Thermal Lensing Effects modeled in COMSOL Multiphysics

Presented at Lockheed Martin ATC September 13, 2007 Colloquia
Brian Adolf COMSOL, Inc.

Thermal optics considerations
• • Optical components heat up due to environment and absorption As the temperature changes, the component may:
– Change shape – Change index of refraction – Change absorption

These all change how light propagates through the component
– Phase shifts – Wavefront changes shape

Thermal Lensing model
• • • High energy light propagates through an optical component The lens has some absorption to it
– (relative permittivity is complex valued)

Heat transfer simulation uses the local heating as input
– Also uses h*deltaT for boundaries – Heat transfer solved only in the lens

• •

Index of refraction changes as temperature changes
– Absorption could also change with temp. but ignored in this model

Assume (heating time scale) >> (EM propagation time scale)
– Can model Electromagnetics in frequency domain this way (faster) – Could modify it to solve EM in the time domain for pulsed operation

Thermal Lensing model • Structural Mechanics: deformation due to thermal expansion – Takes T as input (from Heat Transfer) – Structural equations only solved for the lens deformation – Assume lens is held at two points • Tie it all together with a moving mesh: – EM and thermal equations solved in deformed mesh – Structural equations control how the mesh deforms • • FULLY COUPLED and Self-consistent Physics! Can easily add other effects .

Setup: Air/vacuum TE10 waveguide (not shown) 4um wide PMLs to absorb/truncate domain without reflections “Collimating” lens .

“Resistive” heating at 100ns .

Temperature at 100ns .

Index of refraction at 100ns .

Temperature at 1 second .

Index of refraction at 1 second .

Displacement at 1 second .

Displacement at 1 second Infinitesimal point where lens is held (contact would have been more realistic) Original lens shape Deformed shape .

Time evolution of temperature t=10us 1ms 100ms 1s .

Index of refraction over time Displacement over time .

Phase shift The beam propagates differently at different times due to the thermal lensing effect: the beam is less intense and experiences a phase shift due to the increased optical path from the lens expansion .Wavefront distortion.

select 2D .Modeling it all in COMSOL Multiphysics Launch COMSOL Multiphysics.

Add the physics you want Start with Plane Strain for the lens .

Add the physics you want Add additional application modes .

Add the physics you want Add a moving mesh .

Add the physics you want Add EM: In-plane TE waves (inside deforming frame) .

Add the physics you want Add Heat Transfer. transient analysis .

Add the physics you want Physics selection complete .

Start in Draw Mode Set up a grid for convenience .

Grid settings 2 micron spacing is convenient .

Draw some geometry Ellipse for the lens. could also import from CAD .

small to keep problem size reasonable .Add the lens 2um wide lens.

Add the surrounding air Inside rectangle where mesh will deform .

Add the surrounding air Outside rectangle where the mesh is stationary .

Zoom in Zoom Extents will rescale and center your problem .

Main geometry .

Add Perfectly Matched Layers Other rectangles/squares outside of main geom. .

need to create separate line segment .Draw last PML separately Use the line tool.

Create a place for the EM to enter Draw an extra 4um “opening” for the TE10 waveguide .

Create 2 compound objects with Union tool Normally unions of geometry objects are not required .

Union the PMLs together Create two geom. objects to make pair creation easier .

Use Assemblies Treats two objects separately .

Add Pairs “Stitches” together the two geometries .

Add Pairs Only having two objects means only one pair is created .

Modify the Pair We need to split the pair we just made .

Modify the Pair Two colinear boundaries make up the pair .

Modify the Pair Select the two boundaries where the waveguide enters .

Modify the Pair Remove these two boundaries from the pair .

Modify the Pair Create a new pair manually. this will allow the TE10 in .

Modify the Pair The new pair consists of the two previously removed boundaries .

constants define the problem params .Add Constants For convenience.

Add Constants We’ll use these in our material properties/boundaries .

temperature. .Add Expressions Expressions vary with position. etc.

Add Expressions Temperature dependent index of refraction .

Set up EM Physics Select individual Physics from Multiphysics menu .

Set up EM Physics

Change the properties for convenience

Set up EM Physics

Free space wavelength is a convenient method

Set up EM Physics

Set up the EM Scalar Variables

Set up EM Physics Set the const. lambda0 to the one the In-Plane TE application mode uses .

Set up EM Physics

Set up the material properties

Set up EM Physics

The lens uses the expression we created

Set up EM Physics –add PMLs

PMLs absorb in certain directions, here: vertically

Set up EM Physics –add PMLs Horizontal PMLs added .

Set up EM Physics –add PMLs Absorbing in both x and y for the corners .

Set up EM Physics –Boundary Conditions .

Set up EM Physics –Boundary Conditions A Port is used with the pair we worked hard to create (the other pair is continuity) .

Set up EM Physics –Boundary Conditions Input power and mode number (TE10) specified .

Set up Heat Transfer Switch to the next physics .

Set up Heat Transfer Disable heat transfer computation everywhere but lens .

Set up Heat Transfer Define the properties using the constants Couple heating from EM: Qav_rfwe .

Set up Heat Transfer Don’t forget a temperature at t=0 .

Set up Heat Transfer –Boundary Conditions All 4 boundaries have heat flux exiting .

T0 constants) .Set up Heat Transfer –Boundary Conditions h_trans*(T-T0) defines the heat transfer out of the lens (h_trans.

Set up Structural Mechanics Moving on to the Plane Strain application mode .

Set up Structural Mechanics Disable the structural equations everywhere else .

Set up Structural Mechanics Use the constants to define the material properties .

T comes from Heat Transfer .Set up Structural Mechanics Add thermal deformation.

Set up Structural Mechanics Anchor the lens at two points .

harder) .Set up Structural Mechanics More accurate structural contact with a lens holder could have been done (would have made it slower.

Tie it all together with Moving Mesh The EM and Thermal uses the deformed coordinate system .

Tie it all together with Moving Mesh No need to have this part deform. only the lens moves .

Tie it all together with Moving Mesh The mesh around the lens needs to stretch freely .

Tie it all together with Moving Mesh The lens itself moves with the computed structural displacements. u and v .

Moving Mesh Boundary Conditions This small outer rectangle is the boundary between the freely moving mesh (inside) and the stationary mesh (outside) .

Moving Mesh Boundary Conditions These boundaries move with the lens (u. v) .

Solver Parameters Set up the time steps and other solver settings .

Solver Parameters Time steps and abs tolerances specified Complex numbers used (EM problem is time harmonic) .

Solver Parameters Small initial time step required due to highly coupled nature of problem .

Mesh Parameters The mesh is independent of the physics .

Mesh Parameters 1um wavelength with Nyquist criteria met (6 per wave) .

Mesh Parameters The wavelength in the lens is smaller by n .

Mesh Parameters This is the mesh to use .

Solve! It solves all equations simultaneously .

Solving… Time dependent solver takes a while to go from small initial time steps .

…Solving Quickly the time solver speeds up .

Solved! Number of degrees of freedom solved for: 192360 Solution time: 1385.5GB RAM) Can use parallel processors. other solvers .875 s UMFPACK (1 proc) on modern 64-bit processor COMSOL Multiphysics 3.3a Takes ~2.

com We do offer free trials of COMSOL Multiphysics and numerous workshops around the US Lockheed has quite a few copies of COMSOL Multiphysics .Questions? Contact us: brian@comsol.comsol.