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"Tesla" redirects here. For other uses, see Tesla (disambiguation). Nikola Tesla "I have harnessed the cosmic rays and caused them to operate a motive device." - Nikola Tesla; Brooklyn Eagle, July 10, 1931. Born: 9/10 July 1856 Smiljan, Austrian Empire (now Croatia) Died: circa January 7, 1943 New York City, New York, USA Occupation: inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla (Никола Тесла) (July 1856-January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. Tesla is regarded as one of the most important inventors in history. He is also well known for his contributions to the discipline of electricity and magnetism in the late 19th and early 20th century. His patents and theoretical work form the basis of modern alternating current electric power (AC) systems, including the polyphase power distribution systems and the AC motor, with which he helped usher in the Second Industrial Revolution. In the United States, Tesla's fame rivaled that of any other inventor or scientist in history or popular culture. After his demonstration of wireless communication in 1893 and after being the victor in the "War of Currents", he was widely respected as America's greatest electrical engineer. Much of his early work pioneered modern electrical engineering and many of his discoveries were of groundbreaking importance. He later became credited as being the inventor of the radio. Never putting a large focus on his finances, Tesla died impoverished and forgotten at the age of 86. Tesla's legacy can be seen across modern civilization wherever electricity is used. Aside from his work on electromagnetism and engineering, Tesla is said to have contributed in varying degrees to the fields of robotics, ballistics, computer science, nuclear physics, and theoretical physics. In his later years, Tesla was regarded as a mad scientist and became noted for making bizarre claims about possible scientific developments. [1][2] Many of his achievements have been used, with some controversy, to support various pseudosciences, UFO theories, and New Age occultism. Many contemporary admirers of Tesla have deemed him the man who invented the twentieth century. Contents [hide] 1 Early years 1.1 Hungary and France 1.2 United States 2 Middle years 2.1 Colorado Springs 3 Later years 3.1 Field theories 4 Directed-energy weapon 5 Death and afterwards 6 Relations and friendships 7 Personal views 8 Education 9 Recognition and honors 10 Further readings and films 11 Notes 12 Sources

From an early age Tesla would visualise an invention in his brain in precise form before moving to the construction stage. In 1882 he moved to Paris.uka Mandi&#263. arriving hours before her death in 1882. France to work as an engineer for the Continental Edison Company. his manager in his previous job. His baptism certificate reports that he was born on June 28. Austria (1875).. 1881. where he was first employed as an assistant engineer. [3] [edit] Hungary and France In 1881 he moved to Budapest to work for a telegraph company. Tesla hastened from Paris to his mother's side as she lay dying.13 External links [edit] Early years Tesla was born precisely at midnight during an electrical storm to a Serbian family in the village of Smiljan near Gospi&#263. [4] For a while he stayed in Maribor. He also developed a device that. Tesla fell ill. Although their encounter was brief. Milutin Tesla. was a telephone repeater or amplifier. but according to others could have been the first loudspeaker. "You've arrived.ac. Her last words to him were. In the same year. he studied the uses of alternating current. Tesla told his biographer John O'Neill that Edison offered him the then-staggering . the birthplace of his mother. His father was Rev. There. they did work on a project together using twin turbines to create continual power. a priest in the Serbian Orthodox Church Metropolitanate of Sremski Karlovci. in the Lika region of the Austrian Empire (today in Croatia). Nid o. designing improvements to electric equipment. the American Telephone Company. then a young inventor from Australia. he met Neboj a Petrovi&#269. Tesla was one of five children. Toma Oklobd ija. a technique which is sometimes known as picture thinking. in 1862. He suffered a nervous breakdown during this time. His godfather. "I know two great men and you are one of them. July 10 in the Gregorian calendar. His family moved to Gospi&#263. His mother was &#272. [edit] United States In 1884.. Tesla became the chief electrician to the company. He was baptised in the Serbian Orthodox Church. and the village of Tomingaj near Gra&#269. my pride. he had little besides a letter of recommendation from Charles Batchelor. when Tesla first arrived in the US. and was later engineer for the country's first telephone system. He spent two to three weeks recuperating in Gospi&#263. the other is this young man. Tesla conceived of the induction motor and began developing various devices that use rotating magnetic fields (for which he received patents in 1888). On the opening of the telephone exchange in Budapest. Tesla was offered the task of a complete redesign of the Edison company's direct current generators. While there. according to some. She was talented in making home craft tools.. Charles Batchelor wrote. having one brother and three sisters. Nikola Tesla as a young man. Soon thereafter. In the letter of recommendation to Thomas Edison. Jovan Drenovac." Edison hired Tesla to work for his company Edison Machine Works. and christened by the Serbian Orthodox priest. herself a daughter of a Serbian Orthodox Church priest. Tesla related in his autobiography that he experienced detailed moments of inspiration.Tesla engaged in reading many works. was a captain in the army protecting the Military Frontier. Tesla's work for Edison began with simple electrical engineering and quickly progressed to solving the company's most difficult problems." After her death. Decades later. Tesla went to school in Karlovac. then studied electrical engineering at the Austrian Polytechnic in Graz. memorizing complete books. 1856 (Julian calendar).

Tesla resigned when he was refused a raise to $25 per week (Jonnes. adjusted for inflation[1]) if he completed the motor and generator improvements. Tesla working in his labIn April of 1887. Tesla worked nearly a year to redesign them and gave the Edison company several enormously profitable new patents in the process. Once liberated.000. The modern term for the phenomenon produced by this device is bremsstrahlung (or braking radiation). In the same year. which he demonstrated to the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (now IEEE) in 1888. he developed the principles of his Tesla coil and began working with George Westinghouse at Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company's Pittsburgh labs. Tesla formed his own company. Tesla worked in New York as a common laborer from 1886 to 1887 to feed himself and raise capital for his next project. "Tesla. you don't understand our American humor.sum of $50. In 1887. he constructed the initial brushless alternating current induction motor. electrons are strongly repelled by the high . Tesla began investigating what would later be called Xrays using his own single node vacuum tubes (similar to his patent #514170).000 (at least $1 million today. p110). Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing. When Tesla inquired about the $50. Westinghouse listened to his ideas for polyphase systems which would allow transmission of alternating current electricity over large distances. Edison reportedly replied to him. This device differed from other early X-ray tubes in that they had no target electrode. The initial financial investors disagreed with Tesla on his plan for an alternating current motor and eventually relieved him of his duties at the company." and reneged on his promise. We now know that this device operated by emitting electrons from the single electrode through a combination of field emission and thermionic emission. Electromechanical devices and principles developed by Nikola Tesla: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Various devices that use rotating magnetic fields (1882) Induction motor and "high" frequency alternator A means for increasing the intensity of electrical oscillations Alternating current long-distance electrical transmission system (1888) [5] Tesla coil Tesla effect Tesla principle bladeless turbine Bifilar coil Telegeodynamics Systems for wireless communication (prior art for the invention of radio) and radio frequency oscillators Robotics and the "AND" logic gate [6] X-rays Tubes using the bremsstrahlung process Devices for ionized gases Devices for high field emission Devices for charged particle beams Methods for providing extremely low level of resistance to the passage of electrical current (predecessor to superconductivity) Voltage multiplication circuitry Devices for high voltage discharges Devices for lightning protection Magnifying Transmitter VTOL aircraft Dynamic theory of gravity Concepts for electric vehicles [edit] Middle years In 1886.

he became a naturalized citizen of the United States at the age of 35. Tesla would establish his Houston Street laboratory in New York at 46 E. Tesla developed the "Art of Telautomatics". he filed the first basic radio patent (U. invented a machine for inducing sleep. He continued research of the system and rotating magnetic field principles. Tesla was influenced by the Vedic philosophy teachings of the Swami Vivekananda.When Tesla was 36 years old." Edison and Westinghouse were almost bankrupt. cordless gas discharge lamps. On July 30. effectively building the first radio transmitter. Tesla released Westinghouse from contract. a . [9] When Tesla was 41 years old. believing that the military would want things such as radio controlled torpedoes. Tesla commented on the hazards of working with single node X-ray producing devices. It was a historic event as Tesla and George Westinghouse introduced visitors to AC power by using it to illuminate the Exposition. By 1892. He lit vacuum tubes wirelessly at both of the New York locations. He performed several experiments (including photographing the bones of his hand. In St. he described and demonstrated in detail its principles. Tesla served as the vice president of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (now part of the IEEE) from 1892 to 1894. [8] Nikola Tesla's generation system using AC circuits to transport energy across great distances. 1891. Tesla also explained the principles of the rotating magnetic field and induction motor by demonstrating how to make an egg made of copper stand on end in his demonstration of the device he constructed known as the "Egg of Columbus". much of his research was lost in the 1895 Houston Street lab fire. in Electrical Review.S. On display were Tesla's fluorescent lights and single node bulbs. Tesla's demonstrations were written about widely through various media outlets. an international exposition was held which for the first time devoted a building to electrical exhibits. Also during this time. the first patents concerning the polyphase power system were granted. Also in 1897. Tesla later observed an assistant severely "burnt" by X-rays in his lab. Tesla made a demonstration related to radio communication in 1893. Tesla and Edison became adversaries in part due to Edison's promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over the more efficient alternating current advocated by Tesla. (Tesla. As a result of the "War of Currents. the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Pennsylvania and the National Electric Light Association. who adapted several Serbian poems of Jovan Jovanovi&#263.. He befriended Century Magazine editor Robert Underwood Johnson. he demonstrated a radio controlled boat to the US military. he sent these images to R ntgen) but didn't make his findings widely known.electric field near the electrode during negative voltage peaks from the oscillating HV output of the Tesla Coil. Addressing the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia. incorrectly attributing the skin damage to ozone rather than the radiation: "As to the hurtful actions on the skin. Illinois. but merely to the ozone generated in contact with the skin. At the 1893 World's Fair. so in 1897. Also in the late 1880s.. Patent 645576). providing Westinghouse a break from Tesla's patent royalties. It is contained in US390721. He generated AC of one million volts using a conical Tesla coil and investigated the skin effect in conductors.. Missouri. Later. he investigated high frequency alternating currents. generating X-rays as they collide with the glass envelope. Tesla established his 35 South Fifth Avenue laboratory in New York during this same year. providing evidence for the potential of wireless power transmission. [7] Some of Tesla's closest friends were artists. but to a small extent". Louis. Houston Street. Tesla researched radiation which led to setting up the basic formulation of cosmic rays. Tesla became aware of what Wilhelm R ntgen later identified as effects of Xrays. Nitrous acid may also be responsible. A year later. They are not due to the R ntgen rays. 30 November 1895). He also used Geissler tubes. From 1893 to 1895. later. Zmaj (which Tesla translated). I note that they have been misinterpreted.. designed tuned circuits. and transmitted electromagnetic energy without wires.

several of his bladeless turbine engines . [edit] Colorado Springs Main article: Magnifying Transmitter Publicity picture of a participant sitting in his laboratory in Colorado Springs with his "Magnifying Transmitter" generating millions of volts of electricity. before the end of the century where he conducted the radio wave experiments. Patent 609250. The tower was finally dismantled for scrap during wartime. New York. the establishment of a wireless power transmission facility that would be known as Wardenclyffe. Specifically. crude heterodyne effects.S. These devices had an innovative coherer and a series of logic gates. and up to 135 feet long). In 1996 Corum and Corum published an analysis of Jovian plasma torus signals which indicate that there was a correspondence between the setting of Mars at Colorado Springs. and Tesla began his fight to re-acquire the radio patent. Tesla spent the latter part of his life trying to signal Mars. Tesla's diary contains explanations of his experiments concerning the ionosphere and the ground's telluric currents via transverse waves and longitudinal waves. [13] Tesla stated that he observed stationary waves during this time. the US Patent Office reversed its decision and awarded Guglielmo Marconi the patent for radio.)In 1899. The lab was torn down and its contents sold to pay debts. though these announcements and his data were rejected by the scientific community. and the cessation of signals from Jupiter in the summer of 1899 when Tesla was there. Lower Manhattan. renamed The Radio Wave building. (Tesla's notes identify this as a double exposure.000 (51% from J. Tesla began planning the Wardenclyffe Tower facility. Patent 685012 for the means for increasing the intensity of electrical oscillations. on this mechanical ignition system. On his 50th birthday in 1906. observing lightning signals via his receivers.In 1900. He noted measurements of repetitive signals from his receiver which are substantially different from the signals he had noted from storms and earth noise. Tesla was granted U. [12]. three. Tesla proved that the earth was a conductor. The United States Patent Office classification system currently assigns this patent to the primary Class 178/43 ("telegraphy/space induction"). Tesla's lab operations were moved to Wardenclyffe from Houston Street. [edit] Later years Tesla's Wardenclyffe Tower located in Shoreham.. Tesla decided to move and began research in Colorado Springs. "Electrical Igniter for Gas Engines". a radio-controlled boat was demonstrated to the public during an electrical exhibition at Madison Square Garden. he "recorded" signals of what he believed were extraterrestrial radio signals. and regeneration techniques). at 49 W 27th St. [11] At his lab. Colorado.form of robotics. In June 1902.000 rpm Bladeless Turbine. with $150. Newspapers of the time labeled Wardenclyffe "Tesla's million-dollar folly. [10] In 1898. although the other applicable classes include 505/825 ("low temperature superconductivity-related apparatus"). A commemorative plaque was placed on the building in 1977 to honor his work.S. [15][16] Tesla left Colorado Springs on January 7. The Colorado experiments prepared Tesla for his next project. highfrequency experiments. In the same year. and he produced artificial lightning (with discharges consisting of millions of volts. 1900. He gained U. radio frequency feedback. and four clicks together. Long Island. Tesla lived in the former Gerlach Hotel. Tesla demonstrated his 200 hp (150 kW) 16.g. Pierpont Morgan). he later recalled that the signals appeared in groups of one. Tesla devised an "electric igniter" or spark plug for Internal combustion gasoline engines. distributed high-Q helical resonators. During 1910-1911 at the Waterside Power Station in New York. Radio remote control remained a novelty until the 1960s. two. Upon his arrival he told reporters that he was conducting wireless telegraphy experiments transmitting signals from Pikes Peak to Paris. Reproductions of Tesla's receivers and coherer circuits show an unpredicted level of complexity (e. The arcs are about 7 meters (22 ft) long. Tesla also investigated atmospheric electricity." In 1904. where he would have room for his high-voltage. [14] In the Colorado Springs lab.(between Broadway and Sixth Avenue).

Tesla believed that the League of Nations was not a remedy for the times and issues. Tesla made predictions regarding the relevant issues of the post-World War I environment. Tesla refused the assistance. The nature of OCD was little understood at the time and no treatments were available. he often felt compelled to walk around a block three times before entering a building. proprietor of the Waldorf-Astoria to pay a $20.After Wardenclyffe. It is believed that due to their animosity toward each other neither was given the award. the Edison Medal. in front of the spiral coil of his high-frequency transformer at East Houston Street. with Rudjer Boscovich's book Theoria Philosophiae Naturalis. the facility was seized and torn down by the Marines. Tesla was reportedly negotiating with the United Kingdom government about a ray system. of his homeland. [18] The cover caption noted his contribution to electrical power generation. The letter contained the message of gratitude to Mihajlo Pupin who initiated a donation scheme by which American companies could support Tesla. After the war ended. and this undoubtedly hurt what was left of his reputation. Prior to World War I. [17] In 1934. he was staying at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. despite their enormous scientific contributions. It is suggested that the removal of the Chamberlain government ended negotiations. first established principles regarding frequency and power level for the first primitive RADAR units. Tesla alone was rumored to the Nobel Prize of 1912. Around 1916. He was living in poverty. unsuccessfully. as was rumour in the press at the time. Tesla's rumored 1912 nomination for the Nobel Prize in Physics was primarily for his experiments with tuned circuits using high-voltage high-frequency resonant transformers. Some of what he wanted to achieve at Wardenclyffe was accomplished with the Telefunken Wireless. By the twenties. and chose to live by a modest pension received from Yugoslavia and to continue researching. Nikola Tesla. etc. . to obtain a court injunction against the claims of Marconi. Tesla started to exhibit pronounced symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the years following. that both refused to ever accept the award if the other received it first. Tesla received AIEE's highest honor. In 1934. so his symptoms were considered by some to be evidence of partial insanity. in August 1917. Long Island. Earlier. the Wardenclyffe deed was turned over to George Boldt. cloth napkins beside his plate at every meal. Eventually.On Tesla's seventy-fifth birthday in 1931. in a printed article (December 20. This is one of several Nobel Prize controversies. Since the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Marconi for radio in 1909. Tesla looked overseas for investors to fund his research. At this time. He became obsessed with the number three. In 1915. stated he was building RADAR systems "conceived according to the principles stated by Tesla". When the war started.000 debt. because it was suspected that it could be used by German spies. demanded a stack of three folded. and that both rejected any possibility of sharing it. Tesla built the Telefunken Wireless Station in Sayville. working with the first French RADAR systems. Tesla's portrait in Paris. New York. Time magazine put him on its cover. sporting the pose he is often immortalized in today. Thomas Edison and Tesla were mentioned as potential laureates to share the Nobel Prize of 1915. around the time that the Wardenclyffe Tower was demolished by Boldt to make the land a more viable real estate asset. Tesla had also stated that efforts had been made to steal the so called "death ray". renting in an arrangement for deferred payments. Emile Girardeau. In 1917. Tesla received his last patent in 1928 for an apparatus for aerial transportation which was the first instance of VTOL aircraft. There is some indication that each sought to minimize the other one's achievements and right to win the award. 1914). Tesla lost the funding he was receiving from his European patents.were tested at 100-5000 hp. Tesla filed a lawsuit against Marconi attempting. In 1917. Tesla. Tesla filed for bankruptcy because he owed so much in back taxes. Tesla wrote to consul Jankovi&#263.

Tesla may have viewed his principles in such a manner as to not be in conflict with other modern theories (besides Einstein's). Reminiscent of Mach's principle. dazzles and makes people blind to the underlying errors. by the end of the 1930s. . [19]. 1952. is much older than its present proponents. The bulk of the theory was developed between 1892 and 1894. some time between the evening of January 5 and the morning of January 8. . Few details were revealed by Tesla about his theory in the announcement. to the nimblest creature . Some believe that Tesla never fully developed the Unified Field Theory. who. refuse to subscribe to such a view. Whenever action is born from force.. Tesla stated he had completed a dynamic theory of gravity. Tesla's critique in the announcement was the opening clash between him and modern experimental physics.Tesla died of heart failure alone in the New Yorker Hotel..[a] magnificent mathematical garb which fascinates. not withstanding other and multifold obligations.. Tesla's theory explained gravity using electrodynamics consisting of transverse waves (to a lesser extent) and longitudinal waves (for the majority). To say that in the presence of large bodies space becomes curved is equivalent to stating that something can act upon nothing. Of properties we can only speak when dealing with matter filling the space.'.from man.. by the way. 1943. There is no thing endowed with life . he died before he publicized any details. [21] [edit] Directed-energy weapon See Directed-energy_weapon#Tesla for Tesla's claim that he invented a death ray. stated that '... Tesla's theory is ignored by some researchers (and mainly disregarded by physicists). It was completed. though it be infinitesimal. but only attributes and these are of our own making. for one. its exponents are brilliant men but they are metaphysicists rather than scientists. Tesla. concerning Albert Einstein's relativity theory.. He has not.. I. [20]. including the so-called time-space continuum. It might as well be said that God has properties. Tesla was essentially destitute and died with significant debts... [2] The theory was never published. Later that year the US Supreme Court upheld Tesla's patent number 645.the relativity theory. [edit] Death and afterwards Bust of Tesla by Ivan Me trovi&#263. At the time of his announcement. at the age of 86.. While Tesla had "worked out a dynamic theory of gravity" that he soon hoped to give to the world. who is enslaving the elements. Tesla was critical of Einstein's relativity work. Tesla also stated that: I hold that space cannot be curved. wrote a thousand volumes of excellent literature on a vast variety of subjects. the cosmic balance is upset and the universal motion results. He stated that it was "worked out in all details" and hoped to give to the world the theory soon. Tesla stated in 1925 that. The theory is like a beggar clothed in purple whom ignorant people take for a king.[edit] Field theories When he was 81.. for the simple reason that it can have no properties.576 in effect recognizing him as the inventor of radio. Despite selling his AC electricity patents. It was advanced over 200 years ago by my illustrious countryman Boskovic... during the period that he was conducting experiments with high frequency and high potential electromagnetism and patenting devices for their utilization. Boskovic dealt with relativity. it was considered by the scientific establishment to exceed the bounds of reason.in all this world that does not sway in its turn. the great philosopher. according to Tesla.

Immediately after Tesla's death became known. but his extravagant personality and sometimes unrealistic claims. He did it only once for princess Vilma Lwoff-Parlaghy. Me trovi&#263. cared for no sort of amusement of any kind and lived in utter disregard of the most elementary rules of hygiene" and that. New York. but he died before getting a chance to see it. Tesla did not like to pose for portraits. because of the nature of Tesla's inventions and patents. [23] Tesla's funeral took place on January 12. trusting himself entirely to his inventor's instinct and practical American sense. [22] One document states that "[he] is reported to have some 80 trunks in different places containing transcripts and plans having to do with his experiments. his body was cremated. and transmission of energy. at times unsuitably and with some controversy. After the FBI was contacted by the War Department. Sava Kosanovi&#267. combined with his unquestionable genius. with the only negative opinion coming from Tesla who was quoted as saying.. many of his innovations. such as in communication for better understanding. Eventually." [edit] Personal views Tesla believed that war could not be avoided until the cause for its recurrence was removed. "He had no hobby. Tesla had been working on what he claimed was a teleforce weapon. to support various fringe theories that are regarded as unscientific. His ashes were taken to Belgrade. He remained bitter in the aftermath of his incident with Edison. New York City. his nephew. but was opposed to wars in general. theories and claims have been used. his papers were declared to be top secret. But he had a veritable contempt for book learning and mathematical knowledge. knowing that just a little theory and calculation would have saved him 90 per cent of the labor. The urn was placed in the Nikola Tesla museum. Tesla's house in Smiljan is currently open for visitors as a memorial museum. as a means to ensure friendly international relations. Most of Tesla's own work conformed with the principles and methods accepted by science. the Federal Bureau of Investigation instructed the Office of Alien Property to take possession of his papers and property. "His method was inefficient in the extreme. despite his US citizenship. A similar statue was also erected in his hometown of Gospi&#263. Nikola Tesla became very close friends with Mark Twain. The day after Edison died the New York Times contained extensive coverage of Edison's life. All of his personal effects were seized on the advice of presidential advisors. Edgar Hoover declared the case "most secret". His wish was to have a sculpture made by his close friend. transportation. where it resides to this day. made a bronze bust (1952) that is held in the Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade and a statue (1955/56) placed at the Rudjer Boskovic Institute in Zagreb. have made him a popular figure among fringe theorists and believers in conspiracies about 'hidden knowledge'. They spent a lot of time together in his lab and elsewhere. spring of 1894In his middle life.[24] He sought to reduce distance. in 1986. and J. I was almost a sorry witness of his doings. At the time of his death. Serbia. for an immense ground had to be covered to get anything at all unless blind chance intervened and. 1943.. at the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine in Manhattan. got possession of some of his personal effects which are now housed in the Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade. but that portrait is lost. [25] . [edit] Relations and friendships Twain in the lab of Nikola Tesla.. In 1976. It appears that his proposed death ray was related to his research into ball lightning and plasma. In the years after. a bronze statue of Tesla was placed at Niagara Falls." Statue of Nikola Tesla in Niagara Falls State ParkTesla's Serbian-Orthodox family and the Yugoslav embassy struggled with the American authorities to gain these items after his death due to the potential significance of some of his research. Croatian artist Ivan Me trovi&#263.. at first. After the funeral. or death ray. Yugoslavia in 1957.

. Charles University in Prague. "Who Was The Real Dr. A century from now it will no more occur to a normal person to mate with a person eugenically unfit than to marry a habitual criminal. became a proponent of a self-imposed selective breeding version of eugenics. Secondary school: Karlovac Degrees Baccalaureate of Physics: Austrian Polytechnic Institute (Graz) Baccalaureate of Mathematics: Austrian Polytechnic Institute (Graz) Baccalaureate of Mechanical Engineering: Austrian Polytechnic Institute (Graz) Baccalaureate of Electrical Engineering: Austrian Polytechnic Institute (Graz) Graduate studies Physics at Charles University in Prague Docteur Honoris Causa For his work Tesla received numerous honorary doctoral degrees from a number of universities to include: Columbia University. University of Brno.. Corum. Because of his research in electrotherapy and his invention of high frequency oscillators. Polytechnic Institute of Bucharest. he . Nikola Tesla? (A Look At His Professional Credentials)".M. The trend of opinion among eugenists is that we must make marriage more difficult. a life-long bachelor. Graz Polytechnic Institute. he also spoke seven other languages: English. French. Certainly no one who is not a desirable parent should be permitted to produce progeny. University of Sofia. posterpaper.C. [. [27] [edit] Education Tesla was fluent in many languages. University de Poitiers. Corum.F." he predicted.. Czech. Primary Elementary school: Gospi&#263. He believed that women would become the dominant sex in the future. see: W.. and the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. October 22-25. Latin. Tesla in an interview. Wysock. Hungarian. Hardesty and K. the Edison Medal. He was selected as a fellow of the IEEE (at the time the AIEE) and was awarded its most prestigious prize. and Italian. German. [26] In 1926. As well as Serbo-Croat. Antenna Measurement Techniques Association. commenting on the ills of the social subservience of women and the struggle of women toward gender equality. and accepted invitations to become a member of the American Philosophical Society. Tesla.]. and Yale University Further reading For a detailed outline of Dr. Tesla's education and certifications.L. J. and the very forces that motivate the planets in their orbits and cause them to rotate will rotate his own machinery. The only method compatible with our notions of civilization and the race is to prevent the breeding of the unfit by sterilization and the deliberate guidance of the mating instinct [.. he stated. indicated that humanity's future would be run by "Queen Bees". He was also made a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. University of Belgrade.] man's new sense of pity began to interfere with the ruthless workings of nature. In a 1937 interview. University of Grenoble. Nikola Tesla received many awards and accolades. 2001 (PDF) [edit] Recognition and honors Scientific societies As the result of his achievements in the development of electricity and radio.. University of Zagreb. J. University of Paris."One day man will connect his apparatus to the very wheelwork of the universe. Like many of his era. Vienna Polytechnic Institute.

Tesla is considered to be the deity of technicians and engineers and can be summoned with a special chant near a reproduction of a Tesla Coil. Tesla also makes a brief appearance as a character in the 1989 novel Moon Palace by Paul Auster. or stories concerning secret pre WWII technology: Tesla appears as a character in the 1995 novel The Prestige by Christopher Priest.was also made a fellow of the American Electro-Therapeutic Association. On the reverse side there is portion of drawing of an induction motor from his patent application and a photograph of Tesla holding a gas filled tube emitting light as a result of electric induction. 100 Serbian dinars banknote reverse. TPP Nikola Tesla A and TPP Nikola Tesla B. Photo courtesy of National Bank of Serbia[29]. Tesla is a continuing character in a series of novels by Spider Robinson concerned with Callahan's Crosstime Saloon. It is given to individuals or a team that has made outstanding contributions to the generation or utilization of electric power. Note the drawing of the electric motor. Science fiction and computer games Tesla technology is recurring in alternate history works like steampunk. are named in honor of Tesla. Cosmological objects The Tesla crater on the far side of the moon and the minor planet 2244 Tesla are named after Tesla. IEEE Nikola Tesla Award In 1975 the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) created a Nikola Tesla Award via an agreement between the IEEE Power Engineering Society and the IEEE Board of Directors. Yugoslavian/Serbian currency 100 Serbian dinar banknote obverse. Electric power stations Two of the coal fired power stations run by Electric Power Industry of Serbia. the Serbian government approved a plan to officially rename Belgrade International Airport to Nikola Tesla airport. 1960). The Tesla award is considered the most prestigious award in the area of electric power. JLA: Age of Wonder .d. (Nikola Tesla was a phone hardware company in Zagreb before Ericsson bought it in 1990s) in honour of Nikola Tesla's pioneering work in wireless communication. The superperson Nikola Tesla is a Japanese comic (manga). Paris. [28] Airport On February 1. [30] Commerce The Croatian subsidiary of Ericsson is named Ericsson Nikola Tesla d. Tesla is a character in the DC Comics Elseworlds story. was named in his honor (at the Conf rence G n rale des Poids et Mesures. The current 100 Serbian dinar banknotes issued by the National Bank of Serbia have a picture of a handsome young Tesla on the obverse (front side). This shall officially occur on July 10. 2006 in honor of his 150th birthday. SI Unit The scientific compound derived SI unit measuring magnetic flux density or magnetic induction (commonly known as the magnetic field B).Nikola Tesla was featured on the currency of the former Yugoslavia. the tesla. In the ZBS series of audio plays The Adventures of Ruby.

It premiered at the 10 Days on the Island Festival in Hobart. In the massively multiplayer online game City of Heroes." The song uses Tesla as an example to how some important figures in history are often overlooked and forgotten about. "Tesla" is the name of the technology the Soviets use to generate power and for their lightning-based weapons. The Tesla Gun in the computer game Return to Castle Wolfenstein is a weapon that projects lightning-like electrical arcs. in which the actual prototype is housed in the massive library of artifacts and books. Tesla Trees (tall trees with a dome-shaped crown reminiscent of the tesla coil) form a flame forest which seasonally erupts into electric storm as the trees become active. (Click image for detail)Arts The rock band Tesla is named after him. Perhaps the most widely known example is the Tesla Coil defense structure. effectively an energy rifle). such as in the song "Edison's Medicine" (and accompanying music video) and the album The Great Radio Controversy. In Dan Simmons' novel Hyperion. Many other computer games feature devices with "Tesla" in the name. The home page of the bands website is also adorned with a representation of Tesla's Wardenclyffe Tower. The song included the lyrics: 'Tesla girls tesla girls/Testing out theories/Electric chairs and dynamos/Dressed to kill they re killing me'. In The Five Fists of Science Tesla teams up with Mark Twain to battle Thomas Edison. Tesla has a minor role as the head of a rescue team sent to Mars. This is reflected in some aspects of his work. Furthermore. Jack and ex-wife Meg White made an appearance with a Tesla Coil in a vignette in the independent film Coffee and Cigarettes Australian Composer Constantine Koukias wrote his two-act opera TESLA . Additionally. The one-man synth pop force Joy Electric recorded a song titled Nikola Tesla on the 2004 album "Hello Mannequin. Nikola Tesla is mentioned as being one of the most respected members of the Sons of Ether Tradition. Tasmania in 2003. In Martian Dreams. which also includes such artifacts (fabled. one of the key-role characters is named Tesla. The British pop group Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark released a single from their 1984 album Junk Culture called "Tesla Girls". The Tesla Armor of the Fallout series of computer games provides excellent protection against laser and plasma/electrical attack types. Tesla was a professor of electrical engineers and is a member of the . for example in the song 'Astro' (found on the band's eponymous debut) White sings "Maybe Tesla does the astro/Maybe Edison is AC/DC". or otherwise) as The Ark of the Covenant and Excalibur. the Tesla Claw and Tesla Barrier (the upgraded version of the Shield Charger). Jack White of the rock band 'the White Stripes' has a keen interest in the life and works of Nicola Tesla. there is an electricity-themed superpower named "Tesla Cage". use electricity to attack enemies In the computer game Arcanum.In the White Wolf roleplaying game Mage: the Ascension. Two weapons in the Ratchet & Clank video game series. In the Command & Conquer Red Alert series of video games. capable of sending short eletrical bolts towards oncoming units. two of the technological schematics available to Electrical Technologists are the Tesla Rod (a staff which fires bolts of electricity) and the Tesla Gun (a Tesla Rod combined with a Looking-Glass Rifle.Lightning in his Hand about the life and times of Nikola Tesla. and one class of enemy non-player character possessing that power are called "Tesla Knights". there are suggested parallels between White and Tesla as both have adopted a rather eccentric and somewhat avant-garde approach to their respective fields which is not (or was not) easily accepted by some. They referenced his life and works a number of times. In Clive Barker's novel The Great and Secret Show. In Tomb Raider: Legend Lara Croft has to investigate Tesla's facility in Kazhakastan in order to uncover an ancient artifact which is powering the Tesla plant's main weapons array. Electric discharge showing the lightning-like plasma filaments from a Tesla coil. A reference to Tesla's "Legendary Death Ray" is made in the film The Librarian: Quest for The Spear (2004).

In 1980. Jill "Empires of Light: Edison. Vol. Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)"..S. 49 The New Telegraphy. ISBN 0806519-60-6 (SC) Tesla. Documentary film "Tesla: Master of Lightning". Tesla was portrayed by Rade erbed ija. The Manufacturer and Builder. The Handsome Family's 2006 album Last Days Of Wonder features a song called 'Tesla's Hotel Room'. J. Thomas C. "Wizard. (International Scientists Association). Recent Experiments in Telegraphy wih Sparks. November 1897.P. Westinghouse. In the first. 47 Tesla's Oscillator and Other Inventions. Vol. ISBN 0760710058 (Book) ISBN 0793635497 (PBS Video) Books Anderson. John H. Nikola.. Morgan. The Century Magazine.. American film director Michael Almereyda was signed to a literary agency on the strength of a spec script on the life of Nikola Tesla. which also includes such artifacts (fabled. The album takes its title from the lyrics of the song. January 1892. 1956. Tesla Society. 55 Movies and Films There are at least two films describing Tesla's life. Vol. 2d enl. November 1894. "Tesla: Man Out of Time". Tesla. Orson Welles produced a Yugoslavian film named Tajna Nikole Tesle (The Secret of Nikola Tesla). Nikola. ISBN 1-931882-04-5 . ISBN 0-899187-82-X Tesla. LCCN 56047430 /L Cheney. Researches. will feature rock star and actor David Bowie playing the part of Nikola Tesla. Leland I. "The Complete Patents of Nikola Tesla". ISBN 0-914732-33-1 Seifer. Thomas.Nikola Tesla. "My Inventions'". "The Fantastic inventions of Nikola Tesla". ISBN 0-13-906859-7 Childress. "Dr. Marc J. [edit] Further readings and films Articles (pre-1900) Light Without Heat. or otherwise) as The Ark of the Covenant and Excalibur. Jim.A. arranged for TV. A 2006 Christopher Nolan film called The Prestige. "Harnessing the Wheelwork of Nature". "The Inventions. New York: Random House. in which the actual prototype is housed in the massive library of artifacts and books. Minneapolis. 1899-1900". The Century Magazine. David H. 2003. ISBN 0-88029812-X O'Neill. based on the Christopher Priest novel of the same title mentioned above. ISBN 1-559723-29-7 (HC). ed. "Colorado Springs Notes. ISBN 1-566192-66-8 Jonnes. ISBN 0-375-50739-6 Martin.. 24 Biography . the Life and Times of Nikola Tesla". ISBN 0-932813-19-4 Glenn. The Century Magazine. and the Race to Electrify the World". Vol. Nikola Tesla is also referred to in the sketch "Jack Shows Meg His Tesla Coil" from Jim Jarmusch's film Coffee and Cigarettes Featuring Jack White and Meg White of The White Stripes. and Writings of Nikola Tesla". in which Welles himself played the part of Tesla's patron. "Prodigal Genius".I. 1999. A reference to Tesla's "Legendary Death Ray" is made in the film The Librarian: Quest for The Spear (2004). November 1893.. Margaret. ISBN 1-599869-94-2 Valone..

May 1919. Bernard.us) ^ Corum. 10 Issue 6. this pertains to the U. March 2005 v292 i3 p78(7). John Edgar. ^ IEEE. and Nikola Tesla. Electrical Experimenter magazine. 1923. and Stationary Waves". Volume 50. Lightning Observations. June 1900. John B. "My Inventions". (EarlyRadioHistory. K. February 1937. L. Century Illustrated Magazine.M. Apr 01.. 2000. H. December 4. Charles Scribner's Sons. F. The New American. Tesla Society. Popular Electronics. 1962. "The Problem of Increasing Human Energy". "The Influence of Vedic Philosophy on Nikola Tesla's Understanding of Free Energy". Vol. Nikola. Reveals an Astounding Scientific Venture Which He Believes Will Change the Course of History". 1926. Issue 11. Liberty. Nikola. Patent 723188 and U. Tesla. ^ "Giant Eye to See Round the World" Albany Telegram. ^ Tesla. ed.. Adventures Unlimited Press. R. George Sylvester. February 25. ISBN 0684129256 ^ Corum. Jatras. "The Early History of RADAR". "When woman is boss. ^ National Bank of Serbia . 1932 ^ Hoover. W. J... Nikola. Breckenridge. Corum. quoted in Anderson. James P. ^ Tesla. "The True Wireless".. Collier's Weekly. "Nikola Tesla. Proceedings of the IRE. August. H. "Inventor of dreams". K. L. "Atmospheric Fields. Scientific American. Winfield. "Nikola Tesla: Scientific Savant". ISBN 0932813860 ^ Lomas. ^ Nikola Tesla Museum ^ Secor. Corum.S. ^ "Did Tesla really invent the loudspeaker?". Independent Magazine. B. June. (also at pbs. Patent 725605) ^ Krumme.. July 28.. Colliers. F. 1943. J. 1935. Nikola Tesla: Lecture Before the New York Academy of Sciences: The Streams of Lenard and Roentgen and Novel Apparatus for Their Production. David Hatcher. Feb. Picturing Life 100 Years from Now. (special 50th Anniversary Issue). (DOC) ^ Viereck. Katherine. ^ Waser. ^ "Tesla's invention of the AND logic gate". "IEEE Nikola Tesla Award. "Nikola Tesla s Radiations and the Cosmic Rays". CO 80424-2001. and Oct. and A. 1897. "The Electrical Signals of Planetary Origins". et al. 16. "Dictionary of Scientific Biography". (ed... L. Twenty First Century Books. ^ Tesla. January 30.org) ^ Gillispie. September 11. Nov99. 1901. Breckenridge. 1994. ^ Tesla. c. [edit] Notes ^ Childress. "The genius of Nikola Tesla". Lawren. ^ "Tribute to Nikola Tesla". Volume 5. July 11. CO.8 ^ New York Herald Tribune. ^ Corum. 2000 (PDF) ^ Grotz. 1994. Stella L.org) ^ Tesla. 2003 v19 i15 p9(1) Rybak. April 6. Tesla's Receivers and Regenerative Detectors". Electrical Experimenter. 2005. ISBN 0910077002 (teslaplay.Magazines Carlson.A Famous Inventor. "A Machine to End War . Nikola. "The essay". 21 August 1999. Twenty First Century Books. "Rediscovering Tesla". Number 4. Omni. Charles Coulston. 1042170X. Vol. FOIA FBI files. F. L. May. Electrical Experimenter. Mar88. Corum. J. "A New System of Alternating Current Motors and Transformers". reconstructed 1994 ^ New York Times. [ed. site contains a picture of the magazine] ^ 1936 unpublished interview. Toby. 1917.. Aidinejad.S. February 19. Mark Twain and Nikola Tesla: Thunder and Lightning. also the version at rastko. Nikola. Number 5.comversion. An interview with Nikola Tesla". May 1888. ^ Kennedy. (ed. American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Spark of genius. "Tesla's views on Electricity and the War". p23.) "The Tesla Papers: Nikola Tesla on Free Energy & Wireless Transmission of Power". Andr . Nikola.. "Talking with Planets". Robert. K. New York. 1919. ^ Page.

Antenna Measurement Techniques Association. Radio waves Anderson. also the version at uncletaz. Corum. Also. Nikola Tesla? (A Look At His Professional Credentials)".L. 18-41. H.. IEEE. The Antique Wireless Association Review. Number 4. Antique Wireless Association . F. I. posterpaper. Inc. L. Publ. J. Tesla". J.^ Electric Power Industry of Serbia (EPS) [edit] Sources General information Biographies Martin. "Prodigal Genius: The Life of Nikola". 1986. "Srpski asteroidi. 60 (1998). I. 44. 1997 IEEE/PC. pp. (PDF) Views on War Secor. and Writings of Nikola Tesla". "Tesla and the Military". Marconi". Lightning Observations. "Who Was The Real Dr. John R. "The impact of Nikola Tesla on the cement industry". Winkels. Wheat Ridge. and Stationary Waves". K. ISSN 0739-5175 Cosmic Rays Waser. Robert. 17:4. XXXIX Conference Record. L. Proceedings of the IRE. Sellon. Frank. Obs. Andr . Vol.Germano. 1995 ISBN 0-88029-812-X Cheney. Master of Lightning".. "Tesla. Magn.. "The Man who Invented the Twentieth Century". Proceedings of the IRE. September.. Aidinejad.M. Zentgraf. Meyl. Penner. "Experiments to proof the evidence of scalar waves Tests with a Tesla reproduction". 1. Milan S. Dimitrijevic. Behrent Eng. Corum. H. ISBN 0-7803-3962-2 Valentinuzzi.. J. "Nikola Tesla". 1943. Volume 5. Belgrade. L. "Dr. Wysock. 1917. "Nikola Tesla: why was he so much resisted and forgotten?" Inst. 1956. "Belgrade Astronomical Observatory Historical Review". Nikola Tesla". Co. and A. 1994. Moon Nomenclature: Crater. Cement Industry Technical Conference. "Tesla's views on Electricity and the War". corrupted version of My Inventions. "Nikola Tesla s Radiations and the Cosmic Rays". T. 1999 ISBN 0-7607-1005-8 O'Neill. published by Barnes & Noble. CO.. Weidner. Vol. Astronomski magazine.. Pratt. "Nikola Tesla 1856-1943". H. Astron. USGS.. Thomas Commerford. 2000. Nikola (1856-1943)". Univ. p 74-75. Tesla's Receivers and Regenerative Detectors".E. "The Inventions. K. Nacional de Tucuman. "Nikola Tesla 1856-1943".com with other items at uncletaz's site]) Lomas. 2005. Junker. Hardesty and K. 1997. Winfield. Ariel. Frank. Lecture to South Western Branch of Instititute of Physics. L. Institut f r Gravitationsforschung (IGF). 1944. "Historical Note: Nikola Tesla: The man behind the magnetic field unit". E.. Konstantin. Florey..H. Engineering 24. de Bioingenieria. J. FOIA FBI files. Senkel. 162-170. Germano.19:369-374. 1956. Reson.. Corum. Other Research "Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature". Eric W. Astrogeology Research Program. T. "John Stone Stone on Nikola Tesla s Priority in Radio and Continuous Wave Radiofrequency Apparatus". August. Vol. Hoover. John Edgar. Eric Weisstein's World of Science. Pratt.. L. 1994. Researches.C. M. Tesla v. "Priority in Invention of Radio. and P. reprinted by Barnes & Noble. Glen. 44.com. Margaret & Uth. Corum. Stationary and scalar waves Corum.. F. "Tesla. 2004 Wiley-Liss. Weisstein. ISBN 0913022403 (Tesla reportedly said of this biographer "You understand me better than any man alive". Jul/Aug 1998. H. Page(s) 125-133. 2001 (PDF) Roguin. John J. et al. "Atmospheric Fields. The Strange Life of Nikola Tesla. W. Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine. IEEE History Center. Corum. H. D-63857 Waldaschaff. Electrical Experimenter. "Nikola Tesla. Robert.F. J. October 22-25. Am Heerbach 5. December 5.. September. Imaging 2004. J. Anderson.

. American Fork. Marincic. of Electron. 5 280-287.M. Eng. Dept.. A.1) ISBN 0-7803-7228-X Page.monograph. and D. Number 5.. Utah. Induction motor C Mackechnie Jarvis "Nikola Tesla and the induction motor". Cable and Broadcasting Service. Belgrade Univ. TELSIKS 2001. May. 2722-5/93/0028-63) Toby Grotz. R. 1970 Phys. March 1980. (special 50th Anniversary Issue). Utah. Nichelson. 327-331 vol. "The Early History of Radar". pg. Educ. Budimir. 1993. "The Thermodynamics of Tesla's Fuelless Electrical generator". 2001. "Nikola Tesla's Energy Generation Designs". Provo. . Volume 50. 1962. Proceedings of the IRE.. "Tesla's contribution to radiowave propagation". Oliver. Inc.. Eyring. Oliver. Other "Giant Eye to See Round the World" (DOC) Nichelson. (American Chemical Society. "The Influence of Vedic Philosophy on Nikola Tesla's Understanding of Free Energy". (5th International Conference on Telecommunications in Modern Satellite.