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Introduction to Sigtran: A White Paper

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The Internet connections had no pre-allocated bandwidth and were subject to variable packet delay. In essence. Several groups began work in this area – some cooperatively. In the early days of VoIP. Introduction Sigtran is a working group of the IETF. Correspondingly. over the public Internet (by way of dialup connections to an ISP at the local call rate). 2. These limitations made it impossible to deploy VoIP on the scale required to make it usable by businesses or a large-scale home-user base. • The Softswitch Consortium. There were no standards which defined how the voice was packetised and how connections were established and managed. amongst others. the UA layers themselves are discussed – covering both their functionality and their applicability. This would provide a signalling capability for call management as well as defined media paths through the IP network (with reserved bandwidth for real-time media). more accurately. and tasked with defining an architecture for the transport of real-time signalling data over IP networks. Integrated Network Architecture Before advancing into the topic of transporting signalling information over IP. The work undertaken by these groups established a common architecture which defines the interfaces between the PSTN and IP net- 2. 2. The possibilities of using the Internet to carry voice traffic arose in 1995. Subscribers had to use the same VoIP package in order to talk. music. Media over IP (MoIP). None of the services normally associated with the PSTN (such as call forwarding) were supported. ‘Media’ applies to any real-time traffic: voice. PC software already existed to make connections between computers. It starts by outlining the network architecture within which the Sigtran suite applies – effectively. Only simple (phone) network topologies were supported – point-to-point connections between known IP addresses.2 A Scalable Architecture The next stage in the evolution of VoIP was to define an architecture which would support integration between the PSTN and IP networks. • The IETF – MGCP working group.323 working groups. but also the definition of a suite of protocols to carry SS7 and ISDN messages over IP. Only simple call services were supported – basically. with chunks of speech missing.1 VoIP Background The application space for Sigtran is Voice over IP (VoIP) or. It continues to describe the protocol requirements for transporting signalling information over IP – presenting an argument why existing protocols (such as TCP) are not suitable for this purpose. it is best to consider why such a facility may be required. This protocol suite is made up of a new transport layer – the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) and a set of User Adaptation (UA) layers which mimic the services of the lower layers of SS7 and ISDN. conversations. 4. defining the problem solved by SCTP and the UAs. The voice quality was terrible. This paper describes the Sigtran architecture and protocol suite. there are some fundamental problems with this architecture: 1. video. 2. others in isolation. There were no defined interfaces between the Internet and the PSTN. 3. Its work culminated in not just the architecture. digital voice and sent to the PC’s speakers. These included: • ETSI – the TIPHON project. packets received from the remote PC would be reassembled into a stream of Introduction to Sigtran: A White Paper from Emerson Network Power™ Embedded Computing 1 . While it was feasible to hold a conversation in such a fashion. this facility was enhanced to accept digitised voice. and so forth. These contributed to jittery conversations. discuss the problem before describing the solution.Introduction to Sigtran: A White Paper 1. split it into packets and present it to the Internet connection as data. Finally. formed in 1999. • ITU – H.

Introduction to Sigtran: A White Paper Note that the MG. Sigtran. for example: • In North American PSTN networks. These terms are not ubiquitous. • SG – Signalling Gateway.323 H. it makes sense to have physically distinct SG and MG nodes. responsible for interfacing to the SS7 network and passing signalling messages to the IP nodes. In the H. and their responsibilities and functions are also defined.323 – defined by the ITU. it makes sense for the SG and MG to be co-located.323 is not a single protocol specification: it is an architectural description. and will be discussed in much more detail than H. Network operators may build truly integrated PSTN/IP networks which are scalable and offer viable services to subscribers. including references to a suite of protocols required for network integration. • MG – Media Gateway.323. This exists wholly within the IP network. all three elements are termed ‘Softswitch’. Thus. responsible for mediating call control (between the SG and MG) and controlling access from the IP world to/from the PSTN. responsible for packetisation of voice traffic and transmitting the traffic towards the destination. The architecture is defined in[2]. • The IETF model. and illustrated in Figure 1. In physical implementations. the functions may be comIP Network MGC MGC bined in single network nodes. the working groups listed in Section 2.323 world. There are two sets of standards which have gained widespread recognition: • H. Voice Voice MG MG Figure 1: Integrated Network Architecture works to support voice (or any other streamed media) over IP.3. SG SS7 SS7 SG IP Phone IP SCP • In European PSTN networks. In Figure 1. This architecture allows network vendors to build Gateways and Controllers which may be deployed in real networks. RTP and MGCP or Megaco. This is core to the subject of this paper. comprising of SIP. 2. Thus. • The IP Phone (generically referred to as a ‘terminal’). it is more common to have signalling and voice channels sharing physical links. Some new network node types have been introduced. The IETF define the Sigtran suite specifically for transporting SS7 over IP. Often. but the following serves as a brief outline of its components. the signalling and media links are carried on physically separate links. 2.3 Setting the Standards In addition to defining the nodes in the network used to interconnect the PSTN and IP networks. • IP SCP – an IP-enabled Service Control Point (SCP). SG and MGC are logical entities. The following network elements are defined: 2 Introduction to Sigtran: A White Paper from Emerson Network Power™ Embedded Computing . the following network elements are defined: • MGC – Media Gateway Controller. the MGC is referred to as the ‘Gatekeeper’.323 is relevant to a paper concerning itself with signalling transport over IP.2 on Page 3 have defined the protocols which run between them. while the SG and MG are known singularly as a ‘Gateway’. Very little of H. but is addressable from the SS7 network.1 H.

MTP3). Such an object is referred to as a User Adaptation (UA) layer – which sits above TCP in the protocol stack.2 IETF Model The IETF.323 endpoints.1 Signalling over IP – a Simple Approach The easiest way. allowing exchange of control messages (such as terminal capabilities). you are still without a solution to run ISUP. from a protocol implementer’s point of view. The protocols defined are: • SCTP (and adaptation layers) – this is the Sigtran protocol suite. The primary roles of such a layer would be to: • Define a standard method by which the upper layer (for example. 3. The network nodes defined in this model are as shown in Figure 1. an IP ‘phone’ (as shown in Figure 1). will appear alien to any other vendor. which carries packetised media between H. One way of approaching this is to provide an ‘adaptor’ over TCP/IP which redefines the transport service in terms of what the upper signalling protocol would expect: in essence. roughly equivalent to a combination of the SG and MG shown in Figure 1. holding the SS7 information. This is the control protocol between an MGC and MGs. however.323 endpoint’ is defined as either a Terminal or Gateway – it refers to the terminus of an H. there are some fundamental flaws with this approach: • It’s inflexible – once you’ve got SCCP running over TCP/IP. This runs between the Gatekeeper and an H. In Figure 1. to be of general use.323 terminal – typically. One question to be addressed is why the Sigtran group went to all the trouble of defining a new transport layer. • RTP – the Real Time Protocol. • SIP – Session Initiation Protocol. when they could have chosen to use TCP? 3. the red lines represent the connections which carry the Sigtran protocols. 2.323.• Gateway – provides translation of both call control (signalling) and media from the PSTN to/from an IP network. The following protocols are defined: • H. The generic term ‘H. 3. define an interface to the IP transport layer (TCP) and plug the two together.323 connection. • Gatekeeper – governs access to the Gateway from both the IP and PSTN side. through a number of working groups. • It’s unlikely that any other equipment vendor will have designed an SS7 to IP interface which is anything like yours.323 endpoint to provide secure access control. to run an SS7 layer over IP is to take the chosen layer. • RTP – the IETF specifies the same Real Time Protocol as H. The Need for SCTP SCTP is a new transport protocol. It is in the IETF model that the Sigtran suite of protocols (including SCTP) is of most interest when considering IP as a transport for sig- nalling traffic.323 endpoints. • Megaco – Media Gateway Control (also defined by the ITU as H. this could be any IP device used as such (such as a PC). designed with the transport of time-sensitive signalling data in mind.323 endpoints. It remains flexible enough. to make TCP/IP look like a lower layer of SS7 (for example. Unfortunately. • H. • H. • There may be peer-to-peer management issues (such as connection establishment or quality of service negotiation) which have not been addressed.225 Call Signalling – establishes connections between H.3. 3 Introduction to Sigtran: A White Paper from Emerson Network Power™ Embedded Computing 3 . The structure of your IP packets. • H.248). which is used to carry SS7 between the SG and MGC. roughly equivalent to the MGC shown in Figure 1.225 RAS – Registration. Authentification and Status protocol.245 Control Signalling – runs between H.323 for carrying packetised media.2 Adapt the Solution It’s clear from the above that we have to address the issues of standardisation and scalability (or reuse). SIP is a call control protocol running between MGCs or MGCs and IP based phones. have established a similar model to H.

Introduction to Sigtran: A White Paper ISUP or SCCP) would be encapsulated within the TCP message. imposes no structure on the transmitted stream of bytes. where a single signalling message may be split into multiple SCTP messages in order to be accommodated within the underlying PDU. which are defined in terms of many seconds. • It defines timers of much shorter duration than TCP. • It supports multi-homing – each SCTP endpoint may be known by multiple IP addresses. In particular. in the form of the Sigtran working group. • It supports bundling. • It provides reliable transport of user data – detecting when data is corrupt or out of sequence. When this occurs. defining structured frames of data. another will be used. unstructured pieces of data – like a file or email message. Routing to one address is independent of all others and. This makes it ideal for delivery of large. TCP is byte-streamed – it provides a single stream of data and guarantees that data to be delivered in byte-sequence order.4 SCTP The Sigtran Working Group has defined a Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) [1] which aims to address the shortcomings of TCP. • It supports fragmentation. 3. determining connection loss and data retransmission. conversely. • It has a multi streaming capability – data is split into multiple streams. such as socket interfaces. scalability and reuse fall into place as the same model is applied to other upper layers – there would be a UA for use by SCCP. Consider the consequences of this. then the loss of a message relevant to only one resource (such as a telephone call) will result in the delay of all other ISUP messages. TCP will hold up delivery of all data (within this monolithic stream) until the correct sequence is restored. TCP has no such feature. SCTP itself is a general purpose protocol. An additional problem is the duration of some TCP timers. This has been done under the auspices of the IETF. • It is rate-adaptive. a replacement for TCP. We must ask ourselves an important question: is a bytestream oriented protocol well suited to carrying time-critical signalling messages? 3. Having solved the problems of peer-to-peer management and standardisation (both ends of the connection use the same UA). and performing repair as necessary. If a single TCP stream carries the ISUP signalling for many connections. where a single SCTP message may contain multiple ‘chunks’ of data – each of which may contain a whole signalling message. ISUP and so forth. if one route becomes unavailable. Keep Alive and Retransmission timers may result in excessive delays to connection set-up. Recognition of this has resulted in industry experts from many network equipment vendors cooperating to study the problems and propose a solution. responding to network congestion and throttling back transmission accordingly. the length of the Connection. SCTP has the following set of features: • It is a Unicast protocol – data exchange is between two known endpoints. TCP is particularly sensitive to delays caused by network errors – by loss of bytes. in terms of delivering SS7 messages. Unfortunately.3 The Problem with TCP There have been questions raised over the suitability of TCP to carry a time-critical protocol like SS7. based on cookies. messages or sequence violation. The questions arise from the very fact that TCP was originally designed for an altogether different purpose. • Provide a framework for peer-to-peer management. that very feature is its downfall. to prevent denial of service attacks. 4 Introduction to Sigtran: A White Paper from Emerson Network Power™ Embedded Computing 4 . • It is message-oriented. • It uses an initialisation procedure. each with independent sequenced delivery. The downside of such an architecture is that it relies on the services of TCP. port numbers and so on. TCP.

A single ‘pipe’ of data carries all ISUP messages for all three calls. Such processing would otherwise have to be repeated by each user. loss of a message relating to Call 1 affects only that stream of data. Consider the example of the ISUP protocol. For simplicity. Introduction to Sigtran: A White Paper from Emerson Network Power™ Embedded Computing 5 . Call 1 Call 1 Figure 2: ISUP Over TCP Call 3 Call 2 Call 1 Call 3 Call 2 Call 1 Multi-streaming is the main attraction.Aside from enhanced security. Some notes on Figure 4: • The red areas show the new protocol layers as defined by Sigtran. and assign each stream to a particular application or resource. The resources relating to Call 1 will still be tied up until the transport protocol recovers from the loss of data – but this situation is no different from that in traditional PSTN transport protocols. Figure 3: ISUP Over STCP Call 2 Call 2 Call 3 Call 3 4. Defining a structure for the messages also makes support of bundling and fragmentation less arduous. The transport protocol does all the work to split the stream of data into message segments – relieving the user’s responsibility to interpret a continuous stream of bytes. Consider now ISUP carried over SCTP. If the calls are then released in the same order. then the release messages for the other two calls will be delayed while TCP recognises the loss of the message and recovers the data. however (even the protocol’s name implies this – Stream Control Transmission Protocol). ISUP carries signalling messages for many PSTN resources (essentially trunk circuits – think of each one as a telephone call). This is shown in Figure 3. the final two points are what makes SCTP so much more suited to carrying signalling messages than TCP. This feature was explicitly designed to allow users to partition a single IP connection between two endpoints into separate logical streams of data. structured frames is a useful feature for the UA layers (as well as any other potential SCTP user). If the establishment messages for all three calls are received correctly. The transmission of bounded. The principle is that errors or delays on one stream will not interfere with normal delivery on another. Calls 2 and 3 are serviced as normal.1 Sigtran Architecture The Sigtran suite (including SCTP and all the UAs) is shown in Figure 4. This has the potential to delay the release of Calls 1 and 2 for a large number of seconds – an unacceptable delay to the PSTN. If three calls are in progress. ISUP has not been shown – this would normally run over MTP3 or M3UA. while the blue areas illustrate existing protocols. Figure 2 shows this situation if ISUP is carried over TCP. Sigtran Adaptation Layers 4. In this case. then one of the calls experiencing a loss of data should not cause a delay in transmission of messages relating to another call. then the calls are in progress. but the release message for Call 1 is lost.

extending SS7 into the IP network. Its user would be MTP3. such as SG to IP SCP. Effectively. As such. 4. This architecture is most applicable in the following circumstances: • The UA layers are named according to the service they replace. rather than the user of that service. • To provide the same class of service offered at the interface of the PSTN equivalent.5. It should be noted that the framework is flexible Figure 4: Sigtran Protocol Suite enough to allow for the addition of new layers as required. the MTP3 instance on the MGC is the user of the MTP2 instance on the SG! Neither MTP2 nor MTP3 are aware that they are remote from one another. where the MGC is the client and the SG is the server. such as SG to MGC. which is discussed in the following sections. For example. TCAP SCCP MTP3 M3UA M2UA M2PA SCTP IP SUA ISDN IUA • M3UA[3] provides the services of MTP3 in both a client-server (SG to MGC) and peer-to-peer architecture. Its user would be TCAP.2 M2UA M2UA is used to transfer MTP2-user data between the MTP2 instance on a SG and the MTP3 instance on an MGC. such as SG-to-SG connections. The MTP3 user at the MGC would usually be ISUP. at least (M3UA does not actually replace the features and operations of MTP3). The architecture of M2UA usage is shown in Figure 5. M3UA adapts SCTP to provide the services of MTP3 – rather then providing a service to MTP3 The Sigtran adaptation layers all serve a number of common purposes: • To carry upper layer Signalling Protocols over a reliable IP-based transport. M2UA provides a means by which an MTP2 service may be provided on an MGC. For example. or another transaction-based application part.2 protocol. by which signalling messages are passed over IP from the top of one SS7 layer to the bottom of another. • V5UA[9] provides the services of the V. M3UA must provide the same look and feel to its users as MTP3 – in terms of services.Introduction to Sigtran: A White Paper tion. • To remove as much need for the lower SS7 layers as possible. • M2PA[5] provides the services of MTP2 in a peer-to-peer situa- 6 Introduction to Sigtran: A White Paper from Emerson Network Power™ Embedded Computing . is described as backhauling. In essence. Its user would be an ISDN Layer 3 (Q. This process. • To be transparent: the user of the service should be unaware that the adaptation layer has replaced the original protocol (although this is largely dependant on the implementation). Sigtran currently defines six adaptation layers. • IUA[7] provides the services of the ISDN Data Link Layer (LAPD).931) entity. it operates a client-server model. • SUA[6] provides the services of SCCP in a peer-topeer architecture. Each UA has a particular applicability. as follows: • M2UA[4] provides the services of MTP2 in a client-server situation. Its user would be MTP3. Its users would be SCCP and/or ISUP.

it extends the reach of SS7 over the IP network. The SS7 address (the pointcode) of the system resides with MTP3 – if each SG had its own MTP3 layer. on the other hand. none of which need to know about the upper layer that they are supporting. MTP3 is present on each SG. This means that M2PA is responsible for: Introduction to Sigtran: A White Paper from Emerson Network Power™ Embedded Computing 7 . Replacing MTP2 links with M2UA is a distinct case from accessing an IP SCP from an SG (the service provided by SUA – refer to Section 4. to provide routing and management of the MTP2/M2PA links. M2UA merely provides an interface to a remote MTP2 service. used to bridge two SS7 network ‘islands’.3 M2PA M2PA is the peer-to-peer equivalent of M2UA. SS7 Links Signaling Gateway NIF Media Gateway Controller MTP3 MTP2 M2UA M2UA SCTP SCTP MTP1 IP IP Figure 5: M2UA The architecture of M2PA usage is shown in Figure 6. each SG may connect to multiple other SGs. Rather than provide a link between remotely located MTP2 and MTP3 instances. M2PA provides a means for peer MTP3 layers in SGs to communicate directly. In essence. Such functionality could well reside within the Nodal Interworking Function (NIF). At the SG side. the depiction of M2UA at the peer level to MTP2 is slightly misleading. such as: • Link activation and deactivation • Sequence number requests • MTP2 transmit/retransmit buffer updating procedures • Buffer flushing These are implementation issues.5 on Page 16). M2PA. has no knowledge of the upper SS7 layer. one user is MTP3 and the other is an SG IWF). M2UA is. each SG would require its own SS7 pointcode. it makes sense to host MTP3 in the MGC. The significant difference in function from M2UA is that M2PA actually provides an MTP2-like service itself. This architecture is most applicable for an SG to SG connection.• There is a low density of SS7 links at a particular physical point in the network (perhaps as low as one) • There are a large number of physically separate SG functions (due to the SS7 links being physically located remotely from each other) • The SG function is co-located with an MG (usually due to one or more of the previous conditions) In this case. in many ways. In the SUA case. Because of the presence of MTP3. This particular Sigtran configuration is likely to be common in European networks. it replaces an MTP2 link beneath MTP3. 4. a large number of pointcodes would be required to implement a (logically) single gateway. a user of MTP2 – the specification defines that M2UA is responsible for initiating protocol actions which would normally be issued by MTP3. however. The user of M2PA is MTP3 at both ends of the connection (with M2UA. it is known that the higher layer is TCAP (or another application part) – the SCCP services can be explicitly provided. In this case. where the SS7 signalling links share the physical medium with voice circuits.

MTP2 SCTP SCTP MTP1 SS7 Links IP IP Figure 7: M3UA 8 Introduction to Sigtran: A White Paper from Emerson Network Power™ Embedded Computing . terminating the ISUP connection on the MGC) – essentially extending the reach of SS7 into the IP network. This is another example of the MGC backhauling signalling messages from the SG. where the SS7 links are physically separate from the voice circuits. in that it operates in a clientserver way to provide an upper layer SS7 with protocol remote access to the lower layers. a T1 line). The MTP3 in the SG is unaware that the ISUP user is Figure 6: M2PA Signaling Gateway NIF Media Gateway Controller ISUP located remotely (the NIF will register itself as ISUP with MTP3).4 M3UA M3UA is similar to M2UA. M3UA provides a means by which an MTP3 service may be provided on an MGC (thus. for retrieval by MTP3 • Maintaining local and remote processor outage status MTP2 M2PA M2PA MTP2 4. MTP3 M3UA M3UA This architecture is most appropriate in the following circumstances: • There is a high enough density of SS7 links to make a standalone SG viable • The SS7 links are physically accessible at a single point These conditions are common in North American networks. Similarly. the ISUP layer at the MGC will be unaware that it is not served by a local MTP3. M3UA MTP1 SS7 Links SCTP SCTP MTP1 SS7 Links IP IP operates between an SG and an MGC. In this case. Like M2UA. The architecture of how M3UA fits into the SG/MGC model is shown in Figure 7.Introduction to Sigtran: A White Paper Signaling Gateway Signaling Gateway • Link activation/deactivation (in response to requests from MTP3) • Maintaining link status information MTP3 MTP3 • Maintaining sequence numbers and retransmit buffers. a number of links are gathered together into a single physical medium (for example.

and so do not require their own S7 pointcodes (MTP3. SUA can abstract the presence of each IP SCP – providing one SCCP address to cover all nodes. The IP SCP(s) do not have local MTP3 instances. In this case. 4. SUA provides the mapping between SCCP addresses and IP addresses (at the SG). Figure 8: SUA Signaling Gateway NIF IP SCP TCAP SUA SUA SCCP MTP3 MTP2 MTP1 SS7 Links SCTP IP SCTP IP Introduction to Sigtran: A White Paper from Emerson Network Power™ Embedded Computing 9 . Logically. However. How the two layers interwork is an implementation issue. the architecture would be the same as in Figure 8. 4. and so IUA and V5UA are not discussed. The M3UA layer is responsible for maintaining the MTP3-ISUP interface across an SCTP connection. where there may be no need for an underlying ‘traditional’ SS7 network. the IP SCP stack would be the same on both (IP based) nodes. Without such a function. The network architecture associated with SUA allows for multiple IP SCPs to be reached via a single SG.Here. The services of individual databases are addressed via Subsystem Number (SSN). SUA is also flexible enough to support Application Parts running between two network nodes wholly within the IP network. This is particularly relevant to emerging networks. The architecture of SUA use between an SG and IP SCP is shown in Figure 8. SUA provides a service not unlike SCCP Global Title Translation (GTT) to map these SSNs into SCCP connection IDs (which are used to route the Application Part messages to the appropriate IP SCP). Commands and requests for data transfer passed down by ISUP on the MGC are carried (over SCTP) by M3UA and presented to the upper interface of MTP3 on the SG. M3UA is a user of MTP3 at the SG.6 IUA and V5UA This document concerns itself solely with the adaptation of SS7 layers over SCTP.5 SUA SUA provides a means by which an Application part (such as TCAP) on an IP SCP may be reached via an SG. Indications and incoming data messages are passed up from MTP3 on the SG and carried (over SCTP) by M3UA to the lower interface of ISUP on the MGC. As with M2UA. Refer to [7]and [9] for more information on these UAs. the depiction of M3UA as a peer of MTP3 may be slightly misleading. SCCP would have to be present at each IP SCP and the external SS7 network would require knowledge of each such SCCP instance. SUA will further allow Service Databases in the SS7 network to be accessed from the IP network. and the pointcode. reside on the SG). The functionality of SUA could be provided by the MTP2 or MTP2 UAs. and so must have its own SS7 pointcode. each SG has a local MTP3 instance. In this case.

is the global leader in enabling Business-Critical Continuity™. 10 Introduction to Sigtran: A White Paper from Emerson Network Power™ Embedded Computing . For more information on the full spectrum of enterprise-wide solutions from Emerson Network Power. Emerson Network Power provides reliable power.com.artesyncp. a business of Emerson (NYSE:EMR).emersonnetworkpower. visit www. precision cooling. Backed by the largest global services organization in the industry. installation. Emerson Network Power. Emerson Network Power offers network reliability programs encompassing engineering.com. healthcare and industrial systems. connectivity and embedded computing solutions for IT.Introduction to Sigtran: A White Paper About Emerson Network Power Artesyn Communication Products has now become the Embedded Computing business of Emerson Network Power. For more information on the Embedded Computing business. Preparing customers for high-stakes opportunities and threats. communications. project management and support services. visit us at www.

References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] RFC 2960 RFC 2719 SS7 MTP3 SS7 MTP2 SS7 MTP2 SS7 SCCP RFC 3057 IETF V.txt> ISDN Q.txt> Glossary ETSI IETF GTT HDLC IP ISUP ITU IUA M2PA M2UA M3UA European Telecommunications Standardisation Institute Internet Engineering Task Force Global Title Translation High Level Data Link Control Internet Protocol ISDN User Part International Telecommunications Union ISDN User Adaptation layer MTP2 Peer-to-peer user Adaptation layer MTP2 User Adaptation layer MTP3 User Adaptation layer RTP SCCP SCP SCTP SG Real Time Protocol Signalling Connection Control Part Service Control Point Stream Control Transport Protocol Signalling Gateway Sigtran Signalling transport (IETF Working Group) SIP SP SS7 SSN SSP STP TALI TCAP Session Initiation Protocol (IETF Working Group) SS7 Signalling Point Signalling System No.5.txt> User Adaptation Layer <draft-ietf-sigtran-sua-04.2 Stream Control Transmission Protocol Framework Architecture for Signalling Transport User Adaptation Layer <fdaft-ietf-sigtran-m3ua-06.org User Adaptation Layer <draft-ietf-sigtran-v5ua-00.txt> User Peer-to-Peer Adaptation Layer <draft-ietf-sigtran-m2pa-02. 7 SubSystem Number Service Switching Point Signalling Transfer Point Transport Adaptation Layer Interface Transaction Capabilities Application Part Megaco Media Gateway Control (IETF Working Group) MG MGC MGCP MTP PSTN Media Gateway Media Gateway Controller Media Gateway Control Protocol Message Transfer Part Public Switched Telephone Network TIPHON Telecommunications and IP Harmonisation On Networks UA V5UA User Adaptation layer V5.txt> User Adaptation Layer <draft-ietf-sigtran-m2ua-06.921-User Adaptation Layer Web Site: http://www.2-User Adaptation layer Introduction to Sigtran: A White Paper from Emerson Network Power™ Embedded Computing 11 .ietf.

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