8th World Seminar on Seismic Isolation, Energy Dissipation and Active Vibration Control of Structures Yerevan, Armenia, October

6-10, 2003

A NEW ADDED DAMPING RUBBER ISOLATOR (ADRI): EXPERIMENTAL TESTS AND NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS Mauro Dolce1, Donatello Cardone1, Roberto Marnetto2, Domenico Nigro1, Giuseppe Palermo1
DiSGG, University of Basilicata, Macchia Romana Campus, 85100, Potenza, Italy. 2 TIS SpA, Viale dei Caduti nella Guerra di Liberazione 14, 00128, ROMA, Italy.

1

ABSTRACT
A new rubber-based isolation device, with added damping capacity, is proposed. Similarly to the LRB’s (Lead Rubber Bearings) or HDRB’s (High Damping Rubber Bearings), the proposed solution combines, in a single compact device, the functions of supporting vertical loads, providing horizontal flexibility and restoring force together with the function of dissipate a great amount of energy. On the other hand, the proposed device shows a series of advantages with respect to LRB’s and HDRB’s, which are herein properly discussed. A comprehensive program of experimental tests was carried out at the Structural Laboratory of the University of Basilicata, to characterize the mechanical behaviour of the new Added viscous Damping-Rubber-Isolator (ADRI). Several non linear numerical analysis were then carried out, in order to investigate the effectiveness of ADRI in reducing the response of seismically isolated bridges. In this paper the main results of both experimental tests and numerical simulations are presented.

1. INTRODUCTION
Serviceability of transportation systems is critical after strong seismic events, and considerable efforts have been made in the last years to mitigate their seismic risk. Seismic isolation (Skinner et al., 1994) is a very suitable and economic solution for the seismic protection of bridges and viaducts. Differently from the application to buildings, indeed, seismic isolation of bridges does not require to introduce any artificial discontinuity in the structure, as bridges normally already have deck separated from piers and abutments. This is consistent with the aim of seismic isolation of bridges, which is to protect relatively low-mass piers and their foundations from the inertia forces transmitted by the deck. In principle, seismic isolation of bridges just needs the substitution of normal bearings with seismic isolators and the adaptation of expansion joints to accommodate the large pier-deck displacements caused by an earthquake. For this reason, a big number of bridges and viaducts in Europe (Dolce, 2001), Japan (Kawashima, 2001), USA and New Zealand (Buckle and Mayes, 1992) have been equipped with seismic isolation systems in the last thirty years.

while being practically linear with hysteretic damping. under near-fault earthquakes. A comprehensive program of experimental tests was carried out at the Structural Laboratory of the University of Basilicata on a variety of ADRI devices. 1985) and combined systems. In any case. In particular. The evaluation of the stiffness and damping properties of each device as a function of displacement amplitude and frequency of loading was the primary concern in the tests. (ii) limit the pier-deck displacements to values which are economically compatible with those allowed by expansion joints (i. Several numerical analysis were then carried out. 100-300mm) and (iii) re-center the structure at the end of the seismic excitation. Moreover. In addition. be adequate to limit the structural response. all the functions required to an isolation systems.. High Damping Rubber Bearings (HDRB’s) (Derham et al. The level of damping provided by ADRI is a function of the ratio between inner and outer diameter of the rubber bearings. which is mainly viscous rather than hysteretic. 1984)) or auxiliary viscous dampers or steel hysteretic components. i.Three main functions are required to the seismic isolation systems for bridges: (i) elongate the natural period of the superstructure (i. Several different technologies have been implemented and used for this scope. (ii) providing horizontal flexibility and restoring force and (iii) providing the necessary damping capacity to limit horizontal displacements. the maximum force exerted by the viscous infill is out-of-phase with respect to the elastic force of the rubber device and the energy dissipation is quadratic with displacement. 1982). differing in dimensions and infill properties. under certain circumstances (e. in a single compact device.g. three different configurations were considered during the tests: (i) empty device (RI). contrarily to LRB and HDRB (Morgan and Whittaker. are the most widely used isolation systems.e. no decay or scragging phenomena are observed in ADRI. 2001). as well as of the infill characteristics. In this study. The objectives of the research described in this paper were twofold: (i) characterising the mechanical behaviour of ADRI and (ii) investigating the effectiveness of ADRI in reducing the seismic response of bridges. Similarly to LRB and HDRB. can be easily obtained with ADRI.e. The experimental tests were also used to develop an accurate mathematical model for ADRI. the nature of damping. based on the coupling between steel-Teflon sliding bearings and rubber devices (Mostaghel. ADRI shows a much lower sensitivity to temperature and a decidedly more stable mechanical behavior under repeated cyclic deformation. namely: (i) supporting vertical loads. especially the displacement response. comparable to those provided by LRB and higher than those provided by HDRB (Yoo and Kim. Both artificial and natural . reference was made to a pier-deck model. 2000). characterized by pulse-type input energy with high spectral velocities).e the deck) to a value beyond that which dominates typical earthquakes. 2002). whose acronym is ADRI (Added Damping Rubber Isolator) has been patented by two of the authors and then extensively tested. First. in order to investigate the effectiveness of ADRI in reducing the response of seismically isolated bridges. (ii) device with just infill (ADRI) and (iii) device with infill equipped with an additional energy dissipation mechanism (ADRI+). like in LRB. With respect to HDRB. In this paper a new isolation device for bridges and other civil structures is proposed. Aging and dependence on temperature are also considerably reduced. To better appreciate the role of the infill. Hysteretic damping may not.e. ADRI shows a series of advantages with respect to LRB and HDRB. It basically consists of an elastomeric bearing with a suitably shaped central hole filled with viscous material. ADRI incorporates. Lead Rubber Bearings (LRB’s) (Robinson. The proposed device. values of the order of 20%. shape memory alloys) have also been recently developed (Dolce at al. with respect to HDRB. New technologies exploiting advanced materials (i.

For more clarity.g. of the intercept between the hysteresis loop of maximum amplitude and the force axis. as obtained from tests at 0. (ii) the increase. differing in dimensions (e. in figures 2(b) and 2(c). 10mm. (iii) the visco-elastic behavior of the infill. (b) ADRI and (c) ADRI+. Shear-compression test for the dynamic characterization of Added-Damping Rubber Isolator . at frequency of vibration ranging from 0. An horizontal actuator (not shown in the figure) applies a specified constant axial load (10 kN) to simulate gravity. 2. Figure 2 shows the experimental force vs. 40mm and 60mm.5 Hz frequency of loading. 20mm. as well as different pier heights. for five increasing displacement amplitudes.(near fault) earthquakes were considered. shear strain relationships for the above said three configurations of isolator: (a) RI. periods of vibration and temperatures. arranged as shown in figure 1. “design values” for effective stiffness and effective damping (AASHTO. respectively. By examining figure 2 it can be noted: (i) the absence of scragging. the mechanical behavior of both the entire device and the infill only is reported. Each test was conducted on a couple of reduced-scale (120mm÷200mm diameter) devices. Typical input signals involve four cycles at each shear strain. In characterizing the mechanical behavior of each device.5 kN to 2 kN.01Hz to 1Hz. 1999) have been determined from the experimental hysteretic curves. Figure 1. according to both triangular and sinusoidal profiles.e. The rubber bearing shown in figure 2 has 120mm outer diameter. while a vertical actuator imposes the shear displacement according to prescribed time histories. 3 rubber layers alternating with 3 steel layers and a total rubber height of 63mm. of the characteristic strength. equal to: 5mm. ratio between inner and outer diameter) and infill properties. 80mm inner diameter. Cyclic displacements up to 60mm (corresponding to 100% maximum shear strain) were applied. i. In this paper the most significant results of the experimental tests and the numerical simulations are described. from about 0. EXPERIMENTAL DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR OF ADRI More than 200 tests were performed on 4 ADRI devices.

ADRI and ADRI+.5Hz . at 0. shear strain relationships for RI.(KN) 10 8 6 4 2 0 ADRI RI -150 -100 -50 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 50 100 150 (%) (KN) 10 8 6 4 2 0 ADRI ADRI Isilicone nfill -150 -100 -50 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 50 100 150 (%) r od (KN) 10 8 6 4 2 0 ADRI + ADRI I nfill silicone -150 -100 -50 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 50 100 150 (%) Figure 2. Typical experimental force vs.

1Hz 0.1Hz INFILLED 15 20 0.1Hz 1Hz EMPTY 10 1Hz w ith ROD ADRI+_1Hz 5 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 0 (%) 100 (KNmm) 20 40 (a) 60 80 450 400 (%) 0.1Hz RI_0.1Hz 1Hz INFILLED w ith ROD ADRI_0.12 0.1Hz EMPTY ith ROD 1Hz EMPTY INFILLED 0.1Hz 1Hz EMPTY (%) 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 25 20 15 1Hz INFILLED RI_1Hz 10 1Hz w ith ROD ADRI+_1Hz ADRI_1Hz 0 5 20 40 60 80 100 (%) 25 0 0 20 (b) 40 60 (%) 80 100 (%) 0.1Hz w ith ROD 0.16 0.1Hz w 0.1Hz 1Hz INFILLED w ith ROD ADRI_0.1Hz 20 15 RI_1Hz 1Hz w ith ROD INFILLED 1Hz ADRI_1Hz 1Hz EMPTY ADRI_0.1Hz w ith ROD INFILLED 0.1Hz EMPTY (%) 20 25 0. (a) Effective stiffness.02 0 25 0.1 0.1Hz 0.06 0.1Hz INFILLED 0.(KN/mm) 0.1Hz ADRI+_0. ADRI and ADRI+ (%) .1Hz 0.04 0.08 0.1Hz 1Hz w ith ROD ADRI+_0.1Hz EMPTY 1Hz EMPTY 0.1Hz EMPTY 0.1Hz RI_0.1Hz 1Hz w ith1Hz EMPTY ROD 10 15 1Hz INFILLED RI_1Hz 5 10 1Hz w ith ROD ADRI+_1Hz ADRI_1Hz 0 0 5 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 (%) 100 (c) 40 60 80 Figure 3.1Hz INFILLED RI_0.1Hz w ith ROD 1Hz INFILLEDADRI+_0.1Hz INFILLED EMPTY 0.1Hz 0. (b) Energy loss and (c) Effective damping of RI.14 0.18 (%) 0.1Hz EMPTY 0.

when the frequency of loading increases from 0.05 0 numerical experimental -6 Figure 4. while it reduces by about 10-25% when increasing strain rate for RI. the effective frequency of vibration of the isolated structure surely falling in this range. Effective stiffness reduces by about 25-30%. Qualitatively similar behaviours were observed for the other three types of ADRI devices tested. while being around 34% at high strain rates. the effective damping increases.78). The effective damping is substantially insensitive to frequency of loading for ADRI and ADRI+. while it experiences a strong increase at low velocities. respectively. (b) energy loss per cycle and (c) effective damping. A further increase of 6-9% is observed. effective stiffness increases on average by 22% for RI. The energy loss increases by about 47%. (KN) 20 15 10 5 0 6 EFFECTIVE DAMPING 4 numerical experimental 2 Experimental Numerical 0 -120 -80 -40 -2 0. when strain amplitude increases from about 10% to 100%. only two frequencies of loading are considered in the diagrams. reaching values of the order of 9% for RI. For more clarity. equal to 0. regardless the strain amplitude and frequency of loading applied. for both RI and ADRI. In ADRI+. A further increase of 7-10% is observed in ADRI+. while the effective stiffness reduces. for both RI and ADRI. for ADRI+. The effective stiffness (hence force) of RI increases practically linearly with velocity. The energy absorbing capacity of both empty and infilled device is almost quadratic with the displacement (power 1.1 Hz to 1 Hz. (3) The effective damping of ADRI is about 46% greater than RI’s at low strain rates.1 Hz up to 1 Hz.1 Hz and 1 Hz. the energy loss per cycle increases by 55-60%. but a decidedly lower increase at high velocities.Figure 3 illustrates the effect of strain rate and strain amplitude on the (a) effective stiffness. for ADRI. When increasing frequency of loading from 0. Obviously. the following major observations can be made: (1) In ADRI.1 0 40 80 120 (%) EFFECTIVE STIFFNESS -4 0. exhibited by the three devices of figure 2.15 0. The effective damping tends to decrease when increasing strain amplitude up to 100%. (2) The increase of effective stiffness in ADRI ranges between 22% and 28% at low strain rates. Looking at figure 3. Comparison between experimental and numerical behavior of ADRI . differing from the previous one in the ratio between inner and outer diameter and in the infill properties. and about 34% at high strain rates. and up to 44% for ADRI+. 14% for ADRI and 16% for ADRI+. a further increase of 7-10% is observed. as the ratio between inner and outer diameter increases.

Finally. To take into account concrete cracking.5 Hz on the infilled device. 20m and 30m). In the numerical model. 2002). Simplified analytical model for continuous bridge with rubber-based isolation systems. Equivalent viscous damping ratio of 1% was adopted for the pier. 20 °C and 40°C). another elastic spring and a non-linear viscous element was used to account for the presence of the infill. according to the modeling procedure proposed in (Naeim and Kelly. the viscous coefficient of the viscous elements and the exponent of velocity for the non-linear viscous element) were determined by minimizing the difference between the energy dissipated by the numerical model and the energy dissipated by the real device during the experimental tests. The performances of RI.1Hz and 0. In the optimization process. Figure 4 compares the experimental hysteresis loops (one for each strain amplitude) observed during the test at 0. 4. dependency of rubber behavior on temperature have been accurately taken into account. the pier is modeled by an elastic beam element with distributed mass and elasticity. with the response of the numerical model defined using the procedure outlined above. ANALYSIS OF BRIDGES INCORPORATING ADRI In order to evaluate the effectiveness of ADRI in reducing the structural response of seismically isolated bridges. As can be seen.e. reference was made to the hysteresis loops with strain amplitude ranging from 17% to 100% and frequency of loading equal to 0. have been compared. The parameters of the model (i. while the effective mass of the deck is lumped. as illustrated in figure 5. while an elastic spring and a linear viscous element were added to capture the high-frequency response of rubber.5Hz. an elastic spring and two elastic-plastic elements were used to model the mechanical behaviour of rubber at low frequencies. 1999). as well as different pier heights (10m. Both artificial and natural (near fault) earthquakes were considered in the analysis.3. MODELING OF ADRI In this study. a series of numerical simulations were carried out using SAP-2000 Nonlinear (SAP-2000. . The great accuracy of the numerical model in capturing the actual behavior of the device (particularly the effective stiffness and effective damping while increasing strain amplitude) is apparent. pier top rotation. the effects of pier flexibility. ADRI and ADRI+. the flexural rigidity of the pier was reduced by 30%. µ Figure 5. In this study reference was made to a pier-deck model for the bridge. the yielding force of the elastic-plastic elements. effective periods of the isolation systems (2sec and 3sec) and temperatures of the air (-10 °C. viscous-hysteretic characteristics of both the rubber and the infill. the elastic stiffness of both linear and hysteretic elements.

76sec (1. were selected for each isolation system. Maximum pier-deck displacement (left) and maximum shear force (right) of bridges seismically isolated through RI or ADRI. which recommends for the isolated bridge a natural period of vibration at least twice the natural period of the fixed-base bridge. which were carried out by referring to the response spectrum provided by Eurocode 8 for soil type B. Sensitivity of the peak response to temperature and seismic excitation. Preliminary response-spectrum analyses were then performed. less than 300mm).The design of the three types of isolation systems was made according to the Menshin design procedure (Sugita and Mahin. . The effective damping and effective stiffness of the isolation systems were used in these preliminary analyses.e. in order to check the acceptability of the maximum horizontal displacement to avoid too large expansion joints (i. and 3secs. 1994). target periods of 2secs. Thus.41sec). being the natural period of vibration of the conventional bridge with piers of 20m (30m) equal to 0. (mm) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 EMPTY RI INFILLED ADRI EC8 H H 10m m = = 10 Tis 2sec Tis = = 2 sec Temp = -10 °C°C Temp = -10 (kN) 350 1800 1500 1200 900 600 300 0 EC8 Kobe Sylmar Taiwan HH = 10 m = 10m T 2sec Tis is== 2 sec Temp = = -10 °C Temp -10 °C Kobe Sylmar Taiwan INFILLED with rod ADRI+ RI EMPTY ADRI INFILLED ADRI+ INFILLED with rod (mm) 300 250 200 H = 10 H = 10m m TisTis 2secsec = =2 Temp = 20 20 °C Temp = °C (kN) 350 1800 1500 1200 900 H H 10m m = = 10 Tis is = 2 sec T = 2sec Temp = 2020 °C Temp = °C 150 EC8 100 50 0 Kobe Sylmar Taiwan 600 300 0 EC8 Kobe Sylmar Taiwan RI EMPTY ADRI INFILLED ADRI+ INFILLED with rod RI EMPTY ADRI INFILLED ADRI+ INFILLED with rod (mm) 300 250 200 H = 10m m H = 10 Tis Tis2secsec = =2 Temp = 40 40 °C Temp = °C (kN) 350 1800 1500 1200 900 H = 10m m H = 10 TisT= 2sec is = 2 sec Temp = 40 40 °C Temp = °C 150 100 50 0 EMPTY RI INFILLED ADRI INFILLED with rod ADRI+ EC8 Kobe Sylmar Taiwan 600 300 0 EC8 Kobe Sylmar Taiwan EMPTY RI INFILLED ADRI INFILLED with rod ADRI+ Figure 6.

Similarly. Similarly. at low temperatures (i. In addition. The near-fault records of the Kobe. compatible with the response spectrum provided by EC8 for soil type B. Chi-Chi (Taiwan) and Sylmar earthquakes were selected as input ground motions. In particular. By considering the artificial earthquakes. regardless temperature. The peak response of the isolated bridge is described through the maximum pier-deck displacement (on the left) and maximum shear force (on the right). reduction factors ranging from about 27%. to about 37%.5Hz frequency of loading. 1998). four artificial accelerograms. By considering the natural earthquakes. for the Taiwan earthquake.Both artificial and natural earthquake excitations were used in the non-linear dynamic analysis of the isolated bridge.e. the higher damping capacity of ADRI+ reduces significantly both the maximum pier-deck displacement and the maximum shear force. for instance. the variability of displacement with temperature reduces from about 43% to just 7%. confirmed the expected mechanical behaviour.35g was assumed for both natural and artificial earthquakes. As a result. the effective . having period of vibration equal to 2sec. which provides detailed information on the effects of extreme temperatures (-20°C and 40°C. 5. were considered. Different temperatures and seismic excitations are considered. with several advantages with respect to similar existing technologies (i. with respect to a Low-Damping-Rubber-Bearing with same dimensions and rubber shear modulus. For the artificial earthquakes. By referring to 100% shear strain and 0. thus enhancing the damping capacity of traditional elastomeric bearings. while the energy dissipation increases by more than 200%. equipped with the isolation systems previously examined (see figure 2 and 3). The maximum efficiency of ADRI is reached at -10°C for the Kobe earthquake. The infill is practically insensitive to temperature while the contrary holds for rubber. the percent changes of effective stiffness and effective damping with respect to the corresponding values at 20 °C are provided. the effective stiffness of ADRI was found to increase by just 20÷35%. reference was made to (HITEC. at 20 °C for the Taiwan earthquake. As can be seen. for instance. To take into account the variability of the mechanical behavior of rubber with temperature. are found in terms of maximum force transmitted by the isolator to the pier. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) equal to 0. at 40 °C for the Sylmar earthquake.e. compared to those experienced by the bridge equipped with RI’s. Temperature was one of the main parameters considered in the numerical investigation.e. specifically) on the dynamic characteristics of LRB’s for highway bridge applications. The experimental tests carried out on a variety of ADRI’s. at medium-high temperatures (i. Figure 6 summarizes the peak response of the bridge with 10m tall piers. reduction factors of the order of 35%. -10 °C). High-Damping-Rubber-Bearings and Lead-Rubber-Bearings). for instance. The adoption of ADRI in place of RI has a beneficial effect also with respect to the variability of the structural response with temperature. CONCLUSION A new rubber-based isolation device (referred to as ADRI: Added-Damping-Rubber-Isolator) has been tested. 20-40 °C). the percent changes of the maximum displacement with temperature reduces from about 25% to 8% when replacing RI with ADRI. reduction factors between 23% and 43% in terms of maximum displacement and between 26% and 45% in terms of maximum force are observed. are found in terms of maximum pier-deck displacement. It has remarkable viscous properties.

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