari Commercial Bank. Incorporated in Pakistan on October 09, 1991. The bank obtained business commencement certificate on February 26, 1992 and started operations form April 1, 1992, as public limited company, and has since expanded into a nation-wide presence of 51 branches, supported by a network of online ATMs. The Bank is listed on the Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad Stock Exchanges and the initial public offering was over subscribed by 16 times. Askari Commercial Bank is scheduled Commercial Bank and is principally engaged in the business of banking as defined in the Banking Companies Ordinance 1962. Askari Commercial Bank limited continues to scale new heights in all areas of its operations. The safety and security of depositor’s funds, high productivity and optimum use of technology are the hallmarks of its corporate strength.

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While capturing the largest market share amongst the new banks, Askari has provided good value to its shareholders. Share price of ACBL has remained approximately 12% higher than the average share price of quoted banks during the last four years. Askari Bank is principally engaged in the business of banking as defined in the Banking Companies Ordinance, 1962. as at December 31, 2002 the Bank had total assets of PKR 70.313 billion, with over 250000 banking customers.

Askari Bank is the only bank with its operational Head Office in the twin cities of Rawalpindi-Islamabad, which have relatively limited opportunities as compared to Karachi and Lahore. This created its own challenges and opportunities, and forced us to evolve an outward-looking strategy in terms of our market emphasis. As a result, we developed a geographically diversified assets base instead of a concentration and heavy reliance on business in the major commercial centers of Karachi and Lahore, where most other banks have their operational Head Offices. Multan is a cotton city, so to get the export market of cotton ACBL open its branch in Multan in December, 1994. In a short span of time this branch increase their business remarkably. In 2001 this branch gets the trophy of highest profit for the year 2001. This branch has highest deposits and advances as compare to other banks working in Multan. Now recently this branch gets the trophy of highest imports for the month of July 2003 as compare to all the branches of Askari Commercial Bank working in Pakistan.   Awards & Achievements 2 Over the years, ACBL have received several awards for the quality of our banking service to individuals and corporate. ACBL have been declared “The Best Bank in Pakistan” by the Global Finance magazine for the years 2001 & 2002. Also, ACBL have been given the “Best Consumer Internet Bank” award for Pakistan by the same magazine for the year 2002. in 1994, 1996 and 1997, ACBL received Euro money and Asia money awards. Askari has A1+ rating for short-term obligations – the highest possible for the category, while the long-term rating stands at AA. Askari Bank won the prestigious “Best Presented Annual Accounts” awards for 2000 and 2001 from the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan and the Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Pakistan, for the services sector. For the past four years, ACBL have received prizes from the South Asian Federation of Accountants for “The Best Presented Annual Accounts” for the financial sector, in the ASSRC region. Over the years, Askari Bank has proved its strength as a leading banking sector entity, by achieving the following firsts in Pakistani banking. I. First Pakistani Bank to offer on-line real time banking on a countrywide basis. II. First Bank with a nation-wide ATM network III. First Bank to offer Internet Banking services IV. First Bank to offer E-Commerce solutions     The Vision 3:     “To be the Bank of First Choice in the Region”           The Mission 4 “To be the leading private sector bank in Pakistan with an international presence, delivering quality service through innovative technology and

effective human resource management in a modern and progressive organizational culture of meritocracy, maintaining high ethical and professional standards, while providing enhanced value to all our stakeholders, and contributing to society”.                                 Core Values 5 The intrinsic values, which are corner stones of our corporate behavior, are: v Commitment v Integrity v Fairness v Team-work and v Service   Corporate philosophy 6 Inspiring Relationships From knowing our customer requirements to understanding employee needs, from utilizing modern technology to making responsible social contributions, from enhancing stake-holders value to practicing corporate ethics… We are continuously and consistently striving to address newer challenges with a single motivation:  

“the power to inspire and be inspired”   Code Of Business Principles 7 Our Code Of Business Principles is to: v Deliver solutions that meet customers’ financial needs; v Build and sustain a high performance culture; v Build trusted relationships with all stakeholders; v Build and manage the Bank’s portfolio of business to achieve strong and sustainable shareholders returns; and v Create and leverage strategic assets and capabilities for competitive advantage                 SECTION 2       REVIEW                    

    CREDIT DEPARTMENT       To give credit is to finance directly or indirectly the expenditure of others against future payment. Lending or financing is one of the basic functions of banks of all categories, through which they gain major part of their profits. A bank accepts deposits of money and repays cash to its depositors on demand. But this is not to say that; bank gives this service for nothing. Bank borrows money at a lesser rate of interest and lends to the borrower at higher rate of interest. And the difference between these two is the profit of the bank. Credit department deals with all the activities related to giving credit to customers. CREDIT MANAGEMENT CYCLE: Credit Management is composed of six steps: 1. Proposal 2. Processing 3. Decision 4. Documentation 5. Disbursement 6. Review       PROPOSAL: The first step in the Credit Management is receiving a credit request, which is a lending proposal for the bank each borrower has a purpose for borrowing. Some borrow to fulfill their working capital needs, others wants to finance any project. The customer presents his idea to the banker and wants the information on bank’s facilities. Then after collecting information if the customer deems it beneficial he makes a loan request. This bank customer relationship should be mutually beneficial.     PROCESSING OF LOAN PROPOSAL: Managing a safe, healthy and profitable credit portfolio depends on the quality of judgment exercised by the officer and the depth of their risk associated with the nature of the borrowers business. The banker is supposed to make a judicious judgment, which should be based on a critical study of advance

proposals. It is very much necessary that the banker should have a complete confidence in the integrity and ability of the customer to use the money to his advantage and repay it within a reasonable period. Information must be collected and confirmed by investigation and negotiation during processing of the proposal. In respect of fresh (ending proposal, the CLP is the end result of a series of internal and external investigation exercises following the identification of a potential customer, beginning with the first call on the customer.   EVALUATION: To assess the risk and estimate the potential of a particular business, a series of investigative exercise is undertaken. This evaluation stage include knowing the purpose of borrowing, knowing business prospects of a customer, visiting the business place, analysis of financial statement, visiting the collateral securities etc.   PURPOSE OF BORROWING: The borrower must disclose factual purpose for seeking financial accommodation from bank without such, the proposal should not be given due consideration.   1. The possible purpose may be as follows: 2. Export Financing / Packing Credit. 3. Import Trade Financing. 4. Working Capital need for Trade and industry. 5. Fixed Investment for Industry (Project Financing). 6. Purchase of Industrial or Commercial Vehicles. 7. Construction of Residential, Industrial and Agricultural 8. Buildings. 9. Finance for movement of Goods / Crops within the country. 10. Purchase of Agricultural Machinery. 11. Development of Agricultural Land. Different Advance Facilities are offered according purpose of borrowing. Some facilities may be used for specific purposes because of their very nature and therefore, risk involved in extending them can be accurately identified; for example; an LC Facility can be used only for imports and depending on the items being imported, risk can be assessed reasonably and accurately. But other facilities however may be used for a variety of purposes and it may not be possible to assess the risk as accurately. It is, therefore, important that in all cases facilities is extended only after understanding precisely the use to which they will be put, and monitoring systems devised to ensure that their use is confined to disclose purposes only. Because without these safeguards, risk involved in extending them would not remain the same as envisaged at the time of extending he facility.  

    KNOWING THE BUSINESS PROSPECTS OF THE BORROWER: Fortunes of business enterprises fluctuate with changing trends in their respective business and industrial sectors. All businesses grow in spite of individual weaknesses and shortcomings. But during recession in an industry some companies suffer more then other because of their particular circumstances such as flaws in sourcing of materials, structural weaknesses in manufacturing process or distribution arrangements, sales and receivable management, sales and receivable management and more often financial management. Aside from fluctuating market conditions caused by temporary imbalances in demand and supply, which result in unusual growth or slump in sales, there is a gradual impact of the natural life cycle of industries and their products. Product life cycles are characterized by an initial period of rapid sales growth followed by the period of decline in growth rate signifying weakening of demand, either slowly or rapidly, forced by any one or all of the following: 1. Market saturation due to increased competition. 2. Innovation or the development of better / cost effective substitute. 3. Technological changes, which render older models obsolete. 4. Changes in import / export tariff which affect pricing structure. Thus while preparing CLP, the concerned officer must look at these trends to identity both short term as well as long term prospects of the business of the borrower in the market place and the economy as a whole. He must also satisfy himself about capacity of the borrower to survive these shocks as and when they surface before recommending establishment of a lending relationship.   FINANCIAL ANALYSIS: The purpose of analysis of Financial Statement (FS) is to examine past and current financial data so that a company’s performance and financial position can be evaluated and future risk and potentials can be estimated. The analysis can yield valuable information about trends and relationship, the quality of company earnings and its financial strengths and weaknesses. Financial Statements among other things include balance sheet and income statement. Balance sheet represents assets and liabilities of the business at a given data. Besides showing the ability of the business to service the loans on the strength of its financial structure. It also helps in evolving secured basis for extending financial support. Apart form showing the profitability of a business, income statements disclose how the business has been conducted and determines factors behind a rise or decline in the net worth.   VALUATION OF COLLATERAL SECURITIES: Valuation of collateral securities is an area which is fraught with dangers because there can be errors of judgment or deliberate over estimation for ulterior purposes. As far as cash and other liquid securities are concerned, there is not difficulty in disposing them of because their merits are self-evident. However, in respect of real estate, there are some important aspects, which need special examination. An additional problem with collateral securities are that there is many security types whose valuation remains subjective because of the fact that there are no verifiable market prices quoted for them. When any asset of the customer is taken into charge with the bank, the concerned officer visits the security and examines the suitability of the security for the facility required by the borrower. Banker must also check whether there are any existing charges on the asset because is that case the institution which

has registered the charge first will have prior claim on the proceeds on the event of borrower’s liquidation. After that a surveyor examines those fixed assets and estimates their value. It should be remembered that not every surveyor is competent to value every type of asset. So reliable experts competent to assess particular type of asset must carry out valuation.         NEGOTIATION: While processing a loan proposal, a banker has to do a detailed negotiation with the customer, to have first hand knowledge about certain things and then confirm them. The negotiation phase is very important for creating a safe credit portfolio. The information collected in this phase may include the type of advance, the mode of creating charge over securities, the source of repayment and period for which the facility is needed. FUND BASED LOAN: In this type of loan, funds are directly involved. RUNNING FINANCE: (R/F) It is popularly known as overdraft. It is offered for working capital requirement of the customer. It is created in current account adjustment from time to time finally on expiry date. This facility is normally issued against hypothecation of immovable property. It is allowed to the borrower under a presanctioned limit. A current account is opened and the conduct of this account is kept under review for a period of three to six months. The borrower can draw cheque on his account maximally up to the amount of limit sanctioned to him. The amount outstanding against the borrower is mark-up will be changed on the basis of the amount outstanding. This facility is issued on revolving basis repayment should be completed by the maturity date. Repayment in monthly installments is not required. CASH FINANCE: (C/F) It is also offered for the working capital requirement of the customer. It is the type of loan in which client is given cash in lump sum it is offered against the pledge of moveable property or stock of borrower. In majority of the cases this finance is allowed against pledge of stock. The amount of finance is credited to borrowers CD account and he/she utilizes it for business purposes. Repayment is not made by monthly installments. Adjustments are linked with delivery of goods kept under bank’s pledge. Goods are pledge when the payment is done on delivery order of the bank. Goods released are equivalent in value to the repayment amount and remaining goods are stills kept in pledge with bank for further recovery. Goods are released on the Delivery Order (DO) by the bank to the Go down Officer.         TERM FINANCE: (T/F) Term finance is offered to client for investment in any project or business. It is issued for fixed time period. The amount of finance is credited to borrowers personal account by debiting the Term Finance Account. The amount of finance is credited to borrowers personal account by debiting the Term Finance Account. The amount of Finance is disbursed in lump sum. Partial transactions are not allowed in the Term Finance account. The repayment of Term Finance is usually in installments and with other documents a letter of installments is taken from the borrower at the time of disbursement. By that letter,

the borrower binds him to pay the installments at regular intervals. Monthly repayment amount is calculated by dividing the principal amount by time period plus mark-up. FINANCE AGAINST IMPORTED MERCHANDISE: This type of finance is offered to the importer to finance their needs for meeting the cost including freight, insurance, and customs and excise duty payable on the imported merchandise. The lending bank mostly pledges the imported goods. The merchandise is released for the use of the importer (borrower) upon repayment of the bank’s finance and charges either fully or partially, on production of the Delivery Order issued by the banker in favor of the borrower. NON-FUND BASED FACILITIES: These are those types of facilities in which funds are not directly involved. LETTER OF CREDIT: Letter of Credit issued by the bank can broadly be classified as under: Sight letter of credit. Usance letter of credit. The sight L/Cs call for the draft to be drawn ‘at sight’. Documents negotiated and received against sight are held as security till their retirement. Drafts drawn under usance are for a tenure specified in the L/C and are payable by the customer on due date. Credit line proposal must clearly state the type of letter of credit the branch is intended to issue.         LETTER OF GUARANTEE: Guarantees issued by the bank can be classified under two broad categories. (1) FINANCIAL GUARANTEE: Bank guarantees the fulfillment of a financial commitment on behalf of the customer. Under these guarantees, the bank is called upon to pay in the event of a breach of terms on the part of the customer. (2) PERFORMANCE GUARANTEE: The bank guarantees the due fulfillment of a contract or other work as specified in the guarantee, by the customer. The amount of guarantee is usually up to the extent of the value of the contract. (3) SHIPPING GUARANTEE: Bank issues guarantee in favor of the shipping company to enable the importer to obtain delivery of the goods without production of the Bill of Lading.  

MODES OF CREATING CHARGE OVER SECURITIES: Primarily bankers rely on the character, capacity and capital of the borrower in ensuring the safety of his funds. The viability of the project itself and its cash generating capacity ensure to a large extent the safety of bank funds. But the banker cannot afford to take any risk and hence the reliance is placed on the tangible assets of the borrower. In case of default by the borrower in repaying the loan the banker’s interest if safeguarded if he possesses change or right over the tangible assets of the borrower. Loans with such rights conferred upon the bankers are called secured advances. In secured advances, charges are created on the tangible assets in several ways depending upon the nature of assets. Modes of creating such charges are as follows:   1. Lien 2. Pledge 3. Hypothecation 4. Mortgage       Lien: Lien has been defined as the right of a person to retain the property of the borrower until a debt due from him (borrower) is repaid. In ordinary lien, the ownership of the property under the lien remains with the borrower, although its actual or the lien remains with the borrower, although its actual or constructive possession is with the creditor, though the creditor does not have any right to sell it. This is not the case with banker’s lien, as a banker’s lien is an implied pledge and the banker has the right to sell the securities under lien after giving a reasonable notice to the borrower in case of his default. Pledge: The bailment of goods as security for payment of a debt or performance of a promise is called pledge. The relationship of a customer and a banker is this case is that of a pledger (customer) and a pledgee (banker). The ownership of the goods, pledge remains with the borrower, while the possession is with the banker. Bailment is the delivery of goods by one person to another for some purpose, upon a contract that they shall, when the purpose is accomplished be returned or otherwise, disposed off according to the direction of the person delivering them. Mortgage: A mortgage is the transfer of an interest in specific immovable property for the purpose of securing the payment of money advanced or to be advanced by way of loan, existing or future debt. The transferor is called a mortgagor and the transferee a mortgagee. The principal amount and the interest of which the payment is secured are called the mortgaged amount and instrument (if any) by which transfer is affected is called the mortgage deed. The mortgage does not transfer the ownership of the property and the actual possession of the property is also not transferred. He (mortgagor) transfers only some of his rights as an owner e.g. He now cannot sell the property without the consent of the mortgagee.    

Hypothecation: An agreement to give a charge to goods or documents of title without conferring possession is called hypothecation. The goods are charged as security for a loan form the bank but ownership and possession remains with the borrower. The security is granted by the borrower to the lender by a letter of hypothecation, which contains the terms and conditions of the hypothecation agreement. As physical possession of goods remains with the borrower, the banker seeks periodical stock reports from the borrower confirming full description and value of the stock hypothecated. In order to prevent a possible loss of stock by fire, theft, dacoity, and the borrower is asked to get his stock insured. The hypothecated stock is liable to be inspected by bank’s authorized person. The creditor (Banker) has the right to take possession of the hypothecated goods as and when required. Repayment of the Credit: (Identify the source of repayment) The banker’s most important single consideration should be on time repayment of the credit extended t a borrower from the normal business operations of the borrower. Availability of collateral securities although essential should never be considered for extending credit. Any proposal, about which repayment from normal business operations of the borrower is uncertain, even though it is supported by good securities, is unfit for consideration. Bankers obtain collateral securities from borrowers for recovering credit if market conditions make it impossible for the borrower to repay, not as a protection against borrower’s dishonesty. If the borrowers intentions are doubtful, better not lend at all because auctioning borrowers collateral is not your business. It is, therefore, important that the CLP must mention the scenario for repayment and identify the sources of repayment after negotiation with the borrower. First source of the repayment is the revenue generated by the business of the borrower. For this, the likely market demand scenarios must be estimated. Second source of repayment is the general cash flow of the borrowers business arising out of operations other than the sale of specific goods. Third and the least derivable source of repayment is encashment of collateral securities. Period of Financing: The period for which the finance is issued is called the maturity period. It may be for a month two months, 3 months, 6 months and for a maximum period of 1 year. If the facility of advance is allowed up to 3 months then it will be considered as temporary accommodation and if it exceeds to 6 months t 1 year, then it will be a permanent limit.     Making a Lending Decision: Bank credit decision for any proposal has to be very rational one, because there are many restrictions on monetary and credit expansion by the State Bank of Pakistan and it is no longer within the power of banks to distribute it freely. Credit office must learn to make the best use of the bank’s available deposits by deploying them in the most productive advances. To make a prudent decision it is required that decision should be made only after comparing the benefits available from several competing proposals and agree to finance the proposal which offers a risk-reward combination closest to the standard set out in the Bank’s Credit Policy. Before recommending facilities for any customer, banker must ask himself the question “Why should we lend to this customer in particular? Why not the next one?” Consideration for Lending Decision: Usually, the two major considerations for recommending fresh credit facilities are the business anticipated from the borrower in relation to the funded facilities and projected earnings from facility utilization by the borrower. In case of renewal of existing facilities the consideration is the business received in the past and earnings and that promised by the borrower for the following year.

Besides these, there could be other supplementary considerations such as deposits of the borrower, including title, amount, period and profit / interest rate being paid on such deposits is important in order to ascertain the profitability of the overall relationship. The entire information will help the decision maker in reaching a conclusion about the relative importance of the customer for the bank. But for making a profitable and safe decision, the information on which the decision is based should be gathered carefully and checked that the figures are correct. After receiving the proposal and processing it by analyzing it’s all risk-return characteristics, the credit officer prepares CLP. CLP is the input of the decision stage, which is used for approval of the proposal. Once the CLP is prepared, first Branch Credit Committee approves it and then it is forwarded to Head Office, from where the final decision is made. The Credit Officer first uses his judgment and recommends potential proposals. Then Branch Credit Committee further screens out risky proposal. In this way a profitable portfolio is maintained.DOCUMENTATION: Document shall include any matter written, expressed or described upon any substance by means of letters, figures or marks or by more than one of those means which is intended to be used for the purpose of recording that matter. Obtaining the proper documents, legally valid and enforceable, is a prerequisite for the disbursement of an advance by bank. The type of document to be obtained mainly depends on the following aspects: • Type of Borrower. • Nature of Facility. • Kind of Security. • Mode of Charge. Rights and liabilities of the parties involved in the credit transaction are mainly established from the contents of the documents executed by the parties. The banks resorting to the court of law would only be benefited if the documents are properly executed and they are valid and enforceable at law. If there is any defect in execution of the documents, the bank may lose its claim. So, it is very essential to have proper documentation before the loan is disbursed to the borrower. Nothing is better proof than the documents themselves for the banker in pleading for his claim. Therefore, utmost care should be taken in execution of the documents. The banker must take care of the following: 1. The documents must be properly stamped with full value. 2. The parties should sign according to their usual specimen signatures; initials of the parties are not enough. 3. Each page of the document is requi9red to be signed by the executing person. 4. There should be no cutti9ng, alteration, overwriting or erosion in the documents. The executing person under his full signature if any, must authenticate the cuttings. 5. Documents must be completed in all respects. Blank and undated documents sometimes pose serious problems for the bank. 6. Documents when executed should be: a. Properly diaries. b. Placed in Safe.

7. Documents should not be punched or torn out. 8. Documents where required must be duly registered.   Maintaining and Balancing the Documents: Among other activities, maintaining and balancing the documents is also an important activity of the Credit Department. These documents carry a substantial value and create a great problem if any dislocation occurs. Different documents are of different values. These documents are counted, stamped and properly placed in the strong room of the branch. A separate ledger is maintained for these blank documents for accounting purpose. After a short time period, the total value of actual documents is matched with the balance in the ledger.         Disbursement: Procedure of Loan Disbursement: 1. Proper documents, which are legally valid and enforceable at law, are obtained. 2. The concerned Credit Officer in the branches prepares proposal (CLP), it is also known as Credit Sanction Advice (CSA). The purpose of making CLP is to record the required information on it and having approval of the Branch Credit Committee and Head Office on it. 3. Credit line proposal include the following information: • Date of opening. • Date of maturity. • Nature of the business. • Type of facility. • Purpose of facility. • Securities. • Source of repayment. 4. There is a Branch Credit Committee in each Branch. Committee holds a meeting and takes decision whether to give loan or not. This decision is taken by keeping in view all the risks associated with that borrower. 5. New account with a new account number is opened. These account numbers are previously fed into the computer if the system is online. 6. The Drawing Power (DP) is issued to each borrower. Drawing Power depends on the amount of loan and the period of

financing. 7. There are two accounts maintained for each borrower, Credit Account and the borrowers account. In the start, the credit account has a credit balance equal to the amount of loan. 8. After all other requirements are fulfilled; the loan is actually transferred to the borrower by debiting the credit account and crediting the customer account. 9. Now the borrower can draw the amount from his account according to his allotted Drawing Power (DP). 10. After a fix time period, on each installment date, borrower has to repay the principal and mark-up. Loan repayment installments are deducted by debiting the customer account and crediting the credit account. Account Monitoring Loan Status Review: Account monitoring system is an evaluation technique intended to provable a basis for reviewing over all condition of an existing borrower. It will help in identifying symptoms of possible problems in the areas of financial or business management and indicate the need for corrective action to prevent the account form becoming slow moving or eventually delinquent. This exercise of monitoring alerts the amulets or account manager to the need for appropriate corrective action starting with a detailed discussion with the borrower to understand the borrower’s point of view on the areas high lighted by the analysis of the account. Account Status Review: In this section, different things about the current status of the account are checked. For instance, what is limit of the account? What drawing power was allotted to the borrower? What is the outstanding balance? Since when the account is inactive? What is the Net Asset Value? Account Conduct Review: This section includes monitoring the account conduct. These questions are answered for this purpose. The borrower draws cheques of what maximum value? Is post dated cheques drawn by the borrower frequently or not? Is there a default on interest or mark-up payment?     OTHER FINANCING ACTIVITIES: Instead of giving loan to the general public Credit Department of Askari Commercial Bank performs various activities to facilitate the general people and Armed Forces. Recently ACBL performs various financing activities, which are as follows:         CREEK CITY: (A project of DHA Karachi) DHA (Defence Housing Authority) of Karachi has recently announced his new scheme in the name of Creek City. This project is started in DHA Karachi Phase-VIII. In this project Four types of Apartments will be constructed, Three Bed Apartments

Four Bed Apartments Pent House with Swimming Pool Pent House without Swimming Pool The balloting amount of three and four bed apartments are Rs.155000/-, and for both pent house Rs. 205000/-, out of which Rs. 5000/- are non-refundable. 90% of the amount out of Rs 150000/- and Rs. 200000/- are finance by ACBL. This amount is repay in the period between 1 to 5 years and the markup rate is 8.5% on the financed amount. Conditions of financing is that the person must be the the account holder of the bank whether that person is salaried class, business class or army officer. Askari Commercial Bank takes no security against this financing, except they accept the promissory note against financed amount.   Askari Bank’s Personal Finance: 8 Askari Bank recently started a new financing project that is Askari Bank’s Personal Finance. According to this financing Scheme only Armed forces can avail. Following are features of this financing scheme: Featuring: Loan amounts from Rs. 30000 to Rs. 300000 are available. Repayment period from 1 to 3 years Fixed monthly repayment Low markup rate i.e 12% No pre-payment penalties Shortest Processing time i.e 3 weeks Funds may be obtained at any ACBL branch Some restriction are apply on getting the loan, Your age is between 21 yrs to 57 yrs You have a verifiable minimum gross monthly income of Rs 15000/Minimum length of confirmed service with present employer is at least six months with a total length of at least one-year service. DEPOSITS DEPARTMENT     Deposit is the functional unit of a Commercial Bank. No bank can run its operations without deposits. Main function of a commercial bank is to channelize saving from the savers to the ultimate users of funds. The process of collecting saving is called Deposit Mobilization. Two board categories of deposits with reference to time period are:

Demand Deposit: These are payable on demand. They include current account, sundry deposit (e.g. margin account) and call deposit receipt. No profit is given on demand deposits. Time Deposit: Payable on demand with certain maturity. Attracts profit with respect to time. TYPE OF ACCOUNTS:   PLS Saving Bank Account: Saving deposits were introduction to inculcate and encourage the of saving among people of small means in order to achieves of Islamisation of the banking system in the country, the government authorized the banks to accept Saving Deposit on profit and loss sharing basis. Deposits received under this scheme are invested in non-interest bearing advances and other avenue so as to eliminate the element of interest. Points to Remember: 1. The PLS Saving Account may be opened in the name of an individual, or jointly in the names of two or more persons. These accounts may also be opened by charitable institutions or got provident fund and other funds of benevolent nature by local bodies, autonomous corporations, companies, associations, societies and educational institutions. 2. PLS SB Accounts can be opened with initial cash deposit of not less than Rs.10000. The amount of initial deposit should be mentioned on AOF. A minimum balance of Rs.500 (or as per bank policy announced from time to time) will have to be maintained for qualifying for sharing profit/loss. 3. Not more than one account may be opened in any one name except in cases where such accounts are opened in the name of parent of guardian for more than one child. 4. Statement of PLS accounts are normally provided once in every six month as on June 30 and December 31. 5. No service charges shall be levied on PLS saving account as per SBP prudential regulations. 6. Profit on PLS SB deposit is calculated on minimum monthly balanced standing from 6th of the month till the end of the month. The profit is paid on half yearly basis announced by the Head officer after June 30 and December 31. 7. Zakat at the rate of 2.5% is deducted from the PLS SB account holders on the 1st Ramazan-ul-Mubarik. Balanced below a certain limit that is announced by the government every year is exempted form Zakat. 8. A withholding tax at the rate of 10% on profit is also recovered from the account holders irrespective of the amount of profit. 9. The rate of return on PLS account vary with minimum balance. The rate of return is 1% on minimum balance of up to Rs.9,999, 2% on Rs.10,000–24,999. Current Account: A current account is a running account, which is continuously in operation, by the customer on all working days of the bank. The customer deposits without the current deposits without previous notice to the bank.

Points to Remember: 1. Current account can be opened with an initial deposit of not less then Rs.5,000. The amount of initial deposit should be mentioned on AOF. A minimum balance of Rs.---------- will have to be maintained. 2. It is an open account for which there is no fixed period for deposit. 3. There is no restriction on making deposits in an d withdrawals from this account. 4. Bank does not pay any interest on these deposits, as they can be withdrawn without notice. 5. Cheques are used for withdrawals from these accounts. 6. Loans and credits may be sanctioned to the credit worthy current account holders with ease.   PLS Term Deposit: Fixed or term deposits are the major source of funds of a commercial bank. Term deposits, as the name implies, are deposits kept with a bank for a certain period of time. They are not payable on demand like the current deposit. The depositor can only withdraw them after the specified period of time. The persons or firms trust, religious bodies, which have surplus funds keep the money in fixed deposits with bank. Points to Remember: 1. PLS Term deposit are grouped into the following categories: 1 Month, 2 Months, 3 Months, 6 Months, 1 Year. 2. Minimum balanced of Rs.5,000 is to be maintained in PLS Term Deposit. 3. Profit on this account is paid on maturity. 4. Because the deposited amount remains fixed during the period the profit is calculated on that fixed amount. 5. The rate of interest on fixed deposits is higher than that of saving deposits and it varies with time of deposit. Rate of interest is 1% on 1 Month, 1.25% on 2 Months, 1.50% on 3 Months, 2% on 6 Months, 2.5% on 1 Year. 6. The holder of Term Deposit cannot issue cheque for the withdrawal of the amount.               REMITTANCE DEPARTMENT   The need of remittance is commonly felt is commercial life particularly and in everyday life generally. The main function of the remittance department is

to transmit money from one place to another. By providing this service to the customer, bank earns a lot of income. Also customer is able to meet its day to day financial requirements. Demand Draft: It is an instrument payable on demand for which value has been received, issued by the branch of the bank drawn i.e. payable at some other place (branch) of the same bank. If two banks are involved then the DD is sent to other bank but in other case it is handed over to the applicant. Issuance Procedure: • A demand draft application is given to the customer, he fills in relevant information and signs it. • The officer checks the information form. • The bank charges such as commission, excise duty is charged as per effective schedule of charges. If he fills the tax exemption form, tax is not charged. • In case of cash deposit, the cashier counts the amount and signs the DD application and enters it in the register. • Then the officer of remittance department signs it and operation manager counter signs it. • The entry is made in the DD issuing register, DD is given to the customer. • Vouchers are prepared and posted. • DD advises are printed and mailed to the respective branch. Payment Procedure: • The bank receives DD. • The DD credit advice is received through mail. The numbers are checked and signatures are verified. • An entry is made on the DD payable register and the vouchers are made. • DD credit is attached with the vouchers and given for posting to the computer. • When DD is received the test numbers are checked and the payment is made. • Vouchers are given for posting and the entry that was made in the register is closed i.e. DD payable is Nil. Telegraphic Transfer (TT): It is the quickest way of transfer of funds from one place (Branch) to other place (Branch) of the same bank. Generally, a mail transfer advice reaches the drawer branch the next day through courier services. But sometimes, a customer demands that his funds should be transferred through the quickest means. In such cases, transfer of funds message is passed through telephone or telegram. This mode of transfer was used before online. Online system is very effective for this purpose now-a-days. In Askari Commercial Bank online system is used. Issuance Procedure:

• The request of issuing TT is taken on the standard printed form. • The customer fills the form properly and signs it. • The Head of Remittance Department checks it, the charges such as commission, tax and telex as per effective schedule and signs it. • If he fills the tax exemption form then no tax is deducted. • Then a TT is made on white slip. There are 3 copies, the original one is faxed to the Branch, one to the Head Office and one is kept for record. • The entry is made in the TT issuing register. • When commission bill is received, it is attached to the TT office copy in the file. Payment Procedure: • When a TT arrives, the test numbers are checked and the signatures are verified. • The entry is made in the TT payable register. • If there is no account then the TT received needs revenue stamp and then payment is made. TT receipt is strictly nonnegotiable.   Pay Order: It is an instrument issued for payment in same city. Pay order issued from on e branch can only be payable from the same branch. It is normally referred to as banker’s cheque. It is also called confirmed cheque, because bank issues this on it own guarantee.   Issuance Procedure: • The standard form is given to the customer. He fills in the details and signs it. • The concerned officer checks the form. • Bank charges (or commission) as per the schedule of charges and the withholding tax of 0.3% are applied. • The cash amount of the pay order is received. • A cash memo is signed, stamped and handed over to the applicant as a receipt. • Then the pay order receipt is filled accordingly. • Counter foil is also filled. • An entry is made in the pay order issue register.

• Then the authorized officer signs it after checking the pay order. • The order is then handed over to the applicant after obtaining his signature on the PO Form. • A voucher is also made and posted at the computer. Payment Procedure: On presentation of the pay order receipt, two authorized officers of the branch sign the receipt. • PO entry is made in the PO issue register. • Then the amount is credited to the account of the customer or pain in cash. • PO is posted at the computer. Pay Slip: It is an instrument issued by the bank for the settlement of its own payment. It is used for payment by the bank to anyone (may be employees) in this case only one bank is involved. He is the issuer as well as the payer. No Excise Duty No Commission Issuance: • A credit voucher is sent from the account department to the remittance department. • Pay Slip book is taken out and filled according to the credit voucher. • It is entered in the pay slip register. • It is signed by authorized Officer. • A voucher is prepared and posted. • Pay Slip is then handed over to the customer.   Payment Procedure: • Pay Slip is just like a cheque and bank is liable to pay against pay slip. • After that when the pay slip is received by the bank for payment, it is again transferred in the register. • Then payment is made and it is posted in the computer. Outward Bills for Collection: The bills, which are received by the bank and sent to other cities (branches) for the local clearing in that city, are called Outward Bills for Collection.

Procedure: • The cheques that are of other cities are separated. • They are entered in the OBC Register and OBC numbers are given to them. • The OBC forwarding schedules are prepared for different branches. • The respective cheques are attached with the schedule. • The office copy is filled and original schedule is mailed. • On clearing, the respective banks send back the OBCs alongwith the IBCA (Inter Branch Credit Advice). • The OBC numbers are checked from the OBC register, after that entries are made. • Commission charges are deducted from the account. Inward Bills for Collection: The bills, which are received by the bank from other branches out of the city for local clearing are called Inward Bills for Collection. Procedure: • The OBC of other branches will be the IBC of this branch. So an OBC forwarding schedule is received by mail. • The cheques are entered in the IBC register. The IBC numbers are allotted to them. • The cheques are lodged for clearing. • After realization, an IBCA is prepared and mailed to the branch from where the cheque was received. • At the end of the day, two vouchers are prepared and posted.     ON LINE TRANSACTION: Askari Bank has provided the facility of on line transaction. In this case the accounts and their details in the other branches of ACBL can be displayed on computer which is connected through server to the computer at the other end. Commission is charged on providing this service this is beneficial as it takes very little time in the transference of funds. This facility is available all the branches of Askari Bank except Bhai Pheru Branch. Following charges are deducted in online transaction: Table 1   Charges Amounts

  Up to - Rs. 25000/Rs. 50/Rs. 25001 - Rs. 200000/Rs.100/Rs. 200001 - Rs. 500000/Rs. 250/Rs. 500001 - Rs. 2000000/Rs. 500/Rs. 2000001 Above Rs.750/      ATM: Automated Teller Machine (ATM) is facility provided by the Askari Commercial Bank Limited Multan Branch. There are certain requirements, which are to be fulfilled, buy the person before he can have ATM card. There is a need of primary account number and then the secondary account number. The primary account number is the regular account number as maintained with the bank of the person and the bank on which the card is issued gives the secondary account number. Apart from this there is Personal Identification Number (PIN) without which ATM cannot be operated. The person can change the PIN from time to time so that there is no chance of fraud in his account. If someone gets to know the PIN of the ATM of a certain person he can operate that easily so the PIN should not be disclosed to anyone. In case the card of a person is damaged or the person loses his card, then charges of Rs.100/- are taken and a new card is issued by the Head Office. In case of replacement, the charges are Rs.100/- and in case of faulty card means when the card is inserted in machine and on the screen the caption faulty card is written then no charges are taken by the bank for the issuance of new card. This branch has issued almost three thousand five hundred cards. This beneficial because if a person wants to draw some amount he can easily do it after banking hours. CLEARING:   Meaning of clearing: The word clearing has been derived from the word “Clear” and is defined as “a system by which banks exchange cheques and other negotiable instruments draw on each other within a specified area and thereby secure payment for their client through the clearing house at specified time” in an efficient way. Advantages of Clearing: 1. Since clearing does not involve any cash etc and all the transaction take place through book entries, the number of transactions can be unlimited. 2. No cash is needed as such the risks of robbery, embezzlements and pilferage are totally eliminated. 3. As major payments are made through clearing, the banks can manage cash payment at the counters with a minimum amount of cash in vaults. 4. A lot of time, cost and labor are saved. 5. Since it provides an extra service to the customers of banks without any service charger or costs, more and more people are inclined and attracted towards banking.

Clearing House: It is a place where representatives of all scheduled banks sit together and interchange their claims against each other with the help of controlling staff of State Bank of Pakistan and where there is no branch of State Bank of Pakistan the designated branch of National Bank of Pakistan acts as controlling member instead of State Bank of Pakistan. Working of clearing house: All the bank which are the member of clearing house maintain accounts with State Bank of Pakistan by debit and credit to which the clearing settlements are made. If on a particular day, a bank delivers cheques and other negotiable instruments worth more than the total amount of Cheque received by it that banks accounts with State Bank of Pakistan will be credited with the differential amount. If on the other hand the total amount of cheques and other negotiable instruments draw on a certain bank by other bank is more than the total amount receivable by it from other banks, then this bank’s account will be debited on that day. The cheque delivered to the representatives of other banks for clearing are called outward clearing, whereas cheques received from the representatives of other banks for payment are called inward clearing. Procedure of Settlement: Presume that ACBL got the cheques which are drawn on HBL, NBP and MCB for amounts Rs. 50,000/-, Rs. 15,000/- respectively, its total being amounts Rs.95,000/-, it means that this amount is to be credited to ACBL A/C with S.B.P. on the other hand the cheques drawn on ACBL are from HBL, NBP and MCB of Rs.15,000/-, Rs.75,000/- and Rs.30,000/- respectively, its total being Rs.1,20,000/-, it means that this amount is to be debited from ACBL account. The difference between Rs.95,000/- credit and debit Rs.1,20,000/- debit is Rs.25,000/- debit which means the house is against ACBL for Rs.25,000/-. If we separately show it them. 1. ACBL has t receive Rs.50,000/- from HBL and to pay Rs.15,000/- to HBL so difference is Rs.35,000/- credit. 2. ACBL has to receive Rs.30,000/- from NBP and to pay Rs.75,000/- to NBP so difference is Rs.45,000/- debit. 3. ACBL has to receive from MCB Rs.15,000/- and to pay Rs.30,000/- to MCB so difference is Rs.15,000/- debit. GRAND TOTAL: 35000-45000-15000 = -25000 i.e. Rs.25000 debit. Hence ACBL A/C with State Bank of Pakistan will be debited with Rs.25,000/- and the contra will be other banks accounts respectively. This called as “Debit and Credit Rule”.           Outward Clearing At The Branch:

The following points are to be taken into condsideration while an instrument is accepted at the counter to be presented in outward clearing: 1. The name of the branch appears on its face where it is drawn on 2. It should not be stale or post dated or without date 3. Amount in words and figures does not differ 4. Signature of the drawer appears on the face of instrument 5. Instruments is not mutilated 6. There should be no material alteration if so, it should be properly authenticated 7. If order instrument, suitably endorsed and last endorsee’s account being credited 8. Endorsement is in accordance with the crossings if any 9. The amount of the instrument is same as mentioned on the paying-in-slip and counterfoil 10. The title of account on the paying-in-slip is that of payee or endorsee (with the exception of bearer cheque). If an instrument is in order then out bank’s special crossing stamp is affixed across the face of the instrument. Clearing stamps is affixed on the face of the instruments, paying-in-slip and counterfoil (The stamp is affixed in such a manner that half appears on paying-in-slip and half on counterfoil). The instrument is suitably discharged, where a bearer cheque does not required any discharge and also an instrument in favor of a bank need not be discharged. The instrument along with paying-in-slip is retained while the counterfoil is given to the customer duly signed. Then the following steps are to be taken:1. The particulars of the instruments and the and the pay-in-slip or credit vouchers are entered in the Outward Clearing Register. 2. Serial number is given to each voucher 3. The register is balanced, the credit voucher are separated form the instrument and are released to respective departments against instrument and are released to respective departments against acknowledgement in the register 4. The schedules are arranged bank-wise 5. The schedules are prepared in triplicate, two copies of which are attached with the relevant instrument and the third is kept as office copy 6. The house page is prepared from schedules in triplicate 7. The schedules and house pages are signed by the officer incharge with branch stamp 8. The grand total of the house page is taken and agreed with that of the outward clearing register 9. The instruments along with duplicate and house page are sent to the Main Office Inward Clearing Of The Branch: 1. The particulars of the instruments are compared with the list

2. The instruments are detached and sort out department wise 3. The entry is made in the Inward Clearing Register (serial number, instrument number, account number, amount of the instrument is written). 4. The instruments are sent to the respective departments against acknowledgement in the Inward Clearing Register. 5. The instruments are scrutinized in each respect before honoring the same FOREIGN EXCHANGE DEPARTMENT     Foreign Exchange Department works like the general bank departments with the difference that it deals in foreign currency. This department deals with the following:• Import • Export • Foreign Currency Accounts • Foreign Remittance • Submission of Monthly Reports to SBP IMPORT: The international trade transaction, in which one country buys goods from other country, is called import. The import trade in Pakistan is governed by import and export Act of 1950. Previously, the regulating body of imports was controller of Import and Export. But this function has been shifted to Export Promotion Bureau. Foreign Exchange Departments of all banks are restricted to word under the rules and regulations of government. Import License and Registration: The individuals and firms who desire to import goods from the foreign countries are required to obtain import license. Import licenses are a type of artificial restraint on the import trade of a country. To acquire import license, the importer has to submit applications to the licensing authority. The importers can only get their merchandize cleared from the custom authorities if they have the import license duly issued in their names. The import licenses issued by the Import Trade Controller are required to be registered with the State Bank of Pakistan. Contract of sale: After getting the license, the importer then negotiates with the exporter. When they reach to an agreement on all terms of sale, they sign a contract. Thus contract includes all information of terms and condition of sale.     Letter of credit:

Foreign trade payment problems are mainly solved by a letter of credit. A letter of credit is issued by the importer’s bank. If guarantees payment to the exporter up to specified amount of money provided the terms and conditions laid down the L/C are fulfilled. A letter of credit is a commitment on the part of buyers bank to pay or accept draft drawn upon it, provided drafts do not exceed a specified amount. A letter of credit thus is a (I) written undertaking by an importer’s bank to exporter’s bank. (II) that it will pay or accept draft drawn upon it up to a stated amount with a specified time. (III) the payment will only be made to the exporter if he compliers with the terms of credit. Parties to a letter of credit: There are four parties involved in letter of credit. 1. Account party: The buyer or the importer on whose account and request the letter of credit is opened is known as account party or opener. 2. Issuing bank: The bank which issues or opens a letter of credit at the request of importer is called issuing bank. 3. Exporter or seller: The seller or the party in whose favor L/C is drawn is the exporter. He is also called beneficiary. 4. Negotiating bank: The paying bank in the exporter’s country, on which the draft is drawn is called negotiating bank or paying bank. Opening of letter of credit: The main steps involved in the opening of the letter of creditor as follows: Application for letter of credit: The importer will request his own bank or any other bank, which deals in foreign trade transactions to issue a letter of credit in favor of the exporter. He will prepare an application on the prescribed form available from the bank. The information, which are supplied in the application are based on the contract of sale and include only the important feature of contract, such as value of merchandise, port of shipment, documents to be presented, port of unloading, brief description of goods, import license etc.    Scrutiny of application: Before issuing a letter of credit, the bank will scrutinize whether the importer is of good financial standing, possesses the import license issued by import control. Authorities, the amount available covers the letter of credit applied for, market demand of goods, collateral offered to cover the credit etc. Cash margin: The bank asks the importer to deposit cash or securities with the bank. The proper margin of cash or securities to be deposited is decided by the bank depending upon the credit worthiness of the importer. Issue of the letter of credit: The importer bank after being fully satisfied will issue a letter of credit in favor of the exporter. The L/C may be sent directly to the exporter or the advising bank in the exporter’s county. In such a case, the advising bank will inform the exporter about opening a letter of credit. Shipment of goods: When the exporter receives L/C, he examines it to ensure that it conforms to the terms of contract of sales. He then shifts the goods and presents all

required documents along with the bill to negotiating bank. Role of negotiating bank: The negotiating bank after receiving all the documents and the bill from the exporter will scrutinize them whether these conform with the terms of letter of credit. If the documents of title accompanying the bill are in order, these will be sent to the importers bank for payment. Liability of the issuing bank: On receipt of documents and the bill, the issuing bank will examine them. If the documents on the face appear to be in order, the payment would be released by the bank. In case any defect is found in the documents and the draft is honored by the issuing bank the importer can claim damages on the issuing bank. The issuing bank is only accountable for the completeness of documents, not to see whether goods conform to the contract of sale.  Payment by importer to the bank: First the importer pays all his obligations the bank then bank releases the documents. In case of sight draft, the importer’s bank pays the amount on the same day charging the importing customer’s account. In case of a time draft, the importer discharges his obligations to the accepting bank on or before the maturity date of acceptance. The accepting bank will then release all the shipping documents to the importer. Payment to the exporter: The exporter can obtain payment from the negotiating bank by discounting the draft (L/C) immediately after shipping the goods and obtaining shipping documents. Charges of Letter of Credit: Table 2 Each Sub-sequent Quarter or Part thereof 0.30%

Cash LC’s

First Quarter or Part Thereof

Minimum

Cost to Rs. 5M

Commission 0.40%

Rs. 1000/-

Cost over Rs.5M to Rs. 15M

Commission 0.35%

0.25%

Cost above Rs. 15M to Rs. 25M

Commission 0.25%

0.20% 0.15% Or subject to negotiation and approval from Credit Division

   

Cost in excess of Rs 25 M

Commission 0.20%

  EXPORT: The international trade transaction in which one country sells its goods to other country is called Export. The controlling body of export in Pakistan is Export Promotion Bureau, it gives different incentives to the businessmen for enhancing the exports and reducing the Balance of payment deficit. It restricts the export of some goods and reinforces export of other. The steps involved in import are described earlier from the importer’s point of view. The procedure of export is same, as it can be described from exporters point of view. The activities, which are different, described here.

FOREIGN BILL PURCHASED (FBP): Following requirements must be fulfilled before the purchase of Foreign Export Bills. Exporter should be account holder of the bank. Bank issues the Form-E. Form-E should be filled correctly and then bank authenticates the E-Form. Exporter goes to the custom authorities for custom clearance. Shipping Company issues Bill of Lading or Airway Bill. Exporter should bring other documents like certificates of Origin, commercial invoice, packing list etc. Bank scrutinizes the documents. After fulfilling these requirements, bank purchases the export bill and makes payment for the value of goods in Pak Rupee to the Exporter.     Lodgment: Lodgment means making the payment to exporter by bank against the purchase of bill. Bank gets the documents from the exporter and enter it in a FBP Register in this register first of all FBP number is given, the enter the name of exporter, importer and the name of bank which was open the LC. Two types of rates are used in evaluating the amount: 1. OD Buying rate/At sight rate: It is the rate of export bill, payment of which is to be received within 12 days from the date of lodgment. 2. Usance rate: It is the rate payment of which is to be made at a future date, normally within 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, or 180 days. Realization: Realization means receiving the payment from the foreign bank for the export of goods. Bank gets the credit advice from the treasury office which is situated in Karachi.     FOREIGN DOCUMENTS BILLS FOR COLLECTION: (FDBC) This is another activities which is performed by the export department of ACBL Multan Branch. In FBP bank paid the amount of goods export to the exporter before the maturity of bill and get some charges. Whereas, in FDBC parties deposits the export documents to the bank for the collection of bill. Bank performs this function for the convenience of exporter. In this function bank performs as a intermediary party. FOREIGN CURRENCY ACCOUNTS: A depositor can open account in US Dollar, Pond, Japanese Yen and Euro with nominated branches. For opening of account a Form is provided to the person/party, introduction of the new account holder or by the Officer of the Bank. Procedure of opening foreign currency accounts is same as other accounts. No Zakat is deducted on these accounts, no income tax deductions, no wealth tax deduction will be there, these incentives reinforce and motivate the people to invest in foreign currency accounts rather to keep foreign currency idle. 1. Foreign remittance: Bank also operates in Foreign Currency accounts. In accordance with instructions of SBP, foreign currency accounts are opened in these currencies: US Dollar, Pond, Japanese Yen, Euro. Funds are transferred abroad by Foreign Telegraphic Transfer Swift MT-100 is used for this transfer. Askari

Commercial Bank has its agency arrangements in those countries, where its own branches are not established. Its agency arrangements with Citi Bank, American Express, ABN Amro, Standard Chartered Bank.     SUBMISSION OF MONTHLY RETURNS: It includes reporting of Form-M and Form-E to SBP. Reporting of Form-E: Every Exporter is required to submit a declaration to custom authorities for goods exported. This declaration is submitted on prescribed Form-E in quadruplicate, which is certified by authorized dealer. Four copies of Form-E are maintained. Form-E is reported to SBP at the end of the month, in which the amount is realized. There is a prescribed Performa used for the reporting of Form-E. It includes the reporting period, currency, Serial No. of Form-E, amount, Code No. of country and commodity. Reporting of Form-M: Every foreign bank deducts some charges form the value of goods. It is for miscellaneous purposes like foreign bank charges or foreign agent commission. Form-M is used to declare this outflow of foreign currency. At the end of the month of realization of the amount, Form-M is reported. It includes the list of Serial No. amount and purposes of every Form-M.  SECTION 3        ANALYSIS  FINANCAIL ANALYSIS 9     ACBL achieve the best annual reports of services organization award in 2002. The report show that the ACBL increase its Profitability for last five years. Following are the financial analysis obtains from the annual report of ACBL. Table 3 Rs. In Million 1998 Total Income Interest Income Interest Expenditure 4035 3475 2511 1999 3889 3350 2486 2000 3840 3213 2274 2001 5047 4251 2902 2002 5704 4655 3017

Fee, Comm. & Exchange Income Other Income Spread Operating Expenses Profit before Income Tax Income tax on profit profit after taxation

509 51 965 569 854 495 359

472 67 864 589 712 430 282

506 122 939 680 752 436 316

677 119 1349 854 1008 458 551

802 247 1638 1093 1244 557 687

Total Shareholders' funds Share Capital Reserves Customer Deposits Refinance borrowings Other Liabilities Loans and advances Investments Cash, short term funds and statutory deposits with SBP

1937 986 951 23417 2194 1184 9708 13888

2046 986 1060 24358 3145 1477 13056 8679

2155 986 1229 30360 2882 3058 17893 8651

2579 1036 1521 41200 3222 3980 23292 11706

4173 1087 1939 51732 3392 11016 30035 26759

3504

7210

10056

13436

10020

Property, plants & equipments Other Assets Total Assets

501 1130 28731

536 1546 31027

641 1213 38454

723 1824 50980 Rs in Billion

1663 1835 70313

Imports Exports Guarantees

11.5 20 3.2

17.5 22.8 5.3

26.2 30.6 4.8

32 38.8 6.2 Percentage

40.2 47.3 14.2

Return on average shareholders' funds (after tax) 19.3 14.2 15 23.2 20.3

Return on average assets (after tax) Rate of cash dividends Advances to deposits Property, plants & equipments to average shareholders' funds Capital adequacy ratio

1.4 20 41.5

0.9 17.5 53.6

0.9 15 58.9

1.2 20 56.5

1.1 20 58.1

27 16.98

27 13.2

30.5 11.95

30.5 10.78 Rupees

49.3 12

Earning per share Net Assets per share

3.6 19.64

2.9 20.75

3 21.85

5.06 24.9

6.32 38.38

No. of employee No. of Branches  SWOT ANALYSIS

996 27

1001 28

1147 29

1281 36

1456 46

SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats) analysis of ACBL is described below: Strength:  ACBL has got a well-developed on-line system in most of its branches. Remittance Department is working very efficiently in transferring the funds of people due to this system.  The bank has also started ATM facility in most of its branches. 24-hour banking is new trend in Pakistan and ACBL has also taken apart in this trend.  One distinctive feature of the bank is that it is the only bank working for the welfare of army officers, which was established by Army Welfare Trust.  The productivity of the bank is very good. Bank is providing a high quality service to its customers.  ACBL have strength that most of the imports & exports which are done in Multan are handle by ACBL Multan.   Weaknesses:  ACBL has lesser number of branches as compared to many other branches. Due to this problem, army officers can not avail the benefits of their own bank.  The human resource department is not performing the function of selection and recruitment very effectively. Selection process is not on merit due to which competent persons cannot be selected.  Bank is not introducing new products and new saying schemes. Bank should boost the product development and increase the

range of facilities offered for customers.  Bank is weak in its credit management. Bank should lend to very sound parties and increase its payment rate. Opportunities:  Govt. is taking very bold steps to promote IT in Pakistan. ACBL has an opportunity to improve in technology.  Stock exchange is very volatile and takes immediate effect. So, in the time of crises, conservative investors return to saving deposits.  ACBL is surrounded by many competitors. It has an opportunity to do aggressive marketing to increase its business. Threats:  ACBL has many competitors, which are continuously increasing its products and marketing aggressively. It may cause its customers to shift to competitors.  Some other banks have competent taskforce, which is also a threat for ACBL. Because human resource is the most valuable resource. Pakistan India relations often create a war danger. This chance of war may cause army officer and their families to increase the frequency of withdrawals, which would decrease deposits. In Multan Imports & Exports business are done on seasonal basis. Which effect the whole business of ACBL Multan  SECTION 4FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIon      FINDINGS   Following are the problem face by the ACBL Multan Branch since last quarter. • Deposit Decreased • Advances Decreased • Import Decreased Reasons For Decreasing Deposits The major reasons for decreasing deposits are Low Profits Rates as compare to other banks: Low profit rates are one of the major reasons for meeting the deposit targets. The profit rates on ACBL deposit schemes are quite low when compared with other banks especially with the National Saving Centers. In todays every customers is the rational customer he knows the value of money and wants a best return on his money.

Earlier ACBL was able to attract customer due to their ancillary services like ATM Cards, Credit Cards, Online Banking etc. but now all the banks are offering these services through their own network or through third party contracting, so ACBL plus points are no more their advantages. So the only thing through which they can increase their deposits are their profit rates, because the customers only want maximum profit on their investment. Due to the increase in foreign remittances there are ample opportunities for good deposits but a knowledgeable customer always invest in the stock exchange that are not only growing day by day but are also giving handsome profits in the shape of dividends and stock trading. The left behind deposit is invested in that financial institution which provides him handsome return/profit, like national saving schemes and investment bank. Now in the stock exchange that are not only day by day but also giving handsome profits in the shape of either in dividend or the stock trading. APBUMA and HQ2 corps are the main accounts that shifted to other banks due to our low profit rates. They totally withdraw approximately 40 M during the 2nd quarter.      Under lien deposit have been withdrawn: High rates on advances against lien deposits have been one of the major reasons for deposit withdrawals. On of ACBL customers Mr. Awais account number 01165007017 deposited 50 million in ACBL on which he was getting 3.0% profit rate (quite low as compared to other banks). Later he was given loan against that deposit by making the account under lien at 7.5% markup, but he got a good offer from other bank that bank not only gave him the good deposit rate of 5% but also offer him the loan against deposit at lower rate them Askari Bank. Due to this dual advantage he shifted his deposits to that bank and his account decrease a net withdrawal of 21 million during a period of 1st April, 2003 to 310, June 2003.   1. Major Withdrawals Table 4 Withdrawal during the period 01-04-2003 to 30-06-2003 23 M 21 M 17 M

Account #

Account Title

0110006592 0116507017 0110058739   Reasons for Decreasing Advances: Seasonal Business:

HQ2 CORPS M. AWAIS APBUMA

Multan is one of the cotton growing cities of Pakistan. Most of the businesses in Multan are directly or indirectly linked to cotton that is also the case with ACBL clients. Most of ACBL clients are from textile sector which borrow for 4 months as so, i.e October – January. During this period all ACBL major clients that include Fazal Cloth Mills, Ahmed Fine, Hussain Mills, Fatima Enterprises etc. are using their limits to the full as they have to buy and stock the cotton for whole year for further processing later in the month came. So ACBL will be able to achieve the targets later in the year. That is also the case in Oil Seeds business (other major business sector in Multan). They usually borrow during the period of April to July and their borrowing is to full extent in the month of July.  High Rates of Markup:

Another reason of shortfall/low lien advances is the high rate of markup, which is charged to clients. Due to high markup rates, many customer are running their business to other banks which are offering them low rates as compared to us . Prepayment of TF due to Non competitive Markup Rate: Due to high markup rates, some of the parties to whom TF was given are adjusting their TF in advances as they are able to get TF at better rates as compared to ACBL. One of the example is that of Ahmed Fine (Pvt.) Ltd. who have adjusted their TF in advances due to high rates. Due to that ACBL have not only lost the profit but also the other business from the client. Non Introductory of Money Market Transaction: When the banks have more liquidity and they have more deposits with them than they can lend to customer or float in the stock market then they lend them to other banks for short period of time usually of 30 to 90 days. This is money market transaction. The rates on these money market transactions are lowest in the market and ranges between 1.2% to 1.5%, but now the banks due to high liquidity have started to offer the money market transaction rates (with slight increase) to their customer which are highly liquid companies for short term period i.e. 30 to 90 days. Their payments and repayments are done in full. Our big groups borrow from other banks at money market rates and pay to us when they want their stock and later they pay to that bank at quite a low rate, which they would have to pay us. Askari Bank has not started these transactions, so ACBL are loosing their customers.                       2. Major withdrawal: Table 5 Withdrawal during the period 01-01-2003 to 30-06-2003 $7,785,820

Customer Name

Facility

FATIMA ENTERPRISES FAZAL CLOTH MILLS LTD. AHMEDFINE (Pvt). Ltd. SHUJUABAD OIL

FIM $ FCF FE-25

FAPC $ FCF PART I FE-25

$2,658,708

FAPC $ FCF PART I FE-25 FIM $ FCF FE-25

$ 3,005,000 $ 2,000,025

FATIMA ENTERPRISES       Reasons for shortfall of Imports: Seasonal Business:

CASH FINANCE

Rs. 13,000,000

The reason of decreasing imports is also seasonal business done in Multan. ACBL major clients doing the import business are Oil seeds Companies. ACBL major clients are Khawaja Bashir and Sons, Shujabad Oil etc. they mostly import the in the period between July and March. So most of import business is done in the last 2 quarters of the year, because they need raw material between the above-mentioned period for producing the Oil. During the month of July ACBL Multan Branch are going to open the LC amounting to Rs. 450 million.       RECOMMENDATIONS:   As such there is no need of any improvement as Askari Commercial Bank is one of the leading bank of the country and upholds it’s name but still I have a few suggestions in my mind which I think my duty to mention. First of all, in order to make the working environment of the bank better some recommendations are given. In any organization we have to work like a group as a whole. The attitude of the one employee can cause tension in the whole environment so it is suggested that they should work as a team and co-operate with each other as well as with internees for better working environment. For this purpose they should either make a schedule for the internees or the rotation time period be reduced in those department, which have less work for internees. Because during the internship the internees come her to learn and know about the working of the organization. They should try to tell as much to the internees as possible. So that they can learn how they have to work in an organization when they get the job. Even if they get job in any other organization they know how working in the organization goes on. Askari Commercial Banks do good progress in Multan. But the most problem they face is insufficient number of computer. All the employees have not a computer system. There is little number of computers available in the branch the computer, which is available, most of them are P II so the working efficiency of the computer is very low. So it is recommended that the branch need P IV computer. It is also recommended that all the employees must have computer system so that they can work effectively. The another important problem ACBL Multan Branch face is the number of employees working in the bank. The number of employees are very low due to this problem the distribution of work is also not right. Some person has more burden of work while some have less burden. So the overall working efficiency of the bank is not good. So the ACBL Multan Branch have need of good, honest, skilled young employees who can increase the efficiency of the bank.            

      RECORDING OF SOURCES  

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      • Reference # 1-7 & 9 from Annual Report of ACBL 2002 • Website of ACBL www.askaribank.com.pk • Reference # 8 from Broachers of Askari Bank Personal Finance Scheme • Schedule of Bank Charges Report