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Oi IvfJaQiu:c;, onwc; qxuveuu, xaAovv TlC;yvva{xEC; iva XQovo xotv, yw va f.lnoQovv va iQxovTat oto odnvo ixovrac; xooetouuioet ue T1]V aVE01j rove; ra tpoQif.lara xai ra x00f.lt7f.lara rovc;.
Fr' uuto XL Eva.; k'UBaQI.tTl';, nou BQE811XE01rr kJtelQ'tf] XaL rtaQax6:8f]OE OE YEU!1a, b~AWOE: «AA'l')8tvel ot ~JtaQ'tLUtE~ ELvm oi mo YEvval.m Ctv8QwJtOL, Xel8E CtAAO~ 8a rtQo'ttJ..l.OUOE XLAt€~ CPOQE~ JtE8CtVEL, vc JtaQa va ~iJOELoJ'tWo;curot». Axo!1TJ xm 0 AQLO'tOCPelVf]~ !1ao; 'UJtEv8uJ..l.L~EL olJBa'tf] QL'tLX~ XALO~:
17

XPHITOI' MOTl:IAI'

«EanaaBm, xot1;a~LtELV, all~aQttEtV)} (<<EtQ~vrJ»), rtou o KW01;as BaQvaA'I1S IJ.E'tEcpQaOE:«Na IJ.JtOUXWVE'tatOE nAouaw a'U~aQt'tL'xo 'tQanEtt 'Xat 'tOY 'Xo't'ta~02 va nattEt». cfJ'I1!lWIJ.EVm yta 't'l1VJtOAtl'tEAELa 'Xat 'ta ~aQucpor:?,iWIJ.Eat IIEQoES, nou BalJ.nwaav 'to navEAA~vW, IJ.E'ta YEUlJ.ata nou naQEBEtaV ans EXatQa'tEtES 'to'US· L'I1IJ.EtWVEtlJ.uAWta 0 TIAou'taQXos, IJ.E'ta t'l1v ~'tta rou lJ.£yUAOU~amALu OttS TIAatatES: «N'I1 taUe; BEQue;AtXVOe; ~v TIEQO'l1e;on toouum EXWV EJtt tnv TJIJ.EtEQa~ABE lJ.uta».

vo 'tQanEtta tou; ~'tav Xat

To YEu~ata ornv E:ltOX~ roo O~tlQou
kHMEIQLElk 1. L:vf3aQl~: 'Htov a:JtOLxLa trnv Axatcbv Xat rrov TQOL~TJVl(()V OTYIV K6."t(() haAia, naQOL(-tLcb6TJ~YLa "tTJv tQuqJ'i} Xat "tTJY (-taA8axotTJ"ta roiv xawtx(J)v "tTJ~. Ka"t(w"tQcUPTJXE ano roix KQO"t(J)VL6.tE~ Xat OtlJ BEoTJ "tTJ~,"to 444 a.X, L6Qv8llxav, anD "tOU~ A8TJvaiou~, OL EloVQLOL. fLa tou; aQJcaLou£ «OU~UQl~(J)>> OTJ(-tatVEX6.V(() ~w~ CPLA'i}60Vll. 2. Kottatio«: Eva natxviCt not: OUViJ8L~((V oi a~?X<:t(OLEA~/YIV££o"tu YA£V'(LC( roue. IllViJ8w£ J(;EtOlJOaV to 'XQaoi uno "tllv xov:Jtu 1:0ll£ uso« OE (-tLa AEXaYlj Yf(-tCttTJ (-tl:': EQ6, ({J(J)vCt~OVt(l£ v 'Xl Eva ayart11(-tEvo rou; ovouu. Arto ,(OY~XO nou €(.iya~E 'to 'XQaat, :Jt€({JtOYLft£ ~Eaa. OtO VEQO, f!CtV'(EVUV£ 'XaL LL£; 1tQ08EOCL£ rou ayaJtll~tEVoll iJ '(11£ ayaJt1'J(-tEY~;:. 'OIJ.TJQoe; vollutEt rou; <;v8Qwno~~ t11~ En~x~~ o 'tall «'¢wlloepayO'Ue;», aepOll to '¢OOllt ntnv 11x'UQta fla011 t11~ bLU'tQOep~~. MLa bta'tQoep~, OIlOO~,JtOll Oa :1tgEnEt va ~'tav aQxEtU 1J.0vo'tOVl]. IlEyaAo~ :n;m11t~~, rooo ornv «IAuiba» 000 Xat ornv «OMOOEtU», IltAatt xu8aQu yta xQEa'tQ(p~yia, Ill:. aep80vo '¢OOIlL Xat epllmxa to urruQaL'tl]'to xQam:

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18

19

XPH~Tm: MOT~IA~

TI ETpgrAN 01 APXAIOI

Kat otnv «Oouooero», onou 'Y]naQu8Ea'Y] YE'UJ.tUtWVEL~ Vat al)XVOtEQ'Y]: Kat ef3aAe enelTa uxooou: rov~ yvaAlOro r(}ane~t, suivto oto oxoio rj aep1l1jOlKOVOpO~ if3aAe 1/JWPl Kat acp(}o~ va qaynta. Kat 0 pot(}aaT'lj~ rwv K(}EarWV aniOeaE mVdKta ue KdOe etoov~ K(}ia~ Kat ef3aAe ustooora rov~ XQvaonorrjQa. KdOe AlYO xeovooae Kat 0 KtjQvKa~ via va TOV~xeoaoei K(}aat.

iyoa(}av yevpa

ra

uayeioepav sa etoiuaaav nAovalDndQoxo

To rtEQLEQYOOI1(J)~ELVat Ott 0 «8E"LxO£» JtOLlJti)£, oro 1I:0AAa YEVI-lata Xat bELnva nou JtaQa8CtEL, anocpEvYEL v' avacpEQ8e:t os aAAu cpaY'Y]tu, OttW£ oro X'UVlJYEtLXU 8'Y]Qu~ Ila'tu Xat ~E~ata ore 'llJuQtu. Tr' curo, bLxatoAoYlJI-lEVU, uvaQwtLlhm 0 xw,.uxo~ Jtatllti}~ EV~O'UAO£ (yvQw OtO 476 Jt.X.):

(a, 140~143)
AAAu, OtO 8EJ.ta t'Y]~ liLatQocpi)~ J.tEacp80vo XQUOL Xat 'llJwlltU EtVat XUt'Y]yoQ'Y]J.tatLxi) Xat 'Y]nLa'ti) ITllvdoJt'Y]: yipwi uou ardpve~ ue YAVKO xoaot, TO iao vootiuo ano exetvo nov KQVf3Et~ rip we uou OwOeKa (...) otauve; Kat acpdAlOi TE~oAe~PE xdnuutc: BaAe axoua aAevQl oe Ka,"toQappiva oaxui - OiAW etxoo: pirQa ana tetoto KaAo 1/JlAoaAeapivo aAeV(}I. Mava,

Ma nov iuu; eine 0 'Oprj(}O~, xo»; xaxoux; an' rov~ Axatov~ icpaye 1/JdQta; Kotara uovo etooryav, cupoti ra 'ipnva», nori &v tuu; xaooootaoe «aveva va f3(}d~el "Qiara. (A8i)VatO£, A 46)
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(~, 349~350, 353~355)
BE~ata, ta OCPaYLa, to'UAUXtOtOV Ot'Y]v OI1'Y]QLXi) JtO~ E xi), EtVat OE acp80via. LUXVE£ e:LVat OLavacpoQE£ YLa tQanE~La ozou JtQoacpEQoVtat 1l0aXaQLa, aQVLa Xat aAAa aCPaYLa, nou O'UVObEVOVtat ~C~ata ano acp80vo xQaaL Kat o'toxo~ tou Xa8E OLxobEOnOt'Y] dvat va LxaVOnoti)~ OEt coo I1noQELmo XaAa to CPLAo;EVOVI1EVOto'U.Lt'Y]V nQo~ xELJ.tEv'Y] JtEQLJttWa'Y](<<ObvaoELa» 8 59-61) 0 ~amALa£ tWV tPmuxwv AAxivoo£ 'tOY Ex1toQ8'Y]ti) t'Y]£TQo(a~, tOY OouooEa: AAKlVOO~ iacpage yl ' avrov~ Owc5eKanQof3m:a, oKrw aoxoooovioo; XO{QOV~Kat OVOf3aQla j3oola. Ta
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atoux.

(<<OlivaaELU»
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s, 367-368)

20

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MOTl:IAI:

TI ETPQf AN 01 APXAIOI

AxOJ.tll XaL 0 3tOtll'tt)S; Hotooog; onS; 'tOOts; XaL 'tOOES; OUJ,l~OUAES;'tOU, ISEV aVaqJEQUaL 0't0 lPaQElla! AAACt. tn 1pUQLa qJaiVE'taL vo t)'tav «mxaIlEQt)>> 'tQoqJt) XaL YLa 'tOUS;... AL8lo:n:ES;. raAAOS; IILEQ MOV'tE O'tO ~L~Aio 'tOU «H xa811J,lEQLvt) ~oot) ornv CtQXaLCt ALyv:n:'to», CtVCtqJEQEL: «.6.La~a~OUllt o'tll o'ttlAll rou IILCtvxXi (~CtmALUS; H]S; NCtnu'tCt, CtQXaLo'tat'T]S; 3tOAllS; 'tllS; AL8L01ttas;, stou 0 HQo1S0't0S;'tllv avaqJEQEL ooS MEQOVll) on, otnv xa'tEX'tl']OE 't1) e1)~atlSa, 'to 730 a.X, ISEV8EAllOE vo bEX'tEl O'tO 'tQa1t€~t ron rou; nQtyxLnES; rou votou Xat rou MA'ta tou NELAOU, 3tOU tl'tav aXOAao'tOt XL £'tQooyav lPaQLa, xa'tL nou 'to 8EOOQovoav alltlLao'tLxo oro ~aatALxo :n:uAa'tL. To ISLaL'tOAOYLO nov VEXQOOV, rooo 0't1) YEa aU'tOxQa'toQia 000 XaL orou; aQxaLouS; XQOVOUS;bEY JtEQLACtlll3uVEL lPaQLa». 'OJ,looS;,OL ALyUJt'tLOL, YVQoo a:n:o 'tll AI.!J.Vl')ct'>aYLovJ.t,ons 6x8ES; tl 'to ISEA'ta ron NciAoU, t)'tav maYYEA.p.a'tiES; tVaQUISES. 'O'tL E'tQooyav, 0J.t00S;,1pUQLa OL 'EAATJVES; 'tllS; OJ.t'Y]QLXt)S; EJtOXt)S;, xun UAAooO'tE 'to 'tEAELWS;qJumxo, ISEV 'to a!J.qJLo~TJ'tEi xavELS. H XQt)0TJ bLX'tuwv, aou avaqJEQE'taL o'tllv «IALulSa» (E, 484) ELvaL XChL 'to EV()ELX'tLXO, O'tL tl;EQUV ano 1puQEJ.ta. AEEL 0 ~aQ:n:ll()OvCt; o'touS; TQwES;:
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oJ'tWObt):ltO'tE , 0!J.00S;,xa'ta

yay Xat ~Qaa'ta 6a» (cI>, 362):

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KL Evas; 't01l:0S; 1I:OU J.t:lt0QovaE va ~ya~EL mp80va

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22

XPH!TO!

MOT!IA!

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24

25

XPJll;Tm: MOTI'IAI:

TI ETPgfAN 01 APXAIOI

xodopovv oxttux, TOxaAoxa{Ql roy lrEQlOaoreQO xatQa ()a eQya~ovrat yvpvo{ xat avv11:od1Jrol,eva; TOVxelpwva vtuuevo: Xat v11:od1JpevOl xaAa' dEY Ba rQecpovrat qnuixvovra~ XQl()a(}a11:lTE~ xas 1/Jwp{ axo otaoevu: aAevQl, 11:0VBa ra tjJ1jvovv xcu ()a ra ~1JPWVovv,xai f3a~ovra~ ~vP1J'Ij 1/Jwpla lfavw ae Xa1rOla XaAapocpvUa 'Ij 11:avwae xa(JaQa cpvUa, acpov ~alfAwvovV oe OTQWllara axo O'P{8 Aaxa xac pVQa{v1J, dEY fla rQa;ve 11:AOVma autot xai ra lfatOul rOV~ xai de Ba ntvou» xoaa! O'lya Olya otetpavmpevot, VpvoAoywvra~ TOV~()EOV~oe evx6.Ql(Jre~ pera~v rov~ avvrQocple~; ( «ilOAt reto» 372a 8b)

80, bUOOIlO xm IlEVta axofJT), yta vc n:aQEt to ljJOOfJi!lLa
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xaviva an •avra ra 1jJagla, yl ' avro OtaAE;a iva toavo xaAxaVI, Xl inflra ayogaaa xiAla, ra(}{Oe~ xca 1jJagla nov 'Vat xaAa via r1] oxaoa, XiAta xat :rri(}OIXf~ xcu yof3toV~ via va vive: iva rgani~l sao :rregrjepavo sa ano na-

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TI ETpgrAN OJ APXAIOJ
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40

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Idov eyc:6rjQfJa ana TOaQTonWAdov exeC TOVeeaQ{wvo~, nov etvcu xai 0 cpovQVO~ TOV.

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8a etoiuaaret ro odnvo Xl av 8a Jt(!em;l va nageTE a(!Xtae(!j3lrogo, mara oto anln av eXert::a(!Xera, 1) xov~lva av eivai areyaaflev1) xi av an ' t ' aMa Jt(!aYflara vna(!xovv ola ...

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1.A6yyo,;: Mu8w'toQwYQaqJo;, llaHov uno TIl AfO~O, nou f~llaE oro 'tfAO; rou 20u Il.X. mwvu i), xa't' aHou;, 'tOY 40 i) 50 cuovc, 'EYQU'¢E rn «I1otIlEvLxa i) xa'ta Aaq:lVLvxm XMtJV», nou 8EooQEL'tm uno ru XUAv'tEQa :rtQw'ta IlE'taXQto'ttavLxa IlU8w'tOQtllla'tU. 2. A(!xim:(!ar:o,;: I1EQtq:JtJIlO; «bEtnVoAoyo;» ana 'ttJ rfAU, 6ooQtxi) anotxiu 'tl]; ~tXEAta~, oVYXQovo£ tOU AQWtO'tEAl]. AOXOAi)8tJXE IlE Eibo; naQoobLW;, «tn beLnvu», nou IlE'taqJQaOttJXE oro AunVLxa uno 'tOY Evvt« xm ovoucorrpte «tJbuqJuYtJttxa». 0 AQXEO'tQutO£ EtXE EVtUrtWOLaOEL 'tOU£ uQXUiOll; us 'tt; btmtOAOYLXE; '(01) YVWOEt£. 3. Mivavo(!o,;: A8tJvaio; XWl-tLXO;rtOLtJti)£, 0 xOQuqJuio£ tl]; VEotEQl]£ atttxi); XW!-LOO6LU; (342-280 n.X,). 'EYQU'¢E 100, rtEQtrtOU, ErnU xm Vixl]aE OXtw qJOQE£ os UYWVE~ (oQul!anxov; - XWI.tLXOV£).Kaflia navtw£ xWl!oobiu lOU bEV OW8tJXE OMXAT]QT]. Ot XUMtEQa bLUtl]Ql]l!fVE£ eLvm «OL ErtL'tQfnovrso-, «H nEQLxELQOJ1fVl]»xm «H ~u!Jta».

L

'ta YEU!!ata Xat oro &ELnva tc tQunEtLa ~'tuv YE!!ata !lE 'V{))!1t, !!E XQEata Xat XOQtaQLxa, XL aXO!1'll !!E EAutt;, :n:b:Et;,YA'UXta!!ata XaL 'PQo1Jta. <PuOLxa xm !!E a<:pOovo xQuaL Ano ta oonQLa, yvcoata oroix aQxuto'Ut; ~tav rc qxraOALa, OL<:paxEt;,ta QE~tOLa (nov ta nQOtL!10UaUVE 'V'l1!1Evc), rc !!:rtLtEALU Xat tc xo'Uxul, rtou tc 'tQwyav, a'Uv~OWt;, os nO'UQE (ELVOt;). Tic 'W ELVOt;, &'l1Aa&~ t'l1 a'l1!!EQLv~ qJa~a, ;EtQEAatVOrov 0 HQaxA~t;, xm 0 AQLatocpav'l1t; bEY XUVELt'l1v E'UXatQta va tOY aa'tLQiaEL: 'HQ8t::<;, yan1)re Hgau).:rj; Ileoaoe ueoa. a H Ileooeqovi; ftOll<; efta8e irpraae<;, aueoo»; (lal81)xe va ~Vftc6VelxaQ{liAla, e{lale Ova rQel<;XvrQe<;a7:1J <pwna tu: ooxoia 7:Qlf.J,ftivaxtu <pafla, «cu ar1) 8Qaxa iva oAaxeQo flOOl' tJnjvel axoft1) YAvxa »ca xitei; Ma neQaae fliaa. (<<BatQuxOL» 503-507)

on

48

49

XPHl:Tm:: MOTl:IAl:

TI ETPgfAN OJ APXAIOJ

Mio YEVLX~OIJOO~Ma YLa t'L~ yvOOa'tE~ croix L tQOCPE~naLQvo'UIJE an' tOY A8~vmo (~ , 7):

aQxaLO'U~

naAaLatgE~,

Tuiti, n Adnet an' to anfrt uai; xoia xaAd, Oevelvat yetuit» ooue; av(}tax1je; all:V(}Vae; sa ano wxd(}laro «anvo At{3avlO15, Oevae eixpoaivet va {3Atm:te; Ild~ee; 1jJWIlL015 and Aenro aAe15(}t, r(}vcpe(}d xranoola, Aovxdvlxa, we; xcu ndxoe;, cpo15meee;, 3(}aard aeaxAa xai cp15AAa,cpd{3a xat { axo(}oa, fta(}{bee;, aXOVlln(}ld, ev8(}Vllllar{oee;, cpd(}o xai
XOVo(}O, xovxld, Aa80v(}ta, a(}axd, (}o{31], fltAI, rv(}t, yeuurui dvre(}a we; xcu atrd(}ta, xa(}vota, nA1]yo15(}I, 1/J1]rte; xa(}a{3ioee;, 1/J1]rd xa2afld(}w, {3(}aaro xtcpaAo, cotnue; {3(}aarte;, {3(}aor1j Oflt(}Va, xw{3L015e; 3(}aarOVe;, 1/J1]ree; na{ 2aflioee;, 1/J1]rte;cpvx{Oee;,{3ar(}dxove;, nt(}xee;, avvoola, ydoove;, oivec, 1/J1]oatd, yaAtov, xo15xov, cp{aaee; xai vd(}xee;, xOflfldna addXt, x1](}1j8(}ee;, aratp15Aw, a15xa, YAvx{allata, flrjAa, ax(}dvew, (}OOla, (}{yav1], flrjxwva, aXAdota, xvrjxov, e2dc;, tatxoooa, yaAaromrec;, xoaaa, aflneAOxoaaa, X(}ellfl150W, cpvarrj, {30A{30VC;, YOVAld, a{AcpLOv, gVOl, Ild(}a80, avyd, cpaxrj xas sa r~lr~ixta, XVfl015C;,xd(}daflo, oouaaui, xovaAovc;, aAdn, n{VVee;, nera2ioec;, flvOw, ar(}eldla xat xrtvta, fleydAove; rovovc;. Kat xovta o , avrd afler(}1]rO nA1j80c; and novAtd, Jtdmec;, qxiaoec, x1jVEe;xat oxoooytc:«, roiXAEe;, XO(}VOaA015C;, ioo»; xai X15x xvovc; «at JteAExdvovC;, aovoov(}dda, uia yt(}avo. Tta aeva 8a etv ' EXel x(}aotd Awxd, YAVXO eyxW(}LO, EvXd(}lcto, 0 x a:rcv{aC; .
'Eva ant u OIJW~IJErooo aya8a 8a 1;E3tEQvouaE xm ta a1'JIJEQLvaaounEQ IJUQXEt. Aao ta anaQat't1'Jta, oro tQanE~L, ~tav xm to AabL. Krrn :TtoU, 03tW~ a1'J~ELOOaaIJE, ~tav anaguL t1'JtO xm atL~ 50

IIuuaavLu~, 0 J,tEYaA.o~nEQLr1Y1'Jt~.;t1'J~ aQxmOt1'JtU~, EnmVEl, ota «WOOXLxa», to A.abL t1'J~ TL80QEa;:

o

yLa v' aA.€LcpouV OL a8A.1'JtE,; ta xOQ~.tLaroue.

To Adot nov {3ydCEt 1] XWQa tow Tt80(}twv etvca AlYOrE(}O oe xoiotnta, an' EXelVO nov {3ydCn 1] JtE(}LOXrj r1]C; Arrlxrjc; xai rTJC; txvwvac;. Ir't} X(}otd rov owuC; xat OTTJ 2 yevaTJ, siva: aVWrE(}O axo to Adol T1]C;I{3TJ(}{ac; xat r't}c; vnoo» T't}e;Iargiac;.
<D1'JIJLaIJEVa'tav ta A.a.bLat1'J~Ia.IJoU xm tll~ IxaQta~. ~ OL aQxatOL auv~8L~av va ~ya.~ouv A.UbL altO UyOUgE~ EA.LE~,nou to JtQOtLJ,touoavE atL; OaA.a.tE'; tOU';. EltLal1~ a3to ro aIJuybaA.a xm rc xaQubLa E~ya~av Eva d.bo~ A.abLOU, xaA.o YLa 'tu yA.uxtoJ,tata. tou;. Alto ta altaQul'tllta E3t(01'J~OtO Xa81'JIJEQLVO 'tQa3tE~L ~tav 'to yaA.a xcu to t'Ugl" nou OIJOO~ tav atL~ JtOI..fL~altO ~ tU aJtavLa uya8u. MaALO'ta OL bLaLtOA.0yOL ouvwtouauv, yta to'U~ a8A.1'JtE~, to IJaAUXo tug!.. IIoAAE~ !pOgE;, yta va Jt~1;EL xuA.a to tUQL, E~U~UV J,tEoa OtO yaA.u, 3tOU '~QU~E, Eva xwvagonbE; CPUtO,xv~xov ~ oxv~xo~. <l>umxa, ro oxoQbu xm ta xQfIJIJubta ~tav OtO xa811IJEQLVOIJEVOU. OQLOJ,tEVOL OIJOO~ E~QLoxuv auto to ELbo~ tll~ bLatgo<p~~ XWQLatLXO (onoo; Xat OtlJ,tEga). Aao tc EXAEXtOtEQa EbE0J,tuta ~tav OLXOXA.LOL, ontc A.LYXaQLa,ltOU to 'tQwyav OL KQ1'JtLXOLa3to tllV EltO:X:~tOU

Mtvrou.

Ta IJLxQa JtOUA.La, altLVOU;, taLXAE;, aX0J,tll XaL 'to'U~ A.ayou~, mpou tc 'V~vavE, ta bLatllQouaavE J,tEaa a' E'UOObLua'to A.abL. MaALa'tu, ta 3tagaYEJ.tL~avE ~E bLa<POQa xa-

51

XPH~TO~ MOTUA~

TI ETPQrAN OJ APXAIOJ

QUXEv~m'ta, x6:n ::rwu auv11Si~EluL XaL O~ltEQU ore XWQLa 't11'; Mav11';· 't11cp'tWXOAOYLa OL OOU:n:E;i)'tav 'to rno ouv11SLOIlEvo xaS11IlEQLVO cpaY11'to. 'Erpurynv ~E~aLa XaL ¢uQoaounE';, nou 11:n:Aouma 0!-lW'; 'ta~l1 n; a:n:EcpEuYE! 'Evuc ~WIlO; rtou EUxaQLa'tovoE LlhahEQa 'tOY HQaxAi) (OL aQxaLOt EiXav vo AEVEyw 't11AULllaQyia rou) ~'tuv uno Il:n:L~EALU. ~'ta XOQ'taQLxa EQLxvav ItLa aahoa cp'tLaYltEV11a:n:o AabL, bQLIlU ;VbL, bLacpoQa xaQuxEu!-lu'ta, aX0lt11 Xat !-lEAL. A.; axouaOU!lE 0!-lw,; ItEQLxa «bLaCP11!lLanXa EbEO!la'ta» tou AQLO'tOCPUV11: AAMAXO~: tPtQE !l0V xaoto !lEL; a' tva cpVMO. LlIKAIOIIOAIl:: Iluiae !lOV tpVMa' exet 1/Jrjvw ta 1/JaQla. (<<Axa(lvil.;», 1198-1199)

nO.

Tuvaixa, (3QaaE !lnOAtUa tpaooua, Q{gE xat ottio«, cptQ£ tuu; A{ya avua (oo.) A; cptQEI xaxotoi; an "to anmuo !l0V UJV ra{XAa xru 6vo an{vov<;' dXE sa avOoyaAo «at ieooeoc xouuatta Aayov. (<<ELQilv11», 1144-1145, 1149-1150) KL aAAou oro ibLO EQYO: H
TO

To. xQEu'ta il'tuv :n:avaxQl~a, naQa. 'tL'; :n:OAAE';8uaLE; nov YLvov'tav YLo. rou; 8Eau,;. <l>SYJVO'tEQO, UyxQL'tLxa, O i)'tav'tO XOtQLVO,:n:ov YLa 'to'll'; CP'twxou; 0ltw.; i)'tav XLo.v'to anA l1oiaa'to. ~tYJv unm8Qo ~E~mu E'tQwyav auxv6t€Qa xQEa;, acpou !lnoQovoav vc SQE'¢OUV att; aVAE(; tou; Xat a'tou; xi)no'll; :n:OUA€QLXa., ouQouvo:n:ouAa, xa'toixLa XL aQvLa. y AnEcp€uyav vo 'tQWVE XOLQLVa.ItVaAa., YLatL 'to'll; 'to anayoQEuav or cpLAoaocpOL (ASi)vmoo;, B 72), LaXuQL~ousvot O'tL «ozoio, tQWVE an' au'ta Eivat ocv vo 'tQwyouv XOUXLU an; xEcpaAt; 0XL f.lOVOrorv YOVEWV aAAa XaL rtov aAAwv a:n:ayoQ€UI-tEVWV nQaYl-tatwv». OL AS11vaiOt, nAouOLOL Xat cp'twxoi, EiXav !-lEyaAYJabuVal-tLa a'ta SaAaOOLva xat etc oorocxc. MEyaAYJ ~iltYJaYJ dXav otnv aSYJvu"txil ayoQa naa'ta t(JaQLa cno 'tOY EAAilanov'to Xat 'tOY EU;ELVO Ilovro xm cpumxa xaSE 'tL rrou 'cp'tav€ ana 'tYJV XOVtLvi) ALI-tVYJ 'tYJ; Kwnatbu;. MLU oXYJv~ oroo; «AxaQvi);», oaoo 0 AQLo'tOCPav11; naQo'll<JLa.~EL 'tOY ~LxmonOAL v' uyoQa~EL t(JaQLa ano Bouoto t(JaQu, ELVaLaQxE'tU EUYAW'ttYJ: LlIKAIOnOAI~: Mu! av cptQVEIL;retota voouuaba, T1JVsao YAvuui nov V;'l;aQX£I, Oaf; !l0V ra XtAta va uaAwooQ{aw aueoox; 8HBAIOl:: NlQau5a S1JAE!ltV ' T1]f; Kovxatocu; (3YE xai uaAoXIQa(rwl rovv gtvov. .:lIKAIOIIOAI~: Q! IloAvn6()'fjrE xat nOAvayan1J!ltvE AaXTaQlOrt !lEst T1JL; uW!lwMa;, tuu; rjQ()Ef; sua, !lEQaUt rwv cpayaowv. To cpvoeQ6, TrJ axaoa cp{QTE, OOVAOt.

xota 1/Jrj01]UE naartA[ TOV aouaaiuoe SV/lWO'fjUE
tu: Ta avua

Tu; raantAEf;
xat

tu; OQoV!lnEL; rtf; EAlt;

52

53

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Tl ETPQr AN 01 APXAIOI

Kat ta xEJ..La, 0f.tWC;,~'tav JtavuxQLj3a, crpou, YVQw oro tEAOC; rou SO'll Jt.X. mwva, a'toiXLtav 'tQELC;bQaX~EC; 'to Eva, O(TO xoa'tL~E XL Eva f.tLXQo Y0'UQo'UVOJtO'UAO,nooo ~EYUAO ?~u.tT1VEJtOX~. ' na 'to Aao, o(.tWC;,or aaQbEAEC; to'll 4>aA~Qo'U ~tav 'to JtLO a'Uv'I18w(.tEVO 8aAaamvo, ~ati us xQL8aQEvLO 1fJw~L Ku8E aV;1J0'l1 't'YJ; cpaA1JQLx~C;aaQbEAac; Ej3atE 0' aV1Jo'UxLa to CPtWXoxoo~o. «Krn o'Ullj3ovAEtjJa va 'UJtoaXE80vf.tE o't1Jv AQtEIlLba 't'l1V AYQonba XLAta XatOixLa, av oi oaQbEAEC; Exavav, t1Jv EJt0IlEV1J, sxuro OtOV oj3oAO», AEEt (<<I:rt:rt~C;»)0 aAAav'tO:rtWA'I1C; AYOQUXQL'tOC;, EXCPQutoV'tac; Etm Xat 't'l1v aywvLa rou Aaov yta 't1Jv aXQif)ELa. OL aQxaim 'EAAfJVEC; EtQwyav O'Uxvo'tEQa 1fJUQLaJto xQEac;, :naQu tfJv a:rtoo'tQocp~ tou OIl~QO'U. 0 4>AaoEALEQ afJf.tELWVEL '11 AE;'I101.jJOVaQXLxu O~llat VE 0, n 'tQWIlE Ila~i O'tL Il£ to 1.jJw!-tt,aAAa myu myu :rt~QE IlLU UAATJ o'l1llaaia xm XatEAfJ;£ vc o'l1f.taiVEL 1jJUQL. To mo btabEcSOf.tEVO :rtQWLVO QOCPfJlla, acpov j3Ej3ma «vvooecev 'tOY xacpE\ ~tav 0 x'UxEwvac;, :nO'll :rtQoavacpEQa!J.E,'to YUAa, x'UQiwc,; to XatmxLaLO, XL Eva avaXUtE!J.a coro XALaQo VEQO Xat ilEAL, ztou :rtQoxaAovm:: LcStai'tEQ'Y] E'UxaQLOtfJO'l1. ~'tLc; xW!-twbL£C;rou AQWLOCPUVfJ avacpEQoVtm £cSE0f.taro nou ~ac; ;£vL~o'Uv. ~'tO'UC;«I:rtJt~C;» !-ttAU£LYLa «;LYXt j30cSLV01.jJfJ!-tEVO !J.Eoa O£ O'Uxocp'UAAa». AvacpEQEL E:rtio'l1C;'tOY «XUVb'UAO», Eva avaXUtE!-ta a:rto ilEAL, yaAa, 't'UQi Xat Aubt, tOV «uurrruto», Eva dboC; oxoQbaALuc; IlE JtQuoa, oxoQba, 't'UQLxm !-tEAL. o ALOXUAOC; O'tOV «TIQOWY18EUA'UO!-tEVO», Ilta 'tQayw54

bLa :rt0'U bEY ow8TJxav
toix A8TJvaio'Uc;:

:TtaQa Aiym O'tLxm t'l1C;, ;ucpVLa~EL

Ma

at EXVeE~ at CPIAOVOfl.OI nov rQwvE rVQf aAoyfow avaxaro ue yaAa.

Mur a:rtEmaA o'Uvtay~ OaAtOac;, us 'tfJv onotc yaQviQavE ta cpaYfJ'ta !J.U'; bivEL 0 A8~vatoC;:
XVOE wro .7lavw otsspio, xvaE gV61, xvaE aXOfl.TJAa6l, rQi1pE rVQ{ Q{;E ano navw }.(.7lTJ xcu aaAraE~ ~Eart~.

Tn «8'UA~f.tU'ta» JtO'UavacpEQov'taL a:rt' 'tOY AQLO'tocpavTJotnv «ELQ~VTJ», ~'tuv XOV'tQoa~EO!-tEV~ aAEv~L a1to,oniQL tl xQL8uQL, j3QEY!J.EVOItE 'XQam 'Xm AabL. M mrro Qav'tL~avE 'to ocpaX'taQL EVW 1.jJ'I1vo'tav.
coro ru JtQoacpLAtl cpaYTJtu YLa 'to q)'[(:.oxoxoO!-tO. TIo'U bLacp'l1I!L~ov'tav xa'taAA'Y]Aa, ax0f.t'l1 'XUL uno Eva o'tcout6 <ptAOaocpo, oJtWC; 0 XQum:rt:rtoc;, ornv «TIEQL xaAou» :rtQaYltutda tou (A8tlVULOC;, A 47):
XVAO~ ano {3oAf3ov~ - cpaxt~ etvat oav afl.{3Qoa(a a"('YJ~ nayOJvta~ "(0 xQvo.

o 'XU8E X'UAOC;tl'tav

H EAAEL1jJ'I1, 6!J.coc,;,:rtOAAWV aya8wv cotovonreue ItEQ,Lxov.;, 'Xat :rtEQLoaOtEQo tOV AQLOtO<paVlJ (<<E>EoflOCPOQLU~o'Uom» ):
O.7lA1]vaV'!Ego, ovre ngwroyaAa ovrE avxwrl XOIQIVO, OVrE XEQrjeQE~, ovn: xOlAla yovgovvonovAov,

Octe

55

XPH.:2:TOI MOTIIA.:2:

TI ETPOfAN

Ol APXAIOl

OVT£XEAl, ovre aataxo piya, Oev eowaare art; vuvaixe; onov eivai xovQaapive;; ~tL~ eua[f~ f'tO[lLu~av XL Eva f[bo~ JtAaxouv'tO~, xun b11Aabit aav JtL'ta, 3tOU 'to 'Afyav «3tfAavo». 'Htov Eva 3taxuQQE1.Ia't0 xQulla a:n:o aAEuQL, J.tO.Lxm Aabt. 'AAAa fllEalla'ta: «'ExX1.I't0~», 3tOUavacpEQf'tm a' Eva fJtLYQaJ.tlla 'tTl~ naAu'tLvit~ Av8oAoYLa~2 (~L~A. 9), ittav Eva ILElYlla ano aAEuQL xm 1.jJTlIlEVO 't1.lQL,3t01.lto 'QLxvav oe ELtlLxa xaAou3tLU xm 'ta YEIlL~UV J.tExQaaL J.tfAWIlEVO. «KavbauAo~», Eva fibo~ cpuY'lltOU t'll~ MtxQao; Aotcc; X1.lQLW~ at11 JtEQLOXit't'YJ~ A1.Ib[a~, IlE O,'tL EQE8LatLXO xaQuxE'Ulla XUXAocpoQovaE. «Murrortoc», nita ILE t1.lQL, uvuxatEILEvo liE !tEAL xm axoQbu. BE~Uta, OL3tLO3tEQicp'll!iE~3titE~ ittav 'tTJ~A8itvu~, xavXTlllu 'tTlo;3tOATl';,XUt YLVOVtUV ILEJ.tEAL,tuQ£ XUt AabL, aAAa ' E~a~av IlEau XUt bLucpoQa xUQuxEVllatu. . OL A8TlvaLm aJtEcpE1.Iyavv' aQxiao'Uv 'to YEu!ia rou; it to bEi3tvo IlE oounc. ~XE'tLxa IlE 'tTJvE'tOLllaaia EVO~bEt:n:VO'U, n tL Ila~ ucplJv Of: 0 q,EQfXQUtTl~ (A8fJvuio.; Tl803tmo~ XUl JtmTl'tit~, 'tou 401.13t.X. cuovn), oro «douAobLbaaxaAo)): Ilw~ frolpd~erat to Oeinvo; niare pa~; Aotnov otu; ..liw, ixert: iva xoppdrt Xi..ll, xa..lapaQdxta xcu aovt, oUyo ..lovxdvtxo {JQaard noota sou avxwrt, nai'odxta xai nov..ltd, xoronov..la xai rVQi nov 'Vat piaa oro piAL, sa ana xQiara iva piQo~. (A8itvmo~, f 49)
56

Kat 0 XU8E lLa.YELQO~ bEt3tvOAoyo~ CPQOVtL~E bivEL it vc n.; ObTlYLE-; ou. Na a:n:oa:n:aalLa'ta XWILLXWVJtOLT)'tWV, :n:' r u tOY A8ijvmo: Fia va tpai; iva xoutuit: fJQaaro prjrQar; XOlQlVtjr; Bovtawicu; 1'0 oe adA:raa an1Jydvov raovxu:Qrj. (~watQato~)

Bas« piaa arr] q;axfj aov ro owoixaro rov xoouivvo». (Znvcov)
Tglpfliv1J Q{yav1J;eQfj va {3d..l1Jr; lCQwra nQwra oto (3aBo; yeQOV xuitou, owae xe: XQwfla, xavovlxa, :rr:01:t1;ovra;ue JteTlfliCl ovvaTo iWb eOWelCdvw, Ba fnlXV01Jr; bCfl1:a :rcvxvfj ooa1JmArpiov. ('AAE~L~) Kat 0 NbcavbQo-; (A8itvULO~, r 100).
0

KOAocpwvtO~3 otu «fEWQYLXU)) rou

'Orav Beb va etouuiorp; cpaY1Jroa:rco xasatx: nov 1'0 acpa;av noo OA{YOV Xl ana aov! axoua rj fj «cu an' avrfj T1JV xora, 1CQwTa 8a 'noexe va TQbp1J;TOxQl8dQl aTOyovOi scu xatoxtv va to arQwa'fjb ae ayyeia {3aBovAd xas tu: Addt flvQwdaro inetTa v ' avaxaTi1/J1Jr;
57

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TI ETPQr AN or APXAIor A01) Xat tOU l:O<pOXA~. 'EQya 'tOU, uno 'to onotu ow8'I'Jxav E/"axtOtU anoonaO!lUta, «KUXA(mjJ», «OQ<PEU':;» x.c, 2. L1lOyiv1J~ AaiQTIO;: l:llYYQacpEa.:; nou 'I'J«ULVLY!la'tLx~ ~wip> rou EXELnQo~/"'I'J!la'tioEL aQxlO'ta tOOO tOU~ LO'tOQL"WU£ 600 Xat 'tOu£ EQEUV1'JtE<;;. Ito 't1'Jtw~ lOU, tnv xataYwy~ 'tOU xm 'to OUVo/"o lOU EQYOU lOU ~EQOU!lE E/"aXLO'ta nQaY!lUta. 'EYQU'ljJE 'tOU~ «Btou; CPL/"OOOcpWV», !lE'tasU 't0l) 20l) XaL 'tOU 50u u.X. aLwva. 3. ee6rpQwnoc;;: ¢LMoocpo~ ano 't'I'Jv Epeoo 't'I'J0:; AEo~ou, nou ~}L(lMXtT]XE tOY AQLO'tOlE/"1'J O)~ nQo'CO'ta!lEVOO:;rou Auxstou, 'EYQU'ljJE nEQLOOOtEQU urco 200 EQya, cno ta oztotc aw8'I'Jxav OL «Xugax'tT]gEO;», CPL/"O/"0YLX01J EQLEX0!lEVOU, XUL n Cuo CPUto/"0YLxa, «IIEQi CPUtwV LOloQia» XUL «IIEQL cpUtWV aLEivaL «AuxonEQatxou!l EaXOU/.,EVtOU!J.», l:'t1'Jv EUQwn'I'J EYLVEYVWOtT] XUta to 160 uuovn, ceto 8a)..aooonoQouc;, nov l'I'JV E<pEQav ceto to IIEQOu, nou 8EWQEl'taL XaL 1'JnUtQL()a rou CPU'tou. 5. EJ,t:rtf.OOXA1jC;; AXQayavTtvoc;;: 'Evcc altO roue nLO <pa0 vrruxoix; onu()ouo:; rou IIv8uyoga, nou ()EV EtQWYE tLJtOtE an' 000. <paywoqm i]tav ngw'ta twv'tOva. 'Erot, otuv VLX'I'J0EOE aywvEO:; L1tJtobQo!lLWV o't'I'Jv OAu!lnLa, UVtL va naQa8EoEL YEU!la OlO'U~ cp()..ouo:;,onwo:; OUV'I'J8Lto'tav, E<plLa~E Eva ~O()L, !lE 0l-luQva, /"L~aVL XaL 0.)../.,0, uQw!la'ta, nQoo<pEQOVtU~, ceto Eva XO!l!latL, 0' OOOVO:; JtaQuxa8'I'J0av oro bEinvo (onou 'to cpuY'I'Jto i]lav !l0VO ano XOQtaQLxa).

'Ourog, at't~ O:x;8E~rou NELAO'UCPVt'QWVE EVa Et~O~ ceto
xo'UXtU no'U ~'tav cpaywOtJ.l.o, o:x;tuovo 0 xaQno~ aAAu xm ~E~ata at CPt'W:X;OL 'Un~xoot tmv cllaQaw ~EV 'ta ayvoovaav, 03tW~ TJuQ:x;o'Uaa t'u~1}. <flvmxu 1} Aty'Un'to~, Xat AOYW tou 8EQ!-lOVt'TJ~XAI.J.l.aroc aAAu xm AOyw roo tEQOVno'ta!-lov, nou IJEt'ECPEQE t'1}v n~ovOta t~V, ~'tav aQxEtU naQaywytx~ oe Aa:x;aVtXu, zou ~'UmwAa 0!-lw~ 8a IlreoQovaav va cptaaovv atL~ EAA1}VLXE~ 3tOAEt~. HQobo'tO~ a1}J.l.ELWVEL oi AtyvreuOt, rtou ~OVAEnw~ av yta va xtLo8EL 1}n'UQaIlLba tou Xsono, EtQwyav XQEf.l'P 1l~~La, axoQ~a Xat Qa~i.xta nou xoa'tLtav 1.600 aQyuQu taAaVta. E~Qai.Ot, xa8w~ oooetooonoov yta t1} rTJ tTJ~E3tayYE~i.ar;, voa'taA yovaav ta ayyovQLa, 'ta nEnovLu, ta xagnoutLu, ro 3tgaau Xat ta xgEJ.l.f.lvbLa, rtou ~tav acp80vu a't1} :x;wQu rcov <Pagaw! I'E 'tucpou~, trov cllaQaw ~E~ata, ~QE8'Y)xuv artogOt uno XOUXLU, J.l.JtL~EAta Xat gE~iOta, «AAU at ag:x;ai.Ot EAA'Y)VE~ aUYYQacpEi~ La:x;'UgL~oV'tat nw~ 'Y)8Q1}aXEta unayogEuE otou; ALYVJt1;to'U~va 'tQrovE XO'UXLUXat gE~i.8LU, yta va lla8aLVO'UV Etm oi av8QWrtOL atL~ atEQ~aEL~ (6LObwQo~
at QL~E~ rou cp'Ut'ov. Kat

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ria». 4. Ntouata: To Emo'tTJ!lOVLXO 't'I'JO:; ovouc

xaAQ(paya~E~.

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~HMEIQl:EI~

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nOLOU IIQativa

l:m;LQLxo~ nOL'I'J't~~,yLO~ roo E:ltLO'I'J~ XW!lWbLOrou ¢lAlOLaOtOll. 'Et'I'JOE t'I'JV E:ltOX~ tou ALOXU68

69

TI ETPQrAN OI APXAIOI

Na EVU£"xU'taAoyo~

XUQuxEUJla't'wv,

ano 'tOV «AE~lJ-

ro» rou 'Af..E~Ll (AB~vmo~

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N

WyaAEUJla'ta EAEyav OLaQXUtOL ~U YAUXa q;aYlj'ra xm YEVtXa xaBE Atxoubta.

Baa{ot; OIVaf}{OIr; T'lK 'l}f.dQar; TO AOmo'P mro{3QBXEI p,tQOr; xat vwyaUbt. (Koaadsa axo r'l} Baao xovtooxtveu; xcu p,EOar;, sa OAOrQWYEtr; AlxOvbltr;).

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E{xavE yaAaromra tQeEI oQExrlxd naartAla xat fXar0f.l{3'1} avywv.

(tcoia), f.leAomra,

(AB~vaLO~, Kt axoJl'YI:
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B 28)

vaue.

Kt

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AnD aAEvQI xcu rVQ{ t/J'lf.ltvo ueoa ae xaAovma xai nE(}IXVf.lEVO ue xgaa{ PfA(J)f.lBVO.

(AB~vaw~,

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70

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71

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Aomov, nov av xaxoioi; eplW()OC; ntneQI elaayayet,

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to ayoQaae a).).ov,

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(AVtLCPUV'll; [A8nvuw.;, E>EOCPQUOto.;, ornv (A8~vmo£" B 73):

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TI ETPQf AN OI APXAIOI

To MEAL
«l:£ (J'U11~OUAEiJ(o vn I1EtaXEIQW1:eI£ uAAo ilEAL, %av£ oixovouto, 01:0 A1:1:I'X.O,
01:OLX(~EI 1:EOOEQI£ O~OAO'tJ .. ». (APU'::TOcf>ANHI «EIQ~vt]» 253-254)

;flreQva~ TOVT~tr~lxa am wQa{o to rQayovdl. (<<8UQOLo;» 'll «Qb~» 146-148)

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Teuato /leAL YAvxfQa

ro oioua aov va etvai, BVQOl, xca avxa OAaYAmeamv A{YlAOV vetuito: av
74
75

TI ETpgrAN OI APXAIOI

ra YAv'Xvrarov~
'Xli~ ov'Xtie;

xaQJrove;, aXAabtie;, Qobli~, I1"1]Alie;, AVY lj, 114-116)

xai eAti~ ue roy avOo rov~.

(<<ObuoaELa»

Etov fblO XQavo ra xAwvla
YE!ll1;ovv ue 'Xo'Xxlva Aw'Xa xcu uauoa p,ovQa. (Anooncouc cno XUIl€VO €QYo tou AWXUAO'U) BAiJrEle;, xtinou: ortrpaXAabo p,OV 'xEl orovJrwoEI ta q;ayui. (AQtOtocpavljt;, «EX%ATJmCt~Ouom»)

Ta <pQoirra
«XWQt~ O'tUqnJAtU XUt XWQL~ 't' uya.1tl1~~VU OVXa.». (API:ET04>ANHl: «Et(1)vl1»)

Ki ana ';avOrj~ r ' a'XQo'XAaba {3aQa{vw xeoaouu; (IIuAutLv~ av8oAoyi.a,
toy

IX 384)

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77

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p , tva arEcpavl rVAlxro
ana nAexra da;taax'f}va.

Eto: Boova ;lOvaxt~ rov;- cpvr(}wvovv

ot nOMt~ xov;ta(}tt~ ue ra xovuaoa. (Arto ayvwo't't'J xw!!wbta tou AQto'tocpav't'J) EltiOll~: «MuQta tQroyouv Xat ytVW!!EVa xou!!aQcx»

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Oxo» roy ayanovaa

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l30!
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104 105

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An' tOU; ~OA~OU; nav'[(u; OLJtQOnj.tatEQOL i)tav E'itELVOL!1E 'to ~av80xo'XXL vo XQwJ.ta. Enouevo tl1:av vc naQa'tT]QELtm J!EyaA'l1 tfJ't'l10'l1 an; ayoQE; 'Xat «'l1ltaVLa tWV ~OA~WV», nou aAAm 'to,U; E'tQWyay w!J,o-u; 'itL aAAm ~Qao'tOu;, xUQLaQX1l0E yta 'itmQo. TIOAAoi {)ELnvoAoyOL, rots, ~Qi)'Xav 'tT]v EUXaLQLa va nQo'tELVOUV'itL aAAa E()Eo!J,a'ta 01:0 'tQaJtEtL J.tE'tou; ~OA~OlJ;, oJtw; «oro nou avacpEQEL 0 <I>tAfJj.tOva; (A6tlvUtoo;, B 67).
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uovoqxive
xas xareeyaerJ·

ta toU~ aQX?LOUS; 'E',.J.. )ves; iltav XatL to a()Lavof)tO .f va tQWVE j.40VOL1'OUS;. a rD.. ut'UQXo~ tAEYE OtL «1'0 va q:JaELxUVEiS; It0VOS; o 1'~U bEY Of)llaivEL vc YEUIlUttOEL aAAa vc YEllioEL to OtOltaXL tau ouv ta twa». Kat 0 A8ilvmo;: 'Orav IdE(~ tdtwrq 1l0VO rov va reWYEl, xwe(~ va XEt 1rOl'l]r7j va 11'1] iAEt ra rQayovdta 8 OVff xcu r'l] /-tovatx'1j, yt ' avrov~ 1rei1rEt va xurtetieu; 6rt xaaav Xl ot dvo rov~, 0 IlEV nQcOro~r'l] Illa7j an ' oAq TOV rrJ ~W'l] 0 de devreeo~ rrJ Iltm] ax ' o).rJrqv rixvrJ rov. Kai oto xarw xarro a8Ata ~ovve xcu ot dvo.

r
!

Ta oVIlJ'toma

'Errn, !J.EtE1'OLa vootpomc, ()tXmOAOYELtm ll!J.EyaAf) ayan:ll tWV aQxaiwv EAAilvwv YLa ta O'U!J.nOOL~, ou n:OAn Aa an' au1'a EIlEt vo» OtllV Lo'toQia. Bt~ma axofA.f) XaL 0' Eva oU!J.n:omo iJ a' Eva En:LOf)!J.O YEUI.ta, 0 aQLS!J.6; tWV xaAEo!J.EvWV iltav n:EQLOQta!J.Evos;. KL coro YLa vc IlT)V U<PilOEL0 OLXO()EOn:OtllS;n:uQan:ovouItEVOU;.
Na recOve 0).01 /-tallura, oe nAovato rea1ri~t, ua aq etva: TQElq rj teooeou; '1jnivre 0).01 sa OlOI, Xl 0Xl xeoiaaoteoot, YiaT! rOTe xaTavra aXrJvrj otoaiuoidn: nov ~ovv ue ro ovaottto xai T1JV aQnay'1j. (A8'i}vmoo;, A 7) AAAa aVti.8E'tf) YVOOIlf),YLa tOY XEQWQtO!J.EVOaQtSJl6 xaAEOJlEVOOVoro OUIl1t6mo, ELXE0 MEyas; AAE;avbQo;. o MuxEb6vas; atQatllAa'tllS;, oJtw; E;LO'tOQEL 0 tOtOQLOYQaqJoo; 'EqJLnn:o; 0 OAilv8wS;, nou 'tOY axoAou8ll0E OtLS; Exa'tQ<X'tELEO; tau xm bLOQi,O'tllXE !J.aALo'ta an:' tOY AAE;UV()Qo En:LaX03tOS; otnv AI. yuJt'to, «oaaxL; EbELJtVEL ItEta rcov tpiAOOVtou E()uJtCtVa Exat6 !J.va; tf)v flIlEQa, EVtO IlEtcLxav oro ()ELJtvo E;'i}Vta Laws; XaL E~bo!J.itv'ta <pLAOL». «PuatXa oAa 'tu YEUIlUtU xat ro 6Ein:vu, 'twv A8f)vULOOV il tWV KOQLv8iwv, fJtUV !J.LUItEyaAll n:OAUtEAELU YLU tOUS; l:3tuQttatE;. . LtT)V n:QWtEUOuaa tllS; AUX(J)VLUS;, onou ta YEUJ.lUtU fJ'tuv )GOLVa,n:QWtT) Stall dXE 0 «ltEAU; tWfA.Oo;»,XatL n:ou

ovvtoopui, 7j xaviva

Auto! nou ttQwyav 1l0VOLtous; <paiVEtUL vc EVOXAOUoov tOU~ aAAouS;. «Movoc oou n:A,EOVtQWYEL; XatL xm ~ACtn:1'ELo; EJlE», OflIlEL~OE 0 A~tL<pavflS;, xm 0 AIlEL'\jJias;, En:iaf)~ xWltLx6; n:OLf)tflo; (xm aUYXQovo; tOU AQLa1'O<paVT), EXVEUQL~Etat:
112

113

XPH.!TOl: MOTl:IAl:

TI ETPQr AN 01 APXAlOI

O\,..I:EO'tOV unvo 'tOV~ bEY ~8EAav va bovv buillovo; xaAo<payCtbE~. dLfJYEhat 0 llAOU1:aQXo~:

at EX'tO; AUXE-

, 'Evoi; paOlAuJ.~ TaV II6vTaV avooaoe eva InaQrtar1J p,ayeIQ X,~l roy ePaAe va rov cprta~Et to p,iAava ~wp,6. tPvatx,a p,~AI~ rov c5ox,ip,aaEc5EV rov aQeOE »cu 0 p,aYEIQO~rov f!17:E: Fta, va OElx,aV017:0ajaEIavro~ 0 ~wp6~ BaOlAla nQE17:flnQwra va AOVaTf{~ ora vEQa rov EVQwra.

?

L'tU YEVJ..I.aTaXat orn oUJ..I.J'toma at aQXaiate1:Qroyav ;anA?JJ..I.eVat OE XALVibta. 'AQXL~av J..I.E J'tQonoJ..l.a, Eva TO Y~vxomo'tO xpaoi ~ ano XUJ..I.OPQOVTroVavaxa'tEJ..I.€VO J..I.E < J..I.EAt ,Xat OuvEXLtav J..I.E:0 xQaat t'OU£" J'tCtVTa ~E~ata VE1 Qro!lEVO. llOAAE; <poQE;, rtQtV bEtrtv~oo1)V, frtatQvav 'to J..I.rtCtVtO 1:ov~. KavEva; bEY J..I.noQOUOE va xa8~OEL oro 'tQunf~L XroQL~ V~ mEt. 'AAAWO~E 1:0 {(nLE ~ <pUYE»~Tav xcht J't01) ouxva 'tOVL~E 0 oUl-'rtomaQXO; Ot'O'U; XUAEOJ..l.EVOU;. ,L'UJ..I.nooiaQXo; ~TaV aUTO; J'tOUxa80QLtE1:0 ~a8J..1.0 't01) !lELYJ..I.aT?;rcov XQaOLCDv,nOAAE£, <poQE; ~'tav 0 (bw; 0 OLxobEart01:'l£'. , KavEvas; ~EV n~Y,aLVE ax61Eo't0; oro oUIlJ'toma, nago. J..I.OVO JtOA1)OtEVOL OVYYEVEi;, xallLo. naiQa ~ xav€va; OL YEAro1:0nOLO; . llQt; aQxioEL to <payonott yivovtav at anaQatt'ltE; onov~EO; Oto'U; 8eov;. Mia art' 'tL~ OJtOVbE~, a.n:aQaL't~1:oo£" fJ1:av yta TOV SEVtO ALa ~ YLU 'to ALovuoo. AAAo. YLU ro o1)ll.n:omu tcov uQXaiwv a;tOOlU.tELoo't1] ELVal 1] IlEAftfJ rou <PAaOEAtEQ: «Ko.8E o'UJ..I..n:omoCtQXLtE I-'E ortovbf£ yta tou; 8eouo;

XaL rtLO JtOAU YLa 'to Atovuoo. 'Emvav Atyo aVEQo)'to xQuot Xat J..I.E'to. x'Uvav IlEQLXEo; o'tayovES; nQocpEQov'tao; 'to E ovouo 't1]0;8Eo'tT]'tas;. Ka'taTT] ouyxEVtQooOTl OL1£O'tEo; v't!. a va QLXVOUVXCt1:W't1] o1£ovb~ 6LaoxE6utav 01]J..I.a6Euov'tao; Eva oQwJ..I.evo 01:0XO IlE 'to uYQo rto'U ELXEIlELvEL orov :rt<ho t1]o; xouJta£, roue L' au't~ 1:T1 YEa oJtovb~ bEY EAEyav 1:0 OVO!.l.a EVOo; 8eou aAAa. ro ovouo xa.rtOWU ayaJt1]!.I.Evo'U rou; JtQoowrw'U. A v 'to uYQo fnE<p1:E no.voo ornv mat€Aa ~ 01:0 bOXEtO nov E!.xav ~CtAEt OtOXO, E~AEJtav 0' mrto Eva xaAo ouovo, rtou 'tOU£ fAEYE cero rtQLV Jtw£, 'l EQW'ttXiJ rou; E1£L6Lw;1] 8a EiXE EJtt'tUXLa. »OL y'UvaLxES; ore counootc, rtou yivovtav aJtoxAEtonxCt IlE J..I.0.1]OU cpUAOU'tOU£, iJ OLuaLQE£ 1£O'U t iJtav 1£QOaXaAEOJ..l.EVE£ oro o'Ul-'rtoata rorv avbQwv, Ertm~av EnioT]£' 1:0VtO tOY EQWtLXO xo't'taj3o. L' Eva ayyELo rou Eixpcovtou J..I.Lauvabta yUf,lviJ, ~a1l:AW!!€v'l 0' Eva xQE~atL ouy 1-'11:001.01), xQata I-'E to bE;L 1:1]£XEQL 't'l Aaj3iJ I-'tas; xouna; AEYOV'tUS;: PtXVW amtl Ebffi YLa oevo, AEaYQE. »0 xOttaj3os; EYLVE rooo JtOAU tl]£ 1-'060(';, ffiO'tE smvonouv nOAAE£, 1I:OLXtALt£ autou tOV JtmxvL6wu». Ti.' auto xaL tOVt~E 0 AQLatOCPaVll;: «Eo'tLaoSm, xo'tt'aj3L~ELv, ou~aQL~ELv», mou tl6TJ 1I:QoavacpEQCtI-'E. Oi oU!.I.noatCt~OIlEVOL JtOAU OUxvo. €'ljJaAAav tOY «nma.vn» tVW 6lCtOXEba~av !1E 6tacpoQa XOQEU'tLXo. tl aXQoj3a'tLXo. VOU!lEQa, acpmJ XUXAOcpoQouoav at 0XE'tLxoL 3tQO£, tvoLxiao1] 8tuom, xaSw£ XaL !!E tL£ aVA 1]'tQL6E£, 'tL; xuj3LatQLE£, tl n£ €'tatQE£" Ot tEAEmaiE£" av matE'ljJoUI-U:: to MtvCtvbQo, xUAonA'rlQwvoV'tav:

114

115

XPH~TO~ MOT~IAl:

Tl ETpgrAN 01 APXAIOI

Ot f1:ai(Jf~, X(Jvaioa, oav xai aeva r(Jexovv yta dexa ;lOvaxa o(JaX;te~ ora yAeVrta.
(<<~allla»

392-393)

KUl'a LOV~ Xgovov; l'OV AgWl'Ol'EAlJ 0 Ilta80~ Ilta~ xogEmgLa; i) !.uu uVAlJl'gioo~ i)'tuv 6uo bgaXIlE~ l'lJ ~gabLa. AgXEl'oi :rtav't((); cpgoVl'L~aV va XUAOVV bLaolJlla ovoIla'ta cro l'QU:rtE~LU 'tov;, :rtgocpavw; yta vc EVl'u:rt(()Otaa?uv l'OU~ xaAEoIlEvOV;. MUALOl'a, xal'a IlLa :rtAlJgOCPOgLa l'OU Lli(()va l'OU Xguaool'o!J,ou, a' Eva 'tl.hOLO OUIl3tOaW,3taguxu8lJaE xm OAUIl:rtLOVlXlJ; 3taAmal'i);, 3tOU :rti)QE u:rto 'tOY OLxobEa:rtOl'lJ 6Exa l'aAaVl'a, :rtOOO llu8w6E~ YLa l'lJV ugxala E:n:OXi). 'OAOL ,:rtUVl'((); OL 'EAAlJVE; ayu:rtovoav ta aUI.moma, :n:OUogyuvwvav a'tL; bLacpOQE~ OLXOYEVELUXE;YWgl'E~ i) al'L~ YWgtE; l'lJ~ :n:OAlJo;,axolllJ yta LOV Egxollo EVO; cptAOV i) YLa l'lJ vb(lJ oe a8AlJ1:LXOV;, bgalWl'LXOVO; i) xm rtoAtl'LXOV~ UyWVEo;. O:ltwabi):rto'tE ro aVJ.l.Jtoma 01:a8lJxav lJ ULl'la vc nvn:ltl'vX8Et Eva tbLUhEgO Xat :rtQWl'Ol'uJto AOYO'tEXVLXOElbo;. KUL otnv LOl'ogia EIlELvav to «~vIlJtomo» l'OV llAa't(()va, to «~vll:rtoaLO» rou BEvocpwv'ta, 'to «E:ltta ooqxov auIlnomov» rou llAovl'agxou, on(()o; XUL OL «LlEL:ltvooocptOl'E~» tou A8i)vmov.

0l'0 322-280 :It.X., :ltOU aiyovga bLEXbLXEl tOV 't{'tAo tou «YEvlla'to~ tlJ~ LO'tOgtao;». 'EyLVE IlE 'tlJV E'UxmgLa roiv yallwv rou Knpuvou, xat lJ :rtEgLygacpi) (A8i)vmoo;, b.. 1) J.tao;ucpi)VEL ava'Ubo'Uo;: AOtnOV efXf xoooxaseoe: a' avro eixoo: n(J6owna, ota oxoia, nQlv xaAd xaAd xa(hjaovv ato xoan{~l, nQompeQf Yla oWQo ana eva ,aa'lfleVIO nO,rtjQI, sa eva XQva6 OlaO'lfla a;{a~ xevte cplAtnnwv. To yevfla a_Qxwe tu: eotapara nov nQoocptQOrJxav ueoa as usa xaAXlVrJmaTtAa, iQYo KogivOIO~ xaUtrexvrJ, rSpdT1Jue x~ronovAa, ndms~, cpdaaee;,XrJvee;xai tpwflaxla. AXOAOVOrJaav sa dAAa mara ue oldcpoQa tpavqtd, xatotsaa, A~yove; sa axofl1J neQwriQta, TQvy6vla, niQolxee; xat Olatpooa dUa nOVAta. Ileoaaav exeaa ueoa pOVOlXO{ xat aVA'lT(}ioee; xca oafl/3vxioT(}lfC; ana r1J Pobo, aUa to XAOVfjrav eva_tp1Jro yovgovvonovAo navw a ' iva ceoaouo aa1JflivLO owxo. Otrto; (01JAaofj 0 XO{QOC;) 1jrav ronoOeTrJfltvoe; ue TrJV xot).{a rov avw xcu nAfjQrJ noUwv wQa{wv xoavuatow, olon ev avrfj fjaav tp1JfltVat fla~{ Ta{XAee;, flfjr(Jec; xac annQOnAfjOoe;avxocpdywv, xa(}w~ xai X(}OXOIavywv xvptVOl :rcavw ae arQelOla xat xrtvla. AXOAOv8TJOE ~Qua'to XUtOiXL, OE bi,axo I-tEXQ'Uaa XOV'tUALa, XOQE'U"tLXU VOVIlEQa IlE Y'llIlVE; xCtAAL1:EXVLbEo;, nou ~ya~av CP(()'tLEo; uno 'tU a'toJ.ta'ta 'tOV; XL oAa amu ouvobEta acp8ovo'U xQamov uno 'tTJ Saao, tlJ MEVbTJ XUL tlJ AEa~o. ~av E:rtLboQ3tLO :ltQoacpEQ8TJxav 'ljJlJ'tCt'ljJaQaxLa XUL 'ljJ00!laxLu :rtavoo a' Eva y'UaALvo :ltLVaxa.

o Kaoavo;

'Eva YeUIlU YLU 't'l1v LO'toQia

'Ouox, (mo nAEvgao; xAtc5i);, rnv 3tgWtlJ 8EOlJ c5LExbtXEl 'to :rtEgiCPlJJ.l.o OVIl3tOOLO'tou Mcxsoovo Kagavou, yilQw
116

117

XPHl:TOl: MOTl:IAl:

TI ETpgr AN OJ APXAIOJ

A'A,'Au0 :1t'Aoumo~OL'lW()fa:rtOtrJ~,1t'AEOVtU~e :1tf'AUYrJ : o fUtU:XtU~Ilf tllv fX'AfX't~ tll~ xUQ()tU~rou, 0'A0 xm XUQt~fL ()wQa a'tou~ xa'AfaIlEvoU~, o'Ao Xat tOU~ fVtU:1t(Oma~ft Ilf trJ ~'At()~'tO~ aUIJ.:1tOai.ou tTJVJtOtxL'ALa Xat tOU xa'A'AL tf:XVLXOUJtQoYQalJ.llato~.

nov 'vat

({!{}..1]

rov

Tottowa).

Kat:
Avra axopa sa 0 {30Qla~ flnoQovm: v 'aya ntjae I r1Jv wQa nov 'ljJ1]vovravs sa 0 EevoxA1j~ 0 {OWC; n1jYWVe sa eQxorav e atu; Oeafle; rwv avoQwv »a fard01] oro xarw({!At, fl • ana xovra rov 1jQOsa Xruoapan, naQamroe; 0I10LOe; l a.naQaAAaxroe; ue yAaQov nStva_aflevov, X v1]artxoe;, nov YVWQt~eXaAa va Otara~el arrov aAAWVra rQane~ta.

H «IAtaba» ... 1:'11; btmToAoyi.a;
Ta YAE~na, ta cpaY0Jtona xm TJxu'Aom~Qaall, EJtflouv 'to MutQwva, aUYYQacpEa tWV :1tUQW()tWV, tt Sa O ':1tQfJtf va YQmptft Xat rJ «I'Atu()u» t1'); ()tattoAoYLa~: L1sbrva pOI evvene, Movoa, 1toAvrQocpaxat fldJ.a noUa a 8evoxArj~ QrjrwQ ev AOrjval~ oe(1tv1JosvTjpa~. (TQayovoTjae uou Movaa oebrva .noUa ;rwAvTgocpa nov aTTjVA01jva 0 gtjroQa~ 8svoxAtj~ tuu; exafle). 'HUlov "lag xaxeiac, .noAv~ oe uo: eanocto AlpO~. Ov 0'1 xaUiaTov~ aQrov~ foov Tjdepsyfarov~ AwxoTegov~ XIOVO~,eaOelv 0 ' apVAotmv ouotouc.

Ot payelQOI XOV{3aAayav «at ra rQane~ta
yel11~av ue mara ({!ayrjTWV a • aVToVC;naQaxwQtjaave eva fleyaAo OoAo ta xQeara va 1jJ1jVOVV Xl eOwaavs mv aOfta rov yeVflaroe; to Xgovo va 'WV ent'raxvvovv tj TOYfm{3QaOVvovv. allot OAOlan)..roaav 'ra xtQla ctu; aaAarec; ua yw OeVrove; fllfl1j01]Xa xai erQwya an ' oAa {30A{30VC;, anaQayyta xai a'rQeiola naxta, ra naAla T 'aMnaa'ra, nov at t[>o{vlxec; Ta rQWVe naQar1]aa a'r1]v navra. Tom; axLVovc; nov exovve ayxaOta oro Xe({!aAI 'rove; ntTa~a oro nazanu: Xl enrjyave xv)..wvrae; tu: xQaro ota nooaQla rwv OOVAWV, WOlWV fjJOaaave as toxo xa(JaQa, oxo» ta xVI-tara tana~av ar1]v aXQTj rov ytaAOV x.An. x.An.

at

(Ttait »cu xdOe negaaa, sa dxa fleydATj netva. Exet Aot1tOVefoa 1jJWPlaoiocaotata xac fleYLOra
AevxoreQa an ' TO XlOVl, nov xafle exet va CPafls ouota ue yAvx{apara).

Kat auvf:xI.~Et «I'Atu()a,;~~ :
(Ma

0

Ma.tQ(J)va~, rtuvta

oro Qu8",,6 trJ~

Hoe ({!aATjQlxtj tjMle acpvTj, Toitowoc erafQTj.

ooieoa uai; t({!Oaae

1]

paQ{da rov tPaAtjQov

118

119

TI ETPOfAN OI APXAIOI

«Ma tOTE M.VHOE uou TQH~ bQaXIlES V' ayoQuow YOtlQOUVO:rtOUAO va lluTJ800ore EAEUatVLa, :rtQLV:rtE8uvw». (API!TOtf>ANH! «ElQiJvrj»)

QEt~ bQax,u~~ OIlW~ ~lUV Eva aQxE'tcl uJtOAoyimllo nooo, yta toix aQxaiou~, «(POV 0 ,!taec.; bvo bLxarrnov, 0 1]IlEQ~mos, ~tUV J.tOALS J.tLabQaxJ.t~, JtEV'tE ~ XaL Eva~ O~OAO~,YLa 'tOY XaeEVa:
l/>"CQVEI exuietve: xac Ba Y(VEt 7]Ataanjc; (dtxa(Jnj~J va (J"C7]v oxaota, !1E JftV"CE 0f30AOV~ pU7(}6. A

T

To 'taJ..av'to, 60 !!VESit 6.000 bQaXJ.tEs, bEY Tt'tuv uovo VOIlL0J.tU,aJ..ACtJ.tovCtba J.tEtQ110T]~ U:J'tOAOYLOIlOV. xm o AAXt~LabTlS XAllQOVOJ.t1]OE.tw xOAoomuia, ytU 't1}v J EJtOX~ tOU, JtEQLOUOLa,aJto 400 taJ..uV'ta (io1] 11' Eva nitoio ouJ.tllaXLxo cpoQo), J.tLa:ltEQLOuoia Jtou bLxmoAoyovOE 'tTl o:lta'taJ..1} ~w~ rou. L't1] E:ltOXitrou l:oJ..wvu Eva 'tCtAUV'tOo'tOiXt~E, OVJ..Lcpwvc J..LE EX'tL!1itOEL~ou Hultch (<<Griechishe und R6'ttS t mishe Metrologie»), 'Yvgw o'ta 5.894 :ltaALa yaAALxa CP()(Iyxa. H asia tOU 'tCtAaVtOU E:ltEOEoro 5.812 yaA. CPQCtYxu, xata t1]v E:ltOXit'tOu MEYaAo'U AAEsavbQou, Xat, 0't1] ouvEXELa, xatQaxVA1}OE oro 5.662. o raAJ..os TIoJ.. rXLgo unoAoYLOE w~ ESTt~rnv aSia tWV agxaiwv EJ..J..1]VLXOOV VO!!LOJ.tatWV,OE OVYXQLOTl to rtnJ..LE ALOyaAALxo cpQayxo.
'Evce; o~0J..6S 0,6 :ltaJ..La yaJ... cpgayxa Miu bQuXJ..Lit " "" ,," 0,98 JtaJ..La yaA. cpguyxa MLU J.tva 98,20 JtaJ..Lu yaJ... cpQayxa 'Eva taJ..av'to " 5.894 naJ..Lo. yaJ... cpQo.yxa (<<La ie privee et la vie publique des Grees», TIaQim 1909). v

(AQLO'tOCPclVl'l';:, «I:rcn~s») Kat ue "COV Jfgwro o{3oJ..o nov mjga dlXaa"ClXO !1w86, oou avooaoa tva ptxQa ptxQ6 a!1agQXI, via va
nat1;,El~.

(AgLOWcpclV't'}S, «NEcpeAcu») To JttO ,.,uxQo aO't'}J.tEvLO VO!!LO!!a~'tav 0 O~OAO~. 'Est o~oAoi xclvav !!La bQaXIl~ Xat EXU'tObQUX!!ES IlLa uvc'.
120

cI>umx6. 0 xa80gLO!!OS IlLaS 0XE0l1S J.tEtTl oVYXQOV1} asia rou VOIlL0J..LU'tOS Eivcu x6.tt 0XEb6v aMvato. H cvn!pogo. ornv asia rou J..LEta.J..J..OU arratl1Ait. 0 XQUOOS Eivm J...X. eiXE, ornv aQXatot1}'ta, ayoQao'tLx~ asia :ltOAVavw'tEQ1]cero t1} oVYXQOVT), VW:ltOAVaxgL~o'tEQO, OE OVYXQLE 01] IlE t1] OfJllEQL asia, ft'tav 'to aoitJ..LL. vft TIav'tw; 1]a'ttLxll bQaXJ..Lll VYL~E ~ 4,36 YQalllla.gLu, ll'tuv Esatgtmxft; :ltot6tfJ'ta; Xat 1]:ltEQLEXttXOt1]ta.'t1]; OE uOll121

XPH~TO~ MOT~IA~

TI ETPQr AN 01 APXAIOI

!-tLECP'tUVE !-tEXQL983%0 MLa !-tva, xata uJtOAOYLO!-tOU~,ELXE ayoQaa'tLx~ a~La LaTj us 5.000 l)QaX!-tE~ tOU 1983. ,0 rXLQO auvEta;E xm ELl)LXOU~:n:LvaxE~, us to XOOtOAOYw tWV tQocpL!-twv, xata tTjv aQX«Lcrt'Tjta, :n:avta OE ouYXQLOTj ue to vOIHalla tTJ~ XWQa~ rou,

Bodtvo x(}ia~
600; mwva; 410 Jt.X 374 Jt.X 5 bQX. (4,90 :1taALa yat... CPQ.). 51 bQX. (50 CPQ.). 77 bQX. xm bvo o~ot..ovs;: (76 cpg.).

TEAO~ tOU 60u Jt.X. nunvu, 1 cpQay. 86 to ExatoAttQo. T~Ao~ tOU Sou :n:.X. morvu, 7 cpQay. 31 to ExatoAttQo. PUQw oro 393 :1t.X., 5 cpQay. 48 to ExatoALtQo. Lta !lEaa tOU 40u Jt.X. mwva, 7 cpQay. 30 to ExatoALtQo. &~~ tau ~TjJlOa8EV1l (320 Jt.x.), 9 cpQay. 30 to ExatOntQo. AQXE~ ..ou 30u Jt.X. morvn, 11 cpQayxa 50 to ExatoAL'tQo. r Koaot XLWtLXO (50S;: mwvas;:) At'tLXO (400; mwvUl;) e' QaxTjO; 'AAA a xa A'a xQama , 'AAAa xQaaLa
M

'Onox Bta:n:wtwvEL xavELs;:, 0 tL!-taQL8flO; xUt..JtatE xm otnv agxmo'tTJta. To 368 Jt.X. 0 At..E~avBQos;: 0 <l>EQaios;:2JtOVt..TJOE 0't0'US;: A8TJvaiovs;: ~ObLVO xQEa; :1tQo~ 13, JtEQlJtOV, XQ'Uaa t..E:1ttU xm 8EWQ~8TJXE EVEQyE'tTJ~. Kat bEY ELxav a.btxo at A8TJvaLOL a.<pov, uno tTJv EJtOX~ rou LOt..wva IlEXQL tOU MEYuAO'U At..E;a.vbQo'U 0 tLfla.QL8flOS;: ElXE E;aJtt..amaOtEi 0XL flOVO O'tTJv At'tLX~ aAt..a. xm 0' ot..oxATJQo 'tOY Et..t..TjVLXO XWQo.
A:n:6 to 480 flEXQL to 404 :1t.X. TJaV;TJaTJ tWV 'ttflWV or« tQocpLfla SEJtEQaoE 'to 200% EVW uno to 404 flEXQL 'to 330 aVE~TjXE a.AAa 200%. 'Etot bEY JtQEJtELvc !-ta~ sacpvLa.~EL 'to «attLxTJQWS;: ~TJV», acpov 0 Aaos;: BEV EiXE 'tTJbuvat6't't'Jta va t~OEL a.VEta. L'UVEXLtou!-tE us tL; EXtLIl~aELS;:roo rXLQO:

250 CPQ.to. 10 CPQ.to. 5 CPQ.to. 48 CPQ.70 to. 19 CPQ.50 to.

100 100 100 100 100

Art. AL't. ALt. ALt. At't.

Addt
Aafl'ljJUXO'U A?~vas;: (40u Jt.X. cuovc) ~TJAo'U (282 Jt.X.) 89,50 CPQ.'to ExatoALtQo. 19,50 CPQ.to Exa'toAL'tQO. 69,70 CPQ.to ExatoALtQo.

XOl(}lV6

x(}ia~

rUQW om 413 Jt.X. Eva JlLXQOyouQ0'UVO:1to'UAo atOLXL~E tQEL~ bQo.XflE~.

(L~!-tEQa orn ~~Ao bEY 'U:1tUQXEL EALa.OUtE yta bEiYfla). LtTjV E:n:OX~rou LWXQa.t't'J Eva Exa'tot..t'tQo Et..LEs;: oroiXLtav 'tQia CPQuyxu x.at 65.
122 123

XPH~TO~ MOTnA~

TI ETPgf AN 01 APXAIOI

IIOVAc(!IXa - xvvrjyt 'Eva ma:to 't'OLXAE~:fA.ia llQaXfA.ll. Mic ::rtEQbtxa: Eva~ O~OAO~. Mia xoupouvc: 't'QEt~ o~oAoL E::rt't'a orttvot; Eva~ O~OAO~.

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ayo(!aaa ue dvo O/3oAoV;, cvytj «a: w (Jea, tpdQI naaio, xca xa(Ja(!o, toao nOAv peydAo, nov (Ja ~eye;suo; a;tCe pta oAaxEQtj d(!axprj.

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124

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XPHI:TOI: MOTI:IAI:

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«oaot xat rQaxav6tpwflo xai yalla ano y(oe; axoxouueve; xcu xQia; oawUa~ oaao()QEflfliv1J; aytvvt}r1J; xcu nQwroyivv1Jra xatatxia xat ano navw va xiveu; AaflnEQO xoaot; ar1J OXla. xa()wp,ivo;, ue XOQraofliv1J xQao( xaQOla, anevavt: oro ~wt}Qo ZicpvQo OTQErpOVra; o xoor ooixo xat axo n1Jyrj aefQQo1Jxat rQexovflEv1J, a8oAWr1J, toeu; cpoQi~ VEQOxat T'f/V riraQT1J xQaa( va XVVEt~.

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126

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130

131

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132

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133

or META<lJPA~Er~ TON APXAION KEIMENQN A ounotpovt; :
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110

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E%bOOl~L; KAKTO}:
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No. ~ELQa.; 87-92
» » »

Ilauaavia:
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81-86 79 66-70
Alhjvawv:

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Kolop1fa{3a K.M., O~EgiT:axayta EA.: «H %aerll,J.EQLV~

aQxaia EI..f..a.ba». Koooaxo» Tuivvn: «H Mcya.AYJ Icrooto 1:1'1; EI..I..a.bap>. A OrYov: «llOLIlEVL%a.». Mevdvogov: «KwJlwbLEP>. MtQoAI/l{}"WV: «H %aeYJ!lEQLV~ ~w~ (J'''CYJv EJtOX~ tou O!l~QOu». Ilovtti; Iluio: «H 'XaeT)IlEQLV~ tw~ o"CYJvaQxaLa ALyuJt"Co». O/lrlgov: <<If..Laba>>, «ObVO(J'ELO.». IIouoavta: «<I>W'XLXa.». Ilixao Tadg},,~ (Picard Charles): « H tOJ~ 01:YJv %l..aCJL'X~ EAAaba». Iiuitosvo«: «I10I..L"CELa».
136 137

IIAOVra(2XOV; «To)V cJt'ta. GOqJcOv GV!-I.JtOGwv». IIOAVj3{OV; «IG'tOQia». LraVYOVlU T~wv; «H ~w~ G'tl] IlvxTJvah(.~ EAAuba». c[>oQ IIo).; «H xa8l]""CQLV~ ~w~ ornv KQ~'t'll tou Mtvroo». «H xa8'llflcQtV~ ~w~ G'tl] Iluxl]va·Cx~ cJtoX~». c[>AaOeAliQ POPJrEQ (Flaceliere Robert); «0 bl]IlOmo; XaL
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TI ETpgrAN 01 APXAIOI

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XPJll;Tm: MOTI'IAI:

TI ETPgfAN 01 APXAIOI

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XPHl:TOl: MOTl:IAl:

TI ETPOfAN 01 APXAIOI

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40

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51

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QUXEv~m'ta, x6:n ::rwu auv11Si~EluL XaL O~ltEQU ore XWQLa 't11'; Mav11';· 't11cp'tWXOAOYLa OL OOU:n:E;i)'tav 'to rno ouv11SLOIlEvo xaS11IlEQLVO cpaY11'to. 'Erpurynv ~E~aLa XaL ¢uQoaounE';, nou 11:n:Aouma 0!-lW'; 'ta~l1 n; a:n:EcpEuYE! 'Evuc ~WIlO; rtou EUxaQLa'tovoE LlhahEQa 'tOY HQaxAi) (OL aQxaLOt EiXav vo AEVEyw 't11AULllaQyia rou) ~'tuv uno Il:n:L~EALU. ~'ta XOQ'taQLxa EQLxvav ItLa aahoa cp'tLaYltEV11a:n:o AabL, bQLIlU ;VbL, bLacpoQa xaQuxEu!-lu'ta, aX0lt11 Xat !-lEAL. A.; axouaOU!lE 0!-lw,; ItEQLxa «bLaCP11!lLanXa EbEO!la'ta» tou AQLO'tOCPUV11: AAMAXO~: tPtQE !l0V xaoto !lEL; a' tva cpVMO. LlIKAIOIIOAIl:: Iluiae !lOV tpVMa' exet 1/Jrjvw ta 1/JaQla. (<<Axa(lvil.;», 1198-1199)

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Tuvaixa, (3QaaE !lnOAtUa tpaooua, Q{gE xat ottio«, cptQ£ tuu; A{ya avua (oo.) A; cptQEI xaxotoi; an "to anmuo !l0V UJV ra{XAa xru 6vo an{vov<;' dXE sa avOoyaAo «at ieooeoc xouuatta Aayov. (<<ELQilv11», 1144-1145, 1149-1150) KL aAAou oro ibLO EQYO: H
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To. xQEu'ta il'tuv :n:avaxQl~a, naQa. 'tL'; :n:OAAE';8uaLE; nov YLvov'tav YLo. rou; 8Eau,;. <l>SYJVO'tEQO, UyxQL'tLxa, O i)'tav'tO XOtQLVO,:n:ov YLa 'to'll'; CP'twxou; 0ltw.; i)'tav XLo.v'to anA l1oiaa'to. ~tYJv unm8Qo ~E~mu E'tQwyav auxv6t€Qa xQEa;, acpou !lnoQovoav vc SQE'¢OUV att; aVAE(; tou; Xat a'tou; xi)no'll; :n:OUA€QLXa., ouQouvo:n:ouAa, xa'toixLa XL aQvLa. y AnEcp€uyav vo 'tQWVE XOLQLVa.ItVaAa., YLatL 'to'll; 'to anayoQEuav or cpLAoaocpOL (ASi)vmoo;, B 72), LaXuQL~ousvot O'tL «ozoio, tQWVE an' au'ta Eivat ocv vo 'tQwyouv XOUXLU an; xEcpaAt; 0XL f.lOVOrorv YOVEWV aAAa XaL rtov aAAwv a:n:ayoQ€UI-tEVWV nQaYl-tatwv». OL AS11vaiOt, nAouOLOL Xat cp'twxoi, EiXav !-lEyaAYJabuVal-tLa a'ta SaAaOOLva xat etc oorocxc. MEyaAYJ ~iltYJaYJ dXav otnv aSYJvu"txil ayoQa naa'ta t(JaQLa cno 'tOY EAAilanov'to Xat 'tOY EU;ELVO Ilovro xm cpumxa xaSE 'tL rrou 'cp'tav€ ana 'tYJV XOVtLvi) ALI-tVYJ 'tYJ; Kwnatbu;. MLU oXYJv~ oroo; «AxaQvi);», oaoo 0 AQLo'tOCPav11; naQo'll<JLa.~EL 'tOY ~LxmonOAL v' uyoQa~EL t(JaQLa ano Bouoto t(JaQu, ELVaLaQxE'tU EUYAW'ttYJ: LlIKAIOnOAI~: Mu! av cptQVEIL;retota voouuaba, T1JVsao YAvuui nov V;'l;aQX£I, Oaf; !l0V ra XtAta va uaAwooQ{aw aueoox; 8HBAIOl:: NlQau5a S1JAE!ltV ' T1]f; Kovxatocu; (3YE xai uaAoXIQa(rwl rovv gtvov. .:lIKAIOIIOAI~: Q! IloAvn6()'fjrE xat nOAvayan1J!ltvE AaXTaQlOrt !lEst T1JL; uW!lwMa;, tuu; rjQ()Ef; sua, !lEQaUt rwv cpayaowv. To cpvoeQ6, TrJ axaoa cp{QTE, OOVAOt.

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Kat ta xEJ..La, 0f.tWC;,~'tav JtavuxQLj3a, crpou, YVQw oro tEAOC; rou SO'll Jt.X. mwva, a'toiXLtav 'tQELC;bQaX~EC; 'to Eva, O(TO xoa'tL~E XL Eva f.tLXQo Y0'UQo'UVOJtO'UAO,nooo ~EYUAO ?~u.tT1VEJtOX~. ' na 'to Aao, o(.tWC;,or aaQbEAEC; to'll 4>aA~Qo'U ~tav 'to JtLO a'Uv'I18w(.tEVO 8aAaamvo, ~ati us xQL8aQEvLO 1fJw~L Ku8E aV;1J0'l1 't'YJ; cpaA1JQLx~C;aaQbEAac; Ej3atE 0' aV1Jo'UxLa to CPtWXoxoo~o. «Krn o'Ullj3ovAEtjJa va 'UJtoaXE80vf.tE o't1Jv AQtEIlLba 't'l1V AYQonba XLAta XatOixLa, av oi oaQbEAEC; Exavav, t1Jv EJt0IlEV1J, sxuro OtOV oj3oAO», AEEt (<<I:rt:rt~C;»)0 aAAav'tO:rtWA'I1C; AYOQUXQL'tOC;, EXCPQutoV'tac; Etm Xat 't'l1v aywvLa rou Aaov yta 't1Jv aXQif)ELa. OL aQxaim 'EAAfJVEC; EtQwyav O'Uxvo'tEQa 1fJUQLaJto xQEac;, :naQu tfJv a:rtoo'tQocp~ tou OIl~QO'U. 0 4>AaoEALEQ afJf.tELWVEL '11 AE;'I101.jJOVaQXLxu O~llat VE 0, n 'tQWIlE Ila~i O'tL Il£ to 1.jJw!-tt,aAAa myu myu :rt~QE IlLU UAATJ o'l1llaaia xm XatEAfJ;£ vc o'l1f.taiVEL 1jJUQL. To mo btabEcSOf.tEVO :rtQWLVO QOCPfJlla, acpov j3Ej3ma «vvooecev 'tOY xacpE\ ~tav 0 x'UxEwvac;, :nO'll :rtQoavacpEQa!J.E,'to YUAa, x'UQiwc,; to XatmxLaLO, XL Eva avaXUtE!J.a coro XALaQo VEQO Xat ilEAL, ztou :rtQoxaAovm:: LcStai'tEQ'Y] E'UxaQLOtfJO'l1. ~'tLc; xW!-twbL£C;rou AQWLOCPUVfJ avacpEQoVtm £cSE0f.taro nou ~ac; ;£vL~o'Uv. ~'tO'UC;«I:rtJt~C;» !-ttAU£LYLa «;LYXt j30cSLV01.jJfJ!-tEVO !J.Eoa O£ O'Uxocp'UAAa». AvacpEQEL E:rtio'l1C;'tOY «XUVb'UAO», Eva avaXUtE!-ta a:rto ilEAL, yaAa, 't'UQi Xat Aubt, tOV «uurrruto», Eva dboC; oxoQbaALuc; IlE JtQuoa, oxoQba, 't'UQLxm !-tEAL. o ALOXUAOC; O'tOV «TIQOWY18EUA'UO!-tEVO», Ilta 'tQayw54

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Mur a:rtEmaA o'Uvtay~ OaAtOac;, us 'tfJv onotc yaQviQavE ta cpaYfJ'ta !J.U'; bivEL 0 A8~vatoC;:
XVOE wro .7lavw otsspio, xvaE gV61, xvaE aXOfl.TJAa6l, rQi1pE rVQ{ Q{;E ano navw }.(.7lTJ xcu aaAraE~ ~Eart~.

Tn «8'UA~f.tU'ta» JtO'UavacpEQov'taL a:rt' 'tOY AQLO'tocpavTJotnv «ELQ~VTJ», ~'tuv XOV'tQoa~EO!-tEV~ aAEv~L a1to,oniQL tl xQL8uQL, j3QEY!J.EVOItE 'XQam 'Xm AabL. M mrro Qav'tL~avE 'to ocpaX'taQL EVW 1.jJ'I1vo'tav.
coro ru JtQoacpLAtl cpaYTJtu YLa 'to q)'[(:.oxoxoO!-tO. TIo'U bLacp'l1I!L~ov'tav xa'taAA'Y]Aa, ax0f.t'l1 'XUL uno Eva o'tcout6 <ptAOaocpo, oJtWC; 0 XQum:rt:rtoc;, ornv «TIEQL xaAou» :rtQaYltutda tou (A8tlVULOC;, A 47):
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O.7lA1]vaV'!Ego, ovre ngwroyaAa ovrE avxwrl XOIQIVO, OVrE XEQrjeQE~, ovn: xOlAla yovgovvonovAov,

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OVT£XEAl, ovre aataxo piya, Oev eowaare art; vuvaixe; onov eivai xovQaapive;; ~tL~ eua[f~ f'tO[lLu~av XL Eva f[bo~ JtAaxouv'tO~, xun b11Aabit aav JtL'ta, 3tOU 'to 'Afyav «3tfAavo». 'Htov Eva 3taxuQQE1.Ia't0 xQulla a:n:o aAEuQL, J.tO.Lxm Aabt. 'AAAa fllEalla'ta: «'ExX1.I't0~», 3tOUavacpEQf'tm a' Eva fJtLYQaJ.tlla 'tTl~ naAu'tLvit~ Av8oAoYLa~2 (~L~A. 9), ittav Eva ILElYlla ano aAEuQL xm 1.jJTlIlEVO 't1.lQL,3t01.lto 'QLxvav oe ELtlLxa xaAou3tLU xm 'ta YEIlL~UV J.tExQaaL J.tfAWIlEVO. «KavbauAo~», Eva fibo~ cpuY'lltOU t'll~ MtxQao; Aotcc; X1.lQLW~ at11 JtEQLOXit't'YJ~ A1.Ib[a~, IlE O,'tL EQE8LatLXO xaQuxE'Ulla XUXAocpoQovaE. «Murrortoc», nita ILE t1.lQL, uvuxatEILEvo liE !tEAL xm axoQbu. BE~Uta, OL3tLO3tEQicp'll!iE~3titE~ ittav 'tTJ~A8itvu~, xavXTlllu 'tTlo;3tOATl';,XUt YLVOVtUV ILEJ.tEAL,tuQ£ XUt AabL, aAAa ' E~a~av IlEau XUt bLucpoQa xUQuxEVllatu. . OL A8TlvaLm aJtEcpE1.Iyavv' aQxiao'Uv 'to YEu!ia rou; it to bEi3tvo IlE oounc. ~XE'tLxa IlE 'tTJvE'tOLllaaia EVO~bEt:n:VO'U, n tL Ila~ ucplJv Of: 0 q,EQfXQUtTl~ (A8fJvuio.; Tl803tmo~ XUl JtmTl'tit~, 'tou 401.13t.X. cuovn), oro «douAobLbaaxaAo)): Ilw~ frolpd~erat to Oeinvo; niare pa~; Aotnov otu; ..liw, ixert: iva xoppdrt Xi..ll, xa..lapaQdxta xcu aovt, oUyo ..lovxdvtxo {JQaard noota sou avxwrt, nai'odxta xai nov..ltd, xoronov..la xai rVQi nov 'Vat piaa oro piAL, sa ana xQiara iva piQo~. (A8itvmo~, f 49)
56

Kat 0 XU8E lLa.YELQO~ bEt3tvOAoyo~ CPQOVtL~E bivEL it vc n.; ObTlYLE-; ou. Na a:n:oa:n:aalLa'ta XWILLXWVJtOLT)'tWV, :n:' r u tOY A8ijvmo: Fia va tpai; iva xoutuit: fJQaaro prjrQar; XOlQlVtjr; Bovtawicu; 1'0 oe adA:raa an1Jydvov raovxu:Qrj. (~watQato~)

Bas« piaa arr] q;axfj aov ro owoixaro rov xoouivvo». (Znvcov)
Tglpfliv1J Q{yav1J;eQfj va {3d..l1Jr; lCQwra nQwra oto (3aBo; yeQOV xuitou, owae xe: XQwfla, xavovlxa, :rr:01:t1;ovra;ue JteTlfliCl ovvaTo iWb eOWelCdvw, Ba fnlXV01Jr; bCfl1:a :rcvxvfj ooa1JmArpiov. ('AAE~L~) Kat 0 NbcavbQo-; (A8itvULO~, r 100).
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"at, atpoi; to IT:f{}tXVa'fJ~ ~wpo OlT:OV ue xoxla~ft, gf{}O'I/.J1jafto »at xAdaro yV{}W YV{}Wue to miJpa ytar{ to XOVr{}aACV{}Onov 'Vat xa{3ov{}vnapivo, cpovaXWVft Xl aVf{3a{Vft. 'Eva xaAo tQan;E~w!-ta !-tao;:n:aQovaui~£t Xat 0 cpavTJO; (<<ExXAfJma~Ouaat» 838-845). Ta r{}alT:i~ta etvcu etouu: xai vetuita ue ola r ' ayaOa xat ra X{}f{3ana ar{}wpiva ue xalla xas IT:{}o{3ti~.Me; otu; xavarf~ avaxareooov TO «oaot, Ot pv{}OnWltaaf~ xeotuevou« otnv a{}aba . ra tjJa{}ta xouueva cptrf~ 'l/Jtjvovrat, oi Aayo{ otu; aov{3Ae~, gfCPOV{}Vl~OVV n{7:f~, nA..exovrat atetpavta, tu; xa{3ov{}vrt1;ovv gfQOV~ xaQHov~ xt ot sao vie~ {3{}a~ovv otu; XVr{}f~ r'fJ rpa{3a. AAAa fJ EAAEL1pfJ Xat TJ aXQi~ELa tmv tQOCPillWV uvoyxa~£ :n:OAAOUo; IlfJv rt:£taVE ttnorc ceto to. rt:EQtaaEuvc Ilata rorv ()ELrt:VooV. Kavco aaAraa nAaeOV7:a~naAt ~earo 'l/JaQt, Xl a{}abta~w enavw rov ooa ueivav axoqxiyta, ra {}av7:l~w ue xoaat xcu naanaAt1;w r ' avre{}Q ue QAart xat ue atAcpto. Ko{3w TO Aovuavtuo "at {3avw xovra rov xoutuitta axo evtoatua. (Ae~vatoo;,

Aourro-

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58

1. 0 ~wcpt~:Tt1:aQto.;: orov xU'taA.oyo troy nQo·ioV'w)v tOU ()l£6vou.;: Elllt0QLOV, !lEta to ltEtQ€A.mO, to xaA.'ll~a ~m to OLtCtQL, EXELYLa ltatQt6a 'to'll tTJY AL~LOrda ,Xat EL()LXOtEQ,a !lLa verna ltEQLOX'li,ata ouvooc :!:ou6av - ~EV'lla.;:, tTJV K~<PQa. Ano tTJVAt8LOltLa ()LaM8TJXE OtT)V YE!lfVT) xm 01:0U';:A~a~£.;:, YUQro orn 1.500 u.x. 0 ~aCfE'; EYLVE~EXtO';: !lE, !lEYaA.TJ ayaJtTJ altO 'to !lo'Uoo'UA.!laVLXO X?O!lO, a<po'll ~o XO'QaVLanaYOQE'UE OLvonvE'U!lanbbTJrtotu. :!:'tT)v E'UQ~ltT) EyLVEYV~'to. (no; alto Bsvetourvoug VU'UtLXOU';: 1615. MaAtOtU, 'to JtQro'to 'to Xa<PEVELobQu8T)XE 1645. L to 2. IIaA.aTlV1j tj EA.A.llVI'H.tj vOoAoy{a: IIQoxELtat "Ita !lLU avA 80Aoyia ana A.OYOtEXVLXU, xVQiro.;:,EJtLYQCt!l!lU'ta.H ,av80A.oyia JtO'U()WOW8T)XExataQti08T)XE 'tOY 1~0 ~.X. aLro~a, O'tO Butavtw, EJti AEOV'tO';:tou ~Oq_lou,A.a~~avov'ta£, 'UnotpT)XaL U£ tQEL';:av8oA.oyiE£ nou Etxav ltQOT)YTJ8EL V,o!lao'tT)XE ~aO A.anv'li Uy80AoyLa, YLa'tL'to !lOVabLxo tTJ';:XELQoYQa<po QE8T)~ XE to 1606, 0'tT) ~L~A.t08'lixT)tTJ';: a·(btA.~~QYTJ';:, ' X nQro'tEU?Uaa.;: roo YEQ~aVtXou xQaublO'll rou TIuA.utLvato'U. ~uvo)..Lxa, ore
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TI ETPQr AN or APXAIor A01) Xat tOU l:O<pOXA~. 'EQya 'tOU, uno 'to onotu ow8'I'Jxav E/"axtOtU anoonaO!lUta, «KUXA(mjJ», «OQ<PEU':;» x.c, 2. L1lOyiv1J~ AaiQTIO;: l:llYYQacpEa.:; nou 'I'J«ULVLY!la'tLx~ ~wip> rou EXELnQo~/"'I'J!la'tioEL aQxlO'ta tOOO tOU~ LO'tOQL"WU£ 600 Xat 'tOu£ EQEUV1'JtE<;;. Ito 't1'Jtw~ lOU, tnv xataYwy~ 'tOU xm 'to OUVo/"o lOU EQYOU lOU ~EQOU!lE E/"aXLO'ta nQaY!lUta. 'EYQU'ljJE 'tOU~ «Btou; CPL/"OOOcpWV», !lE'tasU 't0l) 20l) XaL 'tOU 50u u.X. aLwva. 3. ee6rpQwnoc;;: ¢LMoocpo~ ano 't'I'Jv Epeoo 't'I'J0:; AEo~ou, nou ~}L(lMXtT]XE tOY AQLO'tOlE/"1'J O)~ nQo'CO'ta!lEVOO:;rou Auxstou, 'EYQU'ljJE nEQLOOOtEQU urco 200 EQya, cno ta oztotc aw8'I'Jxav OL «Xugax'tT]gEO;», CPL/"O/"0YLX01J EQLEX0!lEVOU, XUL n Cuo CPUto/"0YLxa, «IIEQi CPUtwV LOloQia» XUL «IIEQL cpUtWV aLEivaL «AuxonEQatxou!l EaXOU/.,EVtOU!J.», l:'t1'Jv EUQwn'I'J EYLVEYVWOtT] XUta to 160 uuovn, ceto 8a)..aooonoQouc;, nov l'I'JV E<pEQav ceto to IIEQOu, nou 8EWQEl'taL XaL 1'JnUtQL()a rou CPU'tou. 5. EJ,t:rtf.OOXA1jC;; AXQayavTtvoc;;: 'Evcc altO roue nLO <pa0 vrruxoix; onu()ouo:; rou IIv8uyoga, nou ()EV EtQWYE tLJtOtE an' 000. <paywoqm i]tav ngw'ta twv'tOva. 'Erot, otuv VLX'I'J0EOE aywvEO:; L1tJtobQo!lLWV o't'I'Jv OAu!lnLa, UVtL va naQa8EoEL YEU!la OlO'U~ cp()..ouo:;,onwo:; OUV'I'J8Lto'tav, E<plLa~E Eva ~O()L, !lE 0l-luQva, /"L~aVL XaL 0.)../.,0, uQw!la'ta, nQoo<pEQOVtU~, ceto Eva XO!l!latL, 0' OOOVO:; JtaQuxa8'I'J0av oro bEinvo (onou 'to cpuY'I'Jto i]lav !l0VO ano XOQtaQLxa).

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8a otu; owaev to x,Qaai 'r'l}; Aiaf3ov, aouux 'r'l}; Xto», x(}aai'r'l}q fJaaov, T1J;Bi{3AOVxai T'l}r;MivO'l};, ware xavet; oac va p''l} ~a).,laui.

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To LxaQtWtLXO xQao( AqOtUV TEQUttVLOxm .5EV ~tUV OUtE YAUXOIl~tE :n:axv, etAAa orixpo xm aYQLo, us L.5WttEQet EsmQEtLX~ oOIli). Ta xOQLv8Luxu xQamu .5EVi)tav OE t~tTjoTJ, «i)tav xQuot TEUQaSEVO, ytatL to xOQLv8Laxo xQetOt ELvm ~aoavLOti)QLO», AEEL0 'AAESL'; (A8i)vctLo;, A 56). o ~tQU'ttLo; ETEctLVEL ltuvQo aXLu8lttxo xQuot. to

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Koaoui raw (h{wv norrov nov eV'PQalvav TOV; nOl'lrt;, Ullv11aE 0 0Qu'tWC;. Extoe; tTJSxUQLoot;EAAUbat; ;ExwQL~av to «xaAu~oovLO» xQaaL tllS AalJaoxou, IJE XUQLO:n:QoIJ118Euti) 'tll ~amALxi) a'UAi) tllS llEQaias, xa8ws Xat 'ta CPOLVLXLXUQama. x OL ALyUn:tLOL O'Uvi)8L~av va JtLVO'UVto x,Qaoi. rotx IJE ~Qaa'tEe; XQUIJ~ES (Qan:ava) i) flLacpoQES o.t..AESQL~Et;Xat AeXxava. AtEL 0 'AAE;LS:

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EJt0IJEVO i)'tav ro xQamu vc ltaLQvo'Uv I-tLUcero tLS ltQw~ 'tES 8 tOELS atLS ayoQES tou aQxaLo'U X,OOtt0'U. IIQoota ot 'EAA11VESXat 0't11 O'UvEXELaOLPoottaLm LbQ'U~ oov ro «ElJltOQ£LU», ozou IJJtOQOUOExavds v' UVtaAAu~ ;EL OXAU~O'USIJ£ rc XUAUtEQa x,Qamu. H Xatw'tEQTJ 'tt1Ji) i)'tav Evao; alJcpoQEuS YEIJU'tOSxQaaL (to'UAaXLo'tov 200~400 AltQa) IJE av'teXt..AaYlJa evcv tCP11-

l30!
IIOAAEe; ltEQtOXEt; ztou ELXav acp80va xQama CPQOVtt~ ~av YLU tllV E;ayooyi). 'Oou xQamu i)tav vo JtEQuao'Uv am EttrtOQLO<pVAUYOVtov !lEOa os I-tEyaAa ltL8aQLa, EVW 'ta OJtL tLxa x,Qama i) ooo lti)yaLvav otnv XOVtLVi) ayoQa ro '~u~av IJEOa OE aaxovs cero XOLQLva i) xa'tmxLma bEQlJata. Ta JtL8aQLa, oJtooS Xat OL aJ.LcpoQELS, i)'tav xataAA11Aa EJ'tLXQWIJEVaOtO EOW'tEQLXO'to'US, yLU va lJ11vaAAou.ovE'taL TJYEua11 rou xQaowv, JtO'U 'rprnve out; ;EVEt; ayoQES IJE'to. aJto ltOAui)!lEQa 'ta;LBLa. To :ru8uQLa ELxav Jtavoo 'tOUt; XCtLJ.LLa ELbLXi)acpQuyLBa,

EaV ex(H; xoutoosuve; xat mj/leQa tXEt; ~al'l. Ileoe lomov va XOl/l'lee{; xat tote ea oou xeoaoei,
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J.&€ Ov0J.&U'rou EJ.&::rcOQOU 't' xuSOO~ 'Kat 'tOlV 'to:rtL'KWV UQXOV'tWV 't'll~ ::rc€QLOX~~. IIo1..Aol ma'tEVO'UV on 'll UV(t:1t'tU~'ll 't'llC; uYYELon1..ua'ttx~C; ornv UQXato't'll'tu 1I:~QEYOQYO Q'US",o, YLU VU xU1..v'\jJEt 'ttC; EJ.&::rcOQtXEC; J.&u1..AovnUQu 'ttC; ot'KtUXEC; UVCtYX€C;. To 1981 EV't01l:La't'll'KE, a'ttC; U1I:OXQ'llJ.&VEr;;: U'KtEC; EQ'llIAOvnoiou, !1s'tu~v 't'llr; 'YbQur; Xat 'tWV ~1I:€'taoov, Xat as PUSor;;: 47-50 J.&E'tQWV,VU'UUYLO UQXULO'U EJ.&noQLxoV 1I:1..OLo'U J.&E CPOQ'tLO250 U!1CPoQELr;xQumov. Kntri rou; uQXmoAoyour;, 'to 1I:1..OLO sQX0'tuv uno 't'llv Koi (xu'tCt 'tOY 10 1I:.X. mmvu) xm 1I:~ym V€ ornv EQ".uov'll ~ at XCtnOLu Ct1..1..uno 'll nr;;: UQYOAtX£C; n01..€tr;;:. ~'t'll V0J.&08EOiu rcov uQxuiwv pQimwuJ.&€ O'tOtXcLU nQoa'tu'tt'U'ttxmv buo!101..oYLxmv !1£'tQwv ytU 'to E!1noQtO reov xQummv. ~'tO'U~ J...6Y0'UC; uU'tovr;;: JtQEnEt v' unoooSei xm TJ Etbtx~ crcpQuYLa'll rorv uJ.&cpoQ£wv, J'tO'U x'Ux1..ocpoQovouv ono 'tl'Jv AiY'Unto J.&EXQL .6.ovVUP'll Xat uno 't'llv AbQLU'to tLX.~ J.&EXQL !1LXQUmUnxa J'tuQu1..Lu Xat mv KunQo. 'ta H ELauywy~ 'Kat 'll E~UYWy~ xQumwv ~'tuv 'KUVOVL0J.&EVEr;;:,XUQLWC;a't'll v~ao J.&E ELbtxovo; v0J.&0'Ur;;: no'll nucoooecov tto; unu'tEr;;: 'Km 'ttr;;: VOSELE';, E~aO(pU1..i~ov'tuo; haL Eva J'tQUYJ.&UtLXO«1I:Qoa'ta'tE1Ytta!10».

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'Ita va ;e(}ep,eAlWO'Y} TO'll oixo rwv IIeAomowv.

EU~O'UAO~ oro EQYO rou «Arrturou;».

Kat 0 'AJlqJL~ (XL a'Ut6~ XWI-lW~LOYQaqJOS')AEEL orov «IaAEI-lO»: Eu; ra p,aQOVAta avdueoa, lcOV (Ja xaraorQacpovv ue ro'll suo xaxo toono, a'll cpaY1Jxaver; ax ' avra eu; ra e;rjV7:a XQOVta, oxote rj(JeAe poe81j p,a~l ue uta vuvatxa (Ja 07:QtCPoyvQt~orav exet OA'Y}1J vvxra r XWQl; va xav1J ttatote an ' ooa Bnl(}vp,et, sa avtt via neQtlCol'Y}01Joro XiOl ;e(Jvp,alVet 1Javavxata cpvo'Y}rov.
110

'Htav OlXOe; avtxavoc va avvovotaanj sa OVU 0 pQaoro; POAPOr;, r f xvov T1J; Y1}r:; we; to Aalp,o xwp,ivor;, o OVVOIXOr;r'Y}r;L11jp,'Y}rQar;, oev eivcu ixavo; a ' avr1j T1JVlC£QlnrW01J p,OVD(;va enaQxfo'fJ a'll Xl evvoet 7:0 na(}or; rwv aV(}Qw:rcwv lc ' ayanovv. (A8i)vatoS',

B 64)

111

TI ETpgr AN OI APXAIOI

Iltlywve

orov Xoeaxa

uovoqxive
xas xareeyaerJ·

ta toU~ aQX?LOUS; 'E',.J.. )ves; iltav XatL to a()Lavof)tO .f va tQWVE j.40VOL1'OUS;. a rD.. ut'UQXo~ tAEYE OtL «1'0 va q:JaELxUVEiS; It0VOS; o 1'~U bEY Of)llaivEL vc YEUIlUttOEL aAAa vc YEllioEL to OtOltaXL tau ouv ta twa». Kat 0 A8ilvmo;: 'Orav IdE(~ tdtwrq 1l0VO rov va reWYEl, xwe(~ va XEt 1rOl'l]r7j va 11'1] iAEt ra rQayovdta 8 OVff xcu r'l] /-tovatx'1j, yt ' avrov~ 1rei1rEt va xurtetieu; 6rt xaaav Xl ot dvo rov~, 0 IlEV nQcOro~r'l] Illa7j an ' oAq TOV rrJ ~W'l] 0 de devreeo~ rrJ Iltm] ax ' o).rJrqv rixvrJ rov. Kai oto xarw xarro a8Ata ~ovve xcu ot dvo.

r
!

Ta oVIlJ'toma

'Errn, !J.EtE1'OLa vootpomc, ()tXmOAOYELtm ll!J.EyaAf) ayan:ll tWV aQxaiwv EAAilvwv YLa ta O'U!J.nOOL~, ou n:OAn Aa an' au1'a EIlEt vo» OtllV Lo'toQia. Bt~ma axofA.f) XaL 0' Eva oU!J.n:omo iJ a' Eva En:LOf)!J.O YEUI.ta, 0 aQLS!J.6; tWV xaAEo!J.EvWV iltav n:EQLOQta!J.Evos;. KL coro YLa vc IlT)V U<PilOEL0 OLXO()EOn:OtllS;n:uQan:ovouItEVOU;.
Na recOve 0).01 /-tallura, oe nAovato rea1ri~t, ua aq etva: TQElq rj teooeou; '1jnivre 0).01 sa OlOI, Xl 0Xl xeoiaaoteoot, YiaT! rOTe xaTavra aXrJvrj otoaiuoidn: nov ~ovv ue ro ovaottto xai T1JV aQnay'1j. (A8'i}vmoo;, A 7) AAAa aVti.8E'tf) YVOOIlf),YLa tOY XEQWQtO!J.EVOaQtSJl6 xaAEOJlEVOOVoro OUIl1t6mo, ELXE0 MEyas; AAE;avbQo;. o MuxEb6vas; atQatllAa'tllS;, oJtw; E;LO'tOQEL 0 tOtOQLOYQaqJoo; 'EqJLnn:o; 0 OAilv8wS;, nou 'tOY axoAou8ll0E OtLS; Exa'tQ<X'tELEO; tau xm bLOQi,O'tllXE !J.aALo'ta an:' tOY AAE;UV()Qo En:LaX03tOS; otnv AI. yuJt'to, «oaaxL; EbELJtVEL ItEta rcov tpiAOOVtou E()uJtCtVa Exat6 !J.va; tf)v flIlEQa, EVtO IlEtcLxav oro ()ELJtvo E;'i}Vta Laws; XaL E~bo!J.itv'ta <pLAOL». «PuatXa oAa 'tu YEUIlUtU xat ro 6Ein:vu, 'twv A8f)vULOOV il tWV KOQLv8iwv, fJtUV !J.LUItEyaAll n:OAUtEAELU YLU tOUS; l:3tuQttatE;. . LtT)V n:QWtEUOuaa tllS; AUX(J)VLUS;, onou ta YEUJ.lUtU fJ'tuv )GOLVa,n:QWtT) Stall dXE 0 «ltEAU; tWfA.Oo;»,XatL n:ou

ovvtoopui, 7j xaviva

Auto! nou ttQwyav 1l0VOLtous; <paiVEtUL vc EVOXAOUoov tOU~ aAAouS;. «Movoc oou n:A,EOVtQWYEL; XatL xm ~ACtn:1'ELo; EJlE», OflIlEL~OE 0 A~tL<pavflS;, xm 0 AIlEL'\jJias;, En:iaf)~ xWltLx6; n:OLf)tflo; (xm aUYXQovo; tOU AQLa1'O<paVT), EXVEUQL~Etat:
112

113

XPH.!TOl: MOTl:IAl:

TI ETPQr AN 01 APXAlOI

O\,..I:EO'tOV unvo 'tOV~ bEY ~8EAav va bovv buillovo; xaAo<payCtbE~. dLfJYEhat 0 llAOU1:aQXo~:

at EX'tO; AUXE-

, 'Evoi; paOlAuJ.~ TaV II6vTaV avooaoe eva InaQrtar1J p,ayeIQ X,~l roy ePaAe va rov cprta~Et to p,iAava ~wp,6. tPvatx,a p,~AI~ rov c5ox,ip,aaEc5EV rov aQeOE »cu 0 p,aYEIQO~rov f!17:E: Fta, va OElx,aV017:0ajaEIavro~ 0 ~wp6~ BaOlAla nQE17:flnQwra va AOVaTf{~ ora vEQa rov EVQwra.

?

L'tU YEVJ..I.aTaXat orn oUJ..I.J'toma at aQXaiate1:Qroyav ;anA?JJ..I.eVat OE XALVibta. 'AQXL~av J..I.E J'tQonoJ..l.a, Eva TO Y~vxomo'tO xpaoi ~ ano XUJ..I.OPQOVTroVavaxa'tEJ..I.€VO J..I.E < J..I.EAt ,Xat OuvEXLtav J..I.E:0 xQaat t'OU£" J'tCtVTa ~E~ata VE1 Qro!lEVO. llOAAE; <poQE;, rtQtV bEtrtv~oo1)V, frtatQvav 'to J..I.rtCtVtO 1:ov~. KavEva; bEY J..I.noQOUOE va xa8~OEL oro 'tQunf~L XroQL~ V~ mEt. 'AAAWO~E 1:0 {(nLE ~ <pUYE»~Tav xcht J't01) ouxva 'tOVL~E 0 oUl-'rtomaQXO; Ot'O'U; XUAEOJ..l.EVOU;. ,L'UJ..I.nooiaQXo; ~TaV aUTO; J'tOUxa80QLtE1:0 ~a8J..1.0 't01) !lELYJ..I.aT?;rcov XQaOLCDv,nOAAE£, <poQE; ~'tav 0 (bw; 0 OLxobEart01:'l£'. , KavEvas; ~EV n~Y,aLVE ax61Eo't0; oro oUIlJ'toma, nago. J..I.OVO JtOA1)OtEVOL OVYYEVEi;, xallLo. naiQa ~ xav€va; OL YEAro1:0nOLO; . llQt; aQxioEL to <payonott yivovtav at anaQatt'ltE; onov~EO; Oto'U; 8eov;. Mia art' 'tL~ OJtOVbE~, a.n:aQaL't~1:oo£" fJ1:av yta TOV SEVtO ALa ~ YLU 'to ALovuoo. AAAo. YLU ro o1)ll.n:omu tcov uQXaiwv a;tOOlU.tELoo't1] ELVal 1] IlEAftfJ rou <PAaOEAtEQ: «Ko.8E o'UJ..I..n:omoCtQXLtE I-'E ortovbf£ yta tou; 8eouo;

XaL rtLO JtOAU YLa 'to Atovuoo. 'Emvav Atyo aVEQo)'to xQuot Xat J..I.E'to. x'Uvav IlEQLXEo; o'tayovES; nQocpEQov'tao; 'to E ovouo 't1]0;8Eo'tT]'tas;. Ka'taTT] ouyxEVtQooOTl OL1£O'tEo; v't!. a va QLXVOUVXCt1:W't1] o1£ovb~ 6LaoxE6utav 01]J..I.a6Euov'tao; Eva oQwJ..I.evo 01:0XO IlE 'to uYQo rto'U ELXEIlELvEL orov :rt<ho t1]o; xouJta£, roue L' au't~ 1:T1 YEa oJtovb~ bEY EAEyav 1:0 OVO!.l.a EVOo; 8eou aAAa. ro ovouo xa.rtOWU ayaJt1]!.I.Evo'U rou; JtQoowrw'U. A v 'to uYQo fnE<p1:E no.voo ornv mat€Aa ~ 01:0 bOXEtO nov E!.xav ~CtAEt OtOXO, E~AEJtav 0' mrto Eva xaAo ouovo, rtou 'tOU£ fAEYE cero rtQLV Jtw£, 'l EQW'ttXiJ rou; E1£L6Lw;1] 8a EiXE EJtt'tUXLa. »OL y'UvaLxES; ore counootc, rtou yivovtav aJtoxAEtonxCt IlE J..I.0.1]OU cpUAOU'tOU£, iJ OLuaLQE£ 1£O'U t iJtav 1£QOaXaAEOJ..l.EVE£ oro o'Ul-'rtoata rorv avbQwv, Ertm~av EnioT]£' 1:0VtO tOY EQWtLXO xo't'taj3o. L' Eva ayyELo rou Eixpcovtou J..I.Lauvabta yUf,lviJ, ~a1l:AW!!€v'l 0' Eva xQE~atL ouy 1-'11:001.01), xQata I-'E to bE;L 1:1]£XEQL 't'l Aaj3iJ I-'tas; xouna; AEYOV'tUS;: PtXVW amtl Ebffi YLa oevo, AEaYQE. »0 xOttaj3os; EYLVE rooo JtOAU tl]£ 1-'060(';, ffiO'tE smvonouv nOAAE£, 1I:OLXtALt£ autou tOV JtmxvL6wu». Ti.' auto xaL tOVt~E 0 AQLatOCPaVll;: «Eo'tLaoSm, xo'tt'aj3L~ELv, ou~aQL~ELv», mou tl6TJ 1I:QoavacpEQCtI-'E. Oi oU!.I.noatCt~OIlEVOL JtOAU OUxvo. €'ljJaAAav tOY «nma.vn» tVW 6lCtOXEba~av !1E 6tacpoQa XOQEU'tLXo. tl aXQoj3a'tLXo. VOU!lEQa, acpmJ XUXAOcpoQouoav at 0XE'tLxoL 3tQO£, tvoLxiao1] 8tuom, xaSw£ XaL !!E tL£ aVA 1]'tQL6E£, 'tL; xuj3LatQLE£, tl n£ €'tatQE£" Ot tEAEmaiE£" av matE'ljJoUI-U:: to MtvCtvbQo, xUAonA'rlQwvoV'tav:

114

115

XPH~TO~ MOT~IAl:

Tl ETpgrAN 01 APXAIOI

Ot f1:ai(Jf~, X(Jvaioa, oav xai aeva r(Jexovv yta dexa ;lOvaxa o(JaX;te~ ora yAeVrta.
(<<~allla»

392-393)

KUl'a LOV~ Xgovov; l'OV AgWl'Ol'EAlJ 0 Ilta80~ Ilta~ xogEmgLa; i) !.uu uVAlJl'gioo~ i)'tuv 6uo bgaXIlE~ l'lJ ~gabLa. AgXEl'oi :rtav't((); cpgoVl'L~aV va XUAOVV bLaolJlla ovoIla'ta cro l'QU:rtE~LU 'tov;, :rtgocpavw; yta vc EVl'u:rt(()Otaa?uv l'OU~ xaAEoIlEvOV;. MUALOl'a, xal'a IlLa :rtAlJgOCPOgLa l'OU Lli(()va l'OU Xguaool'o!J,ou, a' Eva 'tl.hOLO OUIl3tOaW,3taguxu8lJaE xm OAUIl:rtLOVlXlJ; 3taAmal'i);, 3tOU :rti)QE u:rto 'tOY OLxobEa:rtOl'lJ 6Exa l'aAaVl'a, :rtOOO llu8w6E~ YLa l'lJV ugxala E:n:OXi). 'OAOL ,:rtUVl'((); OL 'EAAlJVE; ayu:rtovoav ta aUI.moma, :n:OUogyuvwvav a'tL; bLacpOQE~ OLXOYEVELUXE;YWgl'E~ i) al'L~ YWgtE; l'lJ~ :n:OAlJo;,axolllJ yta LOV Egxollo EVO; cptAOV i) YLa l'lJ vb(lJ oe a8AlJ1:LXOV;, bgalWl'LXOVO; i) xm rtoAtl'LXOV~ UyWVEo;. O:ltwabi):rto'tE ro aVJ.l.Jtoma 01:a8lJxav lJ ULl'la vc nvn:ltl'vX8Et Eva tbLUhEgO Xat :rtQWl'Ol'uJto AOYO'tEXVLXOElbo;. KUL otnv LOl'ogia EIlELvav to «~vIlJtomo» l'OV llAa't(()va, to «~vll:rtoaLO» rou BEvocpwv'ta, 'to «E:ltta ooqxov auIlnomov» rou llAovl'agxou, on(()o; XUL OL «LlEL:ltvooocptOl'E~» tou A8i)vmov.

0l'0 322-280 :It.X., :ltOU aiyovga bLEXbLXEl tOV 't{'tAo tou «YEvlla'to~ tlJ~ LO'tOgtao;». 'EyLVE IlE 'tlJV E'UxmgLa roiv yallwv rou Knpuvou, xat lJ :rtEgLygacpi) (A8i)vmoo;, b.. 1) J.tao;ucpi)VEL ava'Ubo'Uo;: AOtnOV efXf xoooxaseoe: a' avro eixoo: n(J6owna, ota oxoia, nQlv xaAd xaAd xa(hjaovv ato xoan{~l, nQompeQf Yla oWQo ana eva ,aa'lfleVIO nO,rtjQI, sa eva XQva6 OlaO'lfla a;{a~ xevte cplAtnnwv. To yevfla a_Qxwe tu: eotapara nov nQoocptQOrJxav ueoa as usa xaAXlVrJmaTtAa, iQYo KogivOIO~ xaUtrexvrJ, rSpdT1Jue x~ronovAa, ndms~, cpdaaee;,XrJvee;xai tpwflaxla. AXOAOVOrJaav sa dAAa mara ue oldcpoQa tpavqtd, xatotsaa, A~yove; sa axofl1J neQwriQta, TQvy6vla, niQolxee; xat Olatpooa dUa nOVAta. Ileoaaav exeaa ueoa pOVOlXO{ xat aVA'lT(}ioee; xca oafl/3vxioT(}lfC; ana r1J Pobo, aUa to XAOVfjrav eva_tp1Jro yovgovvonovAo navw a ' iva ceoaouo aa1JflivLO owxo. Otrto; (01JAaofj 0 XO{QOC;) 1jrav ronoOeTrJfltvoe; ue TrJV xot).{a rov avw xcu nAfjQrJ noUwv wQa{wv xoavuatow, olon ev avrfj fjaav tp1JfltVat fla~{ Ta{XAee;, flfjr(Jec; xac annQOnAfjOoe;avxocpdywv, xa(}w~ xai X(}OXOIavywv xvptVOl :rcavw ae arQelOla xat xrtvla. AXOAOv8TJOE ~Qua'to XUtOiXL, OE bi,axo I-tEXQ'Uaa XOV'tUALa, XOQE'U"tLXU VOVIlEQa IlE Y'llIlVE; xCtAAL1:EXVLbEo;, nou ~ya~av CP(()'tLEo; uno 'tU a'toJ.ta'ta 'tOV; XL oAa amu ouvobEta acp8ovo'U xQamov uno 'tTJ Saao, tlJ MEVbTJ XUL tlJ AEa~o. ~av E:rtLboQ3tLO :ltQoacpEQ8TJxav 'ljJlJ'tCt'ljJaQaxLa XUL 'ljJ00!laxLu :rtavoo a' Eva y'UaALvo :ltLVaxa.

o Kaoavo;

'Eva YeUIlU YLU 't'l1v LO'toQia

'Ouox, (mo nAEvgao; xAtc5i);, rnv 3tgWtlJ 8EOlJ c5LExbtXEl 'to :rtEgiCPlJJ.l.o OVIl3tOOLO'tou Mcxsoovo Kagavou, yilQw
116

117

XPHl:TOl: MOTl:IAl:

TI ETpgr AN OJ APXAIOJ

A'A,'Au0 :1t'Aoumo~OL'lW()fa:rtOtrJ~,1t'AEOVtU~e :1tf'AUYrJ : o fUtU:XtU~Ilf tllv fX'AfX't~ tll~ xUQ()tU~rou, 0'A0 xm XUQt~fL ()wQa a'tou~ xa'AfaIlEvoU~, o'Ao Xat tOU~ fVtU:1t(Oma~ft Ilf trJ ~'At()~'tO~ aUIJ.:1tOai.ou tTJVJtOtxL'ALa Xat tOU xa'A'AL tf:XVLXOUJtQoYQalJ.llato~.

nov 'vat

({!{}..1]

rov

Tottowa).

Kat:
Avra axopa sa 0 {30Qla~ flnoQovm: v 'aya ntjae I r1Jv wQa nov 'ljJ1]vovravs sa 0 EevoxA1j~ 0 {OWC; n1jYWVe sa eQxorav e atu; Oeafle; rwv avoQwv »a fard01] oro xarw({!At, fl • ana xovra rov 1jQOsa Xruoapan, naQamroe; 0I10LOe; l a.naQaAAaxroe; ue yAaQov nStva_aflevov, X v1]artxoe;, nov YVWQt~eXaAa va Otara~el arrov aAAWVra rQane~ta.

H «IAtaba» ... 1:'11; btmToAoyi.a;
Ta YAE~na, ta cpaY0Jtona xm TJxu'Aom~Qaall, EJtflouv 'to MutQwva, aUYYQacpEa tWV :1tUQW()tWV, tt Sa O ':1tQfJtf va YQmptft Xat rJ «I'Atu()u» t1'); ()tattoAoYLa~: L1sbrva pOI evvene, Movoa, 1toAvrQocpaxat fldJ.a noUa a 8evoxArj~ QrjrwQ ev AOrjval~ oe(1tv1JosvTjpa~. (TQayovoTjae uou Movaa oebrva .noUa ;rwAvTgocpa nov aTTjVA01jva 0 gtjroQa~ 8svoxAtj~ tuu; exafle). 'HUlov "lag xaxeiac, .noAv~ oe uo: eanocto AlpO~. Ov 0'1 xaUiaTov~ aQrov~ foov Tjdepsyfarov~ AwxoTegov~ XIOVO~,eaOelv 0 ' apVAotmv ouotouc.

Ot payelQOI XOV{3aAayav «at ra rQane~ta
yel11~av ue mara ({!ayrjTWV a • aVToVC;naQaxwQtjaave eva fleyaAo OoAo ta xQeara va 1jJ1jVOVV Xl eOwaavs mv aOfta rov yeVflaroe; to Xgovo va 'WV ent'raxvvovv tj TOYfm{3QaOVvovv. allot OAOlan)..roaav 'ra xtQla ctu; aaAarec; ua yw OeVrove; fllfl1j01]Xa xai erQwya an ' oAa {30A{30VC;, anaQayyta xai a'rQeiola naxta, ra naAla T 'aMnaa'ra, nov at t[>o{vlxec; Ta rQWVe naQar1]aa a'r1]v navra. Tom; axLVovc; nov exovve ayxaOta oro Xe({!aAI 'rove; ntTa~a oro nazanu: Xl enrjyave xv)..wvrae; tu: xQaro ota nooaQla rwv OOVAWV, WOlWV fjJOaaave as toxo xa(JaQa, oxo» ta xVI-tara tana~av ar1]v aXQTj rov ytaAOV x.An. x.An.

at

(Ttait »cu xdOe negaaa, sa dxa fleydATj netva. Exet Aot1tOVefoa 1jJWPlaoiocaotata xac fleYLOra
AevxoreQa an ' TO XlOVl, nov xafle exet va CPafls ouota ue yAvx{apara).

Kat auvf:xI.~Et «I'Atu()a,;~~ :
(Ma

0

Ma.tQ(J)va~, rtuvta

oro Qu8",,6 trJ~

Hoe ({!aATjQlxtj tjMle acpvTj, Toitowoc erafQTj.

ooieoa uai; t({!Oaae

1]

paQ{da rov tPaAtjQov

118

119

TI ETPOfAN OI APXAIOI

«Ma tOTE M.VHOE uou TQH~ bQaXIlES V' ayoQuow YOtlQOUVO:rtOUAO va lluTJ800ore EAEUatVLa, :rtQLV:rtE8uvw». (API!TOtf>ANH! «ElQiJvrj»)

QEt~ bQax,u~~ OIlW~ ~lUV Eva aQxE'tcl uJtOAoyimllo nooo, yta toix aQxaiou~, «(POV 0 ,!taec.; bvo bLxarrnov, 0 1]IlEQ~mos, ~tUV J.tOALS J.tLabQaxJ.t~, JtEV'tE ~ XaL Eva~ O~OAO~,YLa 'tOY XaeEVa:
l/>"CQVEI exuietve: xac Ba Y(VEt 7]Ataanjc; (dtxa(Jnj~J va (J"C7]v oxaota, !1E JftV"CE 0f30AOV~ pU7(}6. A

T

To 'taJ..av'to, 60 !!VESit 6.000 bQaXJ.tEs, bEY Tt'tuv uovo VOIlL0J.tU,aJ..ACtJ.tovCtba J.tEtQ110T]~ U:J'tOAOYLOIlOV. xm o AAXt~LabTlS XAllQOVOJ.t1]OE.tw xOAoomuia, ytU 't1}v J EJtOX~ tOU, JtEQLOUOLa,aJto 400 taJ..uV'ta (io1] 11' Eva nitoio ouJ.tllaXLxo cpoQo), J.tLa:ltEQLOuoia Jtou bLxmoAoyovOE 'tTl o:lta'taJ..1} ~w~ rou. L't1] E:ltOXitrou l:oJ..wvu Eva 'tCtAUV'tOo'tOiXt~E, OVJ..Lcpwvc J..LE EX'tL!1itOEL~ou Hultch (<<Griechishe und R6'ttS t mishe Metrologie»), 'Yvgw o'ta 5.894 :ltaALa yaAALxa CP()(Iyxa. H asia tOU 'tCtAaVtOU E:ltEOEoro 5.812 yaA. CPQCtYxu, xata t1]v E:ltOXit'tOu MEYaAo'U AAEsavbQou, Xat, 0't1] ouvEXELa, xatQaxVA1}OE oro 5.662. o raAJ..os TIoJ.. rXLgo unoAoYLOE w~ ESTt~rnv aSia tWV agxaiwv EJ..J..1]VLXOOV VO!!LOJ.tatWV,OE OVYXQLOTl to rtnJ..LE ALOyaAALxo cpQayxo.
'Evce; o~0J..6S 0,6 :ltaJ..La yaJ... cpgayxa Miu bQuXJ..Lit " "" ,," 0,98 JtaJ..La yaA. cpguyxa MLU J.tva 98,20 JtaJ..Lu yaJ... cpQayxa 'Eva taJ..av'to " 5.894 naJ..Lo. yaJ... cpQo.yxa (<<La ie privee et la vie publique des Grees», TIaQim 1909). v

(AQLO'tOCPclVl'l';:, «I:rcn~s») Kat ue "COV Jfgwro o{3oJ..o nov mjga dlXaa"ClXO !1w86, oou avooaoa tva ptxQa ptxQ6 a!1agQXI, via va
nat1;,El~.

(AgLOWcpclV't'}S, «NEcpeAcu») To JttO ,.,uxQo aO't'}J.tEvLO VO!!LO!!a~'tav 0 O~OAO~. 'Est o~oAoi xclvav !!La bQaXIl~ Xat EXU'tObQUX!!ES IlLa uvc'.
120

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