International Relations

Shreya Gambhir(09116--)

middle powers. they have the ability to intervene militarily almost anywhere.Russia. national power. States with this ability are called powers. but also organisations such as the United Nations. the United States. and whose opinions must be taken into account by other nations before effecting initiatives. China. and the United Kingdom were formalised as the five powers with permanent seats and veto power in the UN Security Council. the World Trade Organization. Recently. and Prussia as the five powers. Great powers are also often associated with a particular military technology. shifts in great power status tend to follow wars. the Soviet Union. after 1945. power (sometimes clarified as international power.Arguably. but after 1815. such as dreadnoughts ornuclear weapons. the Concert of Europe formalised France. entities other than states has acquired the same ability to influence and control other states. Recent history : The Great Powers are often taken to be those nations or political entities that. at the start of the twenty-first century. regional powers. cultural power. the United Kingdom. great powers (sometimes capitalized). Different sets of Great Powers have existed in history. the USA was the unique Great Power. most often these are multinational corporations with financial assets surpassing smaller states. are the arbiter s of world diplomacy. Characteristically.Introduction In the context of international relations. or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. and they also have soft. France. and hyper powers. Clearly. Austria. when the number of candidate and actual GreatPowers was closer to ten. Again. often in the form of economic investment in less developed portions of the world. the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank show that they have international power. through their great economic and military strength. There is in any case a great contrast with the situation at the start of the twentieth century. superpowers. International Relations 1 .

o Political.National power is composed of various elements."national" and "social". o Psychological. also referred to as instruments or attributes. Social : o Economic. o Informational. these may be grouped into two categories based on their applicability and origin . o Population. o Resources. International Relations 2 . y y National : o Geography. o Military.

great powers. the United States today) ASuperpower is a state that is greatly more powerful than almost all other countries (for example. but does have some international influence (for example.Categories Of Power Political analysis often personifies nation states as powers. the US and USSR during the Cold War) AGreat power is a state that is one of the leading powers in the world (for example. A term often used interchangeably with middle power is regional power. Examples of regional powers would be India in South Asia and Australia in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean. States have always had variable levels of powers and a number of terms have been developed to describe this such as: AHyperpower is a state that is by far the world's most dominant (for example. discussing superpowers. Canada today). second-order powers and "European powers". a state that dominates other states in its region. the United Kingdom in the 19th century) AMiddle power is a state that cannot dominate other states. International Relations 3 .

The democracy is stable and their diplomats are known for their integrity and expertise. or even Green Peace). the instruments of national power are: 1) Diplomacy 2) Information 3) Military 4) Economic Recent discussions to attempt to expand these four include: a) Financial (closely related to Economic) b) Intelligence (a combination of national and military intelligence) c) Law Enforcement (as in standards. the PLO. economy is strong and quickly give foreign aid to countries that need it. or even non-state actors (like Al Qaida. In the American perspective. Their military is known for its might. Thei r free press and public access to each branch of government provides uncensored information on American intent and objectives. and global reach. Together these instruments of power form a unique blend of carrots and sticks International Relations 4 .Instruments Of National Power The phrase instruments of national power refers to the tools a country uses to influence other countries or international organizations (like the UN). honour. practices. The US instruments of power are tremendous because of the magnitude of the capability of this country in each of these areas. Lastly. and abilities) The United States National Security Strategy (NSS) is a mandated by Congress and is the principal document that lays out how the President plans to use the instruments of power to achieve US National Security objectives.

and social influence other international players. That third lev el is by far the most elusive. In the end. (3) and power in outcomes. or which state prevails in particular circumstances. and the like only become manifest through a process of conversion. The starting point for thinking about and developing metrics for national power is to view states as capability containers. politics. technological. however. what policymakers care most about is not power as capability or power-in-being as converted through national ethos. or power-in-being. It depends on power for what. and against whom. for it is contingent and relati ve. econom ic. Yet those capabilities demographic. International Relations 5 . They care about power in outcomes. such as combat proficiency. State power can be conceived at three levels: (1) resources or capabilities. (2) how that power is converted through national processes. States need to convert mate rial resources into more usable instruments.

Population & Economic Growth The current military regime of Burma focused the national power concepts in their propaganda and training programmes of Defence Services Academy (DSA) and Union Solidarity & Development Association (USDA). In addition. the State Peace & Development Council claimed that the government is struggling for economic growth. In this essay. Furthermore. the realistic concepts and situations are different. young military officers and USDA members got the propaganda concepts and some think that they are doing the right things. I would like to demonstrate why democratization is needed to increase the national power and economic growt h.National Power. The characteristics of a nation state include y y y y y Sovereign political unit Population that in being committed to a particular collective identity through a common image of past and future shares a greater or lesser degree of nationalism A territory in its own Common and independent economic patterns Common linguistic and cultural patterns. I am going to mention the nature of national power and derive the Solow neoclassical model of economic growth written in terms of effective labour units and illustrate the relationship between population and economic growth.state. The best starting point to discuss about the nature of national power is to characterize what constitutes a nation. Also they used the examples of China and India to demonstrate how population growth can increase the national power of a state. the nature of a nation state s power is crucial because it represents the capabilities of the nation. The major elements of the national power include y Geography International Relations 6 . From the psychological aspect. However. As a result.

Population growth rate: The rate at which a population is increasing (or decreasing) in a given year due to natural increase and net migration. 2000:126) It is clear that the output per effective labour u nit and the population growth rate is negatively correlated. However. i.e. the military regime emphas ized on the population concepts in its training. In contrast. In this case. a sustained increase in output over a period (Thomas. expressed as a percentage of the base population (Hewitt. lower capital-labour ratio gives a decline in output per effective labour unit. During the transition phase. Theory: The upfront key terms used in this section: y y y Economic growth : A continued increase in the size of an economy (its GDP). The higher population growth with unchanged saving means that capital does not grow fast enough to keep up with labour force growth and depreciation in this case. the lower population growth with unchanged saving rate means that there has a sufficient capital to keep up with labour force growth and depreciation. a higher capital -labour ration gives an increase in output.y y y Natural resources Population The nature of a country s government Among them. 2000:31) Effective labour units: A*N is referred to as effective labour where A is the state of technology and N is labour. In the next section. growth rises above n and the high population growth can increase the output and capital growth in n goes in hand with growth in y. Growth rises above n during transition between steady states International Relations 7 . I would like to demonstrate the theories and applications of the relationship between economic growth and population. output growth falls back to the growth rate of population.

To summarise. Inte national Relations 8   . a fall in population growth: · · · causes output per effective labour unit grow in the short run increases output per effective labour unit in the long run gives higher capital-labour ratio · Maintains the sufficient capital to keep up with labour force and depreciation in the long run.

only 26. leading to a drawback in national power. To achieve the full scale pro duction.8% were liberal democracy. The data for democratization shows that in 1975.Conclusion These are the main reasons why the developing countries are trying to decrease the population growth to improve the economic capabilities. In reality. the nature of a country s government has been wrong throughout the histories. Burma has got the comparative advantage in other elements of national power such as a good geographic situati on for International Trade.2% were still remained authoritarian and the rest were partial or liberal democracy. the policies of the government should be effective and the effectiveness of the policies depends on the nature of a country s government. 7.7% of the countries were authoritarian. the population that can increase the output level of production. International Relations 9 . where dictatorship requires coercion. enormous natural resources and the reasonable level of population. Stoessinger (1986) claimed that democracy has a great advantage for national power because it rests on the consent and voluntary support of the governed.5% were partial democracy and only 23. In 1995. However. 68. the national power of the population means the population with industrialization.