Units of Measurements to be used in air and ground operations.

INTRODUCTION Article 28 (Air navigation facilities and standard systems) of the Convention on International Civil Aviation requires each contracting State to provide, in its territory, airports, radio services, meteorological services and other air navigation facilities to facilitate international air navigation, in accordance with the standards and practices recommended or established from time to time, pursuant to this Convention. ICAO Annex 5 provides the Standards and Recommended Practices pertaining to the units and measurements to be used in Air and Ground operations which are required to be adopted by the Contracting State. Accordingly, this CAR is issued under the provisions of Rule 29C and Rule 133A of the Aircraft Rules, 1937. 1. DEFINITIONS When the following terms are used in the CAR, they have the following meanings: Ampere (A). The ampere is that constant electric current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular crosssection, and placed 1 metre apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 x 10 -7 newton per metre of length. Becquerel (Bq). The activity of a radionuclide having one spontaneous nuclear transition per second.

Rev. 1, 12th May 2011


A unit of volume restricted to the measurement of liquids and gases which is equal to 1 cubic decimetre. Degree Celsius ( °C). Joule (J). A unit of thermodynamic temperature which is the fraction 1/273. Litre (L). Human capabilities and limitations which have an impact on the safety and efficiency of aeronautical operations. Knot (kt). The capacitance of a capacitor between the plates of which there appears a difference of potential of 1 volt when it is charged by a quantity of electricity equal to 1 coulomb. The unit of mass equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water. mass of matter Henry (H). The quantity of electricity transported in 1 second by a current of 1 ampere.CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SERIES ‘B’ PART I SECTION 1 .304 8 metre exactly. The speed equal to 1 nautical mile per hour. The Celsius temperature is equal to the difference t°C = T – T0 between two thermodynamic temperatures T and T0 where T0 equals 273. Coulomb (C). Kilogram (kg). 2 . The inductance of a closed circuit in which an electromotive force of 1 volt is produced when the electric current in the circuit varies uniformly at a rate of 1 ampere per second. Foot (ft). of a surface of 1/600 000 square metre of black body at the temperature of freezing platinum under a pressure of 101 325 newtons per square metre. in the perpendicular direction. The work done when the point of application of a force of 1 newton is displaced a distance of 1 metre in the direction of the force. Farad (F). Human performance. Gray (Gy). The energy imparted by ionizing radiation to a corresponding to 1 joule per kilogram. Kelvin (K). The frequency of a periodic phenomenon of which the period is 1 second. The luminous intensity.GENERAL 19TH SEPTEMBER 2005 Candela (cd).15 kelvin. Celsius temperature (t°C ). Hertz (Hz). The length equal to 0. The special name for the unit kelvin for use in stating values of Celsius temperature.

The length equal to 1 852 metres exactly. The electric conductance of a conductor in which a current of 1 ampere is produced by an electric potential difference of 1 volt.GENERAL 19TH SEPTEMBER 2005 Lumen (lm). 3 . Second (s). Lux (/x). Mole (mol). Pascal (Pa). The plane angle between two radii of a circle which cut off on the circumference an arc equal in length to the radius. The pressure or stress of 1 newton per square metre. The electric resistance between two points of a conductor when a constant difference of potential of 1 volt. Metre (m). The duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium. having its vertex in the centre of a sphere. Radian (rad). Note. molecules. this conductor not being the source of any electromotive force. Tesla (T). Tonne (t). Sievert (Sv). The unit of radiation dose equivalent corresponding to 1 joule per kilogram. The mass equal to 1 000 kilograms. ions. the elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms.CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SERIES ‘B’ PART I SECTION 1 . The solid angle which. The force which when applied to a body having a mass of 1 kilogram gives it an acceleration of 1 metre per second squared. cuts off an area of the surface of the sphere equal to that of a square with sides of length equal to the radius of the sphere. The distance travelled by light in a vacuum during 1/299 792 458 of a second. Newton (N). The illuminance produced by a luminous flux of 1 lumen uniformly distributed over a surface of 1 square metre.-. applied between these two points. Siemens (S).133 atom. Steradian (sr).012 kilogram of carbon-12. produces in this conductor a current of 1 ampere. The amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0. electrons. other particles or specified groups of such particles. Nautical mile (NM). Ohm (Ω ). The magnetic flux density given by a magnetic flux of 1 weber per square metre.When the mole is used. The luminous flux emitted in a solid angle of 1 steradian by a point source having a uniform intensity of 1 candela.

Direction/Space/Time 1.12 1. No.CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SERIES ‘B’ PART I SECTION 1 .13 1. REQUIREMENTS The units as given in Table 2. produces in it an electromotive force of 1 volt as it is reduced to zero at a uniform rate in 1 second.11 1.GENERAL 19TH SEPTEMBER 2005 Volt (V).5 1.14 1.3 1. Quantity Unit to be used (symbol) ft M² a) 1. The power which gives rise to the production of energy at the rate of 1 joule per second. The unit of electric potential difference and electromotive force which is the difference of electric potential between two points of a conductor carrying a constant current of 1 ampere.4 1.1 1. decimal subdivisions of the degree shall be used) runway length runway visual range tank capacities (aircraft) time b) NM M ft h and min ft º'" m º'" º m m L s min h d week month year distance (short) 4 .2 1.8 1.15 altitude area distance (long) elevation endurance height latitude length longitude plane angle (when required.9 1. The magnetic flux which.7 1. Watt (W).1 shall be used for all aspects of air and ground operations. Weber (Wb). 2. linking a circuit of one turn.6 1. when the power dissipated between these points is equal to 1 watt. Units of Measurement Ref. Table 2-1.10 1.

12 3.12 2.10 2.1 3.15 air density area density cargo capacity cargo density density (mass density) fuel capacity (gravimetric) gas density gross mass or payload hoisting provisions linear density liquid density mass moment of inertia moment of momentum momentum kg/m³ kg/m² kg kg/m³ kg/m³ kg kg/m³ kg T kg kg/m kg/m³ kg kg · m² kg · m²/s kg · m/s 3.3 2.13 2.14 air pressure (general) altimeter setting atmospheric pressure bending moment force fuel supply pressure hydraulic pressure modulus of elasticity pressure stress surface tension thrust torque vacuum kPa hPa hPa kN.3 3. for landing and take-off wind directions shall be expressed in degrees magnetic) km m³ SECTION 1 .1 2.14 2.8 3.6 2.9 2.CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SERIES ‘B’ PART I 1.5 2.16 1.2 3.11 3.11 2.7 3.7 2.2 2.4 3.4 2.GENERAL 19TH SEPTEMBER 2005 1.8 2. Mass-related 2.18 º 2.6 3.m Pa 5 .5 3.13 3.17 Visibilityc) volume Wind direction (wind directions other than for a landing and take-off shall be expressed in degrees true. Force-related 3.m N kPa kPa MPa Kpa Mpa mN/m kN N.10 3.9 3.

1 4.8 5.h) g/s L/min m³/min Pa . s kg/(kW.9 5. 12th May 2011 6 .4 5.12 4.13 5.CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SERIES ‘B’ PART I 4.8 4.2 5.5 4.11 4.3 4. Mechanics 4.10 fuel flow fuel tank filling rate (gravimetric) gas flow liquid flow (gravimetric) liquid flow (volumetric) mass flow oil consumption gas turbine piston engines (specific) 5.h) kg/(kN.GENERAL 19TH SEPTEMBER 2005 kt rad/s² rad/s J kW Hz kt J/m² MJ m/s² kW º/s kW m/s ft/min m/s. kt 5.6 5.1 5.h) kg/(kW.6 4.3 engine airflow engine waterflow fuel consumption (specific) piston engines turbo-shaft engines jet engines 5.14 4.13 4. Flow 5.4 4.2 4.5 5.7 5.h) kg/h kg/min kg/s g/s L/s kg/s kg/s kg/h Rev 1.14 oil flow pump capacity ventilation air flow viscosity (dynamic) kg/h g/kW.7 4.11 5.9 4.10 4.16 airspeed d) angular acceleration angular velocity energy or work equivalent shaft power frequency ground speed impact kinetic energy absorbed by brakes linear acceleration power rate of trim shaft power velocity vertical speed wind speed e) SECTION 1 .15 4.12 5.

Acoustics 9.3 7.2 8.5 7.9 7.11 7.1 6.4 7.4 8.1 7.2 6.8 7.10 7.3 6.7 7.12 7.6 6.7 8. Electricity and magnetism 7.6 7. Light and related electromagnetic radiations 8.GENERAL 19TH SEPTEMBER 2005 6.5 6.6 8.15 viscosity (kinematic) m²/s SECTION 1 .CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SERIES ‘B’ PART I 5.5 8.7 coefficient of heat transfer heat flow per unit area heat flow rate humidity (absolute) coefficient of linear expansion quantity of heat temperature W/(m².1 frequency Hz 7 .4 6.1 8.13 7.3 8.K) J/ m² W g/kg ºC⎯¹ J ºC 7.2 7.8 illuminance luminance luminous exitance luminous flux luminous intensity quantity of light radiant energy wavelength lx cd/ m² lm/ m² lm cd lm.s J m 9. Thermodynamics 6.14 capacitance conductance conductivity current density electric current electric field strength electric potential electromotive force magnetic field strength magnetic flux magnetic flux density power quantity of electricity resistance f S S/m A/ m² A C/ m² V V A/m Wb T W C Ω 8.

11 9. 12th May 2011 8 .000 000 001 = 10-9 0.5 10.7 9.1 = 10-1 0.5 9.000 000 000 000 000 001 = 10-18 Prefix exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto deca deci centi Milli Micro Nano Pico femto atto Symbol E P T G M K H da d c m g n p f a Rev 1. A conversion of 1 kt = 0. oil and high pressure oxygen vessels Visibility of less than 5 km may be given in m. periodic time sound intensity sound power sound pressure sound level static pressure (instantaneous) velocity of sound volume velocity (instantaneous) wavelength dB* s SECTION 1 .2 10.5 m/s is used for the representation of wind speed. The decibel (dB) is a ratio which may be used as a unit for expressing sound pressure level and sound power level. generally in excess of 4000m.3 9. s a) b) c) d) e) f) As used in navigation.3 10. Such as aircraft fuel.9 9.000 000 000 001 = 10-12 0. Nuclear physics and ionizing radiation 10. Airspeed is sometimes reported in flight operations in terms of the ratio MACH number.01 = 0.GENERAL 19TH SEPTEMBER 2005 Kg/m³ W/ m² W Pa DB f) Pa m/s m³/s m 10.4 9.1 10.2 9.001 = 10-3 0. Unit prefixes Multiplication factor 1 000000000000000000 = 1018 1 000000000000000 = 1015 1 000 000 000 000 = 1012 1 000000000 = 109 1 000000 = 106 1 000 = 103 100 = 102 10 = 101 0.000 001 = 10-6 0.6 9.10 9. the reference level must be specified.4 10.8 9.000 000 000 000 001 = 10-15 0. water. Table 2-2. When used.6 absorbed dose absorbed dose rate activity of radionuclides dose equivalent radiation exposure exposure rate Gy Gy/s Bq Sv C/kg C/kg .CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SERIES ‘B’ PART I 9. hydraulic fluids.12 mass density noise level period.

3048 m 1 kt = 0. vertical speed) To convert from Nautical Mile (NM) Foot (ft) Knot (kt) To Meter (m) Meter (m) Meter/second (m/s) Use formulae 1 NM = 1852 m 1 ft = 0.67)/1.8 t °C = t K – 273. Chattopadhyay ) Joint Director General of Civil Aviation 9 .514 444 m/s ( P.8 t K = (t°F + 459. month.CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SERIES ‘B’ PART I SECTION 1 . height. year volume litre Symbol t’ º ' " ºC min h d __ L 1 L = 1 dm³ = 10‫³־‬m³ Definition (in terms of SI units) 1 t = 10³ kg 1º = (π/180) rad 1' = (1/60)º = (π/10 800) rad 1” = (1/60)' = (π/648 000) rad 1 unit ºC = 1 unit Ka) 1 min = 60 s 1 h = 60 min = 3600 s 1 d = 24 h = 86 400 s a) See Table below for conversion Temperature conversion formulae To convert from Celsius temperature (t°C) Fahrenheit temperature (t°F) Fahrenheit temperature (t°F) Kelvin temperature (t K) Rankine temperature (t°R) to Kelvin temperature (t K) Celsius temperature (t°C) Kelvin temperature (t K) Celsius temperature (t°C) Kelvin temperature (t K) Use formula t K = t °C + 273. elevation.8 Distance/ speed conversion formulae (altitude.15 t °C = (t°F – 32)/1.GENERAL 19TH SEPTEMBER 2005 Table 2-3 Additional units for use with the above units Specific quantities in Table 3-4 related to mass plane angle Unit tonne degree minute second temperature time degree Celsius minute hour day week. K.15 t K = t°R /1.