Armando Marrufo October 25, 2009 Chemistry I PreAP-GT – 4th period Chemistry Atomic Theory History Notes Lavoisier (1743

-1794) • Married to Marie Lavoisier • Father of modern chemistry • First person to make good use of balance • After visit with Priestly in 74’, he began careful study of burning process • Proposed the Combustion Theory which was based on sound mass measurements • Named oxygen • Proposed Law of Conversation of Mass (represents beginning of modern chem.) • Was associated with a tax-collecting firm and was married to daughter of one of the firm’s executives - to support his work • Reacts various substances until they were in their simplest state o Found two important factors:  The simplest substances, which he called elements, could not be broken down any further  These elements always reacted with each other in the same proportiona Proust (1754-1826) • Proposed the Law of Constant Composition – 1799, usually contested by Clande Berthollet • Proved the Law of Definite Proportions – first developed and tested by Lavoisier o Law states that if a compound is broken down into its constituent elements, then the masses of the constituents will always have the same proportions, regardless of the quantity or source of the original substance Dalton (1776-1844) • Proposed the Law of Multiple Proportions o Law led to proposal of Atomic Theory in 1803 • Developed the concept of the mole • Proposed a system of symbols to represent atoms of different elements • Recognized the existence of atoms of elements and that compounds formed from the union of these atoms o Assumed that simplest ratios would be used in nature o Came up with formula for water: H20 o Assigned a relative atomic weight of one to hydrogen and developed atomic weight scale from percent composition data and assumed atomic ratios (equivalent masses). • Discovered color blindness • 1808 – 1810: published his textbook called “A New System of Chemical Philosophy”

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1803 – presented his first list of relative atomic weights for a number of substances o This paper was published in 1805, but he did not discuss where exactly how he obtained these figures – papers called “Experimental Essays”  Over constitution of mixed gases  Pressure of steam and other vapors at different temps  On evaporation  On thermal expansion of gases 5 Main Points of Dalton’s Atomic Theory o Elements are made of tiny particles called atoms o All atoms of a given element are identical o The atoms of a given element are different from those of any other element; the atoms of different elements can be distinguished from one another by their respective relative atomic weights. o Atoms of one element can combine with atoms of other elements to form chemical compounds, a given compound always has the same relative numbers of types of atoms o Atoms cannot be created, divided into small particles, nor destroyed in the chemical process; a chemical reaction simply changes the way atoms are grouped together 1800 - Dalton became a secretary of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society 1822 – had been made a corresponding member of the French Academie des Sciences

Mendeleev (1834-1907) • Proposed the periodic law • Developed first periodic table in 1869 o Table was arranged according to increasing atomic weight o Holes were left for elements that were yet to be discovered Thomson (1856-1940) • Identified negatively charged electron in the cathode ray tube in 1897 • Released his textbook called “A System of Chemistry” • Proposed the “plum pudding” model of the atom o Volume of the atom is composed primarily of more massive positive plum pudding o Smaller electrons are dispersed throughout the positive mass to maintain charge neutrality Millikan (1868-1953) • Determined the unit charge of the electron in 1909 with his oil drop experiment at University of Chicago Rutherford (1871-1937) • Proposed the nuclear atom as result of the gold-foil experiment in 1911

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Proposed that all of the positive charge and all of the mass of the atom occupied a small volume at the center of the atom and that most of the volume of the atom was empty space occupied by the electrons 1920 – proposed the existence of the third atomic particle, the neutron Named first two types of radiation – alpha and beta Gold-oil experiment

Moseley (1887-1915) • Discovered that the energy of x-rays emitted by the elements increased in a linear fashion with each successive element in the periodic table • 1913 – proposed that the relationship was a function of the positive charge on the nucleus o Caused rearrangement of the periodic table by using the atomic number instead of atomic mass to represent the progression of the elements Chadwick (1891-1974) • Was a collaborator of Rutherford’s • Discovered neutron in 1932 o Led directly to the discovery of fission • 1932 – discovered the existence of a particle in the nucleus with no electrical charge but with a weigh slightly greater than a proton – named it neutron Faraday • Characterized electricity Crookes • 1870 – built an apparatus, now called a Crookes tube, to examine “rays” being given off by metals • Wanted to determine whether the rays were light or electricity based on Faraday’s and Maxwell’s descriptions of both Becquerel • Left some photographic plates in a drawer with uranium, a new element he was studying o Result: when plate was removed, he found that they had become fogged o There were nothing else in drawer and concluded that uranium gave off some type of ray called later to be known as radiation Planck • 1900 – studying processes of light and heat, specifically trying to understand the light radiation given off by a “black-body” • Found correct mathematical relationship o Assumed that the energy absorbed or emitted by the oscillators was always a multiple of some fundamental “packet of energy” he called a quantum


Objects that emit or absorb energy do it in discrete amounts called quanta

Bohr • Realized that the idea of a quantum of energy could explain how the electrons in the atom are arranged • Described the electrons as being “in orbit” around the nucleus like planets around the sun De Broglie • 1920 – showed that particles like electrons could sometimes have properties of waves Heisenberg • Stated that the precise speed and location of an electron cannot both be known at the same time – Heisenberg uncertainty principle Schrodinger • 1926 – Schrodinger published in the Annalen der Physik the paper “Quantization as an Eigenvalue Problem” on wave mechanics and Schrodinger equation o Gave a derivation of the wave equation for time independent systems o Showed that it gave the correct energy eigenvalues for the hydrogenlike stoms. • Paper celebrated as one of the most important achievements of the 20th century • 1933 – Earned Nobel Prize in Physics • Personal friend of Albert Einstein Stoney • Most famous for introducing the term electron as the “fundamental unit quantity of electricity” • Craters on Mars and moon are named after him • First recipient of the Boyle Medal • Member of the Royal Society for 50 years Pauling • Most influential chemists in history • Nobel Prize in Chemistry • Nobel Prize in Physics • Created Pauling’s rules Davy • First published work – An Essay on Heat, Light, and the Combinations of Light • Tested with nitrous oxide (laughing gas) • Analyzed alkaline earths, isolating magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium

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Davy's recognition that the alkalis and alkaline earths were all oxides challenged Lavoisier's theory that oxygen was the principle of acidity Was a member of Royal Society in 1803 and served as president from 1820 to 1827 Discovered sodium and potassium Best remembered for his contributions to electrochemistry Invented safety lamps for miners

Pauli • Known as the “conscience of physics” • Demonstrated that a fourth quantum number called “spin” quantum number, taking on only half-integer values, was required to describe the state of an atomic electron • Pauli exclusion principle – states that no two electrons in an atom can exist in exactly same state with the same quantum numbers • Pauli also contributed in completing Dirac’s quantum electrodynamics. His other major contributions dealt with the electric properties of metals and with the relation between spin and statistics for elementary particles. • 1931 – was awarded the Lorentz Medal in Amsterdam • 1945 – was awarded the Nobel Prize for his “… decisive contribution through his discovery in 1925 of a new law of Nature, the exclusion principle or Pauli principle.” o Einstein nominated him • Pauli showed himself that the electronic configuration is made fully intelligible by the exclusion principle, which is therefore essential for the elucidation of the characteristic physical and chemical properties of different elements. Among those important phenomena for the explanation of which the Pauli principle is indispensable, we mention the electric conductivity of metals and the magnetic properties of matter. • In 1944, Pauli was appointed to the chair of theoretical physics at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey and then in 1946 he became a naturalized citizen of the United States • After the Second World War was over, Pauli returned to Zurich. Pieter Zeeman. In 1953, Pauli was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London • He was elected Fellow of the Swiss Physical Society, the American Physical Society, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science • 1958 – awarded the Planck Medal • Died on December 15, 1958 Dirac • 1928 - Dirac set out to rework the basic wave equation of quantum mechanics so that Einstein's special relativity was taken into account • 1930 - he had created a new wave equation. Among other virtues, Dirac's equation accounted for spin, discovered experimentally in 1925 but without a theoretical basis at the time. The symmetry of Dirac's equation suggested that there must be a particle exactly like the electron, except with a positive instead of negative charge. An energetic photon would produce from its energy alone both the electron and its positive counterpart, the antiparticle.

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The predicted antiparticle, the positron, was observed in 1932 by Carl Anderson. Dirac's theory also predicted an antiparticle for every particle, which has since been found to be correct. Proposed anti-particles. Anderson discovered the anti-electron (positron) in 1932 and Segre/Chamberlain detected the anti-proton in 1955.

Walther Bothe • Earned the Nobel Prize in 1954 o In Physics Bothe was awarded a number of honors: • Member of the Academy of Sciences of Göttingen • Member of the Academy of Sciences of Heidelberg • Corresponding Member of the Saxon Academy of Sciences, Leipzig • Grand Cross of the Order for Federal Services • 1952 – Knight of the Order of Merit for Sciences and the Arts • 1953 – Max-Planck-Medaille of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft • 1954 – Nobel Prize in Physics "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith". Bothe received half of the prize; the other half was awarded to Max Born. • He was able, however, to supervise the work of the Institute of Physics in the Max Planck Institute and he continued to do this until his death in Heidelberg on February 8, 1957 Fermi • Invented the neutronic reactor • Discovered the first nuclear reactor • In 1933, he developed the theory of beta decay, postulating that the newlydiscovered neutron decaying to a proton emits an electron and a particle which he called a "neutrino". The theory developed to explain this interaction later resulted in recognition of the weak interaction force. Investigation into the weak force has been one of the major areas of study at Fermilab. • • Enrico Fermi received the Nobel Prize in 1938 for "his discovery of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for the discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons." Worked on the building of the atom bomb

Meitner • an Austrian-Swedish physicist who, while working with the German radiochemist Otto Hahn, was the first to identify they had inadvertantly achieved nuclear fission • Her most significant accomplishment was publishedin 1939. She had discovered that when a uranium nucleus was struck by neutrons barium was produced. This was strange because barium is so much smaller than uranium, and so another explanation was needed. o Sometimes the oscillating nucleus would stretch into a dumbbell shape. Also, sometimes the repulsive forces between the protons in the two rounded ends would cause the narrow waist in between to pinch off and leave two nuclei where there had only been one.

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She is also known for her work in atomic theory, and her prediction of the existence of chain reaction would lead to the discovery of the atomic bomb. Mother of the Atom Bomb

Goldstein • Early investigator of discharge tubes • Discover of anode rays • Discovery of the proton • By the 1870s Goldstein had undertaken his own investigations of discharge tubes, and named the light emissions studied by others kathodenstrahlen, or cathode rays. • In 1886, he discovered that discharge tubes with a perforated cathode also emit a glow at the cathode end. Goldstein concluded that in addition to the already-known cathode rays, later recognized as electrons moving from the negatively-charged cathode toward the positively-charged anode, there is another ray that travels in the opposite direction. Because these latter rays passed through the holes, or channels, in the cathode, Goldstein called them kanalstrahlen, or canal rays. They are composed of positive ions whose identity depends on the residual gas inside the tube. It was another of Helmholtz's students, Wilhelm Wien, who later conducted extensive studies of canal rays, and in time this work would become part of the basis for mass spectrometry. Marie and Pierre Curie • Pioneer in the field of radioactivity (M) • First person to be honored with two Nobel Prizes (M) o Physics  Both Marie and Currie o Chemistry • Davy Medal (M) • Mattucci Medal (M)

• TIMELINE Year Scientist(s) Greek era 1704 1803 Democritus Isaac Newton John Dalton

Discovery "by convention bitter, by convention sweet, but in reality atoms and void" Proposed a mechanical universe with small solid masses in motion. Proposed an "atomic theory" with spherical solid atoms based upon measurable properties of mass. Studied the effect of electricity on solutions, coined term "electrolysis" as a splitting of molecules with electricity, developed laws of electrolysis. Faraday himself was not a proponent of atomism. Built one of the first gas discharge tubes ("cathode ray tube"). Arranged elements into 7 groups with similar properties. He discovered that the properties of elements "were periodic functions of the their atomic weights". This became known as the Periodic Law. Proposed electric and magnetic fields filled the void. Proposed that electricity was made of discrete negative particles he called "electrons". (Link to info on electrons) Discovered cathode rays had the following properties: travel in straight lines from the cathode; cause glass to fluoresce; impart a negative charge to objects they strike; are deflected by electric fields and magnets to suggest a negative charge; cause pinwheels in their path to spin indicating they have mass. Used a CRT to study "canal rays" which had electrical and magnetic properties opposite of an electron. Using a CRT he observed that nearby


Michael Faraday

1859 1869

J. Plucker Dmitri Mendeleeff

1873 1874

James Clerk Maxwell G.J. Stoney


Sir William Crookes


E. Goldstein




chemicals glowed. Further experiments found very penetrating rays coming from the CRT that were not deflected by a magnetic field. He named them "X-rays". While studying the effect of x-rays on photographic film, he discovered some chemicals spontaneously decompose and give off very pentrating rays. Used a CRT to experimentally determine the charge to mass ratio (e/m) of an electron =1.759 x 108 coulombs/gram. Studied "canal rays" and found they were associated with the proton H+ . Studied radiations emitted from uranium and thorium and named them alpha and beta. Studied uranium and thorium and called their spontaneous decay process "radioactivity". She and her husband Pierre also discovered the radioactive elements polonium and radium. Observed spontaneous disintegration of radioactive elements into variants he called "isotopes" or totally new elements, discovered "half-life", made initial calculations on energy released during decay. used the idea of quanta (discrete units of energy) to explain hot glowing matter. Postulated a "Saturnian" model of the atom with flat rings of electrons revolving around a positively charged particle. Discovered that inert gases had a stable electron configuration which lead to there chemical inactivity. Developed an electrical device to "click" when hit with alpha particles. Oil drop experiment determined the charge (e=1.602 x 10-19 coulomb) and the mass (m = 9.11 x 10-28 gram) of an electron.


Henri Becquerel


J.J. Thomson

1897 1898 1898

J.J. Thomson Rutherford Marie Sklodowska Curie



1900 1903

Max Planck Nagaoka



1906 1909

Hans Geiger R.A. Millikan


Ernest Rutherford

Using alpha particles as atomic bullets, probed the atoms in a piece of thin (0.00006 cm) gold foil. He established that the nucleus was: very dense,very small and positively charged. He also assumed that the electrons were located outside the nucleus.


H.G.J. Moseley Using x-ray tubes, determined the charges on the nuclei of most atoms. He wrote"The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus". This work was used to reorganize the periodic table based upon atomic number instead of atomic mass. Aston Niels Bohr Discovered the existence of isotopes through the use of a mass spectrograph. Developed an explanation of atomic structure that underlies regularities of the periodic table of elements. His atomic model had atoms built up of sucessive orbital shells of electrons. Discovered that electrons had a dual naturesimilar to both particles and waves. Particle/wave duality. Supported Einstein. Described atoms by means of formula connected to the frequencies of spectral lines. Proposed Principle of Indeterminancy you can not know both the position and velocity of a particle. Built an early linear accelerator and bombarded lithium with protons to produce alpha particles Viewed electrons as continuous clouds and introduced "wave mechanics" as a mathematical model of the atom. Proposed anti-particles. Anderson discovered the anti-electron (positron) in 1932 and Segre/Chamberlain detected the anti-proton in 1955. Using alpha particles discovered a neutral atomic particle with a mass close to a proton.

1919 1922


de Broglie




Cockcroft / Walton Schrodinger



Paul Dirac


James Chadwick

Thus was discovered the neutron. 1938 Lise Meitner, Hahn, Strassman Conducted experiments verifying that heavy elements capture neutrons and form unstable products which undergo fission. This process ejects more neutrons continuing the fission chain reaction.

1941 51 1942

Glenn Seaborg Synthesized 6 transuranium elements and suggested a change in the layout of the periodic table. Enrico Fermi Conducted the first controlled chain reaction releasing energy from the atoms nucleus.

1950's - New Follow this link to current theories about findings/particl atomic stucture es